–2– 1. What is the correct order of increasing size for the following biological structures? I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D.

The diameter of a virus The diameter of a bacterium The thickness of a cell surface membrane The diameter of a eukaryotic cell

N02/410/H(1)

I < III < II < IV I < III < IV < II III < I < II < IV III < II < I < IV

2.

Which of the following is a feature of exocytosis but not endocytosis? A. B. C. D. Lipid bilayer fusion Vesicle formation Lipid bilayer adhesion Secretion

3.

What is the function of a plasmid? A. B. C. D. The site of respiration in prokaryotes The site of photosynthesis in eukaryotes The site of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes The site of hereditary material in prokaryotes

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–2– 1. Which cellular structure(s) is (are) found in both a plant cell and an animal cell? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. Cell wall Chloroplast Mitochondrion

N03/410/H(1)

I only I and II only I and III only III only

2.

What is the correct sequence for the following phases of mitosis? I. II. III. IV.

A. B. C. D.

I, II, III, IV III, II, I, IV IV, II, I, III II, I, IV, III

3.

Which raw material is utilized by ribosomes? A. B. C. D. Nucleotides Amino acids Glycogen Phospholipids

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–3– 4. What is the composition of the backbone of DNA? A. B. C. D. Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules Complementary base pairs Alternating sugar and base molecules A polysaccharide

N03/410/H(1)

5.

What would be the effect if an enzyme with an optimum pH of 8.0 was added to a solution with a pH of 5.0? A. B. C. D. The enzyme would be denatured. The enzyme activity would be greater at pH 5.0 than pH 8.0. The enzyme activity would be the same at both pH values. The enzyme activity would be lower at pH 5.0 than pH 8.0.

6.

A strand of mRNA codes for a polypeptide and has the sequence: AUGGCAACCGGU what is the complementary strand of DNA? A. B. C. D. ATGGCAACCGGT UACCGUUGGCCA TACCGTTGGCCA TUCCGUUGGCCA

7.

A certain gene codes for a polypeptide that is 120 amino acids long. nucleotides long is the mRNA that codes for this polypeptide likely to be? A. B. C. D. 30 40 360 480

Approximately how many

883-134

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–4– 8.

N03/410/H(1)

Of the following products, which is produced by both anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration in humans? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. Pyruvate ATP Lactate

I only I and II only I, II and III II and III only

9.

A woman who is heterozygous for colour blindness marries a man who is colour blind. What is the probability they will have a colour blind child? A. B. C. D. 0% 25 % 50 % 100 %

10.

A cell with a diploid number of 12 chromosomes undergoes meiosis. What will be the product at the end of meiosis? A. B. C. D. 2 cells each with 12 chromosomes 4 cells each with 6 chromosomes 2 cells each with 6 chromosomes 4 cells each with 12 chromosomes

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–5– Use the information below to answer questions 11 and 12.

N03/410/H(1)

The following is a DNA gel. The results are from a single probe showing a DNA profile for a man, a woman and their four children.
mother child 2 father child 4 child 1 child 3

origin I. II. III. IV.
1 2 3 4 5 6

[Source: The Biology Project, University of Arizona]

11.

Which fragment of DNA is the smallest? A. B. C. D. I II III IV

12.

Which child is least likely to be the biological offspring of the father? A. B. C. D. Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4

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–6– 13.

N03/410/H(1)

A parent organism of unknown genotype is mated in a test cross. Half of the offspring have the same phenotype as the parent. What can be concluded from this result? A. B. C. D. The parent is heterozygous for the trait. The trait being inherited is polygenic. The parent is homozygous dominant for the trait. The parent is homozygous recessive for the trait.

14.

Carbon dioxide enters the carbon cycle of an ecosystem through which group of organisms? A. B. C. D. Decomposers Detritus feeders Producers Secondary consumers

15.

Which of the following gases contribute to the greenhouse effect? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. I only I and II only II and III only I, II and III
CO 2 CH 4
CFCs

16.

Which process results in the greatest genetic variation in a population? A. B. C. D. Meiosis Mitosis Cytokinesis Natural selection

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–7– 17.

N03/410/H(1)

A researcher captures 100 sparrows (a small bird), tags them and then releases them. One week later, the researcher recaptures 50 sparrows, 20 of which have tags on them. What is the size of the sparrow population? A. B. C. D. 50 birds 100 birds 250 birds 500 birds

18.

Which organ secretes enzymes that are active at a low pH? A. B. C. D. Mouth Pancreas Stomach Liver

19.

Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood? A. B. C. D. The pulmonary artery The coronary artery The aorta The pulmonary vein

20.

How do the levels of oxytocin and progesterone change immediately prior to birth? Oxytocin A. B. C. D. decreases decreases increases increases Progesterone decreases increases decreases increases Turn over

883-134

–8– 21. What name is given to the molecules that bind to foreign proteins that enter the body? A. B. C. D. Antigens Antibodies Allergens Antibiotics

N03/410/H(1)

22.

Which enzyme removes the RNA primer during replication? A. B. C. D. RNA primase DNA polymerase I DNA ligase Helicase

23.

Consider the metabolic pathway shown below.
1 2 3 4 → → → → A  B  C  D  E

If there is end-product inhibition, which product (B to E) would inhibit which enzyme (1 to 4)? Product A. B. C. D. C B B E Enzyme 4 3 4 1

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–9– 24. Which is not a primary function of protein molecules? A. B. C. D. Hormones Energy storage Transport Structure

N03/410/H(1)

25.

Which two colours of light does chlorophyll absorb most? A. B. C. D. Red and yellow Green and blue Red and green Red and blue

26.

Which is not a product of the Krebs cycle? A. B. C. D.
CO 2

NADH + H + Pyruvate ATP

27.

How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose as a direct result of glycolysis? A. B. C. D. 2 4 10 38

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– 10 – 28.

N03/410/H(1)

The allele for red flower colour (R) in a certain plant is co-dominant with the allele for white flowers (R’). Thus a plant with the genotype RR’ has pink flowers. Tall (D) is dominant to dwarf (d). What would be the expected phenotypic ratio from a cross of RR’dd plants with R’R’Dd plants? A. B. C. D. 9:3:3:1 50 % pink 50 % white, and all tall 1:1:1:1, in which 50 % are tall, 50 % dwarf, 50 % pink and 50 % white 3:1

29.

Two genes A and B are linked together as shown below. A b ____ a B If the genes are far enough apart such that crossing over between the alleles occurs occasionally, which statement is true of the gametes? A. B. C. D. All of the gametes will be Ab and aB. There will be 25 % Ab, 25 % aB, 25 % ab and 25 % AB. There will be approximately equal numbers of Ab and ab gametes. The number of Ab gametes will be greater than the number of ab gametes.

30.

What is the outcome for each of the following processes? Spermatogenesis A. B. C. D. 4 gametes 4 gametes 2 gametes and 2 polar bodies 1 gamete and 3 polar bodies Oogenesis 4 gametes 1 gamete and 3 polar bodies 2 gametes and 2 polar bodies 4 gametes

883-134

– 11 – 31. Which is not true of active immunity? A. B. C. D. It can be produced by exposure to a disease causing organism. It can be produced artificially. It can be produced by a virus. It can be transferred via the colostrum.

N03/410/H(1)

32.

Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells produce which compound? A. B. C. D. Ethanol Acetaldehyde (ethanal) Lactate Citrate

33.

What happens during muscle contraction? A. B. C. D. Both actin and myosin filaments shorten.
Na + ions are taken up by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

The actin and myosin filaments slide over each other. Cross bridges remain attached to the filaments.

34.

Which of the following plasma components is not normally removed from the blood by ultrafiltration in the kidney? A. B. C. D. Urea Salts Water Proteins

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– 12 – 35. Anti-diuretic hormone has its main effect on which part of the nephron? A. B. C. D. Proximal tubule Bowman’s capsule Loop of Henle Collecting duct

N03/410/H(1)

36.

Which would be an adaptation of xerophytes? A. B. C. D. Large air spaces Large numbers of stomata Hairs on the leaves Reduced roots

37.

Which statement(s) is (are) true of translocation in plants? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. Sucrose moves in two directions in the phloem. Energy is required for sucrose transport. Water is transported during sucrose transport.

I only I and II only I and III only I, II and III

883-134

– 13 – 38. Which is true of stomata? A. B. C. D. 39. They are open at night in most plants. They are open when the guard cells are turgid. They close when the turgor pressure increases in the guard cells. They are covered by a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss.

N03/410/H(1)

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of events when the body is responding to a bacterial infection? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. Antigen presentation by macrophages Activation of B–cells Activation of helper T–cells

I, II, III I, III, II III, II, I II, III, I

40.

What is the function of Sertoli cells? A. B. C. D. They nourish sperm. They produce testosterone. They nourish interstitial cells. They form the basement membrane.

883-134

–3–
4. Which of the following is the most soluble in water? A. B. C. D. Olive oil Glycogen Glucose Cellulose

N02/410/H(1)

5.

What molecule does the following structure represent?

H H H H C C C H A. B. C. D. Glycerol Glucose An amino acid A fatty acid OH OH OH

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–4–
6.

N02/410/H(1)

Which graph illustrates the effect of increasing the substrate concentration of an enzyme controlled reaction? A.
Rate of reaction

B.
Rate of reaction

Substrate concentration C.
Rate of reaction

Substrate concentration D.
Rate of reaction

Substrate concentration

Substrate concentration

7.

If mRNA has a codon CAU, what would be the corresponding anticodon on the tRNA molecule? A. B. C. D. CAT GUA CAU GTA

8.

The fur colour of a cat is sex-linked. The allele for black fur is codominant with the allele for ginger fur, producing fur which is tortoiseshell (or calico) in colour. Which fur colour can only be found in female cats? A. B. C. D. Black Ginger Tortoiseshell (calico) None of the above colours.

882-134

–5–
9.

N02/410/H(1)

A mutation results in a change in the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, as illustrated below. Normal DNA: Mutated DNA: ACCTGCATTG ACGCTGCATTG

What is this type of mutation? A. B. C. D. Insertion Substitution Inversion Deletion

10.

The pedigree chart below shows a family affected by brachydactyly. This is a hereditary condition which results in short hands and feet. It is caused by a dominant allele.

I

II

What is the chance that the first child of individuals I and II will be normal? A. B. C. D. 0% 25 % 50 % 100 %

882-134

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–6–
11.

N02/410/H(1)

The food web below shows a community in central France 24 000 years ago.
Salix herbacea Lemmus lemmus Alopex lagopus

Betula nana Vaccinium oxycoccos Cladonia rangiferina

Lepus arcticus Rangifer tarandus

Ursus speleaus Canis lupus

Megaloceros Graminaceae Mammuthus primigenius

Homo sapiens

Which statement is a correct description of Ursus speleaus? A. B. C. D. It is a top carnivore and a primary consumer. It is a producer preyed upon by Vaccinium oxycoccos. It is an omnivore which feeds on Lemmus lemmus. It is a decomposer and it competes with Rangifer tarandus.

12.

Which substance(s) is (are) used to make organic molecules during photosynthesis? I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. Carbon dioxide ATP Oxygen Water

I only I and IV only I, II and IV only I, III and IV only

882-134

–7–
13.

N02/410/H(1)

White clover (Trifolium repens) is a plant which has a flower head made up of many florets. 17 plants were sampled at random in a field and their flower heads were counted. The results are shown below. 29, 32, 34, 35, 36, 43, 45, 45, 47, 52, 53, 54, 57, 62, 64, 65, 70 What is the median number of florets in this sample of white clover? A. B. C. D. 45.0 46.0 47.0 48.5

14.

Which of the following factors need to be considered when establishing a balanced diet for a person? I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. Age of the person Daily activity of the person Health of the person Climate where the person lives

I only I and II only I, II and III only I, II, III and IV

882-134

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–8–
15.

N02/410/H(1)

Which structures in the heart cause the blood to flow in one direction? I II III IV

V

A. B. C. D.

IV and V only III and V only II and III only I and IV only

16.

Which part of the blood is responsible for the transport of gases? I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. Plasma Erythrocytes Leucocytes Platelets

I and II only II and III only III and IV only II only

882-134

–9–
17.

N02/410/H(1)

Which processes release the products of excretion? I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. Urinating Sweating Breathing Egestion

I and II only I, III and IV only I, II and IV only I, II and III only

18.

What is copulation? A. B. C. D. When sperms are released inside a female genital system. When sperms meet and fuse with an egg. When sperms are stopped from fusing with an egg. When an early embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus.

19.

What messenger is responsible for maintaining a normal blood sugar level at night while we sleep? A. B. C. D. Glucagon Glycogen Glucose Glycerol

882-134

Turn over

– 10 –
20.

N02/410/H(1)

The diagram below shows a cross section of a stage in the early development of a human embryo. At what state of development is the embryo at? Inner cell mass

Fluid-filled space A. B. C. D. Zygote Blastomere Morula Blastocyst

21.

Where are electron carriers found within the cell? A. B. C. D. In the chloroplast envelope In the chloroplast thylakoid membrane In the mitochondrial outer membrane In the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)

22.

What term describes a group of cells with a similar structure and function? A. B. C. D. A tissue An organ An organ-system An organism

882-134

– 11 –
23.

N02/410/H(1)

A cell in a photomicrograph is 10 cm in diameter. The scale of magnification of the photomicrograph is % 4 000. What is the actual size of the cell? A. B. C. D. 2 500 mm 2.5 mm 250 µm 25 µm

24.

Where does hydrogen bonding occur in the structure below?

Amino acid I III

II Codon A. B. C. D. II only I and II only II and III only I, II and III

882-134

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– 12 –
25.

N02/410/H(1)

What happens when protons (H+ ions) move across the membrane at X? e– H+ Inner matrix H+ H+ H+ X A. B. C. D. The pH of the intermembrane space falls. The pH of the inner matrix rises. ATP is synthesized from ADP and phosphate. ATP is hydrolysed into ADP and phosphate. Intermembrane space

26.

What is the net production of ATP per molecule of glucose consumed during the fermentation of glucose to lactate? A. B. C. D. 36 molecules 4 molecules 2 molecules None

882-134

– 13 –
27.

N02/410/H(1)

What changes in carbon dioxide levels and temperature will most likely produce curve I instead of curve II?

Rate of photosynthesis

I II

Light intensity
Carbon dioxide levels Temperature

A. B. C. D.

increase decrease decrease increase

decrease increase decrease increase

28.

What is the difference between the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells at the end of meiosis and the mother cell at the beginning of meiosis? A. B. C. D. There is double the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells. There is no change in the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells. There is half the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells. There is quarter the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells.

882-134

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– 14 –
29.

N02/410/H(1)

What are the functions of the epididymis?
" = yes Spermatogenesis % = no Storage of sperms % " " " Transport of sperms % % " "

A. B. C. D.

" " % "

30.

Which hormone does the placenta secrete? A. B. C. D. Oxytocin FSH Prolactin Progesterone

31.

Deficiency in which vitamin may lead to poor blood clotting? A. B. C. D. Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamin E Vitamin K

32.

What kind of immunity is acquired by the fetus from its mother across the placenta? A. B. C. D. Active Passive Natural Artificial

882-134

– 15 –
33.

N02/410/H(1)

If four organisms belong to the same order, which taxanomic group must they also belong to? A. B. C. D. Class Family Genus Species

34.

Which metabolic activities are shown by the prokaryotes?
" = yes Fermentation % = no Photosynthesis % " " % Nitrogen fixation % % " "

A. B. C. D.

" % "

×

35.

Which organisms belong to the kingdom Protoctista? A. B. C. D. Bacteria Algae Bryophytes Earthworms

882-134

Turn over

– 16 –
The diagram below should be used in answering questions 36 and 37. .................................................................................................................

N02/410/H(1)

+40 –

Membrane potential / mV

0–
...................................................................

...................................................................

II

III

I –70 –

IV

0
36.

1 Time / ms

2

3

The curve above shows a nerve impulse. Which part(s) of the curve represent(s) the action potential? A. B. C. D. I and II only II and III only II only IV only

37.

If ATP synthesis was inhibited in a neurone, which parts of the nerve impulse would be affected? A. B. C. D. I and II only I and III only II and IV only I and IV only

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– 17 –
38.

N02/410/H(1)

Where is water reabsorbed in the kidney tubule?

Blood from renal artery Blood to renal vein II I

IV

Urine III A. B. C. D. I, II, III and IV II, III and IV only III and IV only IV only

882-134

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– 18 –
39.

N02/410/H(1)

Which tissues shown in the cross section of the leaf below may contain chloroplasts? I II III IV A. B. C. D. II only II and III only I, II and III only I, II, III and IV

40.

What is the pathway taken by minerals across the tissues in the root of an angiosperm? A. B. C. D. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, xylem endodermis, cortex, epidermis, xylem epidermis, endodermis, cortex, xylem cortex, epidermis, endodermis, xylem

882-134

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