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1. What is the correct order of increasing size for the following biological structures?

I. The diameter of a virus


II. The diameter of a bacterium
III. The thickness of a cell surface membrane
IV. The diameter of a eukaryotic cell

A. I < III < II < IV

B. I < III < IV < II

C. III < I < II < IV

D. III < II < I < IV

2. Which of the following is a feature of exocytosis but not endocytosis?

A. Lipid bilayer fusion

B. Vesicle formation

C. Lipid bilayer adhesion

D. Secretion

3. What is the function of a plasmid?

A. The site of respiration in prokaryotes

B. The site of photosynthesis in eukaryotes

C. The site of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

D. The site of hereditary material in prokaryotes

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1. Which cellular structure(s) is (are) found in both a plant cell and an animal cell?

I. Cell wall
II. Chloroplast
III. Mitochondrion

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. I and III only

D. III only

2. What is the correct sequence for the following phases of mitosis?

I. II. III. IV.

A. I, II, III, IV

B. III, II, I, IV

C. IV, II, I, III

D. II, I, IV, III

3. Which raw material is utilized by ribosomes?

A. Nucleotides

B. Amino acids

C. Glycogen

D. Phospholipids

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4. What is the composition of the backbone of DNA?

A. Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules

B. Complementary base pairs

C. Alternating sugar and base molecules

D. A polysaccharide

5. What would be the effect if an enzyme with an optimum pH of 8.0 was added to a solution with a pH of 5.0?

A. The enzyme would be denatured.

B. The enzyme activity would be greater at pH 5.0 than pH 8.0.

C. The enzyme activity would be the same at both pH values.

D. The enzyme activity would be lower at pH 5.0 than pH 8.0.

6. A strand of mRNA codes for a polypeptide and has the sequence:

AUGGCAACCGGU

what is the complementary strand of DNA?

A. ATGGCAACCGGT

B. UACCGUUGGCCA

C. TACCGTTGGCCA

D. TUCCGUUGGCCA

7. A certain gene codes for a polypeptide that is 120 amino acids long. Approximately how many
nucleotides long is the mRNA that codes for this polypeptide likely to be?

A. 30

B. 40

C. 360

D. 480

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8. Of the following products, which is produced by both anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration in
humans?

I. Pyruvate
II. ATP
III. Lactate

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. I, II and III

D. II and III only

9. A woman who is heterozygous for colour blindness marries a man who is colour blind. What is the
probability they will have a colour blind child?

A. 0%

B. 25 %

C. 50 %

D. 100 %

10. A cell with a diploid number of 12 chromosomes undergoes meiosis. What will be the product at the end
of meiosis?

A. 2 cells each with 12 chromosomes

B. 4 cells each with 6 chromosomes

C. 2 cells each with 6 chromosomes

D. 4 cells each with 12 chromosomes

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Use the information below to answer questions 11 and 12.

The following is a DNA gel. The results are from a single probe showing a DNA profile for a man, a woman
and their four children.

mother
child 2 father child 4
child 1 child 3

origin
I.

II.

III.

IV.
1 2 3 4 5 6

[Source: The Biology Project, University of Arizona]

11. Which fragment of DNA is the smallest?

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

12. Which child is least likely to be the biological offspring of the father?

A. Child 1

B. Child 2

C. Child 3

D. Child 4

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13. A parent organism of unknown genotype is mated in a test cross. Half of the offspring have the same
phenotype as the parent. What can be concluded from this result?

A. The parent is heterozygous for the trait.

B. The trait being inherited is polygenic.

C. The parent is homozygous dominant for the trait.

D. The parent is homozygous recessive for the trait.

14. Carbon dioxide enters the carbon cycle of an ecosystem through which group of organisms?

A. Decomposers

B. Detritus feeders

C. Producers

D. Secondary consumers

15. Which of the following gases contribute to the greenhouse effect?

I. CO 2
II. CH 4
III. CFCs

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. II and III only

D. I, II and III

16. Which process results in the greatest genetic variation in a population?

A. Meiosis

B. Mitosis

C. Cytokinesis

D. Natural selection

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17. A researcher captures 100 sparrows (a small bird), tags them and then releases them. One week later, the
researcher recaptures 50 sparrows, 20 of which have tags on them. What is the size of the sparrow
population?

A. 50 birds

B. 100 birds

C. 250 birds

D. 500 birds

18. Which organ secretes enzymes that are active at a low pH?

A. Mouth

B. Pancreas

C. Stomach

D. Liver

19. Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood?

A. The pulmonary artery

B. The coronary artery

C. The aorta

D. The pulmonary vein

20. How do the levels of oxytocin and progesterone change immediately prior to birth?

Oxytocin Progesterone

A. decreases decreases

B. decreases increases

C. increases decreases

D. increases increases

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21. What name is given to the molecules that bind to foreign proteins that enter the body?

A. Antigens

B. Antibodies

C. Allergens

D. Antibiotics

22. Which enzyme removes the RNA primer during replication?

A. RNA primase

B. DNA polymerase I

C. DNA ligase

D. Helicase

23. Consider the metabolic pathway shown below.

1 2 3 4
A → B → C → D →E

If there is end-product inhibition, which product (B to E) would inhibit which enzyme (1 to 4)?

Product Enzyme

A. C 4

B. B 3

C. B 4

D. E 1

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24. Which is not a primary function of protein molecules?

A. Hormones

B. Energy storage

C. Transport

D. Structure

25. Which two colours of light does chlorophyll absorb most?

A. Red and yellow

B. Green and blue

C. Red and green

D. Red and blue

26. Which is not a product of the Krebs cycle?

A. CO 2

B. NADH + H +

C. Pyruvate

D. ATP

27. How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose as a direct result of
glycolysis?

A. 2

B. 4

C. 10

D. 38

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28. The allele for red flower colour (R) in a certain plant is co-dominant with the allele for white flowers (R’).
Thus a plant with the genotype RR’ has pink flowers. Tall (D) is dominant to dwarf (d). What would be
the expected phenotypic ratio from a cross of RR’dd plants with R’R’Dd plants?

A. 9:3:3:1

B. 50 % pink 50 % white, and all tall

C. 1:1:1:1, in which 50 % are tall, 50 % dwarf, 50 % pink and 50 % white

D. 3:1

29. Two genes A and B are linked together as shown below.

A b
____
a B

If the genes are far enough apart such that crossing over between the alleles occurs occasionally, which
statement is true of the gametes?

A. All of the gametes will be Ab and aB.

B. There will be 25 % Ab, 25 % aB, 25 % ab and 25 % AB.

C. There will be approximately equal numbers of Ab and ab gametes.

D. The number of Ab gametes will be greater than the number of ab gametes.

30. What is the outcome for each of the following processes?

Spermatogenesis Oogenesis

A. 4 gametes 4 gametes

B. 4 gametes 1 gamete and 3 polar bodies

C. 2 gametes and 2 polar bodies 2 gametes and 2 polar bodies

D. 1 gamete and 3 polar bodies 4 gametes

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31. Which is not true of active immunity?

A. It can be produced by exposure to a disease causing organism.

B. It can be produced artificially.

C. It can be produced by a virus.

D. It can be transferred via the colostrum.

32. Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells produce which compound?

A. Ethanol

B. Acetaldehyde (ethanal)

C. Lactate

D. Citrate

33. What happens during muscle contraction?

A. Both actin and myosin filaments shorten.

B. Na + ions are taken up by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

C. The actin and myosin filaments slide over each other.

D. Cross bridges remain attached to the filaments.

34. Which of the following plasma components is not normally removed from the blood by ultrafiltration in
the kidney?

A. Urea

B. Salts

C. Water

D. Proteins

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35. Anti-diuretic hormone has its main effect on which part of the nephron?

A. Proximal tubule

B. Bowman’s capsule

C. Loop of Henle

D. Collecting duct

36. Which would be an adaptation of xerophytes?

A. Large air spaces

B. Large numbers of stomata

C. Hairs on the leaves

D. Reduced roots

37. Which statement(s) is (are) true of translocation in plants?

I. Sucrose moves in two directions in the phloem.


II. Energy is required for sucrose transport.
III. Water is transported during sucrose transport.

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. I and III only

D. I, II and III

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38. Which is true of stomata?

A. They are open at night in most plants.

B. They are open when the guard cells are turgid.

C. They close when the turgor pressure increases in the guard cells.

D. They are covered by a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss.

39. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of events when the body is responding to a
bacterial infection?

I. Antigen presentation by macrophages


II. Activation of B–cells
III. Activation of helper T–cells

A. I, II, III

B. I, III, II

C. III, II, I

D. II, III, I

40. What is the function of Sertoli cells?

A. They nourish sperm.

B. They produce testosterone.

C. They nourish interstitial cells.

D. They form the basement membrane.

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4. Which of the following is the most soluble in water?

A. Olive oil

B. Glycogen

C. Glucose

D. Cellulose

5. What molecule does the following structure represent?

H
H C OH

H C OH

H C OH

A. Glycerol

B. Glucose

C. An amino acid

D. A fatty acid

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6. Which graph illustrates the effect of increasing the substrate concentration of an enzyme controlled reaction?

A. B.

reaction
Rate of
reaction
Rate of

Substrate Substrate
concentration concentration

C. D.
reaction

reaction
Rate of

Substrate Rate of Substrate


concentration concentration

7. If mRNA has a codon CAU, what would be the corresponding anticodon on the tRNA molecule?

A. CAT

B. GUA

C. CAU

D. GTA

8. The fur colour of a cat is sex-linked. The allele for black fur is codominant with the allele for ginger fur,
producing fur which is tortoiseshell (or calico) in colour. Which fur colour can only be found in female cats?

A. Black

B. Ginger

C. Tortoiseshell (calico)

D. None of the above colours.

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9. A mutation results in a change in the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, as illustrated below.

Normal DNA: ACCTGCATTG


Mutated DNA: ACGCTGCATTG

What is this type of mutation?

A. Insertion

B. Substitution

C. Inversion

D. Deletion

10. The pedigree chart below shows a family affected by brachydactyly. This is a hereditary condition which
results in short hands and feet. It is caused by a dominant allele.

I II

What is the chance that the first child of individuals I and II will be normal?

A. 0%

B. 25 %

C. 50 %

D. 100 %

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11. The food web below shows a community in central France 24 000 years ago.

Salix Lemmus
herbacea lemmus
Alopex
lagopus

Betula
Lepus Ursus
nana
arcticus speleaus

Vaccinium Canis
Rangifer
oxycoccos lupus
tarandus

Cladonia
rangiferina Homo
sapiens
Megaloceros
Graminaceae
Mammuthus
primigenius

Which statement is a correct description of Ursus speleaus?

A. It is a top carnivore and a primary consumer.

B. It is a producer preyed upon by Vaccinium oxycoccos.

C. It is an omnivore which feeds on Lemmus lemmus.

D. It is a decomposer and it competes with Rangifer tarandus.

12. Which substance(s) is (are) used to make organic molecules during photosynthesis?

I. Carbon dioxide
II. ATP
III. Oxygen
IV. Water

A. I only

B. I and IV only

C. I, II and IV only

D. I, III and IV only

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13. White clover (Trifolium repens) is a plant which has a flower head made up of many florets. 17 plants
were sampled at random in a field and their flower heads were counted. The results are shown below.

29, 32, 34, 35, 36, 43, 45, 45, 47, 52, 53, 54, 57, 62, 64, 65, 70

What is the median number of florets in this sample of white clover?

A. 45.0

B. 46.0

C. 47.0

D. 48.5

14. Which of the following factors need to be considered when establishing a balanced diet for a person?

I. Age of the person


II. Daily activity of the person
III. Health of the person
IV. Climate where the person lives

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. I, II and III only

D. I, II, III and IV

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15. Which structures in the heart cause the blood to flow in one direction?

II

III

IV

A. IV and V only

B. III and V only

C. II and III only

D. I and IV only

16. Which part of the blood is responsible for the transport of gases?

I. Plasma
II. Erythrocytes
III. Leucocytes
IV. Platelets

A. I and II only

B. II and III only

C. III and IV only

D. II only

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17. Which processes release the products of excretion?

I. Urinating
II. Sweating
III. Breathing
IV. Egestion

A. I and II only

B. I, III and IV only

C. I, II and IV only

D. I, II and III only

18. What is copulation?

A. When sperms are released inside a female genital system.

B. When sperms meet and fuse with an egg.

C. When sperms are stopped from fusing with an egg.

D. When an early embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus.

19. What messenger is responsible for maintaining a normal blood sugar level at night while we sleep?

A. Glucagon

B. Glycogen

C. Glucose

D. Glycerol

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20. The diagram below shows a cross section of a stage in the early development of a human embryo. At
what state of development is the embryo at?

Inner cell mass

Fluid-filled space

A. Zygote

B. Blastomere

C. Morula

D. Blastocyst

21. Where are electron carriers found within the cell?

A. In the chloroplast envelope

B. In the chloroplast thylakoid membrane

C. In the mitochondrial outer membrane

D. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)

22. What term describes a group of cells with a similar structure and function?

A. A tissue

B. An organ

C. An organ-system

D. An organism

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23. A cell in a photomicrograph is 10 cm in diameter. The scale of magnification of the photomicrograph is


% 4 000. What is the actual size of the cell?

A. 2 500 mm

B. 2.5 mm

C. 250 µm

D. 25 µm

24. Where does hydrogen bonding occur in the structure below?

Amino acid
I
III

II

Codon

A. II only

B. I and II only

C. II and III only

D. I, II and III

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25. What happens when protons (H+ ions) move across the membrane at X?

e–

H+
Inner Intermembrane
matrix space
H+

H+

H+

A. The pH of the intermembrane space falls.

B. The pH of the inner matrix rises.

C. ATP is synthesized from ADP and phosphate.

D. ATP is hydrolysed into ADP and phosphate.

26. What is the net production of ATP per molecule of glucose consumed during the fermentation of glucose
to lactate?

A. 36 molecules

B. 4 molecules

C. 2 molecules

D. None

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27. What changes in carbon dioxide levels and temperature will most likely produce curve I instead of curve II?

Rate of I
photosynthesis
II

Light intensity

Carbon dioxide levels Temperature


A. increase decrease

B. decrease increase

C. decrease decrease

D. increase increase

28. What is the difference between the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells at the end of meiosis
and the mother cell at the beginning of meiosis?

A. There is double the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells.

B. There is no change in the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells.

C. There is half the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells.

D. There is quarter the amount of chromatin in each of the daughter cells.

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29. What are the functions of the epididymis?


" = yes % = no

Spermatogenesis Storage of sperms Transport of sperms

A. " % %

B. " " %

C. % " "

D. " " "

30. Which hormone does the placenta secrete?

A. Oxytocin

B. FSH

C. Prolactin

D. Progesterone

31. Deficiency in which vitamin may lead to poor blood clotting?

A. Vitamin A

B. Vitamin B12

C. Vitamin E

D. Vitamin K

32. What kind of immunity is acquired by the fetus from its mother across the placenta?

A. Active

B. Passive

C. Natural

D. Artificial

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33. If four organisms belong to the same order, which taxanomic group must they also belong to?

A. Class

B. Family

C. Genus

D. Species

34. Which metabolic activities are shown by the prokaryotes?


" = yes % = no

Fermentation Photosynthesis Nitrogen fixation


A. " % %

B. % " %

C. " " "

D. × % "

35. Which organisms belong to the kingdom Protoctista?

A. Bacteria

B. Algae

C. Bryophytes

D. Earthworms

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The diagram below should be used in answering questions 36 and 37.

.................................................................................................................
+40 –

Membrane potential / mV

0–

...................................................................
...................................................................

II III

I IV
–70 –

0 1 2 3
Time / ms

36. The curve above shows a nerve impulse. Which part(s) of the curve represent(s) the action potential?

A. I and II only

B. II and III only

C. II only

D. IV only

37. If ATP synthesis was inhibited in a neurone, which parts of the nerve impulse would be affected?

A. I and II only

B. I and III only

C. II and IV only

D. I and IV only

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38. Where is water reabsorbed in the kidney tubule?

Blood from
renal artery
Blood to
renal vein

II

IV

Urine

III

A. I, II, III and IV

B. II, III and IV only

C. III and IV only

D. IV only

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39. Which tissues shown in the cross section of the leaf below may contain chloroplasts?

II

III
IV
A. II only

B. II and III only

C. I, II and III only

D. I, II, III and IV

40. What is the pathway taken by minerals across the tissues in the root of an angiosperm?

A. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, xylem

B. endodermis, cortex, epidermis, xylem

C. epidermis, endodermis, cortex, xylem

D. cortex, epidermis, endodermis, xylem

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