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1. Why does popcorn pop?

Popcorn kernels contain oil and water with starch, surrounded by a hard and strong
outer coating. When popcorn is heated, the water inside the kernel tries to expand into steam,
but it cannot escape through the seed coat (the popcorn hull). The hot oil and steam
gelatinizes the starch inside the popcorn kernel, making it softer and more pliable. When the
popcorn reaches a temperature of 180 °C (356 °F) the pressure inside the kernel is around
135 psi (930 kPa), which is sufficient pressure to rupture the popcorn hull, essentially
turning the kernel inside-out. The pressure inside the kernel is released very quickly,
expanding the proteins and starch inside the popcorn kernel into a foam, which cools and
sets into the familiar popcorn puff.

2. A plastic milk jug filled with water and stored within a freezer ruptures. Why?
The plastic milk jug filled with water raptures when placed in a freezer because the
water expands due to the lowering of the temperature making it to change it phase from
liquid to solid while the plastic milk jug shrinks when placed in a freezer, therefore when it
can no longer contain the water the plastic milk jug raptures.

3. Apart from keeping food and beverages cool, what are other uses for dry ice?
Asphalt cooling.Using dry ice allows for the delicate asphalt to stay at required
temperatures during transport from the manufacturing plant to job site. Even more
beneficial, using dry ice allows contractors to speed up the cooling process and core the
paving sooner.
Medical uses.There are a number of applications in the medical field. Doctors will
often use dry ice to freeze and remove warts or other skin imperfections. Temperature
sensitive medical supplies, samples, and equipment are also commonly transported with dry
ice as a cooling agent.
Remove car dents.Dry ice can be used to remove car dents and dings as long as
there is no crease on the bottom and the sheet metal is not bent. Allow the dent to sit in the
sun to warm up (or use a blow dryer). Take a 10 pound slab of dry ice and place directly
over the dent. The rapid cooling of the metal will pop the dent back to normal. There is a
very small risk of paint scratching with this method however it is quite rare (use at your own
risk)
4. What are several actions you can take to reduce your CO2 emissions?
Some of the several actions I can take to reduce the emissions of CO2 are instead of
riding cars or motorcycles I’d rather walk if the distance is not that far, reduce, reuse, and
recycle things that are intended to be put in trash and avoid burning of plastics.

5. Home canning of fruits and vegetables can be accomplished with either a boiling
water canner or a pressure canner. How does each type of canner operate?
Water bath canning or boiling-water processing works great for high-acid foods like
most fruits, jams, tomatoes, or pickles. The theory is that the acid helps to preserve the foods
and prevent spoilage at the lower temps produced by the boiling water. However, for low-
acid foods (beets, green beans, meats, potatoes), it is recommended that to use a pressure
canner, since it reaches much higher temperatures and therefore preserves the food safely
without the added “insurance” of the acid.

6. An automobile’s radiator cap is labeled “Never open when hot.” Why not?
The expansion that occurs when the liquid coolant is allowed to transform into steam
by reduction of pressure (opening the cap) also cools the steam rapidly. It's the same thing
that happens with pressurized bottles. With that said, you shouldn't open the cap because it's
unnecessary to clean up all the coolant and it could irritate your eyes etc. Also, while this is
true for the cooling system of a car, the heat and pressure that a steam engine (for example)
operates under makes such a situation more dangerous. Removing a radiator cap can cause
serious burn.

7. Why are the tires of airplanes and race cars inflated with nitrogen instead of
air?
Nitrogen is used to inflate the tires of airplanes and race car because it reacts
differently to pressure and temperature than the air does. Nitrogen is more stable and more
hygroscopic. This means that the pressure of the tire will have less variation from hot to cold
temperature. Using dry air or nitrogen to inflate airplane tires keeps the tires from the
tendency to have frozen water vapor inside the tire when it is in high altitude and due to low
temperature. Same concept goes to race cars, nitrogen is used to prevent it from bursting
when at extreme temperature.
8. What is a molten salt?
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure but enters the
liquid phase due to elevated temperature. A salt that is normally liquid even at STP is usually
called a room temperature ionic liquid, although technically molten salts are a class of ionic
liquids.

9. How many minutes do you have to exercise to burn the calories in a helping of
your favorite dessert?
My favorite dessert is chocolate.The most effective ways to burn off an average 50g
bar of chocolate range from power walking to surfing to skipping. If you’re looking for the
fastest way to sweat off the chocolate calories, then have a try of the following:55 minutes of
power walking, 65 minutes of surfing, 24 minutes of skipping, 35 minutes of bike riding, 27
minutes of jogging, 40 minutes of swimming, 62 minutes of dancing, 110 minutes of
walking, 75 minutes of gardening, 44 minutes of boxing and 26 minutes of sand sprints

10. A systems consists of liquid water in equilibrium with a gaseous mixture of air
and water vapor. How many phases are present? Does the system consist of a pure
substance? Explain. Repeat for a system consisting of ice and liquid water in
equilibrium with a gaseous mixture of air and water vapor.
The system consists of two phases, liquid and gas phase. The system is not
considered to be pure substance since the composition differs from each phase.The second
system consists of three phases, solid, liquid, and gas phase. It is not also a pure substance
because the composition of gas phases id different than that of the solid and liquid phases.

11. A system consists of liquid oxygen in equilibrium with oxygen vapor. How many
phases are present? The system undergoes a process during which some of the liquid is
vaporized. Can the system be viewed as being a pure substance during the process?
Explain.
The system consists of two phases, liquid and gas. The system is a pure substance.
Although the liquid is vaporized, the system remains fixed in chemical composition and is
chemically homogeneous.
12. A system consisting of liquid water undergoes a process. At the end of the
process, some of the liquid water has frozen, and the system contains liquid water and
ice. Can the system be viewed as being a pure substance during the process? Explain.
The system of which consists liquid water and ice is a pure substance because even if
it undergoes phase changes, the system remains fixed in chemical composition and is
chemically homogeneous.

13. A dish of liquid water is placed on a table in a room. After a while, all the water
evaporates. Taking the water and the air in the room to be a closed system, can the
system be regarded as a pure substance during the process? After the process is
completed? Discuss.
The system is not a pure substance during the process since the composition of the
gas phase changes as water evaporates into air. Once all the water evaporates, the gas phase
comes to equilibrium and the composition becomes homogeneous. At this point, the gas
phase can be treated as pure substance.