You are on page 1of 152

ugrV wRpaw

ljZ uVj wg byiu woj

l.a WjWj qhJ hiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju


c[ij iP.qg rjvj Fp,y' wvJ d;v%j Wdn>cj
\Fje y"oj|

Z.V epiP VjVw ljdhW ug


##epiP VjVw sj iPf WSjw[ VjijdHS u,e bjdHbj r[l rBjdHbj$$
##qjdHbj dal s[ V[C V bjr[ dVi.wji sj ljdHbj ly[ FjdHbj$$

blglJ
WjWj t[q dl>z ug
f+ w jLw
WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug
q"uPsj qhJfpiL
c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy' wvJ@ Wdn.cj m
x'V ^ 0164-2741811@ 09216513139

1
aawij

Fpy' wvJ 8
WjWj ug sj iP.qg a'G Fp,Dy' wvJ bjRpSj 11
kir syvw pwrbRhm gur BuK rhY n kweI ] 13
nwnk siqguru isK kau jIA nwil smwrY ] 17
koit ApRwD swDsMig imtY ] sMq ik®pw qy jm qy CutY ] 20
v,t tpLgbj fjdaLjhgbJ u[ ldaepip Vsdi wi[dH 23
l,uS dqv[ luSj duV ldaepi Vjdv dfbjip 25
lev li.ujq wi[ f+Fp bjf[ mm 31
sMq ky doKI kau fwnu lwgY ] 40
ldaepip dl,t w[ W.ZV wjB{ mm 43
bjfdh q[dv vH[ m 47
qumrI sMgiq hir ko ko n auDirE pRB kIey piqq pvgy ] 50
sMq kw sMgu vfBwgI pweIAY ] sMq kI syvw nwmu iDAweIAY ] 56
nwnk dwsu muK qy jo bolY eIhw aUhw scu hovY ]2] 58
qU sB mih vrqih Awip kudriq dyKwvhI ] 62
Awie binE pUrblw Bwgu jnm jnm kw soieAw jwgw ] 65
swDU sMig isKwieE nwmu ] srb mnorQ pUrn kwm ] 69
qyrI kudriq qUhY jwxih Aauru n dUjw jwxY ]
ijs no ikRpw krih myry ipAwry soeI quJY pCwxY ]1] 73
nwnk siqguir ByitAY pUrI hovY jugiq ] 81
BieE ikRpwlu sqsMig imlwieAw ] bUJI qpiq Grih ipru pwieAw ] 83
suKu n pwiein mugD nr sMq nwil KhMdy ] 86
mn ry hukmu mMin suK hoie] 91

2
sMq pRswid bYd nwrwiex krx kwrx pRB eyk] 95
moih inrgun miq QorIAw qMU sd hI dIn dieAwl ] 100
qqI vwau n lgeI siqguir rKy Awip ]3] 103
Apxy bwlk Awip riKAnu pwrbRhm gurdyv ] 106
dyh iCjMdVI aUx mJUxw guir sjix jIau DrwieAw ] 108
Awpy hIrw rqn Amolo ] Awpy Vsig a'v[ a'v' ] 122
myry swhw mY hir drsn suKu hoie ] 124
kbIr hir hIrw jn johrI lY kY mWfY hwt ] 128
Apuny jn kw prdw FwkY ] Apny syvk kI srpr rwKY ] 132
AYsI lwl quJ ibnu kaunu krY ] 138
quTw swihbu jo dyvY soeI suKu pweIAY ] 145

---

3
qpwaj s'hij
yiV wqv iu fil wi uV wv wvqa hia m
qhJfpitJ sg yiV ZPC qDKo[ a[ vj w[ l[rw r,c[ r,c[ fjfJ
a'G Ap,B uJs[ hV m
iBi WyV Fruv ail sil fil qV nia mm
RpV%J s[ Rpfs[L } dlqiw[ l.lji lqp>si a'G ai uJs[ hV
siLV wiw[ wjq bjdswj sg afl a'G qV ApB uJsj h{ m
hita uV fi Vsi wia uW fia Vsi lF wvqv fihi
qhJfpit f+l.V h' w[ dul r[v[ l[rw r,v r[ts[ hV Rpl lq[G
q[hi sg dVeh Vjv qV a'G fjfJ sg q{v sPi h' uJsg h{ m
si lF au wi uV fi fita qV wi aW siLV hi
u' l[rw lF spbji[ A,c w[ dHl spbji[ bj ujH[@ Rplsg fit
wiw[ dxi f+q[Li sj siLV wijMs[ hV m
yiV wqv iu qlaw Zi uVZia bZw Wv qV Wv Wv wi
dHV%J sg yiV ZPC } qKo[ a[ vj w[ l[rw uV bjadqw a"i
a[ WvrjV h' w[ WjWj ug a'G wpiWjV hp.s[ hV Fjr si VhgG A,cs[ m
uV qV afa hia uvZi lq wq qlaw Va wi yiVV fi
dul ai%J W,sv qgGh fj w[ Ziag sg afl sPi wi ds>sj
h{ m dHr[G hg bjf ug Fg l[rwJ s[ qV } Lgav wis[ hV m b{l[
lqi,o WjWj ug } wrg \Fjr v[tw| dli dVrj w[ VqLwji
wisj h{ m

4
wdW,a
aP. s[h a'G Fg fi[@ e[h V[h a'G Fg fi[
Fpt a[h a'G Fg fi[@ a[ bfi bfji h{G m
Vjq wjq a'G Fg fi[@ uja Zjq a'G Fg fi[
Fiq F+jda a'G Fg fi[@ W[-b>a W[ lpqji h{G m
Wp,Z dya a'G Fg fi[@ ea dqa a'G Fg fi[ m
bVdha a'G Fg fi[@ lF w' f+dafji h{G m
aP. dH>s= a'G Fg fi[@ qV qjdHbj a'G Fg fi[
lF si fihi[@1 yv bjdH a[i[ spbji h{G m

wdW,a
h'dH w' l.q+,o lF dWZ ijtg h,o
bjf h'dH Vj f+a,t ih[ dry dHl V[q s[ m
bjdHbj lrjvg ws[ q'dCbj Vj tjvg
qP>h'G q.egbj qpijsJ ds>s[ W,Z[ dry f+[q s[ m
dy>a ijq Whjv sjl agli[ bV.s dl>z
vjdHw[ wlRpBg LpZ wga[ rJe h[q2 s[ m
u{l[ bjf a{l[ wga[ l[rw ldaVjq dl>z
Av dry VhgG bjH[ drL} sg q[q3 s[ m

1 lji[ si A,c w[@ 2! l'V[ rJe@ 3! qjdHbj s[ A,v dry VhgG bjH[ m

5
wp>cvgbj
bjs fpit wiaji f+F wiV wjiV l.q+,o m
Vqlwji daV yiV fi lF dWZ ujw{ h,o m
lF dWZ uJw{ h,o epiP VjVw WS bjdHY m
dxi b>es a[ epiP bqisjl ijqsjl whjdHY m
biuV hie'dW>s w[ yiVV fi Wdvhji m
hiijdH hi d*LV epi bjs fpit wiaji m
l'inj
a[e Whjsi ldaepiP slq epiP e'dW>s hi
epiP e+.o bi f>o Vqlwji dli yiV Zi
s'hij
siWjiV lF dabje w{ bjdHY ar siWji
Wji Wji Vj uVq h'dH ijt vY dHl Wji
l'inj
aji' ajiV hji q{G eiwa h' Wji1 dWV
si fi wi'G fpwji vY lji qpdh Wji2 dWV

1! fjSg a'G dWVj@ 2! dWVj s[ig a'G Fj uvsg

6
O ldaepi f+ljds m
lqP>h l.eaJ vHg v[tw V[ bjfSg wvq spbjij WjWj ug sj
dfA'wC RpV%J s[ Vjv bojh f+[q i,tS rjdvbJ ba[ f+a,t w'aw
r[tS rjdvbJ s[ fdirjiJ a'G lpSw[ dfAvgbJ s' fplawJ dr,y
wvqW.s wga[ hV WjWj ug sj uVq lqJ@ ljZP r,v'G wgag WjWj
ug Wji[ Fdr,tWjSg@ WyfV dr,y qjaj dfaj Vjv Fdr,t s[ WyV
wiV[@ zi sj dabje@ l.a ijq dl>z ug lPljrdvbj Vjv dqvjf@
ueiJY s[ fjl fgi v,f[ Ljh } dldtbj s[Sg m hnPi WiVjvj@
ZV'vj@ Feaj FjHg@ qvPw[ bjds hp.s[ h'H[ l[qj Vei dr,y bjRpSj
iP>qg ljdhW sj s,l ljv sj bjlS ba[ hpS Fp,y' wvJ sg Ziag
} Fje vjRpSj duo[ WjWj ug bjfSg fdr,ai yiV A'h w'Hg f>ujh
ljv b>sjuj dB,vj ljdhW s[ Vjq sg Ziag } WtLs[ ih[ m Rpl
lq[G s[ f+jSgbJ Vjv wga[ w"aw@ duV%J f+[qgbJ V[ dHl fjrV
fdr,ai dq,Bg sg A'h f+jfa wiw[ dul Rpfi WjWj ug s[ yiV
dfbj wis[ lV bjfS[ uVq qiV s[ W.ZV w,DB[ ba[ dHl Frljei
a'G fji h' eH[ hV Wji[ drloji fPiWw dHl dh,l[ dr,y wvqW.s
wi ih[ hJ m dHdahjl dr,y qV'wvfVj sj w'Hg f+l.e VhgG m dHh
f+l.e RpV%J l[rwJ sg uWjVg h{ duV%J s[ r,c[ rc[dibJ Vjv Wga[
lV m v[tw rv'G RpV%J ljdibJ sj Z.Vrjs wgaj uJsj h{ duV%J
f+[qgbJ V[ dHh f+l.e lpSj w[ fjnwJ a,w fhp.yjRpS vHg lhjdHaj
wgag m

7
Fpy' wvJ
lojdfa h'S sj r[irj mm
Fp,y' wvJ dHdahjlw df>c h{ m WjWj bjsq epiP zi sj LiZjvP
lg m bjf y"o[ fjaLjh l+g epiP ijqsjl ug s[ f+ag bojh dfbji
its[ lV m WjiLJ s[ dsV lg epiP w[ v.ei sj WjvS de,vj lg m
WjWj bjsq ug s[ zi lpwgbJ v,wCJ fHgbJ lV bjf i'; v,wCJ
sj e,nj v{ w[ epip s[ zi s[ v.ei sg l[rj wdibj wis[ lV m
y"o[ fjaLjh V[ l[rwJ } fp,DdAbj@ ##dHh lpwj WjvS w"S v{ w[
bjMsj h{ m$$ l[rwJ V[ RpKai dr,y dwhj qhjiju ) ##dHw qjvr[
sj WjWj bjsq Vjq sj l.eg h{$$ y"o[ fjaLjh V[ hpwq ds,aj
##RpV%J } siWji dr,y dvbJsj ujr[ m$$ l[rwJ V[ WjWj bjsq
ug } lpV[hj F[u ds,aj m WjWj bjsq ug ba[ qjHg s'V'G hg epiP
ljdhW s[ yiVJ dr,y hj;i h' eH[ m qjHg df,A[ ndhi eHg WjWj
bjsq ug epiP ljdhW s[ V[C[ h'H[ ba[ Vqlwji wgag m epiP ug
f+l.Vaj dr,y h' w[ wdhS v,e[ ##q>e u' wpN q>eSj aP. m$$ b>aiujqg
lF wpN ujSs[ h'H[ rg fp,A ih[ lV m dW+Z Rpqi h'S wiw[ WjWj
ug LiqjRpS v,e[ dw v'w wg wdhSe[ ##Wp,Tj h'dHbj fp,ai q>esj
h{$$ v,u Liq V[ ;WjV W.s wi ds,ag m bev[ dsV dxi qjHg ug
V[ bjf W[Vag wi ds,ag m ##fjaLjh fp,ai sg sja WtL'$$ epiP
ijqsjl ug WyV wgaj ##y.ej x[i blgG bjfS[ yji fp,aiJ dr,y'G
dH,w aphj} ds,aj$$ WjWj bjsq ug s[ zi FeaP Vjq s[ fp,ai
V[ uVq dvbj m dxi f>ur[G fjaLjh ug V[ FeaP } FjHg sj dtajW
WtdLbj m FjHg FeaP ug s[ s' fp,ai h'H[ FjHg e"ij ba[ duRpS m
FjHg e"ij s[ s' fp,ai h'H[ FjHg dsbjv sjl r,cg Fp,y' rjv[
8
ba[ A'Bg Fp,y' rjv[ FjHg sdHbj y.s \sIj y>s| dsbjv sjl
r,c[ h'S wiw[ iju s[ qjvw WS[ m dHV%J A'Bg F,y' a'G Rpnw[ r,cg
Fp,y' bWjs wgag ljdhW l+g epiP e'dW>s dl>z ug avr.cg ljW'
\sqsqj ljdhW| dWiju[ h'H[ lV m epiP ljdhW V[ FjHg dsbjv
sjl@ ijq dl>z@ xa[h dl>z@ WtaP dl>z ba[ ataP dl>z }
b>dq+afjV wiV vHg f+[dibj m y,wj rjv[ ijq dl>z xa[h dl>z@
WtaP dl>z a[ ataP dl>z V[ b>dq+a A,w dvbj fi FjHg dsbjv
sjl V[ b>dq+a A,wS a'G dHVwji wi ds,aj epiP ljdhW y,wJ dr,y
bjH[ aJ dxi FjHg dsbjv sjl } epiP wj dl,t WSV vHg bjs[L
wgaj bjf qpVwi h' eH[ epiP ljdhW V[ WyV wgaj@ ##y.ej hpS
blgG b>dq+a AwjMs[ lg dxi ljc[ l[rwJ fjl'G dq>Vaj aiv[ wiw[
Aw[ej m dHl V[ qpl.sJ rjvg e,v wgag$$ us'G FjHg dsbjv sjl
} flyjajf h'dHbj aJ ijq dl>z a[ xa[h dl>z fjl W[Vag wiV
v,ej aJ RpV%J FjHg } f+Ljs WSj w[ dvbjRpS vHg dwhj aJ
w[ Fp,v WtLj vHg ujr[ m epiP ljdhW y,wJ a'G yv w[ FjeP r,v
} ujS v,e[ agi Vjv \vr[igli dHdahjlw epispbjij Fp,y' q>cg
a'G dH,w dwv'qgBi Fp,y' q>cg a'G Wdn>cj i[vr[ vjHgV s[ Rpfi h{|
} Vqlwji wgag l.eaJ V[ W[Vag wgag ##fjaLjh m dHh ue%j$$
slq[G fjaLjh WyV wgaj ##fdhv[ fjaLjh l+g epiP VjVw s[r
ug V[ dHo[ dl,ZJ Vjv e'LBg wgag lg ba[ A[r[G fjaLjh l+g
hdie'dW>s ljdhW V[ L[i ba[ W,wig sg vCjHg s[tg lg dul dr,y
W,wig V[ bjfS[ W,y[ VhgG tjS ds,a[ lg m$$ epiP ljdhW w,yg Fp,y'
V[C[ fhp.y[ aJ z'C[ } fjSg fgS TjW r,v wgaj aJ z'C[ V[ fjSg
VhgG fgaj m l.eaJ V[ wjiV fp,DdAbj epiP ljdhW WyV wgaj ##fjSg
dr,Dy'G FjHg dsbjv[ ql.s sg W' bjMsg h{ m$$ bjf Vei dr,y
VhgG eH[ a[ FjeP r,v } yv fH[ m FjHg dsbjvj sjl } bjfSg
Fp,v sj bdhljl h'dHbj a[ f+Ljs WSjw[ e,DdcbJ Rpfi i,t w[
df,A[ df,A[ h' apdibj m epiP ljdhW b,e[ FjHg ijq dl>z@ xa[h dl.z
9
W[Vag wgag dw FjHg dsbjv sjl } WtL dsRp Rph df,A[ df,A[
f+Ljs vHg dxisj h{ ##epiP ljdhW dHo'G yv w[ w'BLqgi df>c
eH[ dxi ijq dl>z V[ W[Vag wi ds,ag m epiP ljdhW V[ W[Vag
q>V vHg ba[ f+Ljs riajRpS vHg dwhj m us'G f+Ljs riajRpS
v,e[ aJ s[ts[ hV dw dHl dr,y wgC[ hV m slq dfaj b,e[ W[Vag
wgag ##fjaLjh ) f+Ljds dr,y wgC[ hV m$$ fjaLjh V[ f+Ljds
q>erj w[ bjfSg avg a[ i,t w[ sWjdHbj a[ WyV wgaj ##ujY
dHl } f+Ljds dr,y dqvj w[ riaj dsRp m$$ us'G f+Ljds s[ siLV
wga[ aJ f+Ljds eiq ba[ ajuj WSjdHbj dstjHg ds,aj dHl
a'G Rpfi.a FjHg dsbjv sjl V[ b>dq+afjV wgaj ba[ epi wj
dl,t WS debj m dsbjv sjl V[ Fp,y' dwv[% sg VgGh i,tg ba[
dwv%j dabji wirjdHbj m dHV%J s[ zi FjHg epiWtL dl>z V[
uVq dvbj m FjHg epiWtL dl>z s[ zi A[ fp,ai ba[ dH,w fp,aig
h'Hg m WgWg wiq w"i sg lqjZ a[ yp,v[ dHo[ hg hV ba[ Rpvjs
Fg dHo[ hg h{ m dwv%j f,wj h'S wiV[ hg dHl sj Vjq f,wg Fp,Dy'
i,dtbj debj m
FjHg epiWtL dl>z s[ A[ fp,ai WpZ dl>z@ ZV dl>z@ s[lP dl>z@
episjl dl>z@ ata dl>z ba[ lp,tj dl>z m WpZ dl>z ata dl>z
W[-b"vjs h'H[ m ZV dl>z s[ s' fp,ai wiq dl>z ba[ yai dl>z
W[-b"vjs h'H[ m s[lP dl>z s[ s' fp,ai vjv dl.z a[ Whjv dl>z m
Whjv dl>z W[-b"vjs dihj a[ vjv dl>z s[ Rps[ dl>z@ f+ajf
dl>z a[ episjl dl>z h'H[ m episjl dl>z sj fp,ai sv dl>z Rph
rg W[-b"vjs m
lp,t dl>z s[ dH,w fp,ai rljrj dl>z m dHl s[ A[ fp,ai epvjW
dl>z@ Whjsi dl>z@ f>ujW dl>z@ wjhV dl>z@ l.ea dl>z@ A[r[G
sj Vjq dqdvbj VhgG m epvjW dl>z sj fdirji biV'vg
\hdibjSj| dry m

10
l.ea dl>z ug l[tPrjv rjv[ fdBbjv[ w'v hV m b>ei[; s[
W.s'Wla r[v[ epvjW dl>z sj fp,ai ulq[i dl>z q"uPs lg m 1852-
53 dr,y df>c s[ v'w ;qgV s[ qjvw WSj ds,a[ ba[ bjf uegi
v{ vHg m Fp,Dy' wvJ df>c biV'vg rjv[ s[ dh,Dl[ bjHg m w{ov FjHg
s[lP dl>z V[ xa[h wgag m qhjijuj iSuga dl>z s[ lq[G sj FjHg
Rps[ dl>z FjHg vjv dl>z sj fp,ai lg m

V'B - dHh f+l.e l! b,Ai dl>z ljWwj lif.y Fp,Dy' wvJ


rv'G f+jfa h'dHbj m

WjWj ug sj iP.qg a'G Fp,Dy' wvJ bjRpSj


soriT mhlw 5 ]
krx krwvxhwr pRBu dwqw pwrbRhm pRBu suAwmI ]
sgly jIA kIey dieAwlw so pRBu AMqrjwmI ]1]
myrw guru hoAw Awip shweI ]
sUK shj Awnµd mMgl rs Acrj BeI bfweI ] rhwau ]
gur kI srix pey BY nwsy swcI drgh mwny ]
gux gwvq AwrwiD nwmu hir Awey ApunY Qwny ]2]
jY jY kwru krY sB ausqiq sMgiq swD ipAwrI ]
sd bilhwir jwau pRB Apuny ijin pUrn pYj svwrI ]3]
gosit igAwnu nwmu suix auDry ijin ijin drsnu pwieAw ]
BieE ik®pwlu nwnk pRBu Apunw And syqI Gir AwieAw ]
\b>e 615|
Fp,Dy' wvJ s[ l[rwJ sj bojh dfbji s[t w[ WjWj ug iP.qg

11
a'G Ljq } df>c r,v } api fH[ m v'hCg rjvj dsV lg qgGh o'C%j
o'C%j ril dihj lg m WjWj ug t[l sg Wp,wv qjiw[ yvs[ yvs[
dB,v[ rjvg ue%J s[ df,A[ u' W[ig lg m \u' b,u rg q"uPs h{| Rpl
s[ h[n bj w[ W{n eH[ m Rpl tp,vg yiJs \dNCg| dr,y V,oP dl>z
quWg dl,t W,wigbJ rjfl df>c r,v dvuj dihj lg m WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj ##epiqptj ) df>c s[ wpN W.dsbJ } ljc[ bjRpS Wji[
lpV[hj s[ s[Sj m$$ WjWj ug V[ duV%J dl>zJ s[ Vjq vH[ V,oP dl>z
RpV%J r,v yvj debj m FjHg rdibjq dl>z a[ l"S dl>z } V,oP
dl>z Wpvjrj s[ b,e[ api debj m l'hS dl>z } lpV[hj dqvS wiw[
Rph rdibjq dl>z } WvjRpS yvj debj m s'V'G dHw,n[ hg WjWj
ug r,v } api fH[ a[ V,oP dl>z WjWj sv dl>z ug } faj wiV
vHg yvj debj m f+[q sg FjrVj V[ A[ag hg ljdibJ } dHw,n[
wiw[ WjWj ug fjl v{ bJsj m uga dl>z rg z'Cg a[ iP.qg r,v
a'G bj dihj lg WjWj ug s[ siLV wiw[ dHo[ hg ipw debj m ljdibj
V[ WjWj ug sg yiV A'h f+jfa wiw[ bV.s qjdSbj a[ W[Vag
wgag ##qhjiju ) wg hpwq h{ m$$ WjWj ug V[ xpiqjdHbj@ ##ljc[
W{nS vHg ue%J s,Dl' blgG hpS dHo[ hg idhSj h{$$ ljdibJ V[ dB,v[
r,v dHLjij wiw[ dwhj ##dHhg ue%J h{$$ WjWj ug V[ ljig ue%J
r,v q[hi sg dVejh Vjv a,Ddwbj ba[ ue%j W{nS vHg qV;Pi
wi vHg m$$ l.ea V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju m hpS bijq wiV vHg
Np,eg sj ba[ w,fdCbJ sj f+W.Z wigH[ m$$ W[Vag f+rjV h'Hg m wpN
aJ f,BgbJ v{S yv[ eH[ s' bjsqg t[l ba[ dWlai[ q>u[ sj f+W.Z
wiV vHg eH[ m ue%J ljx wiw[ f,BgbJ sg Np,eg WSj ds,ag m q>u[
a[ bjlS drAj ds,aj m WjWj ug sj dFdubj h'dHbj t[l rg Wsv
ds,aj m WjWj sv dl>z ug V[ WjWj ug } sp,Z AwjRpS Wji[ bjdebj
q>eg m hpwq h'dHbj ##v{ bjRp$$ m o'C%g s[i Wjbs sp,Z bj debj
bjf ug V[ sp,Z A,w dvbj m dNCg dr,y q,NJ yjiV rjv[ sj dH,w
A'Bj duhj w,yj w'nj dB,v[ Rpfi WSjdHbj h'dHbj lg m l.ea V[
12
bjdebj q>eg dw ##fjaLjh Rph ljhqS[ RpKfi rjvj w'nj ljx
wi s[HgH[ m$$ WjWj ug WyV wgaj ##LpZ h{ m$$ bev[ dsV w'nj
ljx wiw[ WjWj ug sj bjlS Rpl dr,y vj ds,aj m c[T qhgVj
Rpl dr,y idhS Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ Rph w'nj Tjh w[ VrJ dabji
wiV sj hpwq ds,aj m dxi dHl a'G r,cj w'nj w,yj hg dabji wgaj
dul sj b,Zj dh,lj fisj wiw[ bjlS WSj dvbj Wjwg dr,y
q,Bgbj a[ lq,eig i,tSg m dHl w'n[ Rpfi WjWj ug V[ A,ag ljv
sj lqJ Waga wgaj m dHh f+l.e WjWj bV.s dl>z ug V[ l.ea
dr,y lpSjdHbj lg u' v[tw s[ qjaj dfaj V[ lpdSbj m dHh f+l.e
WjWj t[q dl>z ug s[ qpt a'G \qptjidW>s| dvta dr,y f+r[L h'dHbj m
\dHh f+l.e WjWj ug s[ l[rw FjHg l'hS dl>z s[ fC-f'ai[
u'de>si dl>z dTv'G Rpix wjwj ug a'G rg f+jfa h'dHbj m|

kir syvw pwrbRhm gur BuK rhY n kweI ]


b>e 318
x,eS s[ qhgV[ WjWj ug s[ idhS vHg dBv[ Rpfi wpBgbj
WSj w[ wHg df>c s[ l.eg bjfS[ zi[vP ipN[drbJ dr,y dsvylfg
v{S wiw[ WjWj ug s[ siLVJ vHg ws[-ws[ bjdHbj wis[ lV m
fi FjHg rdibjq dl>z ba[ FjHg l'hS dl>z l[rj dr,y LiZj
sg FjrVj qV dr,y rlj w[ a[ ldawji dhis[ dr,y rlj w[ WjWj
ug sg h;Pig dr,y hi r[v[ a,a fi idh>s[ lV m WjWj ug s[ hpwq
bVplji l'hS dl>z ija sj fdhij rg WC[ bsW Vjv f+[q W.ZV
dr,y vgV h' w[ dVqiaj Vjv dVFjMs[ lg m us df>c dr,y WjWj
ug s[ f,w[ a"i a[ Fp,Dy' dr,y bjRpS Wji[ ?Wi h' eHg aJ h'i rg
f+[qg ija s[ fdhi[ a[ bjRpS v,e fH[ fi fdhi[ sg s[t i[t l'hS

13
dl>z sg hp.sg lg m wHg rji WjWj ug V[ dwl[ sj Vjq v{ w[ rg
fdhi[ vHg Wpvj v{Sj m WjWj ug V[ l'hS dl>z } WyV wgaj dw
##l'hS dl>z hpS aplgG rg l.ea rJe l[rj dr,y dihj wi' zi[vP
w.q wju rg Vjv wis[ dihj wi' m$$
l'hS dl>z V[ dH,w dsV W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) q{} Ap,Bg
s[ dsY m$$ WjWj ug V[ Ap,Bg sj wjiS fp,DdAbj m RpKai dr,y l'hS
dl>z V[ dwhj@ ##qhjiju ) df>c s[ v'w wdhSe[ dHh WjWj ug
fjl'G f{l[ v{Gsj h{ m bjf ug sg q[hi lswj q[i[ w'v Whpa wpN
h{ m q[i[ Rpfi q[hi ds=LBg wiw[ q{} lWi@ l.a't l[rj Fjr ba[
LiZj WtL dsRp m$$ l+[LB Wp,Zg rjvj dHh RpKai lpS w[ WjWj ug
f+l.V h'H[ ba[ wdhS v,e[ ##y.ej x[i aphjc[ fjl'G zi W{dnbj
hg l[rj v{ dvbj wiJe[ m$$
us rg Wjhi a'G bjRpS rjvg l.ea sPi spi[c[ sg hp.sg aJ
ija sg dihjdHLg f+W.Z l'hS dl>z s[ zi hp.sj m dHh l[rj l'hS
dl>z } wHg ljv VlgW hp.sg ihg m xpiqjV h{-
puMn dwn kw kry srIru ] so igrhI gMgw kw nIru ]
b>e 952
dHl ai%J WjWj ug l'hS dl>z a'G l[rj v{Gs[ ih[ ba[ lq[G lq[G
zi[vP dWzV wv[LJ a'G ApBwjij wirjMs[ ih[ m
dHw rji epiP VjVw s[r ug qhjiju dwl[ Ldhi eH[ m Ldhi
s[ Wjhi bjlS vej w[ W{n eH[ m dH,w bda eigW dul } bjfSj
f[B fjvS vHg rg bSo,w dqhVa wiVg f{Gsg lg m q;sPig wqj
w[ fjaLjh s[ bjlS s[ V[C[ sg v.zS v,ej m siLV wiw[ qV
e,s e,s h' Rpdnbj@ qV f+[dibj debj dw qhjaqj sg yiV A'h
qlaw } vjHg ujr[ m V[C[ bj w[ q,oj B[dwbj a[ wpN lqJ bV.s
qjVS a'G Wjbs yvj debj m bev[ dsV dxi q;sPig wiV yvj
debj m w.q ligiw a"i a[ Rpo[ wi[ fi qV epiP yiVJ s[ bojh

14
f+[q ljei dr,y Bp,WgbJ vjMsj dxi[ m q;sPig sj lqJ dWaj w[
qV dr,y ai%J ai%J s[ l.s[h v{ w[ ##dw dwa[ xwgi yv[ Vj eH[
h'S m$$ bjlS Wsv Vj dvbj h'r[ m ## w,v% rjvg ue%J rv api
dfbj m qV tpLgbJ dr,y NP.qS v,ej us epiP ljdhW } Rpo[ hg
dWijuqjV s[dtbj m qisjVj ug wgiaV wi ih[ lV m wgiaV
sj bV.s qjVS vHg Rpo[ hg W{n debj m wgiaV sg lqjfag
Rpfi.a zi bjdHbj m dsV Fi wgag h'Hg q;sPig sj ijLV tigs
dvbjdHbj faVg } F'uV dabji wiV sj bjs[L ds,aj ba[
Vjv hg epiP ljdhW s[ yiVJ dr,y Wga[ s' fv sj dWiaJa drloji
fPirw lpSjdHbj m Rpl } hsjdHa ds,ag dw F'uV dabji wiw[
s'r[G hg xwgi sg F[BJ wigH[ ba[ Vjv hg siLV wiw[ l[rj wqj
vHgH[ m q;sPig z,B h'S wiw[ s' f+Ljs[ hg WS[ m dHh s' f+Ljs[
ladwji ldha epiP ljdhW b,e[ f[L wiw[ W[Vag wgag ##eigW
dVrju m dHh eigW sg F[Bj qV;Pi wi' m$$ fjaLjh V[ Wjvj ug
} hpwq ds,aj ##Wjvj ug dHl s[ f>u BpwC[ wi dsY m$$ hpwq
sg ajqgv h'Hg BpwC[ f>u WSj w[ ljdibJ } A,wS vHg s[ ds,a[ m
us qisjVj ug V[ i'Bg sg eijHg qP>h dr,y fjHg blyiuaj
dr,y W'v RpKdnbj ##LdhVLjh m b,u aJ FjHg vjv' sg i'Bg duhj
bV.s bjdHbj h{ m$$
##qisjdVbJ ) dHh l,yg dwia ba[ Ziq sg i'Bg h{ dHl dr,y
l,a sg Lwag sj bFji h{ bV.s dwM Vj bjr[$$ epiP ljdhW
V[ WyV wgaj m
zi sg eigWg sj bdhljl qV dr,Dy'G fi vj w[ RpKc debj m
bjfSg bjidow hjva Fp,v w[ ldhu lpFj f+[qg sg faVg s[ qP>h
dr,Dy'G dVwv debj dw fjaLjh ljc[ zi Ljq sj f+Ljs Aw' Vjv
bjfS[ fdr,ai yiVJ sg A'h eigW sg wpvg } WtL' m$$
b>aiujqg dsbjvaj s[ zi dr,y WyV wgaj ##q>e' u' yjhp.s[

15
h' dqv ujH[ej m$$ f+[q vgV h' W[Vag wgag qhjiju ljc[ zi yiV
fjRp h'i dwl[ rlaP sg dHAj VhgG m WyV h'dHbj ##aphjc[ zi
hi i'; bjdHbj wiJe[ m zi b>si duh' duhj F'uV dabji h'r[
bjMs[ uJs[ ljZP } Awj dsbj wi' m$$ dHh WyV wiw[ epiP VjVw
s[r ug Rpo'G api fH[@ ila[ dr,y qisjV[ V[ W[Vag wgag ##fjaLjh )
zi dr,y bojh eigWg h'S s[ WjruPs rg dl,t sg w'Hg rg da=LVj
Vj h'r[ m$$
##qisjdVbj dHl[ sj Vjq h{$$ l,yj f+[q ##l,yj dfbji$$ epiP
ljdhW V[ WyV wgaj m
##fi eigW dVrju Rph aJ bda sj eigW h{ Rph bjRpS
ujS rjv[ ljZPbJ sg l[rj vHg ijLV dwl ai%J dvbjr[ej$$
qisjVj h{ijV h' w[ W'dvbj m
##dur[G hg l.eaJ RpV%J s[ zi yiV fjRpSegbJ m Rpl[ ai%J
ljigbJ WiwaJ bjfS[ bjf bj ujSegbJ m lqJ bjRpS a[ apP.
rg f+a,t s[t v{Sj m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m
wpN lq[G Wjbs l+g epiP VjVw s[r ug q>evj sgf s[ BjfPbJ
a'G rjfl bjH[ m lF a'G fdhvJ dHl Ldhi dr,y Rpl dl,t s[ zi
ndhi[ m s'V'G hg ldaepi s[ siLV wiw[ dVhjv h' eH[ qV hg
qV dr,y qisjVj dl,t sg bjidow hjva sj b>sjuj vj dihj
lg m bev[ dsV epiP ljdhW Rpo'G api fH[ m ila[ dr,y qisjV[
} qptjdaW wiw[ epiP ug V[ xpiqjdHbj ##qisjdVbJ ) dHh Rphg
dl,t sj zi h{ m$$ qisjV[ VgrgG fj vHg wdhS v,ej fjaLjh m
aphjcg i;j b,e[ q{G Fp,vShji hJ m$$
##qisjdVbj m dul Ziag a[ dl,t l.eaJ s[ yiV f{ ujS Rpo[
di,ZgbJ dl,Zgbj b,e[ df,A[ dxisgbJ hV m dwl[ rg ai%J sg
qV'wjqVj a'G idha h' w[ epiP s[ dl,tJ sg l[rj wgag drbio
VhgG uJsg m lr[ dH,Aj@ lr{qjVaj dabje w[ epiP zi sg l[rj
16
liWl+[lB fsrg WtLg sg h{$$ epiP ljdhW xpiqjdHbj m
vt tplgbj fjdaljhgbj u[ ldaepip Vsdi wi[dH mm \b>e 44|
ldal.ea sg l[rj sj qhjaq WjSg ijhgG wWgi ug V[
siljdHbj h{-
kbIr jw Gr swD n syvIAih hir kI syvw nwih ]
qy Gr mrht swrKy BUq bsih iqn mwih ]
lv'w Fea wWgi ug@ b>e 1374

nwnk siqguru isK kau jIA nwil smwrY ]


b>e 286
f+qjaqj bjfS[ dfbjdibJ Vjv bojh dfbji i,tsj h{ Rpl
sj Vjq dlqiV rjv[ hg Rpl } dfbji[ hV m f+DFP sg wiVg dr,y
drLrjl i,tS rjdvbJ Vjv f+q[Li bjf dryisj h{ RpV%J s[
b>e l.e lhjHg hp.sj h{ RpV%J Vjv dfbji sg fgGz fjMsj h{ m
dul ai%J qJ W,y[ sg q'h qqaj dr,y bj w[ Rpl } dH,w zCg
rg fjl[ VhgG h'S ds>sg m u[ dwZi[ t[cS yvj ujr[ N,B bjfS[
bjf Wpvj w[ Wpwv dr,y dWnj w[ dfbji s[Gsg h{ m u[ Wjhi ujS
sg du,s rg wisj h{ aJ rg i'wsg VhgG fi i,tsg bjfSg dVeijVg
h[n h{ xpiqjV h{ m
cMcl miq bwirk bpury kI srp Agin kr mylY ]
qvji q^ 5@ b>e 1266
Wjvw sg y.yv Wp,Zg h{ Rph dur[G rg sPi uJsj Rpl } V[C[
v{ w[ bjMsg h{ m dHl[ hg ai%J qhJfpit sj l.eg dur[G rg sPi
ujS sg w'dLl wisj h{ dar[G hg Rpl } V[C[ dvbjRpS ba[ Vjq
ufS sg ajwgs wis[ hV m hjCg s[ dsV lg l'hS dl>z bjfSg
t[agWjCg dr,y ip,N debj m WjWj ug s[ siLV vHg lqJ w,TSj

17
rg Fp,v debj s' qhgV[ sj lqJ Wga debj m w.qwju a'G drhvj
h' w[ l'hS dl>z } WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV sj dtbjv bjdHbj m
N,B dB,v[ r,v } h' apdibj m WjWj ug fjl fhp.y w[ q,oj B[dwbj
a[ W{n debj m WjWj ug V[ s' qhgV[ sj lqJ bjfS[ w'v Vj bjRpS
sj wjiV fp,DdAbj m
##qhjiju ) blgG spVgbjsji@ e+dhlag bjsqg zi[vP w.q
dr,y dHaVj tp,F uJs[ hJ dw qhJfpitJ s[ siLV rg VlgW VhgG
hp.s[ m$$ l'hS dl>z Rpai ds,aj m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##l'hS dl>z bjsqg zi e+dhlag
dr,y qla h'dHbj f+q[Li s[ Vjq } drlji ds>sj h{ m ljcj w.q
h{ dul s[ fPiWv[ wiq h'S Rpl } dHl wp.Fg Viw dr,Dy'G w,T w[
f+FP sj dlqiV wirjRpSj m epiP ljdhW V[ bjsqg a'G dlix slr.Z
hg q>debj h{ f+q[Li sj dlqiV wiV vHg m i'; i'; TjHg z>B[
ljZP sg l.ea wgag ujr[@ Rpl sg wgiaV spbjij Rplaag lpSg
ujr[@ u[ fdCbj Vj h'r[@ aJ rjdhepiP Vjq sg qjvj ufg ujr[ m
u[ fdDCbj h'r[ aJ fjn wgaj ujr[ m f+q[Li Vjv dHh f+S wgaj
h{ dHVljV V[ \qVp,t| dHh wiuj s[Sj h{ f+FP sj m dur[G W{Gw sg
dwla Vj q'Cg ujr[ drbju vej w[ qPv rZ[ej m dHl ai%J f+q[Li
sj RpZji Vj ypwjdHbj aJ f>c dHVg Fjig h' ujr[eg dw aP. Fji
yp,wS a'G blqi,o h' ujH[ej m$$
l'hS dl>z dHh lpS w[ Whpa f+Fjdra h'dHbj ba[ W[Vag
wgag ##qhjiju ) dtqj wi' q{G b,e[ a'G ;iPi bjdHbj wiJej
dVaV[q Vjv m
WjWj ug WyV wgaj ##w.q r[v[ w.q rg wi' fi 24 z>B[ s[
dsV ija dr,Dy'G wpN lqJ@ dliuV hji } rg dsY aJ dw aphjcj
dHl l.lji dr,y bjRpSj lxv h'H[ ba[ siejh b>si RpKuv qptC[
Vjv fir[L h' lw[ m l.lji dr,y dulV[ aphj} F[dubj h{ Rpl a'G

18
W[qp,t Vj h'r[ Rpl } hq[LJ Ijs i,Dt' m f>ur[G fjaLjh sj xpiqjV
h{ m
ijin qUM swij svwir sIgwirAw ]
grB Agin mih ijnih aubwirAw ]
bwr ibvsQw quJih ipAwrY dUD ]
Bir jobn Bojn suK sUD ]
ibriD BieAw aUpir swk sYn ]
muiK AipAwau bYT kau dYn ]
iehu inrgunu gunu kCU n bUJY ]
bKis lyhu qau nwnk sIJY ]1[[
lptqVg ljdhW@ b>e 266-267
f>ur[G fjaLjh V[ dHVljV } dViepVgbJ@ W[epij@ epS VhgG
ujSsj wdhw[ rg Rpl sg dlxjiL wgag h{ f+q[Li ) dHh FpvVhji
h{ dHl } WtL dsRp m WtdLL aJ hg h'r[eg u[ dwl[ f+FP s[ Fea
sg l.ea wi'e[ m zCg s' zCg drL[ drwjiJ s[ y,wiJ dr,Dy'G dVwv
w[ dViqv uv sg aiJ qV dHwjei wiw[ rjdhepiP sj dlqiV
wi'e[ aJ hg siejh dr,y qjV dH,;a fjRpe[ m xpiqjV h{ -
jw kI thl pwvY drgh mwnu ]
iqsih ibswrY mugDu Ajwnu ]
\lptqVg ljdhW@ b>e 267|

19
koit ApRwD swDsMig imtY ]
sMq ik®pw qy jm qy CutY ]
b>e 296
i,Wg u'a@ wvup,eg ugrJ sj Rpsji wiV vHg qjVl-s[hg
ZjiV wiV rjv[ qhJfpit WjWj qhJ hiVjq dl>z ug dBv[ s[ Rpfi
dWijuqjV hV m df>c sgbj l.eaJ@ WjhivgbJ l.eaJ duV%J s[
lpr,vC[ Fje hV siLV wiV ba[ l[rj sg FjrVj qV dr,y v{
w[ bjMs[ hV m sPi a'G bjRpS rjvg l.eaJ sj qV dwl[ epfa
iPf uj lpfdVbJ ijhgG siLV wiV vHg f+[is[ hV m f+[iVj Rpl
} hg hp.sg h{ dul sj f+FP Vjv V[Cvj l.W.Z h'r[ dul V[ Rpl
sj dlqiV wgaj h'r[ m q>cg Whjrv fpi s[ idhS rjvj dH,w f+[qg
bjfSg faVg } Vjv v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV vHg zi
dr,y wpN dW+aja h'S s[ WjruPs bjdHbj m vCwg s[ f[w[ zi FjHg
Wta"i lV m w,yg Fp,Dy' RpV%J sg sPi spi[c[ a'G diLa[sjig lg m WgWg
bjfS[ lhpi[ zi idh>dsbJ dH,w dsV lta Wgqji h' eHg ba[
ligi s[ lpbjl rg ?aq h'H[ m zi b>si byjVw h'Hg q"a sj
\lVjBj| l'e duhj Aj debj fi dHh bB,v bSh'Sg } lda
wiw[ q>Vs[ h'H[ l,uS dq,ai WgWg } b>aq l.lwji vHg v{ api[ m
b,Z drywji zCj F.VS s[ lq[G dq+aw ligi } Ziag Rpa[ i,t
w[ zCj F.dVbj m byjVw hg WgWg sj f{i hiwa dr,y bjdHbj
dHh s[t w[ lji[ byiuaj Vjv dq,Bg iPfg s[h r,v bwiLw h'
eH[ wpN lq[G Wjbs sPuj f{i rg hiwa dr,y bjdHbj m h"vg h"vg
WgWg V[ brj; s[ w[ lgCg sgbJ i,lgbJ w,BS vHg dwhj m bjti
bjf y,v w[ zi rjfl bj eHg m zi dr,y l'e tpLg dr,y Wsv

20
debj m zi bjH[ hi f+jSg dr,y WgWg s[ ugrV rjfl bjR[pS
Wji[ fp,AS sg \wjhvg| uJ \aJz| uJ \RpwLjhB| uJ Rplawaj
lg m us'G WgWg } fp,DdAbj debj aJ urjW dr,y Rpl V[ dwhj@ us'G
##uq q[ig iPh } dvuj ih[ lV ila[ dr,y qhJfpit dqv eH[ RpV%J
V[ q[ig iPh sg tvjlg uq%J a'G wirjHg m qhJfpitJ V[ bjfSj c[ij
rg s,Ddlbj dw blgG f,wg Fp,Dy' iP.qg rjv[ s[ Vjq a[ dWijus[ hJ m$$
Wp,a a'G bv,e h'Hg iPh } dqvjS rjv[ qhjaqj f+ag LiZj@
FjrVj V[ qV dr,y bjfSj drv,tS hg ruPs wjdHq wi dvbj m
hi r[v[ qV RpV%J WtLShji qhJfpitJ sg Ijs dr,y drbjwpv
ih[ ba[ siLVJ vHg Rpajrvj h'dHbj ih[ m lFjej dsV rg bj
debj dul lq[G fag faVg sg dabjig WjWj ug s[ blojV s[
siLVJ vHg h' eHg m bSujS[ ila[ a'G lPh v{Gs[ h'H[ WjWj ug
s[ blojV dB,vj ljdhW s[ V[C[ fhp.y eH[ m fdhi[sji fjl W[Vag
wgag ##dw WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV[ hV m w'Hg urjW bjRpS sg
Rpcgw dr,y hg dsV cp,WS s[ V[C[ h' debj m s'VJ V[ w,yg Fp,Dy'
diLa[sjig dr,y yv[ ujS Wji[ dryji wi vHg dw w,v% bj w[
siLV wi vrJe[ m siLV Vj h'S wiw[ qV dr,y o'C%g dVijlaj
duhg v{ w[ w,yg Fp,Dy' r,v api fH[ m t[aJ dr,y hg eH[ a[ ila[
sg lqN Vj fHg m hpS sg ai%J lCwJ bjds VhgG lg@ A'BgbJ-
A'BgbJ fe c.cgbJ df>c a'G df>c } hp.sgbJ lV m V[C[ hg w.q
wi ih[ du>qgsjiJ fjl'G ila[ Wji[ fp,AS v,e[ m dHV%J dr,y WjWj
ug sj l[rw l'hS dl>z lg RplV[ dHV%J } rjfl Fp,Dy' hg q'C
dvbJsj a[ dwhj@ ##dw blgG aphj} lr[i[ siLV wirj s[rJe[ m
ija RpV%J f+[qgbJ V[ WjWj l'hS dl>z s[ zi w,Bg m lr[i[ dHLVjV
fjSg wiw[ WjWj ug s[ siLVJ vHg apiV v,e[ aJ WjWj l'hS
dl>z V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##WgWg aP. WjWj ug } fAjS lwsg h{ m$$ WgWg
V[ hJ dr,y urjW ds,aj m fag@ faVg l'hS dl>z a[ wpN f+[qg dB,vj

21
ljdhW s[ V[C[ fhp.y eH[ m WjWj ug Vei r,v qp,t wiw[ tC[% lV m
v.ei rjvg dHqjia rjv[ fjl[ dB,vj ljdhW s[ Rpfi ujS sj ilaj
lg m WjWj ug s[ siLV wis[ hg WgWg V[ WjWj ug } fAjS dvbj
a[ Vgq W[h'Lg sg hjva rjv[ i'eg sg ai%J F,u apig m fi Rpfwjig
r,v'G wga[ h'H[ fiRpfwji sj Wsvj f+jSg \qVp,t| RpV%J f+ag LiZj
ba[ bojh dfbji dstj w[ yp,wj lwsj h{ m l,yj dfbji hg wn'i
a'G wn'i qV } dVqiaj sg wpnjvg dr,y dfzvj lwsj h{ m dB,v[
s[ V[C[ fhp.yg WjWj ug V[ h,o sj dHLjij s[ ipwS vHg dwhj m WgWg
Rpo[ hg bc'v tCg ihg s'V'G h,o upC[@ dli Npdwbj h'dHbj qhJfpitj
r,v'G wga[ h'H[ fi Rpfwji sj LpwijVj wi ih[ lV m wjxg s[i
LJaqHg qjh"v dihj@ qV b>si xpidVbJ sj T[i W,N debj fi
dHl} w"S ujS{ m
##qV wg dWioj qV hg ujS{
brip dV ujS{ w' fgi fiHgbj mm1mm$$
dWvjrvp q^ 5@ b>e 836
f+[qg l'hS dl>z a[ l.ea V[ bj Vqlwji wgag m WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj ##w.dVbj ) Rpn w[ tCg h' uj m$$ idhqa s[ zi
bjH[ a[ WjSg spbjij risjV WtdLbj m
qwp sMqwp sgly gey ibnsy qy rog ]
pwrbRhim qU bKisAw sMqn rs Bog ]
b>e 807
##w>dVbj aP. WtLg eHg m$$ A'Bg Rpqi sg vCwg } bjfS[
qptjidW>s qptWV dr,Dy'G w>dVbj fpwjis[ lV m
LiZjvP V[ b,e[ h' w[ f>siJ ipf{ q,oj B[dwbj m WyV h'dHbj
##blgG wg wiV[ hV v{ ujRp m qjdHbj zi dr,y y.eg hp.sg h{ m$$
s'VJ V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju ) lj} dVijl Vj wi' m o'C%g F[Bj
;iPi lrgwji wi' m$$

22
##y.ej x[i f>u ipfH[ i,t v{Gs[ hJ m Wjwg sl ipfH[ sj zi
uj w[ lZjiS fjn wirj s[Sj$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m
s'VJ } Vjq ufS vHg f+[iVj wgag m u[ bVfC h' aJ
rjdhepiP@ rjdhepiP hg uf dvbj wi' m Vjq hg dH,w l,yg l,pyg
dwia h{ dHh hg ugr sj bZji wisj h{ m
\dHh WyV u'de>si dl>z dT,v'G Fp,Dy' wvJ a'G f+jfa h'dHbj m|

vt tplgbj fjdaljhgbj
u[ ldaepip Vsdi wi[dH mm
WVlfag s[ Np.c dr,y dtdCbj h'dHbj xp,v bjsqg sg V;i
a'G fisj wi lwsj h{ fi Rpl sj sgrjVj F"ij zSg a'G zSg
w.dcbjvg NjCg dr,Dy'G rg Rplsg tpLWP@ lpe.Zg ba[ il f+jfa wiV
vHg ujsj h{ m i.e iPf wjvj h'S a[ rg qV Rpuvaj } fl.s
wisj h{ m l' l,y[ f+[q wiV rjv[ } aJ Rpl fJZg sg avjL h{
u' Rpl sg c.e'ig xC w[ l,y sg f,ec.cg RpKa[ apidsbj W{wp.n
sg q>d;v r,v v{ ujr[ m lr{dHAj sg fPiag vHg dH,w A'Bg Rpqi
s[ qhjaqj WjWj ug sg li'a lpS w[ dB,vj ljdhW s[ V[C[ fhp.y[ m
RpV%J s[ Vjv dH,w dW+Z brloj s[ ljZP rg lV m sqsqj ljdhW
s[ siLVJ } uJs[ h'H[ w,yg Fp,y' a'G WjWj ug s[ blojV s[ ba[
WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV vHg dHo[ fhp.y[ m
WjWj ug fijdwiaw V;ji[ s[t wjsi sg wpsia dr,y qla
W{n[ hV m y[a sj qhgVj h{ m WP>sj WJsg h' ihg h{ m dw,wiJ@ W[igbJ@
u.c@ wigiJ ba[ rSJ s[ h[n ai%J ai%J sg WVlfag h{ m f,Aq
rjv[ fjl[ w,yj avjW h{ m dW+Aj Rpfi W{n[ q'i ba[ h'i f>Ag W'v
w[ qV a[ blyiu hg f+Fjr fj ih[ hV m h;Pi s[ f+Fjr a[ f+ajf

23
lswj dHM qvPq h' dihj lg dur[G -
cwiqRk mor bolq idnu rwqI suin Ginhr kI Gor ]2]
jo bolq hY imRg mIn pMKyrU su ibnu hir jwpq hY nhI hor ]3[[
b>e 1265
aiwjvJ fHgbJ aJ lPiu dVaV[q sg ai%J dsV Fi f+wjL
s[ F.cji[ WtLsj h'dHbj f,Aq dr,y ija sg e's r,v rZsj uj
dihj lg m idhijl sj lqJ h' debj zdCbjv r,u[@ bjiag Rpajig
eHg ba[ l.t fPdibj debj m fjn LpiP h'dHbj ljig l.ea V[
bV.sqHg il qjdSbj m F'e a'G Rpfi.a ljig l.ea WjWj ug s[
siLV wiV rjig rjig dB,v[ Rpfi eHg m WjWj ug V[ lF sg
wpLvaj fp,Ag a[ ljdibJ } v.ei dr,y f+Ljsj A,wS vHg hpwq
ds,aj m lqP>h l.ea } dur[G hpwq bjlS vjRpS sj lg lji[ hg
ija } bvdrsj wdhS vHg bijq dr,y h' eH[ m Wjvw ljZP
rg WjWj ug s[ f+a,t siLV wiw[ qV s[ dtbjv spCj dihj lg
dw dHh' duh[ qhJfpiLJ s[ siLV wiw[ w'Hg dxwi qV dr,y VhgG
idhSj yjhgsj dHo'G aJ dWVJ q>e[ hg lF wpN dqv uJsj h{ m
dHl ai%J s[ dryjiJ b>si Bp.dWbj h'dHbj qV VgGs sg e's dr,y
uj lqjdHbj m lr[i[ yji ru[ z>Bg r,ug m ljig l.ea } dHh
dleVv lg dw dHLVjV wi' ligi sg L,pZaj wiw[ dVaV[q wiV
dr,y Rpn w[ W{n ujY m lPiu V[ bev[ dsV s[ iPf dr,y bj i"LVg
fjHg m wpN lq[G Wjbs df>c dr,Dy'G f+Ljsj a[ v,lg bj eHg m Li%j
wiV Rpfi.a ljig l.ea } dql[ f+Ljs[ a[ v,lg AwjRpS vHg
hsjdHa wgag dW+Z ljZP ba[ Wjvw V[ F'uV wiV a'G Wbs
bjdebj v{Sg lg m WjWj ug s[ w'v wjxg l.ea W{ng lg u' dw
bjfSgbJ W[VagbJ wi ih[ lV WjWj ug dwl[ } risjV WtLs[
a[ dwl[ } ajCVj wis[ m l.ea s[ yv[ ujS a[ WjWj ug V[ Wjvw
ljZP } fp,DdAbj ##W[B[ ) dwo[ ujSj h{ m$$

24
##fjaLjh m sqsqj ljdhW s[ siLV wiV ujSj h{$$ Wjvw
ljZP V[ dVqiaj ldha Rpai ds,aj m
huPi f+l.Vaj s[ zi dr,y bjH[@ ba[ f>eag sj RpyjiV
wgaj m
##dHAj fPiwp liW lpt sjaj hdi uj w{ rdl h{ wjq Z[Vj mm$$
\b>e 670|
f>eag lpSdsbj Wjvw ljZP } f+aga h'dHbj dw WVlfag
rg WjSg sj RpyjiV wi ihg h{ m tvw s[ l,y[ ldhVLjh s[ qptji
dW>s a'G dqnC[ W'v dVwv[ ##ujRp L,pZ h{ m$$ WyV lpVS Rpfi.a
bjfS[ dW+Z ljZP } Vjv v{ w[ sqsqj ljdhW s[ siLVJ vHg yv[
eH[ m lqJ fj w[ Wjvw ljZP l.a bjaqj dl>z ug s[ iPf dr,y
wvupeg ugrJ sj RpZji wis[ ih[ m dHV%J sj WyfV sj Vjq FjV
dl>z lg m dHh fiq fsrg WjWj ug s[ WyV lswj fjHg m
spVgbjsjig sg laj a'G RpKyj RpKn w[ f+q[Li Vjv vgV h' eH[
a[ l+[LB fsrg fj eH[ m
Z.Vrjsg ldha ##bjaq ldhaj$$ f>Vj 31 a'G 33 a,w v[tw
f>dca hwgwa dl>z ##bidW>s$$ m
lqJ 11 bf+{v 29 y[a l.qa 1954

luS dqv[ luSj duV laepi Vjdv dfbjip


b>e 587
Fp,y' wvJ a'G da>V wp qgv s[ xjlv[ Vjv i[v fBCg fdBbjv[
V[C[ ldoa df>c vdhi[ tjV[ h{ RpGN aJ V[C[ V[C[ f>u vdhi[ hV
fi vdhi[ tjV[ s[ qhJfpitJ s[ dHdahjl Vjv tjl l.W.Z h{ m dHo[
fpijSj c[ij h{ duo[ l.a wjWv dl>z ug idh>s[ lV m dViqv[ ljZPbJ
sj blojV h'S wiw[ l.a WjWj rZjrj dl>z ug rg dHo[ dWijuqjV

25
lV m bjf ug sj uVq df>c ##ut[fv$$ u' hdibjS[ dr,y h{ h'dHbj
bjf WyfV dr,y bjfSg FPbj ug w'v df>c vdhi[ tjV[ idhS
v,e[ m c[i[ s[ qhjaqj Vjv bjf ug sj dHaVj dfbji h' debj
dw drdsbj sg f+jfa h' eHg m drdsbj fCVg ba[ dvtSg bjf
ug sg iPh sg tpijw WS eHg m bjf V[ dvtS dr,y dHaVg dVfp>Vaj
hjlv wi vHg dw l+g epiP e+.o ljdhW ug sgbJ WgCj ba[ f'ogbJ
h,o Vjv dvts[ lV m vdhi[ tjV[ dHV%J s[ h,o dvta liPf hpS rg
q"uPs hV m
l+! epids,a dl>z l[q[ rjvj WjWj ug s[ siLVJ vHg bjdHbj
dquju fpAS Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##epids,a dl>z@
ljcj epBwj dWiZ h' debj h{ dHl vHg f>u e+.og f'og dvbj
w[ s[rg m$$ epids,a dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##h;Pi ) epBwj dwo'G v{
w[ bjRpSj h{ m
hpwq h'dHbj ##vdhi[ tjV[ l.a rZjrj dl>z l+g epiP e+.o ljdhW
sgbJ WgCj h,o Vjv dvts[ hV m RpV%J V[ dH,w epBwj dvdtbj
h{ ba[ f+S wgaj h{ u' dHl } q>e w[ vr[ej Rpl } dHh f'og
s[rJej m$$
epids,a dl>z V[ vdhi[ tjV[ ujS vHg bjdebj vHg aJ
huPi V[ f>u ipfHgH[ rg s[ ds,a[ a[ WyV wgaj ##RpV%J } s[ bjrgG m$$
epidsa dl>z vdhi[ tjV[ fhp.y debj m c[i[ sg fp,A fCajv wiw[
l.a rZjrj dl>z ug } uj Vqlwji wgag m dVqiaj Vjv f>u
e+.og f'og sg q>e wi ds,ag m
l.a rZjrj dl>z ug V[ s"va tjVj ba[ epBwj q>eS sj
r[irj fp,DdAbj m epids,a dl>z V[ ljig drdobj lpSj ds,ag ba[
f>u ipfH[ rg b,e[ i,t ds,a[ m l.aJ } dul zCg sj dH>auji lg
Rph bj eHg lg m ##du>seg wg i[v q[ hi w'Hg lrji h{ lF w'
bjfSg bjfSg q>d;v wj dH>a;ji h{ m$$ b,u Rph q>d;v fj vHg

26
lg m hi dHVljV bjfSg wgag h'Hg q[hVa sj xv fj w[ f+l.V
hp.sj h{ m tpLg dr,y qV NP.qsj h{ i'q i'q dr,y tPV s[ wai[ wai[
dr,y f+l.Vaj s[ dy>V dstjHg ds.s[ hV m dHhg brloj l.a rZjrj
dl>z ug sg h' eHg dH>auji b,u hwgwa dr,y Wsv debj m
qV sg dH,Aj fPig h' eHg dwMdw epBwj qhJfpitJ V[ bjf q>debj
lg m A[ag Vjv epBwj dvbj w[ bjsi ldha epidsa dl>z } s[
ds,aj ba[ f>u ipfH[ rg rjfl v{ ujS vHg wdh ds,aj m epidsa
dl>z V[ f'og ba[ f>u ipfH[ dvbj w[ WjWj ug b,e[ i,t ds,a[ m h;Pi
V[ f{l[ s[t w[ hpwq wgaj ##dw f{l[ hpS[ hg s[ w[ bj m u[ f{l[ v{S
a'G dHVwji wiV aJ i,t w[ rjfl bj ujrgG ba[ wdhSj dw u'
q'CV[ hV aJ bjf bj w[ q'C s[S m$$
epids,a dl>z x[i f{l[ v{ w[ debj ba[ uj drdobj lpSjHg m
wpN s[i Wjbs epids,a dl>z WjWj ug w'v rjfl fhp.y debj m
df>c l[q[ ujS sg bjdebj dqvS a[ epids,a dl>z l[q[ yvj
debj m
l.a rZjrj dl>z ug wpN lq[G Wjbs hg bj fhp.y[ m WjWj
ug } Vqlwji wiw[ b,e[ r,DZ[ aJ WjWj ug dHM dqv[ dur[G qpsaj
s[ drAC[ dqvs[ hV m xpiqjV h{ m
qU cau sjx mYifAw fyeI issu auqwir ]
nYx mihMjy qrsdy kid psI dIdwru ]1mm
b>e 1094
e+dhlag fpiL dqv w[ wWgvsjig s[ lqp>si dr,y e'a[ tJsj
h{ fi l.a uV dqvs[ hV aJ dfbji[ f+FP sg Rplaag drriS
dH,w sPu[ f+ag f[L wis[ hV m wpN WyV lpVS a'G Wjbs l.a rZjrj
dl>z ug V[ f>u ipfH[ WjWj ug b,e[ i,t w[ W[Vag wgag ##h;Pi )
q{G dHh f{l[ VhgG v{S[ m q[ig dsvg tjdhL fPig h' eHg h{ m dHh
f'og lswj hg bjf ug s[ siLV h'H[ hV dHh hg q[ig f+agdW.W

27
lg m idhqa s[ zi bj w[ sjl vHg l[rj WtL' m$$
WjWj ug W[Vag lpVS flyja WyV wgaj ##l[rj Whpa v{Sg
h{ m dHh f>u ipfH[ rg v{ ujRp ba[ ljcg qjaj Vdqa lZjiV fjn
wi dsbj wi' m Wjwg u' blgG s[rJe[ Rph q'CVj VhgG m$$
dHh WyV lpS w[ l.a WjWj rZjrj dl>z ug h,o u'C w[ ##lda
WyV ug$$ dwhj m
##ujY LpZ h{$$ WjWj ug f+l.Vaj s[ zi bjH[ m
l.a rZjrj dl>z ug vdhi[ tjV[ yv[ eH[ m lZjiV fjn LpiP
wi ds,aj m F'e sj lqJ WjWj ug fjl F[u ds,aj m WjWj ug V[
debjij ipfH[ dH,w l[i t>c@ l[i dzY ba[ dH,w l[i bjBj F[u
ds,aj m dHl ai%J fjnJ sg qdibjsj yvsg ihg WjWj ug F'e
s[ lq[G dHh lq,eig F[us[ ih[ m fdhvJ dHh l[rj FjHg epids,a
dl>z ug l[qj df>c rjv[ dxi Fjeg WJsi rjv[ liWS dl>z
dVFjMs[ ih[ m ws[ ws[ FjHg iaV dl>z ug ci'vg FjHg rjv[
rg dHh l[rj wis[ lV m dHl upeag Vjv WjWj ug l.a rZjrj
dl>z ug sg qV FjrVj fPig wis[ ih[ m dur[G FjHg l.a't dl>z
ug V[ dvdtbj h{ dw us'G epiP VjVw fjaLjh V[ dwl[ a[ WtdLL
wiVg aJ qisjV[ } hg b,e[ wis[ lV m
lpqa h[a wjiV wiV dha Rph FPt vejdH mm
qisjV[ } Fp,t v,eg w'c[ ijtL sj RpZji h'dHbj@ N.c[ WjTg
ba[ ijuj lpZi l{V a[ WtdLL h'Hg m ldaepiP api[ uj ih[ lV df,A[
r,v Njag fjHg aJ qisjVj Rpsjlg sg edhig l'y dr,y cp,DdWbj
bj dihj lg m ##qisjdVbJ dyhi[ a[ Rpsjlg sg dwiV dstjHg s[
ihg h{ m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m
##fjaLjh ) aglij dsV rg v.z dihj h{ F'uV a'G dWVj ligi
dVTjv h' dihj h{$$ qisjV[ sj aivj lg m

28
##ljhqS[ rjv[ fjl[ a,w Vei bj dihj h{ m dHl Vei dr,y
a{} bV[wJ ai%J s[ F'uV dqv ujSe[ m$$
##ldaepiP bjfS[ w'v f{lj w'Hg VhgG Vei dr,y ujS fAjS
VhgG fsjio dwl ai%J dqvSe[ m$$ qisjV[ fp,A hg dvbj m
h;Pi V[ bjfS[ yiVJ Vjv dq,Bg fjl[ wgag aJ h[nJ dH,w
vjv dqv debj m dul sg bV'tg yqw lg m ##qisjdVbj dHl
} yp,w v{$$ WyV h'dHbj ) qisjV[ V[ yp,w w[ f,v[ Vjv W.V dvbj m
Vei s[ V[C[ fhp.y w[ Wjhi bjlV vj dvbj m
##qisjdVbj dHh vjv } r[y w[ ijLV v{ bjRpSj$$ ljdhW
V[ WyV wgaj m
qisjVj Vei sj y,wi vj w[ A[ag hg fia bjdHbj m
ldaepiP V[ fp,DdAbj ##A[ag qpC bjdHbj h{G$$ m
##fjaLjh fdhv[ spwjVsji w'v debj RplV[ dwhj dw qPvg
v{ uj dHh q[i[ w.q sg yg; VhgG q{G dHl wiw[ v{ dihj hJ dw
W,y[ t[c w[ qV fiyjrj wi dvbj wiVe[$$ ba[ sPli[ w'v debj
Rpl V[ o'C%g dqdnbjHg v{ ujS vHg dwhj@ eigW dVrj; ) q{G
dHl } dwl s[ w'v r[yS vHg ujrJ q{} lpq,a WtL' m$$
##vjv sg wgqa u"hig hg fj lws[ hV h'i spwjVsji }
wg faj h{ dHl sg wsi wgqa sj m dHl } ljdvl ijdH u"hig
u' dHl Vei sj rjlg h{ w'v v{ w[ ujrg$$ ldaepiJ V[ WyV wgaj m
zi sg fp,A de,A wiw[ qisjVj ljdvl sg dihjdHL a[ fhp.y
debj m vjv ljdvl ijdH b,e[ drwig vHg i,t ds,aj m u"hig
V[ VgN vj w[ a,Ddwbj a[ V"wi } zi b>si'G dH,w l' ipfH[ q>erjH[ m
l" ipfH[ qisjV[ s[ h,o i,t ds,a[ m qisjVj Whpa tpL h'dHbj dw
dHl Vjv wHg dsV sj ijLV bj ujr[ej m u"hig V[ vjv rg
q'C ds,aj ba[ dwhj ##dw q{G dHh' duh[ vjv s[ siLV bjfSg

29
hpS a,w sg bjIP dr,y VhgG wga[ m dHl Rpfi dvdtbj h{ dw u'
rg dHl s[ siLV wi[ Rph dHl sg l" ipfH[ siLVg F[Bj s[r[ m
dHl vHg q{G dHh l" ipfH[ siLVg F[BJ a[ vjv rg q'C dihj hJ m
u[ aplgG r[ySj yjhp.s[ h' aJ dHl sg wgqa s,l dsY m$
qisjV[ dwhj@ ##dw q{G aJ r[yS sj bdZwji VhgG i,tsj dHl
s[ qjvw Vei a'G Wjhi W{n[ hV m$$ qisjVj vjv ba[ l" ipfH[
v{ w[ ldaepiJ fjl fhp.y debj m ldaepij b,e[ s'V' i,t w[ wdhS
v,ej ##aphjcg vgvj drv,tS hg h{ blgG dHl sg fit VhgG wi
lws[ m w'Hg dHl sj qp,v qPvg fjMsj h{ ba[ w'Hg siLV F[Bj
hg l" ipfH[ s[ w[ dHl } r,cqp,vj bjtsj h{ m$$ ##dur[G u"hig V[
dHl sg fit wgag ] qPvg rjvj wg ujS[ dHl sg lji } m dHl[
ai%j dul V[ f+q[Li Vjv f+[q fgzJ fjHgbJ hV Rphg hg dHl s[
hpvji[ sg wgqa ujS lwsj h{ m wpijhgbj ws[ ila[ sg Fjv VhgG
wi lwsj ba[ q>d;v a,w VhgG fhp.y lwsj m$$ dfAv[ dsV hg
dHh LWs fdC%bj lg m
##q[i[ vjv ugY a[ij b>ap Vj ujSj$$ ldaepiJ V[ WyV
lpSjdHbj dHh Rphg vjv ] m qisjV[ V[ dwhj u[ yjhp.s[ h' aJ r[y
ds>s[ hJ m
ldaepiJ V[ dwhj dHh VhgG r[ySj m qisjVj ldaepiP s[
WyV lpS w[ ipfH[ q'CV vHg ljdvl ijdH s[ zi fhp.y debj m
u"hig ug blgG dHh vjv VhgG r[ySj m dHh siLV F[Bj rg
rjfl v{ vr' m ljvl ijdH s[ VJh wiV s[ WjruPs rg qisjVj
ipfH[ i,t w[ ldaepiJ fjl fhp.y debj m ljvl ijdH s[ qV dr,y
xpiVj WdSbj dHh' duh[ vjvJ s[ qjvw s[ siLV wga[ ujS m
Ljq sj lqJ lg u"hig V[ f+Ljs dabji wirjdHbj m V"wi Vjv
v{ f+Ljs fi'l w[ Vei a'G Wjhi ldaepiJ sg avjL dr,y bj
debj m bjlS Rpa[ V;i f{S a[ w'v bj fhp.dybj@ VqLwji

30
wgag m ldaepiJ s[ WyV lpS[@ qV } LJag qdhlPl h'Hg xpiqjV h{-
silVp f[ta q{ ugY m
lpdV wdi WyV apq©ji[ ldaepi qVp aVp q[ij njip ogY mm
b>e 382 bjlj q^ 5

ljvl ijdH ba[ ##bZiwj$$ Rpl sj V"wi s'V'G hg Ziq fsrg


} f+jfa h'dH m ljvl ijdH } ldaepiJ V[ q>ug WtLg m u"hig }
hpwq h'dHbj ##bjfS[ V"wi } q,oj B[w m$$ Rpl V[ api.a yiVj a[
dli i,t ds,aj m
sjldV sjl sjl h'dH ihgb{ u' uV ijq Fea dVu FHgbj mm
b>e 835
ldaepiP V[ bjfS[ aV sj w,fCj ljvl ijdH s[ dli a[ W.V
ds,aj m FjHg l.a't dl>z ug VjVw f+wjL dr,y dvts[ hV m
ljvl WJdZI' lgl fi Lgzi tpv[ wfjB mm
debjVj V.s fPiV FI' ndBI' b"i hg njB mm
Fj dVhjv aawjv l+g epiP VjVw qdHbj a[ mm
RpqijI' f+[q dWljv Rplada Rpyida LWs wi mm
VjVw f+wjL
\dHh WyV Fj^ iaV dl>z ci'vg FjHgG a'G dqdvbj m|
lev li.ujq wi[ f+Fp bjf[ mm
b>e 806
LiZj a'G hg f+[q sg w'qv \w½>Wv| xp,Bsg h{ m f+[q hg lpt s[Gsj
h{ m l[rj aJ Ajv h{ u' LiZj a[ f+[q } fD,dwbj wisg h{ Vj dw
f+[q a[ LiZj a'CV vHg h{ m dHh hg xv ljZ l.ea wgagbJ dW+A
} s[rg@ l.ljig } dWW[w a[ debjV s[ bV[wJ epS v,es[ hV a[
zS AjrJ WSjMs[ hV m ljZ l.ea@ qhJfpitJ sg l.ea wiw[
dHhg fsrg l.a Whjv sjl ug u,lg f" rjv[ fj yp,w[ hV m dHhVJ

31
sg ugrVg fjnw df,Av[ dh,Dl[ dr,y fC yp,w[ hV m l.a Whjv sjl
ug V[ sl ljv lr{ lpbjio@ lr{ dHAj@ lr{ qjV sg fPiag a'G
dViqv h' w[ l[rj wgag ligi ba[ spVgbJ a'G W[tWi h' w[ dur[G-
dli f{iJ sg tWi Vj w'Hg dry qph,Wa a[ig mm
dV,ug lpbjio dabje w[ l,y f+jfag vHg dVLwjq l[rj wiw[
WtdLLJ f+jfa wgagbJ m l.a Whjv sjl ug h;Pi sj hpwq q>V
w[ bjfj dryiV vHg edhig Wpiu rjvg idhS v,e fH[ lV m
dHl ue%J Wpiu rieg dHqjia hpS rg q"uPs h{ m f>u l,a dsV
s[ Wjbs bjf WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV vHg bjMs[ lV m WjWj
ug V[ Whjv sjl ug } hpwq ds,aj ##Whjv sjl v'wJ s[ zi
ldhu fjn ba[ bt>c fjn widsbj wi' m bjfS[ Vjv y.e[ fjng
i,t vr' u' dw V[C[ s[ df>cJ ba[ Ldhi dr,y fjn wdibj wiV m
us'G w'Hg l[rw LiZj FjrVj Vjv tpLg sj eqg sj fjn wirjH[
uJ w'Hg zi[vP dWzV V;i bjMs[ h'S Rpo[ ;iPi f+wjL wiV
vHg fhp.ySj m$$
h;Pi V[ fjn sg drZg a[ qiIjsj lqNjHg m u' drZg b,u
a,w c[ij iP.qg rjvj drt[ f+y,va h{ m WjWj ug duaVg s[i ligi
wiw[ ih[ l.a Whjv sjl V[ siLV wiV bjMs[ idhSj ba[
tpLgbJ f+jfa wis[ idhSj m
l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ f{sv bjRpSj u,lg df>c s[ Wjhi l.zS[
sita lV m RpV%J sg l.zSg Ajr[G bjijq wiv vHg W{n uJs[ m
u,lg df>c s[ f+[qgbJ V[ bjf ug } dHo[ hg c[ij WVjRpS vHg
W[Vag wgag m wHg rji bjf V[ Bjv qB'v wi ds,ag fi l.ea
s[ rji rji W[Vag wiV a[ bjfV[ hpwq ds,aj ##f+[qg uV' c[i[ WSjw[
u[wi c[i[ sg qiIjsj Vj yvjHg ujr[ RpV%J dyi c[i[ dr,y W{nSj
l'Fj VhgG ds>sj m$$
l.ea V[ qiIjsj lqNjRpS vHg W[Vag wgag m bjf ug V[
32
xpiqjdHbj bjRpS ujS rjv[ bdaog vHg b>V spbjij F'uV
dabji wiVj@ dfbjl[ vHg fjSg@ ijhg vHg bijq vHg ue%j Vj
dqv[ Rpo[ c[i[ sj w'Hg bio VhgG m blgG aJ ljZP dWiag rjv[ baga
hJ duo[ qV wgaj W{n eH[ a[ yv[ eH[ m dxi ljc[ w'v w'Hg dHh'
duhj l[rw VhgG u' V[q Vjv dHh l[rj dVFj lw[ dur[G dw df>cJ
a'G f+Ljsj dvbjRpSj@ bjH[ fJZg } AwjRpSj@ fjSg dfvjRpSj
bjds m xPl q>cg Vei s[ s' f+[qg hgij dl>z a[ a?a dl>z V[ dHh
l[rj q>eg m l.aJ V[ WyV wgaj dw ##dHh aphjcg dwdibj ljc[
dqLV s[ RpvB h{ m$$
s'VJ V[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) lj} l[rj WtL'
blgG b,u a' f+S wis[ hJ dw dLwji VhgG wiJe[ m$$ l' dHV%J V[
dHh l[rj d;>seg Fi dVFjHg m dHV%J sg b"vjs } ejugbJ sg
b,v f{Gsg h{ m l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ dHh c[ij bjWjs wgaj u'
avr.cg ljW' \sqsqj ljdhW| Wdn>cj lCw Rpfi q"uPs h{ m l.aJ
V[ dHl ue%J eiqgbJ dr,y f' vrj dH,w f+[qg Rpo[ hi r[v[ fjSg
dfvjRpS vHg hj;i idh>sj lg wHg rji fJZgbJ vHg F.pV[ h'H[
A'v[ ba[ epC rg ds>s[ lV m dHl wiw[ dHl Vei sj Vjq u,lg
f' rjvg h' debj m
duM hg WjWj ug sg d*fj spbjij l.a Whjv sjl ug f+ag
v'wJ sj ldawji WSsj debj l.ea upCV v,e fHg m q>cvg xiV
v,e fH[ m
dl,t Ziq s[ qhjV drsrjV du>V%J sg iyVj } epiWjSg sg
wp.ug q>dVbj uJsj h{ m FjHg episjl ug epiqda wljRpBg a'G bZPi[
ugr } q>sFjeg wdh>s[ hV m dwMdw u[ f+FP sg W.seg wiV rjvj
ugr dhis[ dr,y f+FP sg iuj VhgG rljMsj aJ Rph hRpq{ r,l
h{ m dwMdw Rpl sg q,a@ WpdZ Fiq dr,y Fp,vg h{ m dur[G ##y.sV
w[ dVwB[ Wl{ Wjl lpe.Z V h'dH$$ u' ugr l.a l.ea dr,y rg ih[

33
uj zi e+dhlag dabje w[ rSJ dr,y dVrjl wiw[ rg hRpq[ Vj
A,c[ bduhj ugr bjadqw LJag@ bjadqw bV.s sg f+jfag VhgG
wi lwsj lsj FBwsj idh>sj h{ ba[ Hgit[ sg FjrVj lswj@
hRpq{ sg epvjqg lswj bjf[ a'G W[rl h' dtNsj V;i bjMsj h{ m
ljZ l.eda epi lWs lpdS dis{ V rl{ bFje fijSg mm
hRpq{ b>si Fiq FpvjSg mm
bduhj ugr Fjr[G Zjidqw a"i a[ dVug a"i a[ dw>Vg rg f+dl,Zg
v{ vr[ l.lji dr,y l'Fj hjlv wi vr[@ fi bjadqw ugrV a'G
l,tSj h'S wiw[ lsj hg Hgit[ sg upbjvj b>si lCsj idh>sj
h{ m dHl[ hg ai%J l.a Whjv sjl ug sg l.ljdiw f+dl,Zg s[t RpV%J
s[ V[C[ idh>s[ dH,w RpsjlgV ljZP ##l+g q'u sdibj$$ u' y.eg wqjHg
rjv[ lV m dHl fjl'G dHh W+sjLa Vj h'Hg m Hgit[ sg b,e dr,y
wp,sS vHg qV W[wjWP h' debj m hRpq{ s[ f+Fjr h[n dHh qVp,t
sp,t sg Vdriag a[ lp,t sg vjvlj dr,y W,Nj idh>sj h{ m Hgitj
s[ ijh sj i'Cj WS uJsj h{ ba[ dxi dHh ##wiq$$ bV.s ba[
lp,t sg oj FBwSj dr,y fjHg i,tsj h{ m bjfS[ debjV spbjij
epfa T.eJ Vjv ##q'u sdibj$$ \du>V%J } wjv[ qP>h rjvj rg wdh>s[
lV| V[ l.a Whjv sjl ug } VpwljV fhp.yjRpS vHg fPig Lwag
vj ds,ag m fi Rpl sgbJ ljigbJ yjvJ drbio h' eHgbJ m us'G
##q"u sdibj$$ sg w'Hg f[L Vj eHg aJ Rpl V[ blvgba ujVS
sg w'dLl wgag dw dHV%J } ##WjWj qhJ hiVjq dl>z ug$$ sg
lhjdHaj dqvsg h{ m Rpl V[ bjfSj hRpq{ iPfg ;dhi WjWj ug r,v
RpKevS sj IaV wgaj m dHl sj d;wi b,e[ bjr[ej m dHl ai%J
Whjv sjl ug sg i,Ddtbj WjWj ug V[ bjf wgag m
bfpV[ l[rw wg bjf[ ijt{ bjf[ Vjqp ufjr{ m
uh uh wju dwida l[rw wg ahj ahj Rpdn Zjr{ mm1mm
b>e 403

34
dwr[G dVi.wji dfbjdibJ sg fa i,tsj h{ m
##epidltJ b>sdi ldaepiP ria{$$
u' dltJ V' v'y{ l' epi tplg bjr{ mm
b>e 317
lv'w qhvj 2
mMqRI hoie ATUihAw nwgI lgY jwie ]
Awpx hQI AwpxY dy kUcw Awpy lwie ]
hukmu pieAw Duir Ksm kw AqI hU Dkw Kwie ]
gurmuK isau mnmuKu AVY fubY hik inAwie ]
duhw isirAw Awpy Ksmu vyKY kir ivaupwie ]
nwnk eyvY jwxIAY sB ikCu iqsih rjwie ]1mm
b>e 148
l.lji sj hi ugr lpt bjV.s sg Fjv dr,y v,ej h'dHbj h{ m
epiP biuV s[r ug V[ liW l.lji vHg qhjV fiRpfwji wgaj
##epiP e+.o ljdhW$$ sg lojfVj wirj w[ l+g hdiq>si ljdhW dr,y
f+wjL wi ds,aj m liW l.lji sg bjadqw LJag vHg@ bjadqw
bV.s lpt sg f+jfag sj l'qj WtL ds,aj m dHh h'wj ds,aj ##ojv
drdy da>V rlaP fjHgY lap l.a'tp rgyji' mm$$ dHh e,v rg ds+C
wirj ds,ag dw dHh rlaP aug Vdh ujHg dVa dVa i,t RpiZji' m
bjadqw lpt bV.s vHg ;iPig h{ dw epiqda sg wlr,Bg a[ bjfS[
bjadqw drwjl } dVa fit' bV.s lpt sg f+jfag sj iju epiP
LWs sg YB h{ m drwjl s[ ijh dr,y i'Cj hRpq{ iPfg L{ h{ m dHl
sg apvVj dWt Fjr ;dhi Vjv wgag h{ m ;dhi s[ l[rV Vjv
bjsqg qi uJsj h{ dHVljVg \qVp,tg| ruPs ?aq h' uJsj h{ m
dHl[ hg ai%J bjadqw drwjl hRpq{ iPfg ;dhi lswj ipw uJsj
h{ dul wiw[ ugr bV.s a[ tpLg rjvj ugrV lsj rjla[ t' W{nsj
h{@ ?aq wi v{Gsj h{ m

35
hpS #q'u sdibj$ V[ l.a Whjv sjl ug rv'G bjfSj ip,t Wsv
w[ WjWj ug r,v wi dvbj m dul ai%J w'Hg yLq[ a'G b>dq+a
riajRpS rjv[ } A,c w[ b>dq+a s[ yLq[ } hg lpwjRpS sj dHijsj
i,tsj h'r[ m dHl ai%J ##q'u sdibj$$ bjfS[ dsqje s[ l'C[fV
\A'B[fV| lgqafV sj lWPa f[L wis[ h'H[ WjWj ug r,v h' api[ m
bjfS[ dH,w l[rw } q'u sdibj V[ WpvjdHbj ba[ Rpl }
lqNjdHbj ##dw ila[ dr,y dwl[ Vjv W'vSj VhgG Fp,y' ujSj h{
Rpo[ l.aJ s[ ljhqS[ tC' w[ dHh WyV wiVj ##wjv[ qP>h rjv[ sg
l,a rjig ijq ijq$$ m l,a rjig b,v%j b,v%j@ l,a rjig tpsjdH
tpsjdH m l[rw WyV q>V w[ Fp,y' } api dfbj m \bjdebj fjvw
h' api dfbj|@ dHZi b>aiujqg b,tJ a[ f,Bg i,t w[ rg bjsqg
sg b>da+q l'y sg f+ag d*bj lqNs[ lV m bjf V[ Fdr,ta
wvjadqw } fAjSs[ h'H[ l[rw } WpvjdHbj m l[rw f>dca u'
dw dulqjVg a"i a[ wjxg ajwarji lg Rpl } Wpvjrj F[dubj m
f>dca qhjiju sg h;Pig dr,y fhp.y w[ l[rj fp,AS v,ej m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##f>dca ug ) dH,w Whpa r,cg Lwag@
fhjC rieg ajwa v{ w[ w'Hg bj dihj h{@ Rpl} ljc[ ljhqS[
VhgG bjRpS s[Sj dul rwa Rph Rpfi bjRpS v,e[ dH,w h,o
##uqVj i'Cg$$ i,tSj a[ sPu[ h,o Vjv Z'S a'G fwC w[ o,v[ }
Z,wj s[ s[Sj m
\uqj i'Cg| dB,vj ljdhW s[ Rpfi fhjC rjv[ fjl[ dH,w dq,Bg
sj oC%j \u' b,u rg q"uPs h{| m dHl } WjWj ug V[ hpwq s[ w[
dabji wirjdHbj lg m dHl sj Vjq uqVj i'Cg i,dtbj m Rpl
} RpV%g s[i VhgG A,cSj du>Vg s[i Rph W'v Vj fr[@ Rpl } fPig
ajwa vj w[ wjWP wiVj h{ ba[ WpvjRpS sg w'dLL wiVg h{ m
WjWj ug dHh WyV wiw[ bjfS[ bjlS rjvg q>ug s[ df,A[
Rphv[ dr,y h' eH[ m o'Cg s[i Wjbs ##q'u sdibj$$ sj l[rw bj

36
debj m dB,v[ s[ Rpfi r,v dl,Zj hg h' apdibj@ f>dca s[ V[C[ h'dHbj
aJ RplV[ ev[ a'G xC dvbj m Rph b,e[ r,ZS sg w'dLl wi[ fi
f>dca b,e[ Vj ujS s[r[ m dHl[ wLqwL dr,y s'V'G dH,w sPu[ }
yp.WC eH[ m h[nJ Rpfi hp.s[ h'H[ dB,v[ a'G o,v[ bj eH[ m WjWj ug
us'G V;i Vj bjH[ aJ Rpl V[ sPi a'G hg wjv[ qP>h rjv[ s[ lqNjH[
vx; W'v ds,a[ dw ##wjv[ qP>h rjv[ sg l,a rjig ijq ijq m$$
l,a rjig b,v%j b,v%j@ l,a rjig tpsjdH tpsjdH m Rpai dr,y WjWj
ug V[ LWs fdCbj m
dV>swp epi dwifj a[ hjdBY mm
pwrbRhm pRB Bey dieAwlw
isv kY bwix isru kwitE ]1] rhwau ]
kwlu jwlu jmu joih n swkY sc kw pMQw QwitE ]
Kwq Krcq ikCu inKutq nwhI rwm rqnu Dnu KwitE ]1]
Bsmw BUq hoAw iKn BIqir Apnw kIAw pwieAw ]
Awgm ingmu khY jnu nwnku sBu dyKY loku sbwieAw ]
b>e 714
bjti dr,y WyV wgaj ##ujw[ Rpl } bjt dw bjfV[ bjf
} l.Fjv v{ m ljcj wpN VhgG dredCbj m$$ dHh WyV lpS w[ ##q'u
sdibj sj l[rw yvj debj m
WjWj ug V[ dH,w l[rw Whjv sjl ug r,v F[dubj ba[ Rpl
} bjs[L ds,aj dw ##Whjv sjl wjv[ qP>h rjv[ w'v Vj ujr[ m$$
f{Gcj wjxg lg fi dH>Vg s[i } Whjv sjl ug } wjv[ qP>h rjv[
sj l[rw fdhvJ hg bj w[ v{ debj lg m Whjv sjl ug V[ Rplsg
W[h'Lg sg hjva s[t w[ idtbj sj LWs fdCbj@ iD,dtbj aJ hg
h' lwsg lg u[ w'Hg y'B@ l,B uJ dWqji Vjv W[h'Lg hp.sg m Rpl
} aJ siejh s[ dxBwji sg l,B lg@ Rph aJ h.wji sg b,e dr,y
lC dihj lg@ Rph aJ Hgit[ sg urjvj dr,y FBwsj lg m LWs

37
fdCbj hg lg dw l.a Whjv sjl W[h'L h' eH[ m dHh ljig hwgwa
s[t Whjv sjl ug sj l[rw WjWj ug s[ blojV a[ fhp.y debj m
WjWj ug b,e[ ljig hwgwa f[L wgag m fdhvJ WjWj ug epKl[ dr,y
W'v[ ##Rph Rpo[ dwM debj lg m Rpl ljig qdiIjsj lqNjHg h'Hg
h{@ RplV[ dryji wiw[ apiVj lg m$$
l[rw V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) blgG FpvShji hJ bjf
WtdL>s h' m bVjCg W,y[ lqN w[ dsbjvaj sg t{i fjRp m$$ fjSg
v,wC } c'Wsj VhgG dwMdw RplV[ v,wC sg fjvSj wgag h{ m
FjHg episjl ug V[ xpiqjdHbj h{ m
fjSg wjnp V c'WHg fjv[ sg vu{ mm
wgCg hjog } tjSj yjh[ aJ hjog wgCg s[ f[B dr,y dwr[G
uj lwsj h{ m A'Bj wgCj \FP>c sg Lwv riej| W[b>a r;V dwr[
yp,w lwsj h{ m
W[L,w q,Ai dr,y ;dhi h{ fi Rpls[ c.debj ws[ WjLw Vje
rg sq a'C lwsj h{ m
f>Ag ft[iP bwjL dr,y Rpcs[ hV fi Rplsj b>a VhgG fj
lws[ m l.sv sj ip,t Rpfi } r,Zsj h{ fi bwjL } A'h VhgG
lwsj m yPhj a{isj h{ fi a{i w[ lqp>si aJ fji VhgG wi lwsj m
sdibj sj fjSg bjfS[ Vjv Whpa WVjlfag@ ugr u.aP i'C
w[ v{ uJsj h{ m WjiL s[ dsVJ dr,y dFbjVw iPf Zji w[ Ziag
sg dh,w a[ wpivjhB fjMsj uJsj h{ fi lqp>si dr,y dc,es[ hg
bjfSj ruPs ?aq wi v{Gsj h{ m
l' dHl ai%J ##q'u sdibj$$ V[ bjfV[ l'C[fV s[ f+Fjr h[n
s,W w[@ bjfSg hlag rg erj vHg m dHr[G hg hRpq{ r,l dHVljV
bjadqw bV.s a[ lpt drhPSj w'ij hg du>seg sj lxi adh wiw[
dVijLaj sg N'vg Fi l.lji a'G yvj uJsj h{ m bjfS[ dfbji

38
s[ f+[q ba[ hpwq \V[q| dr,y bF[s h'dH beq bejZ rjdhepiP
} uf w[@ f+q[Li Vjv dHh iPf h'dH bjfSg hlag dqBj w[@ lqp>si
dr,y WP>s sg ai%J lqjH[ h'H[ hV Rph hg l,y f+jfag wi lws[
hV m RpV%J sg WijWig VhgG h' lwsg m
bjfp erjHgb{ aj lhp fjHgb{ mm
dav.e q^ 1@ b>e 721-22
WjWj ug V[ W[Vag firjV wgag ba[ hpwq ds,aj ##dah'Rpvj
s[ f+Ljs s[ l,a wCjh[ WSj w[ ljig bjRpS ujS rjvg l.ea@
ijhgG fJZg } AwjRp@ lF ngw h' ujH[ej m lji[ ildabJ dr,y
bjsqg tC[ wi ds,a[ aJ dw w'Hg Aw[ dWVj Vj ujr[ m
lda WyV ljZP Rpfs[L } bojh qV w[ f+Ljs dabji wiw[
AwjdHbj debj m l.a Whjv sjl ug h'L dr,y bj eH[ m
lip l.Z[ bjejl wRp dwRp fhpy{ WjSp mm
FjHg episjl ug V[ bjfS[ wdo,a b>si s,Ddlbj h{ m
b>e 148
1! ygBg w[ Rpsi dWt{ hlag lqjdH w{l[@
bapv fhji Fji dF+>eg Vj RpnjrHg m
2! qAi w[ c.e V qia h{ Wjlw Vje@
qwig V yga{ uga{ ldi V fpujrHg mm
3! apqyi Rpya V fhPy{ bwjl Wjl@
qPlj aRp V f{ia lqp>s+ fji fjrHg mm
4! a{l[ df+b f+[q V[q beq bejZ W'Z@
epiqpt ljei duRp WP>s hpdH lqjrHg mm
dHl ai%J hRpq{ ugr } dHl e[C dr,y dvbj tCj wisg h{
a[ ugrV a'G rg taq \r>dya| wi ds>sg h{ m

39
sMq ky doKI kau fwnu lwgY ]
b>e 280
ljZ l.ea wiV rjvj epiqpt qhJ fpitJ sg wiVg a'G qV
b>si F{b itsj h{ dwMdw bjldaw h'S wiw[ f+FP sg y[aVj
wisj h{ m Rpl } ljZ l.ea dr,y W{n w[@ qhJ fpitJ sg LiV
bj w[ RphVJ s[ f+qjV h'H[ WyVJ } f+qjaqj fKDt'G f+a,t dqvs[
s[t[ hp.s[ hV m
qhj fpitj wj W'vSj h'r{ dwa{ fiojdH mm
YdH b>dq+a Fi[ FifPi hdh YVj davp V aqjdH mm
b>e 756
dHh f+a,t w'aw RpV%J s[ qV } lPtq wvg rJe w'qv dVir{i
a[ dVqiaj Fdibj WSj ds>s[ hV m dHh' duhj f+jSg f+qjaqj
iPfg aV[ sgbJ Rph BjhSgbj u' qhJ fpitJ s[ iPf dr,y hV RphVJ
sg l[rj dr,y idh>s[ h'H[ WyVJ a[ xp,v yCjMs[ h'H[ bjfSj v'w
f+v'w lrji v{Gs[ hV m
fi dHl s[ RpvB Vjldaw f+jSg u' dVaj f+ag wpsia s[
d*lq[ s[t w[ rg f+qjaqj sg h'Gs } VhgG q>Vs[ m dul } f+q[Li
Vjv dfbji VhgG@ Rph' qhJfpitJ sg l.ea a'G qVqpt hp.sj h{ m
qVp,t ugr u.aP WVjlfag y.s@ aji[@ Ziag@ hrj@ fjSg bjds
lF wpN sg h'Gs qVqp,t sg qvgV WpZg s[ z[i[ b>si VhgG bjMsg m
dHh' duh[ qVp,t qhJ fpitJ sg l.ea a'G W[tWi hp.s[ hV ba[ qjdHbj
ZV@ fp,ai@ l.fag } hg dHVljV sj bZji lqNs[ hV m
mwieAw kw rMgu sBu iPkw jwqo ibnis indwin ]
b>e 45

40
qhJfpitJ s[ WyV a'G W[tWi h' w[ sp,tJ s[ q>NZji dr,y e'a[
tjS v,es[ hV m l' dHl[ ai%J sj dWiaJa w[hi dl>z Fp,y'G wvJ
s[ fdirji Vjv ridabj m
WjWj ug qhjiju bjfSg wpBgbJ dr,y bjijq wiV a'G Wjbs
Ljq } us'G Wjhi bjH[ aJ wg s[ts[ hV dw ljhqS[ b,e q,y
ihg h{ m fjnw dr,Dy'G fC yp,w[ hV dw WjWj ug V[ f+S wgaj lg
dw ##us aw ligi dr,y ihJe[ b,e q,Do[ VhgG vjrJe[ m$$ qhjiju
V[ l[rw } hpwq wgaj dw s[t' Rph b,e Wv ihg H[ m Rpl } fjSg
Vjv WpNj w[ bjRp m l[rw lda WyV wdh w[ dH,w zCj v{ w[
b,e WpNjRpS vHg y,v dfbj m us'G V[C[ fhp.dybj aJ s[dtbj dw
dH,w dlrj uv dihj h{ m Rpl V[ hpwq bVplji fjSg dvbj w[
b,e WpNjRpSg LpiP wi ds,ag m wHg zC[ fjSg s[ fj w[ b,e WpNj
ds,ag ija v.z eHg bevg lr[i h'S a[ w[hi dl.z s[ W;pie
dlrj s[tS bjH[ aJ dHh s[t w[ h{ijV idh eH[ dw dlrj dwl[
V[ WpNj ds,aj h{ m Rpl[ Ljq } h'i v,wCj fj w[ dlrj spWjij uvj
ds,aj ba[ s' bjsqg Rpl sg dVeijVg vHg dlr[ w'v W{n eH[ m
ija h'S a[ WjWj ug wpBgbj a'G Wjhi bjH[ aJ b,e s[t w[ dxi
l[rw } hpwq wgaj ##b,e dxi Wv ihg h{ dHl } WpNj w[ bjRp
hpwq bVplji l[rw zCj v{ w[ b,e WpNjRpS vHg api dfbj m
fjSg sj zCj v{ w[ us'G b,e[ debj aJ dVeijVg rjv[ W.dsbJ
V[ i'dwbj m l[rw V[ WjWj ug sj dHvjhg hpwq lpSj ds,aj m RpV%J
V[ dHh WyV zi uj w[ s,Ddlbj Rph yji bjsqg Vjv v{ w[ bjH[
a[ dwhj$$ dw qhjiju blgG dlr[ dwo[ WSjHgH[@ aplgG aJ xPwS
rg VhgG ds>s[ m
hir Bgqw kir rwKy Apny dInI nwmu vfweI ]
ijin ijin krI AvigAw jn kI qy qYN dIey ruVweI ]
b>e 1235

41
dHh lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ ldhu[ hg WyV wi ds,aj@ ##dw aplgG
qpis[ xPw w[ yjb vjh vr' m$$
ljZ WyV bBvjZj mm
WyV qhJfpitJ sg wi'fg sj h'r[ Fjr[G tpLg sj Rph bB,v
h{ m wpN hg dsVJ Wjbs dHl[ hg zi sj dH,w h'i q{GWi qi debj
a[ wpN dsVJ Wjbs dH,w h'i m dHl[ zi s[ f>u q{GWi o'C[ hg dsVJ
dr,y i,W } dfbji[ h' eH[ m
dHw yv[ dHw yv eH[ m idh>s[ Fg xpVujH[ mm
dxi lqN bjHg dw WjWj ug s[ WyV sg dVijsig wiw[ hg
dHh luj dqv ihg h{ m zi s[ W,y[ q{GWi wpN epbJTgbJ } Vjv
v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl fhp.y[ m dB,v[ RpKfi fhp.y w[ i' w[ drdobj
lpSjRpS v,e[ aJ qpbjxg q>eS v,e[ m qhJfpit w'qv dy,a hp.s[
hV m idhqa s[ zi bjRpS aJ WtLS v,e[ s[i VhgG vjMs[ a[
WyV wgaj dw ##u' h'Sj lg h' debj b,e[ a'G lp,t LJag ih[eg
ba[ w'Hg rg aphjcj dHl ai%J VhgG qi[ej m$$
sMq ky doKI kau Avru n rwKnhwru ]
nwnk sMq BwvY qw ley aubwir ]
b>e 240
bjfSj fdirji Wyj dvbj dHl a'G Wjbs dHl f,ag s[ v'wJ
V[ bjfS[ dlr[ WjWj ug s[ c[i[ a'G sPi WSj vH[ m dHV%J dr,Dy'G
dH,w w[hi dl>z sj fdirji h{ duhCj dHl[ df>c dr,y de,v f,ag
dr,y q"uPs h{ m
jo srix AwvY iqsu kMiT lwvY iehu ibrdu suAwmI sMdw ]
b>e 544

42
ldaepip dlt w[ W.ZV wjB{ mm
b>e 286
f+a,t } f+qjS sg v'C VhgG m dHVljV sj z[ij Whpa l'Cj
hp.sj h{ m qhJfpit dH,w drLjv ljei sg dVbjHg hp.s[ h'H[ rg
dHVljVg Wp>s } Vjq iPfg dl,f s[ qP>h dr,y fj w[ vjv WSj ds>s[
hV m Rpl s[ sp,t lpt dr,y bjf lhjHg hp.s[ hV m Rpl s[ bjRpS
rjv[ Fdr,t Wji[ lpy[a wi ds>s[ hV m
l'hS dl>z V[ WjWj ug s[ iP.qg idhS lq[G bSo,w l[rj wgag
us'G dHo[ Fp,y' wvJ bj eH[ l[rj Rpl ai%J hg dVFjHg m ija s[
lq[G WjWj ug V[ dHl s[ fdirji s[ dH,w bjsqg } fdhi[ vjRpSj m
fdhij wg lg dw ija LpiP hp.s[ hg l[rw c[i[ b>si bj ujS ba[
WjWj ug dul ue%J f{S vHg hpwq ds>s[ Rpo[ uj w[ l"G ujSj lr[i[
bjdebj v{ w[ zi yv[ ujSj m fdhij s[S rjv[ } WjWj ug bjfSg
f+Wv wqjHg a[ q[hi lswj wHg ai%J s[ epfa dW+aJa dstj ds>s[@
dur[G ljdhW l+g epiP VjVw s[r ug Wji[ dHdahjl erjhg ds>sj
h{ m bjf bjfS[ uVq blojV avr.cg dWiju[ h'H[ lV m h;Pi A'Bg
brloj dr,y h'S wiw[ VgGs lswj ligiw bijq dr,y lV m qjaj
ug V[ f+Ljs dabji wiw[ V"wijVg } hpwq ds,aj ##uj w[ vjv
ug } uej dsY@ wh' dw f+Ljs A,w v{S m$$ V"wijVg b>si eHg
fjaLjh s[ dyhi[ sj siLV wgaj aJ qV f+Fjdra h'dHbj a[
uejRpS sg dh>qa yvg eHg m dw>Vg s[i bc'v tCg ihg m us'G
b>si'G w'Hg brj; Vj bjHg qjaj ug V[ dxi brj; ds,ag ##apvlJ
dHaVg s[i dwM vj ds,ag vjv ug } ue%J s[ m$$ Rpl s[ brj;
s[S sg WujH[ bsW@ ldawji ldha uejRpS vHg drMa WSjHg

43
Rpl V[ yiVJ r,v h' w[ bjfSg ;WjV ldaepiP s[ yiVJ Vjv
AphjHg m uWjV ijhgG yiV A'h dqvS sg s[i hg lg dw epfa
dW+aJa u' huPi riaj ih[ lV f+a,t h' dVWdCbj m lF qV s[ Fpv[t[
s[ fis[ sPi h' eH[ f+a,t ds+LBJa ljhqS[ dstjHg s[ dihj h{ dw
epiP VjVw fjaLjh dH,w dl,t sg bisjl f+rjV wiw[ Rpl sg
bjLj fPig wi ih[ hV m dHh s[t w[ apvlJ qpC bjHg qjaj ug
} wdhS v,eg ##qjaj ug vjv ug aJ dH,w dl,t sj ;hju fji
vj ih[ hV@ q[ij RphVJ } uejRpS } dsv VhgG wgaj m
qJ da=faj eDp,l[ dr,y bj w[ tC[ h' eH[ a[ bjf ldaepiJ }
RpnJ w[ y"Gw[ Rpfi v{ bjH[ m bjf f+Ljs A,w ih[ lV aJ qJ V[
V"wijSg a'G lpSg h'Hg e,v sj d;wi A[dCbj qJ qV Fi w[ W'vg
##W[Bj lj} ligwJ aJ ajhV[ qjiV[ hV zi s[ V"wi rg qltigbJ
wis[ hV m$$ ldaepiJ dHh wdh Bjv qB'v wi ds,ag ##qJ dHh
V"wijSg N,vg h{ m$$
uea } fjvShji il'Hg dr,Dy'G Wjhi bjH[ b,e[ WgWg VjVwg
ug tC[ lV m F{S V[ W[Vag wgag ##rgij dHh V"wijSg a'G wg Fp,v
h'Hg u' dHh Wjwg sg d;>seg aphjc[ WyVJ bVplji N,vg ih[eg m
ldaepiJ WyV wgaj ##VhgG W[W[ dHh spVgbJ rv'G hg N,vg h'r[eg
fi u' wpN dHlV[ f+jfa wgaj h{@ Rpl} bjfS[ bjf dr,y lqjb
w[ i,Dt[eg m$$
b>dq+a r[vj h'dHbj ljig l.ea u' fdhij s[ ihg lg m huPi
WjWj qhJhiVjq dl>z ug fjl'G bjdebj v{S vHg eH[ ueaj
dl>z u' dw l'hS dl>z sj vCwj lg bjdebj v{ w[ zi debj m
ija s[ hV[i[ dr,y u' Rpl V[ ds+LBJa s[dtbj lg bjfS[ dfaj
w'v wdhS v,ej ##dHw i[v s[ dH>uV rieg hqLwv w'Hg yg;
t[aJ dr,y sg dl,Zg hg uj ihg lg m Rpl s[ lrji WC[ hg wiPf
a[ F{ rjv[ lV m Rph W{n[ lV ba[ yvs[ h'H[ dH>uV dr,Dy'G hg bjfS[

44
bjf ;qgV a[ bj ih[ lV m q{G ci s[ Vjv ldhq debj lg m$$ l'hS
dl>z V[ wpN WpZgqjV fpiLJ w'v dHh f+a,t yqawji sg yiyj
wgag dlbjS[ fpiLj V[ dwhj ##dw ds=LBJa aJ qjCj hg h{ fi l'hS
dl>z l.aJ a'G fp,A w[ s[t v{Gs[ hJ m qhJfpit hg dHh' duh[ L.w[ sPi
wi lws[ hV m
dur[G woV h{ -
l.lJ dsv'G Vj ujH[ dqv[ xwgi s[ mm
dqai w.q Vj bjdH r[v[ FgC s[ mm
sdvs= Vj h'r{ sPi dqv[ bqgi s[ mm
da>V[ s[HgH[ i'C dry res[ Vgi s[ mm
bev[ dsV ueaj dl>z dHw,vj hg WjWj ug fjl'G dHl Wga
eHg ija s[ ds+LBJa Wji[ fp,AS v,ej@ ##huPi dHl w"aw sg q{}
lqN VhgG v,eg m
fda,a fjrV huPi V[ xpiqjdHbj@ ##ueaj dl>z b,u fdhi[
a[ bj ujrgG m ija } lF f+a,t s[t vrgG m$$
WyV sg fjvVj h'Hg uea dl>z fdhi[ f{S bj debj m hpwq
bVplji fdhi[ rjvg oJ uj w[ f{ debj m wpN ija v.zS a'G Wjbs
uea dl>z f+a,t s[t dihj h{ m YcJ riegbJ dliwgbJ sgbJ
N"fCgbJ \f,tjHg| v,egbJ h'HgbJ hV m RpV%J dr,Dy'G Rphg Lwv
s[ F{ Fga wiV rjv[ WhiPdfH[ dVwv ih[ hV u' wv% ija dH>uV
rieg yg; dr,y s[t[ lV m c[i[ ba[ df>c s[ ypx[i[ dH,w dliwg Fp,y'
q>cg rjv[ fjl[@ dH,w lwPv rjv[ fjl[ lpdVbjig rjv[ dBD,DW[ Rpfi@
dH,w qv[LJ rjv[ fjl[ sg ue%j a[ m u' fdhvJ lpfV[ dr,y s[dtbj
lg fi hpS f+a,t s[t dihj lg m dHh lF wpN s[t hg dihj lg dw
WjWj ug dB,v[ rjv[ w'n[ dr,Dy'G Wjhi bj w[ s[ts[ hV dw uea
dl>z W{nj h{ m huPi V[ brj; ds,ag@ ##uea dl>z W{nj h{ VgGs

45
VhgG bj ihg m$$
##fjaLjh u' wpN w,v% lpfV[ dr,y s[dtbj lg b,u f+a,t s[t
dihj hJ m hV%[ig ija dr,y rg q{} dHh lF wpN sPi a,w dstjHg
s[ dihj h{ m$$ uea dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##uea dl>z a[ig ds=LBg Wsvg h{
qV sj wfjB t'v ds,aj h{ m qV sg l'y b,e[ dsV ija dH,w lqjV
hV m dHl } b>Z[ij@ Rpujvj dHw' hg h{ m b.Z[ij dHl sg eag }
i'wsj VhgG a[ Rpujvj dHl } a[u VhgG wisj m duhC[ F{ Fga
wiV rjv[ wiPf ds,ls[ hV m dHh uqsPa hV@ dHh dH>uV wjv
sj iPf h{ m dHh Wgqjig sj l.s[L v{ w[ bjH[ hV@ hpS Wgqjig fr[eg
ba[ bV[wJ ujVJ dHl sg Wvg yC% ujSegbj m$$
uea dl>z wpN zWijhB dr,Dy'G W'dvbj ##qhjiju ) fdhvJ
s,l ds>s[ aJ Wjhi Np,egbJ WSj v{Gs[ m$$
huPi V[ Rpl sg zWijhB s[ts[ h'H[ xpiqjdHbj@ ##uea dl>z
ciVj VhgG@ dHh rg dwl[ s[ hpwq dr,y hV m bjfSg qV-qi;g
VhgG wi lws[ m lr[i[ yji ru[ a'G bKZ[ z>B[ a,w dHV%J } dH;jua
dqdvbj wi[eg m dwv[% s[ w'v tPh s[ bev[ fjl[ VpwljV wiVe[
aphjcj rjv dr>ej VhgG h'H[ej m
drdy wiaj fpitp tv'bj m rjvp V dr>ej h'bj m
l'idn q^ 5@ b>e 623
fdhij fPij wiV Rpfi.a ueaj dl>z zi bjdHbj m du>V%J
Vjv lvjh wiw[ WjWj ug fjl'G w"aw Wji[ fp,DdAbj lg m RpV%J }
rg lpy[a wi ds,aj m bev[ dsV hg Wdn>c[ r,v'G tWi bjHg dw
yPh[ qi[ Wjhi fH[ hV Wgqjig fr[eg m fv[e sg Wgqjig fHg m WjWj
ug V[ bjfS[ l[rwJ } f+a,t dstj rg ds,aj a[ idtbj rg wgag m
\dHh WyV WjWj l'hS dl>z ug s[ fdirji dr,Dy'G dqdvbj|

46
bjfdh q[dv vH[ m
uW a[ lidV apqjig bjH[ aW a[ s't eH[ mm1mm
b>e 829
lq[G qpajWw hi dH,w dHVljV qjVdlw uJ ligiw uwC
qdhlPl wisj h'dHbj spt sg fgCj Vjv wpivJsj h{ m ljc[ dr,y
lWi@ ldhVLgvaj ba[ dabje sg Whpa d;bjsj zjB h{ m dHh'
duh[ sp,tJ a'G ApBwjij fj w[ Ziq sg f+jfag hp.sg h{@ LJag sg
f+jfag hp.sg h{ m dHh ApBwjij qhJfpitJ sg l.ea wiV Vjv@
RpV%J sg LiV bjRpS Vjv dqvsj h{ m hi yg; sj bZji hp.sj
h{ m frV dhis[ sj bZji VhgG WS lwsg@ ZP.b[ } xC w[ b,e
dr,Dy'G Wjhi VhgG dVwjdvbj uj lwsj@ lqp>si dr,y cp,Ws[ } N,e
lhjij VhgG ds>sg m qVp,t sj bZji a[ bjlij FerjV h{ Rpl sg
YB Vjv ugrV L{vg yvsg h{ m dHVljVg hlag Rpl f+q[Li sg
WpdVbjs a[ tCg h{ f+DFP sg YB a[ tCg h{ ba[ f+q[Li Vjv u'Cs[
hV qhJfpit m us'G sptgbJ dVqjSj h' w[ LiV bjMsj h{ aJ Rpl
sj sp,t dVrji ds>s[ hV m dHh qhJfpitJ sg rdcbjHg h{ m WjSg
dr,y ldaepiJ V[ l.aJ sg qhJfpitJ sg rdcbjHg wis[ h'H[
xpiqjdHbj -
lPiWgi WyV w[ Wvg mm
bjlj q^ b>e 392
dul sj Fjr qhJfpitj s[ WyVJ dr,y dHV%J Wv@ dH>Vg ajwa
hp.sg h{ dw Rph lda h' w[ a'v dr,y fPi[ Rpais[ hV m dHhg qhJfpitJ
sg blvg lPiWgiaj h{ m
dudV dqdv qji[ f>y lPiWgi b{l' wRpVp Wvg i[ mm
b>e 404
47
duV%J s[ WyV lswj f>u a,a Vjl h' uJs[ hV m WyV s[
f+ojdH ugr dHl qjIj iPfg ujv s[ z[i[ dr,Dy'G dVwv uJsj h{ m
qhJfpitJ dr,y dHh lqi,oj h{-
koit ApRwDI sMqsMig auDrY jmu qw kY nyiV n AwvY ]
jnm jnm kw ibCuiVAw hovY iqn@ hir isau Awix imlwvY ]
b>e 748
fdhv[ dh,Dl[ dr,y qjvj dl>z u.cj rjvj Vjv wga[ WyV sg
fjvSj wHg ljv WgaS a'G Wjbs b,u w,v Fp,y' drt[ wi ih[ hV m
WyV h'dHbj lg ##qjvj dl>z a[ig l[rj a[i[ fp,aiJ a[ }hJ ijhgG
v{Sg h{ m$$
fv[e sg Wgqjig u'WV a[ lg m qjv%j dl>z sg }h qjHg t[q
w"i bjfSg diLa[sjig Ljsg s[ lqjeq dr,y eHg h'Hg lg m dHl[
lq[G b>si Wgqjig ajwa dr,y h' eHg m v'w t[aJ dr,y bj w[
Np,egbJ fj w[ idhS v,e fH[ m w'Hg dwl[ sg ?Wi a,w Vj v{S
ujr[ m qjHg } rjfl v{ w[ bjRpS Wji[ dwl[ zi rjdvbJ }
lqJ Vj dqdvbj m drbjh rjvj blojV Fp,y' s[ V[C[ lg qjHg s[
qV dr,y xpiVj WdSbj dw WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV y,vgH[ m bev[
hg lr[i Rph WjWj ug s[ c[i[ r,v api fHg m c[i[ fhp.y w[ WjWj
ug s[ siLV wga[ be.qg tpLg f+jfa h'Hg m dH,w ija ndhi w[
bev[ dsV bjdebj q>eg aJ qhJfpitJ V[ WyV wgaj@ ##bu[
aphj} bjdebj VhgG dqvsg m$$ qjHg V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju )
q{G drbjh uj w[ bjHg hJ q[i[ fjl qdnbjHg h{ u' q{ zi
fhp.yjRpSg h{ m$$
##qdnbjHg lj} xCj s[ a[ig bqjVa lJF w[ i,tJe[$$ ljdhW
sj WyV lg m
qjHg V[ qdnbjHg WjWj ug b,e[ i,t ds,ag m huPi V[ l[rw
} hpwq s[ w[ qdnbjHg b>si itrj ds,ag m
48
WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj ##qjHg@ wHg ljv fdhvJ dH,w l.dVbjlg
qhjaqj V[ bjf s[ zi bjBj q>eS s[ WhjV[ bj w[ aphj} dH,w
LWs sj ujf wiV vHg f+[dibj lg@ wg Rph LWs sj ujf
wisg h{G m$$
qjHg sj uWjW Vjh dr,y lg ##qhjiju ) q{} aJ Rph LWs
rg Ijs VhgG@ bjf hg Ijs wirj dsY m$$
WjWj ug V[ qPv q>a+ lpSj w[ WyV wgaj ##dHh hg h{ Rph
LWs$$ m qjHg hJ dr,y dli Npwj ds,aj m
WyV h'dHbj ##t[qgH[@ blg a[i[ lhpi[ qjv%j dl>z Vjv WyV
wgaj lg@ us'G u.cj rjv[ ndhi[ lg m a[i[ lhpi[ V[ l[rj q>eg lg m
dHh l[rj a[i[ w'v'G ba[ a[i[ fdirji a'G v{Sg h{ m hpS aP. dHo[
bjHgbJ l.eaJ sg l[rj wisg ihp dH,w qhgV[ a,w dWqjig sj
;'i zB ujS a[ a{} a"i dsbJe[ m$$
dHw qhgV[ Wjbs WjWj ug V[ Rphg qdnbjHg s[ w[ qjHg }
bjdebj s[ ds,ag m dHl ai%J Rpl sg fv[e a'G idtbj wgag m qjHg
sg WjWj ug s[ yiVJ Vjv bap,B dfbji LiZj ba[ l[rj FjrVj
W,N eHg m qjHg t[q w"i@ Rpl sg vCwg WgWg Ljq w"i a[ vCwj
wjvj dl>z b>aq lq[G a,w WjWj ug s[ yiVJ Vjv upC[ ih[ m hpS
rg upC[ hV m
\dHh ljtg WgWg Ljq w"i u.cJ rjvg V[ dvtjHg h{ m|

49
qumrI sMgiq hir ko ko n
auDirE pRB kIey piqq pvgy ]
b>e 876
f+q[Li sj Vjq ufS rjv[ Rpl Vjv dHV%j bF[s h' uJs[ hV
dw u' f+jSg RpV%J sg liV bj ujH[@ Rpl s[ sp,t@ wLB dVrjiS
sg lqi,oj bjf its[ hV m f+q[Li RpV%J s[ wjiVjq[ a[ dw>aP VhgG
wisj a[ bjfS[ FeaJ sg vju i,tsj h{ m us f+[q r,l h' w[
dl,t wpN wdh>sj h{ aJ Rpl a[ epiP uJ f+q[Li dr,y w'Hg b>ai
VhgG idh>sj m rjdhepiP sg dul f+jSg a[ bfji d*fj hp.sg h{ Rpls[
b"epS dwl[ qhJfpit sg f+jdwiag spbjij epSj dr,y Wsv ds>s[
hV m Rpl s[ b"epS VhgG dyajis[ le'G Vjq dlqiS ba[ W.seg
sg q>d;v a[ a'i ds>s[ hV m qhJfpiLJ } f+FP bjf bu'wg tvaw
s[ Fv[ vHg F[us[ hV aJ dw dHVljVg d;>seg sj lxi tpLgbJ
Fdibj a[ bV.s qHg Wga lw[ m f>ur[G fjaLjh s[ lq[G sj d;wi
h{ m FjHg dWZg y.s ug y'ig wdibj wis[ lV m dH,w rji RpV%J
V[ q,Nj ypij vHgbj m wpN lq[G Wjbs q,NJ s[ qjvw sg b,t tp,v
eHg m Rpl V[ bjfS[ wWgv[ \uJ tjVsjV| s[ v'w dHw,n[ wi vH[ m
lji[ q,Nj sgbJ f{CJ df,A[ h' api[ m b,Zg ija a'G Yfi lqJ v.z
debj lg m q,NJ sg Fjv wiV rjv[ a[ug Vjv api ih[ lV m dWZg
y.s } rg RpV%J s[ bjRpS sg dFVw v,e eHg m Rpl V[ bjfS[
bjf } ApfjRpS sg ue%J sg avjL wiVg yjhg m o'Cj b,e[ dH,w
TjW bj eHg q,NJ TjW dr,y rC eHgbJ m dWZg y.s V[ q,NJ sj
dtbjv A,c w[ bjfS[ Ap,fS vHg l'dybj m ljhqS[ TjW s[ dwVji[
dH,w dl,t W{nj Rpl } V;i bjdHbj V[C[ fhp.y w[ s[dtbj dl,t

50
V[ lqjZg vjHg h'Hg h{ V[ai W.s hV f+q[Li sg W>seg wi dihj
h{ m dWZg y.s V[ q,oj B[dwbj lgl dVrjRpS lq[G Rpl sj h,o dl,t
s[ yiVJ } APh debj m dl,t sg dWiag ly[a h' eHg dw dHh
bdebja drbwag w"S h{ m Rpl V[ dWZg y.s } fp,DdAbj dw ##aP.
w"S h{ a[ dHaVj zWijdHbj dwM h{ m$$
##q{G y'i hJ@ q{G wpN q,NJ ypijHgbJ hV fi RpV%J s[ qjvw
q[i[ df,A[ df,A[ bj ih[ hV m q[i[ a[ d*fj wi' q{} ApfS vHg ue%J
sKl'@ VhgG aJ q[ij Wpij hjv wi s[Se[ m q{G du>seg dr,y fdhvg
rji hg aphjc[ b,e[ y'ig sj dHwWjv wgaj h{ m$$
dl,t V[ dwhj ##zWij VhgG@ q[i[ w'v W{n ujh ba[ epiP yiVJ
dr,y qV dHwjei wiw[ dHh f+dadebj \f+S| wi dw b,e'G a'G
y'ig VhgG wiJej m$$ bVujV[ dr,y wgag h'Hg Fp,v } epiP yiVJ
dr,y dVqjSj a[ dVajSj h' w[ q>V dvbj ujr[ aJ bjf WtdL>s
hV m$$ Rph dliuVhji ;iPi a[ig fa i,tSe[ m$$
df>c s[ v'w rg bj fhp.y[ m q,NJ TjW b>si W{ngbJ lV fi
y'i V;i VhgG bjMsj r[t w[ dl,t r,v ujS v,e[ fi dl,t bjf
hg RpV%J r,v bj dihj lg m dHh dl,t ##FjHg bsvg$$ u' f>ur[G
fjaLjh sj bdVV Fea lg m ljhqS[ bj w[ v'wJ V[ fp,DdAbj
##FjHg ljdhW ljcgbJ q,NJ y'ig h' eHgbJ hV m duV%J sgbJ f{CJ
t'ug dHo'G a,w v{ bjdHbj h{ fi dHl a'G Wjbs faj VhgG v,e
dihj m y'i sj rg faj VhgG v,e dihj m
FjHg ljdhW V[ TjW r,v dHLjij wiw[ dwhj ##Yh s[t' q,NJ
aphjcgbJ hg hV m$$
qjvw V[ q,NJ r,v a,w w[ uWjW ds,aj ##dw deSag dr,y
aJ RpVgbJ hg hV fi i.e VhgG dqvs[@ Rph wjvgbJ lV dHh
FPigbJ hV m$$
FjHg ljdhW V[ dwhj@ ##dw bu[ fPij dsV VhgG ydCbj hV[%ij
51
h'S wiw[ i.e sj xiw v,esj h{ m q,NJ aphjcgbJ hg h'SegbJ
dHV%J } v{ ujY m$$ v'w q,NJ v{ w[ zi qpC eH[ aJ dWZg y.s
V[ fp,DdAbj ##dw aphj} aJ Rph ujSs[ lV u[ q{} xC v{Gs[ aJ
wg hLi h'Sj lg m$$
dl,t V[ urjW ds,aj ##a{} Vjq s[ Rphv[ wgaj lg m f+q[Li
sj Vjq hg dHVljV vHg T'Hg h{ \bjlij h{ m|$$
dWZg y.s V[ Rpl s[ f{i xC vH[ a[ W[Vag wgag ##dul epiP
sj aP. qpigs h{ q{} rg RpV%J s[ siLV wirj dsY m q[ij rg y.yv
qV brZpagbJ } A,c w[ epiP yiVJ sg w'qv A'h f+jfa wiw[
bjfSg ugrV Ijaij Rpuv WSj lw[ m$$
FjHg bsvg ug dWZg y.s } f>ur[G fjaLjh s[ siWji dr,y
v{ bjH[ m dWZg y.s ldaepiJ s[ siLV wiw[ dVhjv h' debj m
qlaw yiV A'h f+jfa wiw[ qV s[ q{v } ljWS sg ai%J w,B
dihj lg m q,oj yiVJ a'G ypdwbj aJ ldaepiJ V[ fpdAbj ##wg
dH,Aj h{ a[ig dfbjdibj m$$
##fjaLjh ) q{} dl,t WSj vRp@ q{G a[i[ si sj q>eaj hJ
dFtLj dsRp m$$ b,tgbJ sj Vgi wga[ wpwiqj sj fAyjajf wi
dihj lg m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##dl,t sg fsrg fjRpSg h{ aJ y'ig A,cSg
f{Sg h{ m$$
dWZg y.s aJ fdhvJ hg fAyjajf sg svsv dr,y cp,W dihj
lg m$$ fjaLjh ) q[i[ epVjh a[ fCsj fjRp@ yiVj dr,y dVrjl
WtL' m$$ ljdhW l+g epiP biuV s[r ug q[hi s[ zi bjH[ a[ dWZg
y.s } Vjq q>a+@ Vjq sg sja WtLg@ yiV fjhpv ds,ag ba[
bjfSg l.ea dr,y Ljqv wi dvbj m xpiqjV h{ -
dfAv[ epVh ldaepip Wtdl vH[ lal.eda Vjdv ivjr{ mm
b>e 855

52
fv[e sg dWqjig s[ dsV lV m Fjeg WJsi s[ A[ Fij W,ej
dl>z@ L[i dl>z@ q[hi dl>z@ lirS dl>z@ dV,wj dl>z@ l,sj dl>z
lV m W,ej dl>z fv[e sg Wgqjig Vjv fgCa lg m Rpl sg l,l
V[ WjWj fjl W[Vag wgag dw ##W,ej dl>z Wgqji h{ m$$
h;Pi V[ hpwq ds,aj ##dHh uv q,Bg sj v{ ujRp Rpl } s[
s[Sj@ api w[ ujSj h{ m$$
qjHg zWijHg h'Hg lg Rpl V[ A[ag Vjv ujS sg w'dLl dr,y
BJe[ sg lrjig wi vHg m WyV sg brD,debj h' eHg uv ljij
cp,v debj a[ W,ej dl>z sg q"a h' eHg m Wjwg s[ f>u Fij rjig
rjig WjWj ug sg l[rj dr,y bjMs[ idh>s[ lV m L[i dl>z vCjHg
NedCbJ sj L"wgV lg m WjWj ug w'v siLV wiV bjdHbj aJ
h;Pi V[ fp,A dvbj ##L[i dl>z wg w.q wji wisj hp.sj h{G m$$
##fjaLjh ) vCjHg NeC[ hg wisj hJ$$ L[i dl>z W'dvbj m ##y.ej
x[i ljc[ w'v ih' m blgG a[i[ a'G l[rj v{Sg h{$$ h;Pi sj WyV lg m
L[i dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju q{} l[rj aJ wiVg VhgG
bjRpSg m b"epSj sj Fdibj hJ d;>seg NedCbJ dr,y w,T
dihj hJ m$$
##L[i dl>z ) f+q[Li Fvj wi[ej aP. dHo[ hg idh uj$$ WjWj
ug sj WyV lg m
L[i dl>z wHg dsV l'ysj dihj q{o'G drhv[ a'G qhjiju wg
l[rj v{Gs[ hV wpN faj VhgG v,e dihj m dxi dH,w dsV WjWj
ug V[ Wpvj w[ dwhj ##L[i dl>z cJe \l'Bg| dwhCg y>eg hp.sg h{
a[ Rph dwo'G dqv[eg m$$
##fjaLjh ) duhCg dr,Dy'G tjvg Vj h'r[ Rph y.eg h{ a[ Wdn>cj
uJ ijqfpi[ a'G dqv ujr[eg m$$ L[i dl>z Rpai ds,aj m ##bjh dH,w
ipdfbj v{ ujY a[ Wdn>c[ a'G l'Bg v{ w[ bjRpSg u[ y.eg Vj dqv[

53
aJ qpC bjRpSj m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj m
L[i dl>z a[ dH,w h'i l[rw Wdn>c[ cJe v{S F[u ds,a[ Wdn>c[
fhp.y w[ wHg spwjVJ dr,y l'BgbJ s[tgbJ fi w'Hg fl.s Vj bjHg
bjdti rjfl qpC bjH[ m
##qhjiju ) l'Bg y.eg VhgG dqvg$$ aiwjvj fHgbJ a'G bj
w[ L[i dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##lr[i[ ijqfpi[ uj w[ v{ bjRp m$$ LpFj
hg ijqfpi[ r,v api fH[ m L[i dl>z } lqN dr,y VhgG bj dihj
lg dw qhJfpitj V[ cJe wg wiVg h{ m l'Bg tigsS rjla[ fdhvJ
s' bjsqg Wdn>c[ F[u[ hpS ijqfpi[ uj ih[ hJ m
Ljq } y.eg cJe v{ w[ qpC bjH[ m l'Bg WjWj ug b,e[ f[L
wi ds,ag m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##L[i dl>z dHh vCjHg wiV r[v[ BpKB[
Vj m$$
##qhjiju ) dHl } a[v Vjv ai wi ds>s[ hJ$$ L[i dl>z
W'dvbj m
##y.ej LpZ h{ m$$
L[i dl>z a[v Vjv hi i'; l'Bg sg qjvL wi' m dH,w dsV
L[i dl.z } WyV wgaj ##hpS a[ig f+gdtbj h'Sg h{ m bjf rg dzRp
tj dvbj wi m$$ L[i dl>z vHg dzRp q>erj ds,aj m L[i dl>z dzRp
tj w[ wlia wisj dihj m hpS ajwa a[ l'Bg sg fit sj lqJ
bj debj m s' VJe[ ljZP dBv[ s[ V[C[ dNCg \dNCg^-wigiJ a[ qdvbj
s[ Np.c } bjts[ hV| dr,y bj w[ W{n eH[ m RpV%J V[ ZPSg vj vHg m
WjWj ug b,e } qKo[ VhgG vjMs[ lV m WjWj ug V[ L[i dl>z }
hpwq ds,aj m
##ujh Yh s[t bj b,e dwl V[ Wjvg h{ m$$

54
L[i dl>z qpC bj w[ wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju m s' VJe[ ljZP
lV m$$
##RpV%J } wh' dHo[ b,e Vj WjvS m blgG b,e qD,o[ VhgG
vjRpSg m ljcj dHh f+S h{ m$$ WjWj ug WyV wgaj m
ljZPbJ w'v uj w[ L[i dl>z V[ ljig qiIjsj lqNjHg a[
W[Vag wgag dw b,e Vj WjvS m fi RpV%J a[ w'Hg bli Vj h'dHbj
Rpl sg rji-rji wgag W[Vag sj w'Hg f+Fjr Vj h'dHbj m ljZPbJ
V[ ltag s[ bvxju ria[ m ljig drdobj L[i dl>z V[ WjWj ug
} bj lpSjHg m
##qhjiju ) RpV%J w'v dyqB[ hV qjiV } bjMs[ hV$$ ##fjSg
sj zCj dli a[ yp,w v{ a[ Rph cJe duhCg b,u s[ dsV rjla[
hg dvbJsg lg m q'T[ i,t v{ m RpV%J } dHo'G FujRpSj h{ fjSg b,e
a[ fj s[Sj m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m
bjdebj sj fjvS wis[ L[i dl>z V[ x[i RpV%J } W[Vag
wgag ##dw b,e WpNj dsY m$$ fi dH,w ljZP V[ eDp,l[ Vjv dyqBj
L[i dl>z r,v yvjdHbj m L[i dl>z V[ zCj fjSg sj aJ b,e
Rpfi fj ds,aj ba[ bjf cJe yp,w vHg m ljZP dyqB[ yvjRpS
a[ L[i dl>z cJe yvjH[ m btgi ljZP F,u eH[ m L[i dl>z b,e
WpNj w[ WjWj ug fjl bj debj m WjWj ug V[ tpL h' w[ L[i dl>z
sg df,n ofofjHg a[ WyV wgaj ##dHhg l[rj a[i[ fjl'G v{Sg lg m$$
lr[i h'S a[ L[i dl>z V[ l[rj fpAg aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##a[ig l[rj l.fiP V h' eHg h{ hpS a{} bjdebj h{ aP. uj lwsj
h{G m$$ l' dHl ai%J qhJfpit bjsqg a'G Rph' duhg l[rj v{Gs[ hV dul
dwia wvj sj debjV i,tsj h'r[ dul w.q dr,y dVfpV > h'r[ m

55
Part 4

sMq kw sMgu vfBwgI pweIAY ]


sMq kI syvw nwmu iDAweIAY ]
\b>e 265|

epiWjSg b>si Rpl qVp,t } rcFjeg q>dVbj h{ u' ljZP


l>a sg l[rj wisj h{ m spdVbjrgG r,cj h'Sj aJ lF wPC sj
fljij h{ m spdVbjrg fsjio h'S wiw[ Rph v'wJ b>si rc[i[fV
sj fjai WV[ej fi Vjq dlqiV a'G dWVJ fiqjio dr,y Rpl
} w'Hg rdcbjHg VhgG s[r[ej m qhJfpit sg l[rj hg Vjq dlqiV
h{ m qhJfpit sg LiV dr,y s' ai%J s[ drbwag bjRpGs[ hV m
dH,w fsjio sj sPlij f=qjio sj m bu"w[ lq[G b>si fsjio
sg vjvlj ugr b>si zp>S WS w[ v,eg h'Hg h{ m f=FP sg W>seg
wiV rjvj wvup,eg ugr dhis[ dr,y f=FP sg i;j VhgG rljRpGsj
dwRpGdw Rpl sg qa@ Wp,Z Fiq dr,y Fp,vg h'Hg h{ m qhJfpitJ
sg u' l[rj wisj h{ Rph fsjio a[ fiqjio s[ vdhS[ a'G r>dya
VhgG idh>sj m iPqg idhS lq[G a'G Fpy'G Vei sj f=[qg zpq>c dl>z
l[rj wisj bj dihj lg m fp,ai h'S Rpfi>a wjv rl h' uJs[
lV qV dr,y vjvlj lg fp,ai h' ujr[@ h'r[ rg r,cg Rpqi rjvj m
dHw dsV WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##zpq>c dl>z a[ig l[rj
f=rjV h{@ ujSj yjhp>sj h{ aJ uj lwsj h{ m$$
dHl } l[rj f=rjS h'S sg lqN Vj bjHg m h;Pi V[ dxi
dwhj ##zpq>c dl>z a[ig l[rj f=rjV h{ fp,ai h' ujr[ej$$ l' WyV
lda h'dHbj dH>si dl>z Fp,vi \u' b,u rg dW=Z br,loj dr,y
q";Ps h{| f{sj h'dHbj m

56
Part 4

sPlij l[rjsji FjHg rdibjq dl>z rg iP.qg idh>dsbJ r[v[


sj l[rj wqj dihj lg m dHl } WjWj ug V[ hi i'; sg hj;ig
FiV sj hpwq ds,aj lg m dBv[ RpD,fi W{n[ FjHg rdibjq dl>z
} h;Pi wdhS v,e[ ##FjHg ug ufpug ljdhW s[ fjn wdibj
wi'@ qV } hi r[v[ apis[ dxis[@ W{n[@ w>q wis[ dlqiV dr,y
vjRp m$$
FjHg rdibjq dl>z wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju) hv yvjRpS
lq[G aJ Wvs dWVJ W'vS s[ apis[ VhgG@ fjn dwr[G h'r[ej m$$
h;Pi V[ xpiqjdHbj ##WvsJ } a>P VhgG a'iVj bjf[ a'iV
rjvj a'i[ej@ a>P dH,w qV h' w[ WjSg fC%sj ih' m Z>V[ Fea
sgbJ eRPbJ rg aJ njwpi V[ yjigbJ lV Rpl s[ t[ag s[
w>q rg wisj lg a[ btgi Rpl V[ bjfSg q>d;v fj vHg m
epiP } fjRpSj h'r[ igNjSj h'r[@ dqvSj h'r[@ yiV filS[ h'S
aJ dHhg epiWjSg fC%V s[ f,o s[ yvs[ ujRp m$$
duRpG Z>V[ wg Z[V w' njwpi yji[ dVamm
ufpug fC{ u' f=ga wi njwpi dal w' dqamm
FjHg ug V[ lda WyV wdh w[ dli bsW Vjv Npwj ds,aj m
WjWj ug V[ dH,w h'i LWs rg fCjdHbj u' ufpug ljdhW s[
Vjv dqvj w[ dHh fjn wis[ lV m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##f{vg rjhpS v,e[ dHaV[ fjn wis[
hV WguS r[v[@ lphjej x[iV lq[G dHaV[ m$$ ljig deSag lqNj
ds,ag dHh qdiIjsj o'C%[ t[a dr,y hg wiVg h{ dHl t[a sj
f{sj h'dHbj bVju rg b,c \r,tij| i,tSj h{ m dHl Rpfi>a FjHg
rdibjq dl>z V[ hpwq sg fjvSj LpiP wi ds,ag a[ lpiag b{lg
h' eHg dur[G _
hwQ pwau kir kwmu sBu cIqu inrMjnu nwil ]213]
\b>e 1376|

57
Part 4

f{vg Wgug eHg m dlqiV dr,y v,DdebJ lq[G w>q sgbJ


qpLdwvJ } bjfSg hg a'i a'isj dihj a[ xlv f,wg eHg sjS[
w,T w[ zi v{ bjH[ m w>q lJF w[ h;Pi s[ w'v bjH[ aJ WjWj
ug WyV wgaj m ##bjfS[ zi lZjiV fjn bji>F wi vRp m
qdiIjsj lqNjHg dw dul t[a dr,y ufpug ljdhW fC%V lq[G
sjS[ Wgu[ lV@ zi b>si Rphg bVju riaSj h{@ dwl[ h'i
zi sj sjSj VhgG tjSj m$$
FjHg rdibjq dl>z dHl ai%J WyV fjvSj wisj dihj m
wHg lZjiV fjn zi dr,y wga[ m dur[G hpwq hp>sj dihj Rpl
ai%J hg FjHg ug wisj dihj m
kbIr syvw kau duie Bly eyku sMqu ieku rwmu ]
rwmu ju dwqw mukiq ko sMqu jpwvY nwmu ]164]
\lv'w wWgi w[ b>e 1373|

l' dHl ai%J WjWj ug FjHg rdibjq dl>z s[ Fv[ vHg fjn
wirjRpGs[ ih[ m

nwnk dwsu muK qy jo bolY eIhw aUhw scu hovY ]2]


f=q[Li Vjv bF[s h'H[@ dH,w iPf h'H[ qhJfpit u' WyV wis[
hV dHh siejhg brj; hp>sg h{ m qhjaqj uV bjfSg hlag
dqBj w[ dVi>wjig u'a s[ f=wjL b>si dlqB uJs[ hV m dur[G
lPiu s[ RpFiV Vjv aji[ bjfSg hlag dqBj ds>s[ hV fi
f=wjL lPiu a'G hg btdabji wis[ hV m qhJfpit WyV wis[
hV@ RpV%J s[ WyV } dVi>wji sg f=rjVeg hp>sg h{ m ldaepiJ
sj woV h{ ^-
Bgqw kw boilAw prvwxu hY drgh pvY Qwie ]
\ePuig rji q@ b>e 522|

58
Part 4

spdVbjrgG fpiL dsV ija W'vsj idh>sj h{ fi Rpl sj W'dvbj


W[-bio@ W[-lpiJ epVjhJ sg f'Bvg Fjig wiV rjvj hp>sj h{ m
dV>sj@ ypevg u' dHVljVgba } Viw sg wp.Fg dr,y lpB ds>sg
h{ m W'v w[ WjSg fC%g ujr[ aJ W{wp>n sg f'Cg s[ c>c{ } h,o
f{ uJsj h{ m epiWjSg W'vS@ fC%S@ lpVS Vjv dHVljV } l=[LB
Wp,Zg@ ldhVLgvaj@ bjadqw drwjl ba[ lptsjdHw ugrV sg
f=jfag hp>sg h{ m epiWjSg sg blvgba } lqNS rjvj
dryjirjV ba[ WpZgqjV h' uJsj h{@ qVp,tg ugrV sj dHhg blvg
qV'io h{ m qhJfpitJ w'v uj w[ epiP Vjv dfbji wiV sgbJ
W'vgbj dl,t v{@ u[ w'Hg bl.a dqv ujr[ aJ Rpl Vjv lqJ
W[bio Vj erjHg mm wWgi ljdhW Rpfs[L s[Gs[ hV m
l.ap dqv{ dwAp lpVgb{ whgb{ mm dqv{ bl.ap qldB wdi ihgb{ mm
WjWj W'vVj dwbj whgb{ mm u{l[ ijq Vjq idr ihgb{ mm
\b>e 870|
dul f+jSg a[ f+DFP sg dwifj hp.sg h{ m Rpl } qhJfpitJ
sg l.ea@ l[rj@ ba[ yiV A'h dqvsg h[ m Rph l.ea dry uj
w[ lal.eg WjSg fCsj h{@ LpF W'vsj h{@ dHh W'vSj Rpl sj
lxv h{ m siejh dr,y dHl sg bVq'v wgqa dqvsg h{ m dHh
W'vSj Rpl sj dlqiV@ ijq Vjq h{ m
sMqn isau boly aupkwrI ] mUrK isau boly JK mwrI ]2]
\b>e 870|

Rpfwjig fpiL dHl ligi } lxvj WVjRpS vHg bjfS[


bjf a[ dH,w Rpfwji wisj h{ m Rph wg( dw qhJfpit fiRpfwjig
uVJ a'G LpF WyV N'vg frjMsj h{ a[ qPitJ Vjv lqJ dWbio
VhgG erjMsj m
W'va W'va WTdh dWwjij mm dWVp W'v[ dwbj widh Wgyjij mm
whp wWgi@ APAj zBp W'v{ mm Fdibj h'dH lp wWhp V c'v{ mm
\b>e 870|

59
Part 4

dVaj f+ag sg bjsa sj epvjq qVp,t W'vS a'G dWVJ VhgG


idh lwsj dwMdw Rplsg b>sivg FCjl qV a[ FjiP h' uJsg
h{ m du>Vg s[i dHh FCjl W'v w[ Vj w,Tg ujr[ qVp,t } qjVdlw
LJag VhgG dqvsg m dul qVp,t a[ f+DFP sg dwifj h'r[ m Rph bjfSj
lqJ l.Fjvsj h{ m qhJfpit sj lal.eg WS w[ Rpaq FjrVj
WSjMsj h[ m du>Vg Rpaq FjrVj WSjr[ej RpaVj Rpaq xv
N'vg dr,y f{ ujr[ej m
f+jfda f'aj wiqp fljRp mm aP s[rdh q>ea uV yjRp mm
Fjc{ FjRp fr{ daap bjdH mm Zpdi a{ A'cg wgqda fjdH mm
\b>e 878|

fgS rjv[ ba[ w,fC[ Z'S vHg fjSg dwva \wqg| h'S
wjiV v'w avjWJ dr,y qgGh sj dHw,nj h'dHbj fjSg rias[
lV m dB,vj ljdhW s[ dfA[ rjv[ avjW dr,Dy'G qjHgbJ fjSg v{
w[ uJsgbJ lV m l"S dl>z s[ vCw[ ueaj dl>z sg faVg
WgWg u{ w"i rg dHl avjW dr,y fjSg FiV bjHg m WjWj ug
dB,v[ Rp,fi dxi ih[ lV m fjSg sj zCj Fi w[ WgWg u{ w"i
qpCV v,eg aJ dVejh dB,v[ r,v h'Hg aJ WjWj ug s[ siLV
h'H[ dli Npwj w[ Vqlwji wgag@ zCj wpN dhvS upvS wiw[
fjSg cpvS v,ej m fjSg cpvsj s[t WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
#dVhjvg@ dfbjvg@ dsbjvg@ WgWg } WyV sg lqN Vj bjHg m
W[Vag wiV v,eg$ qhjiju) q{} lqN VhgG bjHg m
h;Pi V[ dxi WyV wgaj a{} vCwgbJ dqv eHgbJ hV m$
WgWg u{ w"i yp,f h' eHg m b>aiq Wp,Zg V[ dryji wgaj dw dHh
WyV aJ l,y h'Se[ m dur[G dlbjS[ s,ls[ hV m
dl>z lfiL lda fpit WyV w[v[ xv dHw rji mm
da=bj a[v qVi[L hn afa Vj sPli rji mm
WyV sg lqN Vj bjH[ aJ lda WyV wdh w[ sPug rji
60
Part 4

fpA vr' m
WgWg V[ dVqiaj ldha W[Vag wgag #h;Pi) vCwg dH,w sj
hg fjvS f'LS b"tj h{ m daVJ sg firdiL dwr[G h'r[eg$
ljdhW V[ WyV wgaj #WgWg dxwi Vj wi' dH,w L[i W,yj
\vCwj| f{sj h'r[ej u' lF l>Fjv vH[ej m aphjc[ Vjq } yji
y>s vjH[ej@ spVgbJ b>si i'LV wi[ej m$
l' dHh WyV bB,v h' epudibj m lisji ueaj dl>z s[
zi fdhvJ da>V vCwgbJ a[ dxi dH,w vCwj x"uj dl>z h'dHbj
dul V[ dHvjw[ dr,y y>eg bdhqgba fjHg m
\wdW,a|
b{l[ V[ dsbjvP qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
h'dH w[ f=l>V ds>s[ WtLLJ qhjVgbJmm
a[i[ u{lj bRpi Vj v,F[ w'Hg Fjv[ nRpi nRpimm
h'GrgH[ h{ijV lpS a[igbJ whjSgbJmm
Z>V Yh f=[qg duVJ l[rj wgag WS V[qg
duV%J Vjv Wgag RpV%J dlxaJ WtjVgbJmm
a[igbJ whjSgbJ Vj uJsgbJ WtjVgbJ
fPus[ V[ v'w b,u a[igbJ dVLjVgbJmm
dHh f=l>e l! ueaj dl>z s[ fCf'a[ l! u'de>si dl>z \wjwj
ug| dTv'G a'G f=jfa h'dHbj m

61
Part 4

qU sB mih vrqih Awip kudriq dyKwvhI ]


liW LwagqjV@ dVfp>Vaj s[ F>cji@ bjsiL l'y rjv[
qhJfpit l>a WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug hi dH,w qV,pt } Whpa
V[C[ a'G FJrs[ lV@ qdhlPl wis[ lV dul ai%J Rpl s[ qV
sg dH,Aj h>psg Rpl sg fPiag bjfSg iPhjVg Lwag spbjij wi
ds>s[ lV dHh rg dHVljV sg r,cg wq;'ig h{ dw dH,w rji
qhJfpit sj bdZbjaqw Wv dwl[ spiv,F w"aw sg N,vw spbjij
fit w[ rg b,tg dc,nS a'G Wjbs rg bSe'dvbj wi s[Sj
dHh Rpl s[ dsqje sg lgqafV sg dVLjVg h{ m fi wHg rji
F'v[ Fjv[ v'w qhJfpitJ sg wiVg fAjVS a'G blqio hp>s[ hV m
Rph ai%J ai%J s[ wjiVjq[ s[t w[ hg qV sg ?pLg f=jfa wis[
hV m dHl[ hg ai%J h;Pi sj dH,w l[rjsji f=[q dl>z L[t'G df>c
Fp,y'G wvJ sj idhS rjvj lg m WjWj ug s[ iP.qg idhS lq[G wpN
lqJ sp,Z sg l[rj wisj hp>sj lg m dVaV[q sp,Z lq[G qpajdWw
iP.qg ljdhW v{ w[ ujSj dH,w dsV q"lq Whpa tijW h' debj
qgGh a[ hV[%ig ws[ ws[ eC[ rg f{S v,e uJs[ m f=[q dl>z l[t'G
V[ t[l sg Wp,wv qji vHg ba[ sp,Z v{ w[ iP.qg r,v } api dfbj m
qV dr,y xpiVj WdSbj dw ##u[ WjWj ug b,Z aw bj ujS
aJ q{G edCbj sg qji a'G Wy ujrJ m$$ l,y[ dfbji sj wgdvbj
\W,Zj| f=[q dl>z WjWj ug vHg sp,Z vHg uj dihj h{ edCbj
V[ rg bjfSj fPij Wv vj i,Ddtbj h{ m fi V[hp rjv[ ws[ bijq
VhgG wis[ Rph aJ bjfSg q>d;v r,v r,Zs[ hg uJs[ hV m
dur[G xigs ug sj woV h{ -
PrIdw glIey ickVu dUir Gru nwil ipAwry nyhu ]

62
Part 4

clw q iBjY kMblI rhW q qutY nyhu ]24]


iBjau isjau kMblI Alh vrsau myhu ]
jwie imlw iqnw sjxw qutau nwhI nyhu ]25]
\b>e 1379|

f=[q dl>z dHV%J dryjiJ sg V"wj \dwlag| } sdibj sgbJ


RpD,nsgbJ dFbjVw vdhiJ a'G V[hp \f=[q| iPfg y,fP Vjv dwVji[
r,v rZj dihj h{ m edCbj sg Ajr[G hg f[=q dl>z b,Z dr,y
fhp>y debj m byjVw sg s[tsj h{ dw WjWj ug ljhqS[ bj
tv'a[ m l[t'G V[ siLV widsbJ hg Vqlwji wgag a[ wdhS
v,ej ##fjaLjh bjf dHo[ m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##l[t'G m a>P l'ysj lg dw eC[ f{
ih[ hV m sp,Z v{ w[ ujSj b"tj h{ m u[ WjWj ug bjf b,Z a,w
bj ujS aJ ngw h{$$ m a[ig qV sg fpwji ljc[ a,w fhp>yg
aJ hg dHo[ bjH[ hJ m
f=[q dl>z V[ sp,Z b,e[ wi ds,aj m h;Pi V[ sp,Z A,w dvbj m
WjWj ug iPqg a' Fp,y'G wvj bj eH[ aJ f=[q dl>z b>si
l[rj FjrVj a[ f=ga Rpl ai%J hg ihg dH,w dsV l[t'G ba[ rdibjq
dl>z dHw,n[ WjWj ug s[ bjlS dB,vj ljdhW r,v bj ih[ lV m
ila[ dr,y Rpa[uVj h'Hg dw b,u WjWj ug a'G f=a,t w"aw \wdiLqj|
s[tSj h{ m Ljq sj r[vj lg V[C[ fhp>y w[ Vqlwji wgag m qhJfpitJ
V[ ##hig hi$$ bvjdfbj m qhJfpit W,Zj V[ aJ Vjq spbjij hg
W'vSj@ Vjq spbjij lpVSj@ dwl[ sj Fvj wiVj Vjq spbjij@
f+jSg sj bZji wiVj Vjq spbjij dHh RpV%J sg bsFp,a wvj
h{ m s'V'G WjWj ug V[C[ W{n eH[ m
h;Pi V[ fp,dAbj ##dwr[G bjH[ h' m$$
s'VJ V[ RpD,ai dr,y dwhj dw qhjiju m b,u w'Hg biyuaj

63
Part 4

rjvj w"aw riajRp m$$


WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##rdibjq dl>z a{} Vjq ufS
sg upeag ds,ag h{ m Vjq ufs[ ih'@ l[t'G a>P fdhvJ rg s[t
yp,Ddwbj h{ m
rji rji wdhS a[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##y>ej x[i b,Zg
ija } Rph ljhqS[ wigiJ s[ dfA[ tC' ujSj b,e[ VhgG bjRpSj@
dAfs[ r,v qP>h wiw[ tCVj h{ m dHo'G hg lF wpN s[ts[ idhSj
b,e[ VhgG ujSj m$$
b,Zg ija h' eHg s'V'G hg fdhi[sji rdibjq dl>z ba[
f=[q dl>z l[t'G@ dB,v[ a'G h[nJ bj eH[ m u' yjhp>s[ lg Rph f=a,t
s[tS v,e fH[ m bV[wJ ai%J s[ iPf f=eB h'H[ duV%J sg Lwv
h}qjV rieg lg m l'Gyg f,wg t[c ih[ lV awigWV \b>sjuj|
s' z>B[ dHh lF wpN s[ts[ ih[ dxi ds=L bv'f h' eH[ m dHh
hwgwa s[t w[ h{ijV h' eH[ m b>dq=a r[vj h'dHbj aJ bjdebj
v{ w[ ziJ } bj eH[ m bv"dww a[ ipqJdBw w"aw s[t w[ rg
qVp,t sg FjrVj VhgG Wp,Nsg m wHg aJ WjWj ug } FPaJ rjvj
ljZ hg bjts[ lV m qhJfpit hi f=jSg sg da=LVj fPig wis[ m
lq[G lq[G dwl[ V[ rg w'Hg dH,Aj qV dr,y dvbJsg Rpl sg fPiag
wgag m hi l>ljig ugr sg v'C r[v[ itLj wgag m bjf V[ dV,ug
lrjioJ@ dh,aJ@ tjhLJ a[ v'CJ } dabje w[ li,Wa s[ Fv[
vHg l'dybj m liW,a s[ Fv[ vHg w>q wgaj ba[ dHVljVgba
vHg wjiu wga[ dHhg qhJfpitJ sj l,yj Ziq h{ m v"C f{S
a[ hg braji wpvup,eg ugrJ sj bZji wiV bjRpGs[ ih[ hV m
dHh qp T wsgq sg iga y, v g@
hp > s [ Lp i P a' G Lp i P braji bjH[ m
us'G us' WSsg b"tg W>dsbj a[@

64
Part 4

as'G as'G hg wiV RpZji bjH[ m


ijq y>si lrjqg wjiV wiV h' w[@
wjiV rl h' w[ ijrS qji bjH[ m
Fea uVj s[ sp t dVrjiV[ }@
YC w> W vg dw= L V qp i ji bjH[ m
us' G dh> s P wga[ sp t g ujvqJ V[ @
as' G bjf VjVw dVi> w ji bjH[ m
us'G u>e a[ Ip,Z sj rwa bjdHbj@
as' G fwC t> c j wvegZi bjH[ m
dHh wdraj VjVwli WjWj bV>s dl>z s[ lq[G ijeg dl>z
fCs[ hp>s[ lV m
\l>a qhjiju t[q dl>z ug s[ qptjidW>s a'G h{|

Awie binE pUrblw Bwgu


jnm jnm kw soieAw jwgu ]
\b>e 892|
geI iglwin swD kY sMig ] mnu qnu rwqo hir kY rMig ]2]
fPiWvj Fjep dHVljV sg dWiag qhJfpitJ s[ yiVJ Vjv
lpq[v wisj h{ m ugr Fjr[G Zjidqw a"i a[@ dlbjlag a"i a[
dwVJ hg f=dl,Z h' ujH[@ l>lji dr,y l'Fj hjlv wi vH[ fi
Rph blvg l'Fj a'G bVujS idh>sj h{ m f=FP q[hi a'G l,tSj idh>sj
h{ m dur[G y>sV dr,y tLWP Whpa hp>sg h{ fi hrj a'G dWVJ Rph
tpLWP Wt[iV a'G blqio h{ W[Cg qvjh a'G dWVJ fji VhgG h'
lwsg dHVljV sg hlag f=q[Li sg YB s[ lhji[ h{ m ugr bjaqj
uVqj sg lpag h{ fi fPiWv[ wiqJ Vjv ljZ sg l>ea Vjv

65
Part 4

dHh uje f{Gsg h{ a[ dxi qV a[ aV qjvw s[ df>ui[ dr,y f{


w[ Rphg W'vg W'vsj h{ u' W'vShji f=FP } fl>s h{ m dHl ai%J
ldaWyV sj fjai h' w[ bjfSj v'w f=v'w lpZji v{Gsj h{ ba[
ugRpS sg vjvlj A,cw[@ qiV sj F{b dabje w[ qhJfpitJ
sg dw=fj ds=LBg spbjij f+DFP Vjv bF[s h' uJsj h{ m dHh hg
br,loj FjHg Vgvj dl>z sg WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s[
yiVJ Vjv bap,B l>fiw lswj h' eHg lg m hi r[v[ qV Vjq
i>e i,a[ idhSj m aV Vjv l[rj wqjRpSg m dHhg RpV%J sj l,yj
Ziq WS debj lg m
FjHg Vgvj dl>z sj df>c WgWg rjvj u' Fp,Dy'G wvJ dr,y
hg rdlbj Wdn>cj s[ Vusgw lg m dHh df>c FjHg dsbjv dl>z
sg f'aig FjHg epiWtL dl>z sg fp,aig wiq w"i } bjfS[
dfaj rv'G a'hx[ dr,y dqdvbj lg m WgWg wiq w"i sg b"vjs
Fpy'G wvJ dr,y idh>sg h{ m f,ag FjHg wg dr,y dHh WgWg ug
s[ berjC Vjv idh>s[ hV m FjHg Vgvj dl>z rg WjWj ug s[
siLV wiV bjfS[ l>egbJ Vjv bjRpGsj idh>sj lqJ fj w[
l[rj FjrVj r,Zsg eHg w'Hg fpijaV-fp>V sg f=[q e>T h'i fgcg
hp>sg eHg@ btgi dH,w l[rj q>e vHg m h;Pi V[ bjdebj s[ ds,ag
fi Lia i,t ds,ag dw qpC w[ zi VhgG ujSj m Vgvj dl>z V[
la WyV wdh w[ dli Npwj ds,aj m
WjWj ug V[ hpwq ds,aj ##ljhqS[ b>si hg tPhg a'G fjSg
dvbjRpS sg l[rj wiVg h{ m dHh fjSg sj W'wj dHw,v[ } dtySj
fr[ej m$$
Vgvj dl>z V[ l[rj l>Fjv vHg W'w[ Vjv fjSg dtySj ba[
zdCbJ dr,y fjRpSj m wpN bjf yp,w w[ dvbjRpS[ wpN l>ea
V[ v{ bjRpS[ m Rpl lq[G dr,y fjSg sj ljZV tPhJ ijhgG lg m
W'w[ v{ w[ dH,w v>Wg v,u Vjv W>V v{Sg ba[ Wvs b,e[ u'C

66
Part 4

w[ tPh dry'G$ fjSg w,TSj m fi Vgvj dl>z ajwari lg u' dw


bjf hg b,e[ upC w[ fjSg sj W'wj Wjhi dtysj m hi i'; V[q
Vjv dHh dqvg h'Hg l[rj wiVg ws[ rg l[rj a'G b,wSj o,wSj
VhgG m dur[G ldaepiJ sj xpiqjS h{ m
qP vjvV dlRp f=gda WVg mm
a'ig Vj aPB{ A'ig Vj APB{ b{lg qjZ' dt>y aVg mm1mm
\dWvjrvp q^ 5@ 827|
s[lg zg AwS s[ l'wgGV lV m fi zg bjds zi a'G q>erjRpGs[
lV dlZ fpiL hp>s[ h'H[ l[rj ipyg vj w[ wis[ lV aV a[ qV
Vjv wgag l[rj drbio VhgG uJsg m Vgvj dl>z V[ l[rj wiw[
dlZgbj fj vHgbJ lV@ ldhu lpFjb w'Hg WyV wiVj@ fPij
h' ujSj m WjWj bV>s dl>z ug WyV wiV lq[G ds=LBJaw a"i
a[ dH,w f=l>e lpSjdHbj wis[ lV m dH,w iju[ s[ siWji b>si
dH,w F>eS NjCP sg l[rj wisg lg Rpl V[ bjfSg Rpqi sj
Whpa dh,lj dHhg w>q dr,y v>zj ds,aj m dH,w dsV iju[ s[ qV
dr,y F>eS f=ag dtbjv bjdHbj dw dHh eigW b"ia wHg
ljvJ a'G siWji sg l[rj wisg bj ihg h{ dwRpG Vj dHl }
w'Hg WtdLL s[HgH[ m Rpl V[ tujV[ dr,Dy'G dH,w vjv q>erj w[
F>eS } s[ ds,aj ba[ Vjv hg dwhj ##dw a>P ljcg Whpa l[rj
wgag h{ hpS bijq Vjv iu w[ tjRp fgRp a[ zi bijq wi' m
F>eS vjv v{ w[ zi yvg eHg bev[ dsV dxi NjCP x[iV
sj w>q wiV v,eg ijuj bj w[ wdhS v,ej #hpS wg v'C lg
NjCP x[iV sg m$
F>eS V[ dwhj ##ijuj ug dHl NjCP V[ q{} vjvJ rjvg
WSj ds,aj h{ q{G dHl } dwr[G A,c dsbJ m$$
WjWj ug qhjiju dHh f=l>e lpSj w[ dldtbj ds>s[ lV m
u[ epiP sg l[rj wiV rjvj bjfS[ epiP a'G sja v{ w[ Rpl }
Fpvj s[r[ aJ Rpl sg WpZg aJ Rpl F>eS a'G rg qvgV h'Hg m

67
Part 4

u' w'Hg bjfS[ epiP sj bdhljV Fp,v ujsj h{ Rpl } bdhljV


xijq'L \bdwiazV| dwhj h{ m bdwiazV vHg aJ f=q[Li s[
zi s[ sirj;[ hq[Lj vHg W>s hp>s[ hV Rpl } aJ dwa[ rg
lPHg sg V'w duVg ue%j VhgG dqvsg dur[G
sjda dfbjig drldibj sjajij mm
\ZVjlig q^ 5 b>e 676|

epi dl,t u' bjfVj bjf epiP } bifV wi yp,w[ h'S Rph
f=gaq sj LpwijVj wis[ hV m Rph ws[ epiP a'G bjwg VhgG hp>s[
lsj l[rj dlqiV dr,y v,e[ h'H[ ldaWyV s[ bdZwjig idh>s[
hV m dHhg LiZj FjHg Vgvj dl>z dr,y lg m
aVp l>aV wj ZVp l>aV wj qVp l>aV wj wgbj mm
\l'idn qhvj 5@ b>e 610|

l' Vgvj dl>z V[ dVqiaj lswj Rph Ziq fsrg ba[ bV>s
f=jfa wi dvbj dul a'G Whpa uea rJdNbj h{ l[rj dr,y bjRpS
a'G Wjbs sg ljig d;>seg l[rj b>si hg v>zj ds,ag l[rj dr,y
bjvl VhgG wgag m bjfsg VgGs@ Fp,t a[=h eiqg a[ lisg sg
ws[ f=rjh VhgG wgag m FjHg ljdhW FjHg episjl ug woV
wis[ hV^_
f{igG f{ fj tjw h'dH Adc qSg qVPig mm
fjSg ftj fghSj dVa wi{ q;Pig mm
a,fC NjdC drAJdH>sj ypdv N'dw V NPig mm
qpis[ rJde qpigsp h'dH wdi dlsw lWPig mm
y>sVp h'r{ dl>qvhp xv rjl huPig mm
fgi qpigsJ dfihCg epiqdt qda fPig mm
\rji 27 fRpCg 19|

68
Part 4

swDU sMig isKwieE nwmu ]


srb mnorQ pUrn kwm ]
\b>e 394|

l>ea qVpt sg awsgi WSjRpGsg h{ m WyfV dr,y bjsqg


dHlaig dul dwlq sj ljo wi[ej Rpl sj bjadqw drwjl
Rpl dqvg h'Hg l>ea s[ fs a[ y,vsj h'dHbj d;>seg sg e,cg
} a'i[ej m Wpi[ sg l>ea sj xv v'w f=v'w b>si sptsjHg h'r[ej
fi Fv[ fpiL sg l>ea dr,y bjdHbj qVp,t Ziqg@ lWi@
LdhVLgvaj a[ dabje sj fjai WS w[ tjvw sg tvwa b>si
fiq fsrg fj v{Gsj h{ ba[ dstjr[ s[ fsjio@ bjfSg dVug
lp,tJ a[ qjdHbj sg v'C a'G dViv[f h'w[ d;>seg s[ blvg qV'io
sj ilaj fj v{Gsj h{ fi m duhCj qVp,t dHl a'G rg l=[LB l>ea@
ljZP sg l>ea wisj Rph uVq sg vjvlj a'G qiV s[ F{b
a'G lptJ a'G spt sg Vdriag a'G bjfSj f,vj Apcj w[ f=FP Vjv
bF[s h{ uJsj h{ dur[G _
epi dwifj duh Vi wRp wgVg dah dHh upeda fAjVg mm
VjVw vgV FdHY e'dW>s dlRp duRp fjVg l>de fjVg mm
\l'idn q^ 9 b>e 633|

dHh f=jSg ljZ l>ea lswj spVgbjsji a'G Rpaq h' uJsj
h{ Rph lpt VhgG q>Vsj dur[G l'Vj dq,Bg dr,y VhgG iysj dV>dsbj
Rplaag@ bdFqjV@ hit l'e a'G idha h' uJsj h{ m ljZ l>ea
Vjv Vjq sg f=jfa lswj lji[ qV'io fPi[ h' uJs[ hV m Rpl
sg spdVbjrgG da=LVj WpN uJsg h{ dHw' hg bjl idh>sg h{ f=FP
s[ qjvw s[ siLVJ sg@ h'i lF wPC s[ flji a'G qV q'C dvbj
69
Part 4

hp>sj h{ m dfAv[ f=l>e sg ai%J dH,w h'i f[=qg FjHg ljdhW w[li
dl>z ug@ WjWj ug qhjiju sg l>ea dr,y bjH[ ba[ lsj vHg
dHo[ hg idh w[ btgi l>a sg fsrg fj w[ epiP Vjv dH,w du>s
h' eH[ m
FjHg w[li dl>z df>c ijb tjVj \Wdn>cj| s[ rlVgw lV m
bjf VjHg uja Vjv l>W>Z i,ts[ lV m fpijS[ lq[G bjrjujHg
s[ ljZVJ sg wqg h'S wjiV v'w bjf api w[ lxi wis[ lV m
w[li dl>z Fpy'G s[ V[C[ w'Hg w>q bjdHbj lg aiwjvJ h' ujS
wiw[ Fpy'G wvJ WjWj ug s[ c[i[ bj eH[ m WjWj ug s[ siLV
wga[@ Vqlwji wiw[ w'v[ W{n debj m h;Pi V[ qdiIjsj bVplji
df>c@ e'a@ VjVw[ sjsw[ bjds lF wpN fp,DdAbj m w[li V[ dl>z
lF wpN s,l ds,aj m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##siLV wiV bjdHbj dw f=LV wiV m$$
w[li dl>z V[ urjW ds,aj ##qhjiju ) ija w,BSg h{ m lr[i[
yvj ujrJej m WjWj ug V[ f=>lVaj s[ b>sj; dr,y WyV wgaj
##lr[i[ yvj ujr[eJ($$ liW wvj FifPi liW LwagqjV qhJfpit
sj WyV w[li dl>z s[ qV a[ dHM bli wi debj dur[G hV%[i[
Rpfi sgfw sj Rpujvj m qV sj b>Zwji sPi h' debj a[ Wp,Zg
dryjirjV L+[LB h' eHg m zi ujS sj dtbjv A,c ds,aj ba[
yiVJ dr,y idhS sj lw>vf wi dvbj m dur[G _
crn kml sMig lwgI forI ]
suK swgr kir prm giq morI ]1] rhwau ]
AMclw ghwieE jn Apuny kau mnu bIDo pRym kI KorI ]
jsu gwvq Bgiq rsu aupijE mwieAw kI jwlI qorI ]1]
pUrn pUir rhy ikrpw iniD Awn n pyKau horI ]
nwnk myil lIE dwsu Apunw pRIiq n kbhU QorI ]2]
\VB qhvj 5 b>e 979|

70
Part 4

l>a w[li dl>z ug } h;Pi V[ l[rj s[ Vjv l=g ufpug ljdhW


s[ fjn wiV sg upeag s,l w[ dVaV[q dr,y vjdHbj dHV%J
sg dlqiV br,loj dHVg Rpaq h' eHg dw c[T l" a'G s' l"
a,w i';jVj ufpug ljdhW s[ fjn wiV m WjWj ug wHg rji
l>ea dr,y dHh WyV wdibj wis[ lV dw ##us blgG dB,v[
a[ hp>s[ lg w[li dl>z lj} s' s' l" fjn ufpug ljdhW s[ i';jVj
lpSj ds>s[ lV m$$
RPna W{na l'ra Vjq mm whp VjVw uV w{ ls wjq mm
\eRpCg lptqVg q^ 5 b>e 286|

WjWj ug sg l>ea widsbj w[li dl>z s[ wHg dsV v>z


eH[ dfA'G zi rjv[ bjf ug sg Fjv wis[ h'H[ c[i[ fhp>y eH[ m
w[li dl>z } zi qpCV vHg dwhj fi RpV%J ljx urjW s[ ds,aj m
us'G lji[ IaV Vjwjq h' eH[ aJ WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##u[ aphjcj h{ aJ v{ ujY bei ljcj
h'dHbj aJ VhgG ujH[ej m$$ btgi zi rjv[ lxvaj Vj dqvsg
r[t w[ zi rjfl yv[ eH[ m
hpS w[li dl>z } cjvg sg l[rj \Fjr Vei dr,Dy'G f=Ljsj
a[ sp,Z sg l[rj| dqv eHg m cjvg sg l[rj s[ Vjv Vjv f=q[Li
sg W>seg wis[ idhSj m sl ljv dHl fdr,ai l[rj dr,y v>z
eH[ m f=Ljs hpwq bVplji l>ea dr,y riajRpSj fi bjf V[
liW l>a't Vjv W{n[ idhSj@ us'G fjaLjh V[ bjfS[ h,o Vjv
f=Ljsj duVg qjaij dr,y s[Sj A,w v{Sj@h'i VhgG q>eSj u[
VhgG s[Sj aJ yp,f wiw[ W{n[ idhSj m tpLw f=Ljs[ dqv eH[
aj Rphg Aw v{S[ vPS rg VhgG q>eSj fjSg Vjv hg WpiwgbJ
v>zj v{SgbJ m fi WjWj ug dw=fj ds=LBg lswj dHl[ dr,y hg
f=l>V idhSj m

71
Part 4

lJHg q[ij Tjcj y>ej iptg i'Bg s[dH mm


cidsbJ vPS Vj q>egH[ q,a iptg rg t' v[dH mm
iptg rg tl v[dH dalp bje{ dwbj yjij mm
liW wvj lqio W[-f=rjh h{ Fjij mm
ws[ Vj qV' drlji Ijs wi Rpl s[ aJHg mm
Wji Wji wi Vqlwji Rph l,yj lJHg mm
duV%J } WjSg V[ wgv ds,aj h{ Rph aJ dHl sg hi f>eag
a'G f=Fjdra hV m dH,w rji WjWj bV>s dl>z ug s[ siWji b>si
wgiaV sg lqjfag h'Hg m fjaLjh V[ WyV wgaj ##dvbj HgLi
wpN tjS vHg dvbj m ligi Fp,tj dce dihj h{ m$$ RpV%J f=Ljs
dabji wgaj h'dHbj lg m wgiaV a'G Wjbs dH,w ijeg dH,w
lpi A[C w[ wgiaV wisj hp>sj lg m WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[
f=Ljs dvbj h;Pi b,e[ i,Ddtbj hg lg dw wgiaVH[ V[ f>eag
ds,ag ##iptg lptg tjdH w[ n>Tj fjSg fgY$$ WjWj ug qhjiju
bV>s dl>z ug V[ f=Ljs fi[ wiw[ dwhj ##uj HgLi n>Tj fjSg
dvbj m$$ WjSg w'Hg fC% dihj h{ fi f=FP s[ Fea dHh lqNs[
hV dw q{} hg wdh dihj h{ m RpV%J sg dWiag f=q[Li s[ i>e
dr,y i>eg h>psg h{ m fsjioJ sg w'Hg vjvlj VhgG hp>sg m l' dHl[
ai%J WjWj ug V[ w[li dl>z } u' s[ s[Sj A,w v{Sj ba[ upfug
ljdhW s[ fjnJ dr,y qla idhSj m WjWj ug WyV wdibJ wis[
lV dw ##w[li dl>z } iju[ l'V[ sg fjvwg dr,y yp,Ddwbj wiVe[ m$$
\dHh f=l>e v[tw s[ qjaj dfaj a'G f=jfa h'dHbj h{|

72
Part 4

qyrI kudriq qUhY jwxih Aauru n dUjw jwxY ]


ijs no ikRpw krih myry ipAwry soeI quJY pCwxY ]1]
\b>e 1186|

qVp,t qjdHbj q'h b>si RpcjigbJ vjRpGsj h{ u' rg w>q


wisj h{ Rpl } bjfSj Vjq ds>sj h{@ fi u[ qjCj h' ujH[
aJ wdh>sj h{ ##u' wpsida } qV;Pi h{ m$$ lptJ sg d;>seg sj
bV>s qjSsj f=qjaqj } b,Dt' fi't[ wi ds>sj h{ spt sg fildoag
dr,y f=q[Li sg wiVg } w'lsj h{ m driv[ hg f=jSg spt lpt
b>si Rpl sg u'a } q>Vs[ hV m ##a[ig wpsida aPh[ ujSdh$$
sg fdiFjLj } aJ l>a uV uJ RpV%J sg ljZ l>ea wiV rjv[
hg ujSs[ hV m RpV%J V[ epiP sj Rpfs[L ##bri wju a[i[ dwa[
Vj wjq@ dqdv ljZ l>eda Fu w[rv Vjq m$ s[ xpv sg tplWP
l>pzg hp>sg h{ m tpLWP v{S rjvj Rpl s[ bV>s } ujS lwsj
h{ spi[c[ tC[ dHVljV } wg fit h{ epvjW s[ xpv ba[ b,w
s[ xpv dry m dul V[ f=FP s[ dfbji sg lpe>Zg VhgG vHg Rpl
sgbJ debjV dH>sigbJ sj fljij VhgG h' lwsj m spdVbjrgG
drdsbj fC% w[ l>ljdiw debjV sg f=jfag hp>sg h{@ epiWjSg
drdsbj fC% w[ fiqjio s[ lpt dqvs[ hV m WjSg fC%V a[ bqv
wiV rjvj f=jSg l>ljiw qVp,taj b>si bjfSgbJ VghJ quWPa
wi v{Gsj h{ m dwRpGdw Rph aPh{ ujS@ apZ fAjS[ sg lq,ioj
i,tsj h{ m bri V sPuj ujS[ w'H[ ( dul V[ vjvJ sj rSu
VhgG wgaj Rph aJ vjv sg fAjS rg VhgG wi lwsj@ dul
V[ fjSg b>si f{i VhgG fjdHbj Rph a{iV sg upeag VhgG ujSsj@
dul V[ fsjio y,Ddtbj VhgG Rph lpbjs wg s,Dl[ej@ dul V[

73
Part 4

Vjq VhgG udfbj Rph wg ujS{ bdZbjaqw bV>s } m ##hRpq{


sgiz i'e h{ sjiP Fg dHl qjdh$$m
eiPi dwl wj h{@ liPi dwl wj h{@
u' a>P Vj lqN[ wlPi dwl wj h{(
qhJfpitJ V[ bjfSg fAjS wijRpS sg q[hi sg Vsdi
s' h'i f=[qgbJ Rpfi wgag m dHh f=[qg FjHg lp>si dl>z ba[ FjHg
zpwi dl>z bwjvg u' l[rj b>si bjH[ m f=l>e Rpl lq[G sj h{
us'G l>psi dl>z rgh wp ljv sg Rpqi dr,y ba[ zpwi dl>z
l'vJ wp ljv sg Rpqi dr,y lg m dHh s'V'G bjfl dr,y dq,ai
rg lV m zpwi dl>z dul sg bjIP awigWV dH,w l' l,a ljv
h{ b,u rg y>eg hjva dr,y d;>seg ugb dihj h{ m dHl V[
s,Ddlbj h{ \zpwi dl>z sg uWjVg| m
blgG s'VJ dHw,n[ bjRpSj a[ WjWj ug Vjv e,vJ wis[ lpSs[
idhSj m b,u sg dryjv[ A,cg e,v w,v dxi LpiP wi s[Sg ila[
dr,y bjRpGs[ lq[G l'ys[ bjRpSj dw WjWj ug w'v i,W s[ zi
sg e,v lpSJe[@ fi w'v bj w[ lF wpN Fp,v ujsj dfAvgbJ
e,vJ hg a'i s[SgbJ m blgG WjWj ug s[ dHLVjV wiV vHg
fjSg s[ zC[ dvbjRpS sg l[rj Vgvj dl>z Vjv wirjRpS v,e
fH[ m dH,w dsV lp>si dl>z wdhS v,ej ##dw b,u WjWj ug a'G
qdnbjHg tjS vHg q>egH[ m$$ us'G dB,v[ Yfi fhp>y eH[ aJ WjWj
ug b,e[ Vqlwji wgag a[ V[C[ W{n eH[ m WjWj ug V[ ##hig
hi$$ bvjdfbj a[ WyV wgaj ##b,u epiqpt' wg tjRpe[ m$$
lp>si dl>z V[ dwhj ##qhjiju) b,u qdnbjHg tpbj dsRp m$$
qdnbjHg q>e w[ blgG qV dr,y l'yS v,e fH[@ ##dw i'BgbJ
aJ df>c a'G bjRpGsgbJ hV qdnbjHg dwo'G bjH[eg m$$
h;Pi bjfSg wpBgbJ b>si eH[ dul s[ fisj dryjv[ vj

74
Part 4

w[ s' dhl[ wga[ h'H[ lV m fis[ s[ dfA[ uv[WgbJ@ v,cP h'i wHg
ai%J sg qdnbjHg sj Wp,w Fi dvbjH[ a[ l>psi dl>z r,v wiw[
WyV wgaj ##vRp tj vr'$$ dxi q[i[ r,v h,o wiw[ tv' eH[ m
lp>si dl>z V[ N,B hg q[i[ r,v s[t w[ dwhj ##zpwi Vj tjHg
dHh aJ FPaJ a'G q>erjHg h{@ dHh tj w[ qi ujrJe[ m WjWj
ug V[ wHg rji WyV wgaj ##dw tj vr' m$$ fi blgG ci eH[@
blgG qdnbjHg Vj tjsg m WjWj ug qdnbjHg b>si hg rjdfl
v{ eH[ m ljc[ b>sivj Fiq sPi wiV vHg h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj$$
zpwi dl>z ujY uj w[ WgWg rjvj f>caJ } i'Bg wiVg h{ qdnbjHg
tpbjSg h{ RpV%J } \l,sj| dVRpGsj s[ bjRp@ blgG u,e wiVj h{ m$$
zpwi dl>z a[ lp>si dl>z WgWg rjvj eH[ a[ f>dcaJ }
dVRpGsj s[ bjH[ m bev[ dsV dH,w f>dca hg bjdHbj m WjWj
ug V[ Vgvj dl>z } hpwq wgaj dw q,Bg dr,Dy'G qdnbjHg dvbj
a[ f>dca } tpbj \zpwi dl>z sg ;WjVg| ljc[ ljhqS[ qdnbjHg
f>dca } tpbjHg ba[ rgh l[i sjS[ dHh spbjVg s,wLVj ds,ag m
lj} dHh lqN VhgG bjHg dw b>si w'Hg wSw VhgG lg dHh
wSw dwo'G bjHg fi ljc[ F'v[ dsqje b>si Rphg dtbjv dihj
dw dHh FPaJ a'G q>erjHg h{ m Rpl f>dca } drsj wiV lq[G
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj qdhS[ df>c s[ f>dcaJ } l,sJ s[ s[Sj m$$
bev[ dsV yji f>dca bj eH[ RpV%J } rg Rphg q,Bg dr,Dy'G
qdnbjHg tpbjHg ba[ rgh l[i sjS[ a[ dH,w spbjVg hi[w f>dca
} ds,ag m dHh dlvdlvj dH,w hxaj yvsj dihj WjhgH[ s[ f>dcaJ
} Rpl[ q,Bg dr,Dy'G qdnbjHg tpbj ds,ag ba[ s,ASj rg ds,ag m
Vgvj dl>z q,Bg dr,Dy'G dvbjRpGsj lg q{} \zpwi dl>z| xCj ds>sj
lg@ q{G b,e[ f>dcaJ } riajRpGsj lg m dHh lF wpN WjWj ug
V[ ljc[ qV sg L>wj sPi wiV vHg wgaj lg m fi ljcg qvgV
Wp,Zg dHh lF wpN b,tgG r[t rg Vj lqNS a'G blqio ihg m

75
Part 4

ljc[ b>si aJ dHw' hg FPa lrji lg dw$$ WjWj ug FPaJ a'G


q>erjRpGs[ hV FPaJ dHV%J s[ rl hV m hpS us'G lqJ h,Do'G dVwv
debj Fdrt WjSg wgag m b,tg s[t dihj aJ qV Fi uJsj
h{ m ##dHh lF wpN W'vs[ lpSjRpGs[ zpwi dl>z sgbJ b,tJ a'G
boiP Wdh apis[ hV ba[ dH,w v>qj hjRpwj v{ w[ wdh>sj h{
##u[ dHh faj v,e uJsj dw dHh aJ bjf hg i,W hV aJ f,vj
Vj Acs[ wg v{Sj lg wWgvsjig a'G@ W[Cj fji wi v{Gs[ m$$ W;pie
zpwi dl>z wdh>sj h{ ##u' hpS h' dihj h{ WjWj ug Rpl sg Fdr,t
WjSg ljc[ w'v b,lg ljv fdhvJ wdibj wis[ lV dur[G Wdn>cj
WiVjvj lCw rji[ Fp,y'G q>cg a[ Fp,y'G wvJ dH,w h' ujSe[@ FpG,y'G
a[ Wdn>cj dH,w h' ujSe[ m dHh ljcg W[ lqNg lg dw blgG dHV%J
e,vJ } lpS w[ WjWj ug } wdhSj ##dw r,cj e,f A,Ddcbj h{
\zpwi dl>z ug ;WjVg|
\dHh f=l>e zpwi dl>z Vjv bjf Wgag sj h{ u' RpV%J bjf
sjl } s,dlbj h{ m bev[ f=l>e rg RpV%J sg ;WjVg dqag 1
upvjHg 1988|
2
h;Pi V[ s[lg t>c sgbJ s' q,zgbJ \zC[ a'G A'B[ bwji
sg| Fi w[ itSgbJ m us ws[ sp,Z v[B h' ujSj aJ WjWj ug
V[ s[lg t>c sgbJ yji df>VgbJ WSj v{SgbJ m da>V df>VgbJ
ujVriJ } fj s[Sgbj ba[ dH,w bjfS[ h,o dr,y i,t v{Sg m
ljc[ Vjv e,vJ wis[ idhSj m dHl Wji[ lj} faj Vj v,eSj
dw df>Vg tJs[ rg lV uj VhgG m fjv dl>z zpdqbji ujag Vjv
l>W>Z i,tS rjvj c[i[ dry bjdHbj wisj lg m dH,w dsV Rpl
V[ q"wj ajC w[ t>c rjvg svVg dr,Dy'G dH,w qpng t>c sg Fi
vHg ba[ tjS v,e dfbj m b>aiujqg lF wpN ujSs[ lV wdhS

76
Part 4

v,e[$ fjdvbj wg tj dihj h{ m #fjv dl>z zWij debj dw y'ig


xCg eHg@ NB W'dvbj$$ ug dq,Bg tj dihj hJ m h;Pi V[ WyV
wgaj$$ y>ej ) u[ dq,Bg tJsj h{ aJ ljig Rpqi dq,Bg tJsj ih[Gej m$$
qhJfpit s[ qp,t a'G dVwdvbj dH,w vxu rg buJHg VhgG uJsj m
l' fjv dl>z dul V[ ljv wp h'dHbj ligi A,Ddcbj h{ ljig Rpqi
dq,Bg hg tJsj dihj m t[aJ dr,y ujSj aJ rg A'BgbJ A'BgbJ
dq,Bg sgbJ cvgbJ tJs[ idhSj m b>aiujqg qhJfpit b,e[ NPn
W'vS sj Vaguj y>ej VhgG hp>sj m dwRpGdw e'vg s[ dVLjV[ a'G
dHVljV Wy lwsj h{ fi f=qjaqj Vjv dH,w il h'Hg qhJfpit
sg ilVj dr,Dy'G dVwdvbj b,ti qVp,t s[ ligi a[ bjaqj }
rg Bp>W ds>sj h{ ba[ dHl edhi[ h'H[ utq } dxi spdVbjrgG
cjwBi VhgG Fi lws[@ dxi lqJ fj w[ f=q[Li sg W>seg wiw[
l>aJ sg q[hi lswj Fdibj uj lwsj h{ m dur[G ^-
l>a w[ s'tg wRp brip V ijtVhjip mm
VjVw l>a Fjr{ aJ vH[ RpWjdi mm
\eRpCg lptqVg@ b>e 280|

WjWj ug V[ dHh t>c rjvg WvSg qjHg dwLV w"i \q;%Wg


dl,t| u' c[i[ sg NjCP sg l[rj wisg lg@ } s[ ds,ag m
3
WjWj ug qdiIjsj bVplji wpN fp>V sjV rg wdibj wis[
lV u' f>dca q[hi y>s \u' y>eg hjva dr,y d;>seg Waj ih[
hV| V[ dvtS I'e s,Dl[ hV m h;Pi A[ qhgV[ Wjbs df>c s[
f>dcaJ } f=ag ugb dH,w L[i L,wi@ dH,w l[i lgiSg dul dr,y
v,cP uv[Wg ba[ h'i wHg dwlq sg qdnbjHg dqvg hp>sg lg@
dH,w ipdfbj Rphg lV sj \dur[G 1921@ 1922 bjds| s,AVj
s[ iPf dr,y ds>s[ lV m ljig lq,eig } dy,Bg yjsi Vjv T,w
w[ its[ lV ba[ f>dca } ##sjsj$$ wdh w[ lVqjSs[ lV m
77
Part 4

4
h;Pi s[ l[rw zpwi dl>z V[ s,dlbj dw ##dHw rji WjWj
ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##l[rw' dHh q,Bg fjSg Vjv Fi dsY dHLVjV
wiV vHg$$ m blgG da>VJ \Vgvj dl>z@ zp,wi dl>z a[ lp>si dl>z|
V[ q,Bg FiVg LpiP wi ds,ag m wjxg zC[ fjSg s[ fjRpS a'G
Wjbs q,Bg Vj Fig m lp>si dl>z wdhS v,ej ##zpwij ) ljZ
V[ q,Bg dry A[w wgaj h{ m us'G q,Bg dhvj yvj w[ s[tg fi
Rph ngw njw lg m WjWj ug ljc[ r,v r[t w[ ?pL h' ih[ lV
ujS' wdh ih[ h'S dw dHV%J WpZPbJ } bu[ rg lqN VhgG bj
ihg dw dHh dwRpG VhgG Fi ihg m fi wg ujS[ ljcg qvgV
WpZg liW LwagrjV s[ dw=LdqbJ } m$$ h,l w[ WyV wiV v,e[
##aplgG wdh>s[ lg hpS[ Fi ds>s[ hJ m Fi dsRp hpS m$$ WyV widsbJ
V[ q,Bg Rpfi y,fS i,t ds,aj m WyV wgaj ##vRp s[t vr' hpS
Fi eHg h{$$ blgG s[dtbj aJ q,Bg Fi eHg lg y,fS Rpfi
i,tS a'G fjSg Wjhi dVwv dihj lg m$$
W;pie zpwi dl>z ug s,ls[ hV dw WjWj ug s[ ligi a[
i'q Whpa lV us blgG dHLVjV wijRpS v,es[ aJ w'Hg yg;
u' bjfSg Zp>Vg Vjv W>Vg hp>sg lg h,o dr,y wi v{Gs[ lV blgG
dHl yg; s[ siLV VhgG wga[ m wHg wHg zC[ fjSg s[ dHLVjV
wiV v,DdebJ V[ tjvg wi s[S[ m WjWj ug sgbJ RpGevJ Whpa
favgbJ lV m dH,w dsV dHLVjV wirjRpS lq[G lp>si dl>z \dul
} V>s[ wj wdh w[ fpwjis[ lV| wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju m bjf
sgbJ RpGevj Whpa favgbJ hV m$$ h;Pi h,l w[ wdhS v,e[
##f>uj fj w[ s[t v{$$ lp>si dl>z V[ dwhj ##qhjiju ) RpGevj
Bp,B ujSegbJ m
WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj ##a[ij dfRp rg VhgG a'C
lwsj@ V>s[ dwbj m$$ b{l[ w"aw wiV[ dw lZjiV qVp,t bjf

78
Part 4

sg iPhjVg ajwa } lqN hg Vj lw[ m


sp,Z sj WjBj Fi w[ i,t s[Sj ws[ Rpl } dyai[ i>e sj
dW,vj bj w[ fg uJsj ba[ ws[ Vgvj dl>z a[ w[li dl>z s[
dT,c Rpfi sg v>z w[ Whpa Fjig l,f V[ bj w[ fg ujSj lp>si
dl>z V[ wHg rji dHl l,f } qjiV sg bjdebj q>eg fi h;Pi
V[ dHVwji wi ds,aj m blgG wHg rji dwhj dw ##lj} l,f a'G
ci v,esj h{ us fdhi[ a[ h>ps[ hJ dHh apdibj dxisj h{ m$$
bjf ug h,l w[ wdhS v,e[ dHh rg ljcj fdhi[sji h{ dHl }
qjiVj VhgG m
5
dHw rji WjiL Vj fHg m v'w dHw,n[ h' w[ WjWj ug w'v
bj w[ W[Vag wiV v,e[ ##fjaLjh) qgGh VhgG f{Gsj dw=fj wi' m$$
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##qgGh fr[ej fdhvJ ljcj dHh avjb
fpB dsY$$ \dB,v[ s[ dfA[ ata[bjSj A,fC } avjW bjts[ lV|
v'w ##ldaWyV wdh w[ yv[ eH[ m bev[ dsV A,fC fp,BS v,e
fH[ m b,Z a'G r,Z fpB w[ v'w bijq wiV v,e fH[ ba[ lp>si
dl>z WjWj ug w'v bj debj m Vqlwji wgag ba[ W{n debj m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dwRpG rHg V>s[ dwbj fp,B ds,aj
h{ m$$ lp>si dl>z wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju ) dwRpG ljcj q,oj qirjRpGs[
h' qgGh aJ aplgG hpwq Vjv fpbj s[Sj h{ m$$
h;Pi V[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj ##y>ej dxi Ljq } s[tje[ m$$
bjf ug WyV wiw[ w'nCg b>si uj dWiju[ m da>V wp ru[ sj
lqJ h'dHbj qgGh f{Sj LpiP h' debj m yji[ fjl[ fjSg hg fjSg
h' debj m liW wvj lqi,o bwjv fpit Vjv dH,w iPf@ dH,w
i>e dH,w lpi hp>s[ hV m dHh u' yjhp>s[ hV Rph riasj h{ m l>a
ljZ ba[ Fea dr,y w'Hg dF>VaJ VhgG m dHh lji[ f=FP sj iPf

79
Part 4

hV liepS liPf ba[ dHw' u'da hV m


6
blv dr,y bjfdh H[wp bjdf dWloji hg Iojio h{ m dHl
hjva dr,y apq a[ dF>V VhgG dwAp h'dH m bjfVp lPa lFp uea
fi'H[$ hg lhg a,o h{ m fi>aP lF ugr hpwq VhgG WpNs[@ dHl
vHg fiq fsrg f=jfa VhgG wi lws[ m u[ dwl[ drsrjV f>dca
uJ dwl[ fC[ dvt[ V[ bjRpSj aJ Rpl sg Wp,Zg a[ fisj fj s[Sj
aJ dw dul RpD,fi dw=fj ds=LBg sj siejhg hpwq Vj h'r[ Rph
lj} lqN Vj lw[ m Rpl Vjv B[c[ dW>e[ WyV wiV dur[G dwhC[
df>c a'G bjdHbj h{G@ wg Vjq h{@ e'a wg h{@ df>c dr,y dwV[
u,B hV@ dw>V[ q;%Wg hV@ RpV%J s[ zi dw>V[ hV@ zi dr,y dw>VgbJ
vB[Sj W,a[ hV bjds m Rpl V[ yvj ujSj dwRpGdw Rpl sg Wp,Zg
lqNS a'G r,t wi s[Sg m wHg rji WjSg dr,Dy'G f=qjS s[ w[
b{lg dryji wiVg dw blgG h{ijV idh ujSj m
l+! zpwi dl>z s,ls[ hV dw us ws[ qgGh bj ujSj aJ
lj} f,BgbJ q>eS df>c dr,y F[u s[Sj@ wdhSj ##ujRp f,Bgbj
v{ w[ bjRp Npeg WSjRpSg h{ l>ea dFusg h{ m$$
lp>si dl>z V[ dH,w rji h,ls[ wdh ds,aj ##WjWj ug aphjc[
w'v iju[ qhjiju[@ l[n bjRpGs[ hV m dHo[ yji dH,BJ vj w[
w'nj VhgG fpbjHg sj m$$
b>aiujqg qhJfpitJ V[ WyV wiVj ##s[t[Gej V>s[ dwbj a>P
yji dH,BJ wdh>sj h{ dHo[ v,tJ hg v,e ujSegbJ m$$ l' b,u
Rph WyV l,y h' dihj h{ c[i[ b>si v,tJ wi'Cj hg dH,BJ v,e
ihgbJ hV m WjWj ug V[ u' WyV wgaj@ lpa[ dl,Z wgaj uJ
h,ldsbJ V[ wgaj@ Fjr[G Vijueg rjv[ b>sj; dr,y wgaj lda
h' dihj h{ m b,u f=a,t h' w[ ria dihj h{ m

80
Part 4

AMf ibnwsI jyr ibnwsI auqBuj syq ibnwDw ]


cwir ibnwsI Ktih ibnwsI ieik swD bcn inhclwDw ]2]
rwj ibnwsI qwm ibnwsI swqku BI bynwDw ]
idRsitmwn hY sgl ibnwsI ieik swD bcn AwgwDw ]3]
Awpy Awip Awp hI Awpy sBu Awpn Kylu idKwDw ]
pwieE n jweI khI BWiq ry pRBu nwnk gur imil lwDw ]4]6]
\ljie q^ 5@ f>Vj 1204|

\Rpfi'wa f=l>e sj r[irj l+! zpwi dl>z bwjvg W;pie


WjWj ug s[ l[rjsji sg ;WjVg h{ u' hpS rg q";Ps hV|

nwnk siqguir ByitAY pUrI hovY jugiq ]


epiqda bVplji l>lji s[ lji[ lp,t rjdhepiP r,Dv'G qVp,t vHg
qhjV WtdLLJ hV m l>lji Fi s[ wpv i,W sg h'Gs a[ drLrjl
i,tS rjv[ qhJfpit lqp,y[ a"i a[ dHl dlZJa a[ fp,u[ hV dw
hi qVp,t uJ ugr qjai bjVjsg wjv a'G uVq qiV s[ e[C
dr,y dfbj h'dHbj h{ ba[ bV>a wjv sg aix uj dihj h{ m
dHl uVq qiV a'G idha h'S sj aigwj HgLri f=jfag h{@
a[ HgLri sg f=jfag hp>sg h{ m qhJfpitJ sg@ l>aJ sg@ ljZP sj
l>ea Vjv m u[ spdVbjrgG upea rg riaSg h'r[ aJ rg ljZP
sj WyV h'Sj qhjV LwagqjV hp>sj h{ m qhJfpitJ sg ilVj
dr,Dy'G f=eB h'dHbj dH,w dH,w LWs l'V[ a[ lphje[ riej bli
wisj dwRpGdw Rph LWs dVi>wjig u'a sj qptjdaW wgaj hp>sj
h{ m dHl[ hg ai%J WjWj ug qhjiju V[ dwl[ b>sju dr,y LWs
RpyjiVj Rph lda h' ujSj m
liWS dl>z q'Cg e,c sj dfaj hdiVjq dl>z \q'Cge,c b,v
f{Gsg h{ dwRpGdw dHV%J s[ r,c rc[dibj V[ Fpy'G wvJ df>c rljRpS

81
Part 4

vHg fdhvJ q'Cg e,cg lg| WjWj ug sg h;Pig b>si sp,Z v{


w[ bjdHbj wisj lg m byjVw RpV%J sj sp,Z xBVj \fjB ujSj
LpiP h' debj m hdiVjq dl>z V[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju
) ljcj wjCVg sj sp,Z hi i'; x,B uJsj h{ m$$
h;Pi f=l>aj dr,y lV qplwij w[ WyV wgaj ##dHh w'Hg
r,cg e,v h{@ ujh fp,aiJ f'adibJ aw@ sp,Z VhgG xB[ej m$$
WyV lda h{ liWS dl>z s[ f=rji sj ws[ sp,Z VhgG xdBbj m
\Rpfi'wa f=l>e liWS dl>z sg urjVg h{|
##hpwq dWlqjsp hpwdq fAjS{$$ \b>e 940|
hpwq blyiu \dWbjV a'G Wjhi| h{ fi hpwq dr,y apdibj
hg dHl sg fAjS hp>sg h{ m epiP s[ hrjv[ fPiV a"i a[ h' w[
bjf[ } ?aq hg wi s[Sj yjhgsj h{ m bioja hdobji WS
w[ dur[G Rph yvjH[ dar[G dar[G yvSj hp>sj h{ m u' rg Rph \hpwqg
W>sj| W'vsj h{ debjV h{ u' r[tsj h{ dZbjV h{ u' lpSsj h{
Rph Vjq h{ m fi u[ dHl sg Rpv>zSj wig ujr[ aJ spt wLB
sg bjqs h>psg h{ m dur[G wp>cj dl>z yjr[ wj u' WjWj ug s[
siLVJ vHg bjdHbj wisj lg hpwq a'G qpVwi h'dHbj@ sgrjvg
rjv[ dsV v'w dldrbJ dr,y \lqLjV FPqg| sgr[ i,ts[ lV \b,u
w,v% rg dirj;| m sgrjvg sg ija h'Hg wp>Tj dl>z WjWj ug w'v
hj;i lg@ v'wJ V[ dldrbJ dr,y sgr[ i,Dt[ m h;Pi V[ w>pTj dl>z
} hpwq ds,aj dw ##a>P dq,Bg fj w[ sgr[ WpNj s[ m
Rpl V[ hpwq q>VS a'G dHVwji wi ds,aj m h;Pi dxi dwhj
fi Rpl V[ f=rjh Vj wgag m bjdti WjWj ug V[ ldhu lpFjb
hg WyV wi ds,aj ##vdh debj Vjq u,e a'G$$
dul lq[G dHh WyV h'dHbj Rpl lq[G wp>Tj dl>z sj wji'Wji
Whpa y>ej@ ;qgV qjv ZV a[ fdirji dr,y w'Hg wqg VhgG
lg m bjf rg dulqjVg a"i a[ awCj lg m fi b,u Rpl sg w'Hg
82
Part 4

dVLjVg VhgG ihg m


Fea qpt{ a[ W'vs[ l[ ryV h'r>s[ mm
\b>e 306|

\Rpfi'wa f=l>e lL liWS dl>z q'Cge,c a'G dqdvbj h{ m|

BieE ikRpwlu sqsMig imlwieAw ]


bUJI qpiq Grih ipru pwieAw ]
\lPhg qhvj 5 b>e 738|

fpiWv[ wiqJ lswj hg dHVljV l>a l>ea sg qjvj sj


qVwj WS w[ Rpl b>si fi'dHbj uJsj h{ m dwRpGdw epiWjSg
b>si ljZ l>ea@ lda l.e } hg l[=LB fsrg ds,ag h{ m b,Zg
a'G rg b,Zg zCg ljZP sg l>ea bdhq qh,aaj i,tsg h{ m duV%J
V[ Vjq dlqdibj h{@ lda l>e wgaj h{ Rph hig s[ si a[ lpitiP
hV diLgbJ@ qpVgbJ@ epiPbJ a[ brajiJ V[ r,t r,t ila[ dstjH[
hV fi q>d;v adh wiw[ fhp>ySj dHw' qwjq a[ h{ m dl,tg sj
qjie Vjq sj qjie h{ Feag sj qjie h{ dul spbjij bjaqj
} f=qjaqj sj q[v hp>sj h{ m dxi qVp,t r,cg a'G r,cg bjadqw
dsLj dr,y b,fC uJsj h{ m dHh bjaqj ijq sg hg b>L h{ m
u[ W>sj ijq sg b>L h{ a[ dHl b>si f=qjaqj sg bjfSg u'a
f=wjLqjV h{ aJ ugrV sj qVi'o dHl u'a s[ siLV hV m
dHh siLV h'S Vjv da=LVj WpN uJsg h{ dwRpGdw f=q[Li sj
qVp,tg ligi b>si rjlj h' uJsj h{ ba[ Rph hRpq{ idha h'
uJsj h{ m dHl[ ai%J u' rg ljZVj wiV rjvj qVp,t WjWj ug
sg li'a lpS w[ uJ dwl[ wpsiag f[=iVj s[ lsw[ yiVJ dr,y
bjdHbj lF sg spdVbjrgG uJ fiqjio sg da=LVj fPig wgag m
e=dhlag aJ hi r[v[ qjdHw fsjioJ sg vjvlj dr,y t,ya

83
Part 4

idh>sj h{ fi uf af wiV rjv[ dabjeg f>uJ a,aJ a'G idhaVjqj


dvtrj w[ bjH[ Fea uV dHV%J l>ljiw wjqVjrJ a'G Rpy[ hp>s[
hV m
dHl ai%J s[ ufg afg dabjeg fpiL ##WjWj dZbjV sjl
ug$$ h;Pi sg lifilag dr,y bjH[ m dHV%J sj uVq sv dl>z
rjvj \lpVjq| d;v%j l>eiPi dr,y h'dHbj m fi bjf A'Bg br,loj
dr,y hg fdBbjv[ idhS v,e fH[ lV m fpijS[ dwv%[ s[ f,Aq rjv[
fjl[ dHV%J sj blojV h{ m dul } ##B'Fj WjWj dZbjVj$$ s[ Vjq
Vjv fpwjdibj uJsj h{ m dHh b,ti dH,w W'ic RpD,a[ Rpwi[ h'H[
hV m dHh hn I'e sg ljZVj wiV rjv[ ljZP lV m eiqgbJ
dr,y ZpVgbJ ajfSgbJ lisg b>si uv Zjij wiVj dHV%J sj
blvg qV'io lg m dul lq[G qjHg FjHg V[ qV dr,y f,pai sg
wjqVj wiw[ siLV wiV ujSj@ bjf V[ WyV wiVj ##wPij
v{ vRp wPij$$ bjq l>ea wiV rjdvbJ } faj lg RpV%J b,e[
h' w[ N'vg wiVg aJ sja N'vg f{ ujSg m fp,aiJ sg sja dqv
ujSg m WyV wis[ lV ##dHw wPij s' wPi[$$ m bdFvjlg V[ duh'
duhg q>e wiVg dqv uJsg lg m
dwl[ lq[G wdnV ljZVj widsbJ ligi } i'e h' debj m
i'e h'S wiw[ ljZVj dr,y ipwjrB bj eHg@ uf@ af dVaV[q
Vjv Vj h' ldwbj m r[tS rjv[ vHg ljZVJ wiCg \b"tg| v,esg
h{ fi wiV rjdvbJ } Rpl dr,Dy'G bV>s bjRpGsj h{ m WjWj dZbjVj
ug } us'G il Vj bjdHbj aJ qV RpyjB h' debj@ Vjv hg
dWiag sg yCjHg ?aq h' eHg m RpV%J s[ yji l[rw yji fhgbJ
rjvgbJ e,cg dr,y fj w[ WjWj ug w'v v{ bjH[ m dul lq[G dB,v[
RpD,fi v{ w[ eH[ h;Pi V[ q[hi sg Nja fjHg aJ WjWj dZbjVj
ug WyV wiV a[ lpVS v,e fH[ m h;Pi V[ bLgirjs ba[ dl,Ddtbj
ds,ag m ligi lpbjlo a[ lqi,o h' debj m uf af dVi>ai yjvP
h' debj m bjf fdBbjv[ rjfl yv[ eH[ m qV sg hjva b{lg

84
Part 4

WS eHg dw bjf WhpaJ lqJ ypf idhS v,e fH[ ba[ brZPa
dWiag dr,y vgV h'H[ w,fC[ a'G rg W[ f=rjh idh>s[ m dwl[ lq[G
dH,w lisji V[ dHV%J sg W[bsWg wgag lg m
bfpV[ l[rw wg bjf{ ijt{ bjf[ Vjqp ufjr{ mm
\b>e 403|

h;Pi V[ Rpfi'wa f>eag a[ bZjdia w'aw dwr[G riajdHbj


dHh f=l>e b,e[ siljdHbj ujH[ej m
lr,Hgbj
hiaj spt w'@ wiaj w'@ lpt Vjq uf{ uq fpi Vdh ujr{ mm
lF a=jl hi{@ lptrjl wi{@ siLV wi a[ qV dH,Aa fjr{ mm
u'e u'e bi debjV dZbjV lF lxv h'dH uW lgl dVrjr{ mm
qhJ hdiVjq hig fil[@ uVq uVq w[ fjf dqBjr{ mm
\dHh f=l>e WjWj Vi{S dl>z WgWg wj a'G f=jfa h'dHbj h{ m|

85
Part 4

suKu n pwiein mugD nr sMq nwil KhMdy ]


qhJfpit spVgbJ } b>ZwjiJ dr,Dy'G w,TS vHg bjfS[ W'vJ
wiqJ a[ dryjiJ sg i'LVg v{ w[ l>lji dr,y bjRpGs[ hV m qVp,tg
WijWig dVqiaj a[ y>e[ Lp,Z ugrV sg qdhw sj l>yji wiVj
RpV%J sj Rps[L h{ m epiP VjVw s[r ug V[ qVp,t } l>wvf a[
dryjiJ s[ z[i[ y'G Wjhi w,T w[ bqv sg spVgbJ $y bjsiL
WSV sg dldtbj ds,ag RpV%J l,y sj f=yji wis[ h'H[ F{C[ wiq
wiV rjdvbJ } dl,Z[ ila[ y,vS sj Rpfs[L ds,aj m fi du>VJ
qPit bjsqgbJ V[ ljZP qhjaqj Vjv dwl[ ai%J sg tdh \du,s|
wgag RpV%J V[ s'V' v'w f=v'w s[ sp,t bjfSg N'vg fj vH[ dur[G

l>a w[ s'tg wRp cjVp vje{ mm l>a w[ s'tg wRp lF dabje{ mm


\eRpCg lptqVg|

l>a wj s'tg dWeC iPfp h'dH ujdH mm


l>a w[ s'tg wRp sieh dqv{ lujdH mm
\eRpCg lptqVg|

Fp,y'G wvJ sj dH,w y>e[ zijS[ sj l[n e'Gsj q,v lda l>ea
rv'G W[qpt lg m dur[G WjSg h{
qjdHbj Zjig bda b>Vj W'vj mm lWsp V lpSHg Whp i'v zy'vj mm
\eRpCg rji q^ 3 b>e 313|

WjWj ug sj bjlS dB,v[ s[ df,A[ f,Aq fjl[ dH,w A,fC dul


} h;Pi avjW wdh>s[ lV m dHl dr,Dy'G uv ws[ ws[ ridabj
wis[ lV m df>c s[ v'w rg dHo'G uv v{ w[ uJs[ lV m avjW
s[ Vjv hg dH,w hg A,fC lg dul dr,y df>c s[ v'w q,NJ bjds
86
Part 4

fLPbJ } fjSg dfvjRpGs[ ba[ VhjRpGs[ lV m e'Gsj q,v A,fC


dr,y bjfSgbJ q,NJ VhjRpS vHg dvbjRpGsj ba[ wHg wHg
z>B[ A,fC s[ dwVji[ sita h[n W{n[ idhSj dHl s[ Vjv y[aP
cw'Ga@ B[wP qdhij ba[ HgLi dl>z WgWg wj dHh yji[ dH,w B'vg
WSj w[ W{ns[ lV m dHV%J V[ e,vJ wiV r[v[ ejvJ w,Ts[ idhSj m
RpD,ygbJ brj; dr,y w,TgbJ ejvJ h;Pi s[ w>Vg f{ ujSgbJ m
qhjiju WjWj ug V[ dHV%J } wHg rji lqNjdHbj dw dHo[ l>ea
bjRpGsg h{ m qjHgbJ WgWgbJ rg l>ea dr,y Ljdqv hp>sgbJ hV
l' aplgG ejvJ Vj w,dTbj wi' m Vei sgbJ qjHgbJ WgWgbJ
avjW a'G fjSg FiV bjRpGsgbJ hV m wHg rji i'wS a'G Wjbs
us dHh yp,f Vj h'H[ aJ dH,w dsV Rph rg bj debj dur[G ljdhW
V[ WjSg dr,y xpiqjdHbj h{_
Fgda RPfi[ w[awp ZjHgb{ b>a Yiw' bjhj mm2mm
\bjlj q^ 5 b>e 402|
\Fgda bjdtbj h{-w>Z }| w>Z RpD,fi w'Hg dw>Vg s[i s'C
lw[ej bjdti Rpl sj dlij \dwVjij| bjH[ej m dxi s"CV rjvj
l>Fjv VhgG lw[ej Wpig ai%J dce[ej m ljwa fpiL qhJfpitJ
s[ WyVJ sg Rpv>zSj wiw[ sp,tJ sg q"a a'G dw>VJ dyi ApBwjij
fjH[ej m q"a bB,v h{ fi epiqpt a[ ljwa fpiL sg q"a dr,y
b>ai h{ m dul ai%J w'Hg Wgu[ej aJ r,T[ej rg Rpl ai%J sj
hg l' dHV%J f=ag WyV h' eH[ m
##B[wP qdhij a[ y[aP q,v sg df>c y'G qCg qljSg rg eHg$$
l' dHl rwa df>c dr,y dHV%J sj w'Hg dVLjV VhgG m
biuV dl>z sj Fij HgLi dl>z } WyV h'dHbj ##wgC[
f{ qi[Gej$$ l' Rpls[ wgC[ fH[ m
l[n e'Gsj q,v } u' WyV h'dHbj ##e'Gsj q{G i'Gsj dcnj m$$
Wjwg h'i rg u' dHV%J sj ljo ds>s[ lV lF sg fiojdH

87
Part 4

dHh' duh[ WyV dur[G FerjV dl>z e"sjij@ bqg y>s bi'Cj
Fp,y'G q>cg f>ljig sg spwjV lg@ \HgLi dl>z sj Fij| r,v dHLjij
lg ##FerjdVbj@ e'sjdibj@ bqg y>s i'dCbj@ ljdhW l,y[
i'dCbj m$$
u[ dwl[ sj W,yj Wgqji h' ujSj uJ fLP Wgqji h' ujSj
RpV%J } a>siplag sg W[Vag wiVg aJ h;Pi V[ WyV wiVj
##qji' cv[ \i'C[-b,Zg dH,B| e'Gs[ s[@ e'Gs[ sg wji b{ m$$ e'Gs[
sj dVLjV WSj w[ Rpo[ hg cv[ qjiV[ W,y[ V[ ngw h' ujSj m
\cv[ dHl ai%J qjiV[ dur[G dwl[ sg V;i sj l,w h'r[ aJ Rpl
sg x'B' WSj w[ bjq v'w dAai qjis[ hV| u' WyV dwl[ f=ojdH
wgaj Rpl[ ai%J hg ridabj m wHg fjnwJ sj dryji h' uJsj
h{ dw WjWj ug V[ lijf ds,aj lg@ VhgG dHh aJ bwjv fpit
sj hpwq dHl[ ai%J hg riaSj lg dwl[ qhJfpit spbjij m duaVg
s[i aw sl fjaLjhgbJ ligi wiw[ l>lji dr,y dryigbj RpV%J
spbjij rg hpwq ridabj m dur[G ldaepiP VjVw s[r ug qhjiju
sPug rji H[qVjWjs \fjdwlajV| eH[ m dHo[ h;Pi sj l[rw FjHg
vjv'$ idh>sj lg m r[tS vHg eigW fi dlsw sj ZVg@ dlsw
sj fpavj lg m Wjv[@ qisjV a'G dWVJ ldaepiJ Vjv h'i rg
ljZP lV m Vei s[ Wjhi bjlS vj dvbj ba[ aiwjvJ fHgbJ
a'G hpwq ds,aj ##ujRp l>a ug Vei dr,Dy'G dFdAbj q>e dvbjRp m$$
qisjV[ } rg hpwq h'dHbj ##ujRp bjf rg yv[ ujRp@ bjRpGs[
lq[G FjHg vjv' } Vjv v{ bjRpSj hpwq bVplji l>a Vei dr,y
yv[ eH[ m dFdtbj q>eS fdhv[ zi uj bvt uejHg m dHl
zi dr,y ljsg sj dshjCj lg m zi y>e[ tJs[ fgGs[ bjsqg
sj lg m fdhvg brj; ds,ag@ dwl[ Vj lpdSbj@ sPug brj; rg
Vj lpSg w'Hg dFdtbj fjRpS Vj bjdHbj m Wjhi'G dHl zi b>si
ujS vHg w'Hg bjsqg z'C[ lrji h' w[ LijWg hjva dr,y bjdHbj
qisjVj ug s[ ljhqS[ bj w[ dHRpG W'vS v,ej dur[G FjHg l>a't

88
Part 4

dl>z ug VjVw f=wjL dr,y dvts[ hV _


bBfB W{V Wwa spiWjVg m dah dAV bjrj dHw qsfjVg mm
qisjV[ w' sgF Zw[vj m WhpWv dlRpG ZiVg fi q[vj mm
Fjr bio dHV[ } dH,w LijWg dtCwrgG brj; dr,y W'vsj
h'dHbj ejv%J w,Tsj h'dHbj bjdHbj Rpl V[ qisjV[ } Z,wj
qjiw[ ;qgV RpD,a[ lpB ds,aj m ljZPbJ V[ qisjV[ } ypdwbj dwRpGdw
l,B wjxg v,eg lg m RpV%J dHo[ tv'Vj ngw Vj lqdNbj m qisjV[
} Vjv v{ w[ FjHg vjv' ug s[ zi yv[ eH[ m dHl Rpfi>a FjHg
vjv' } Vjv v{ w[ ldaepiP VjVw fjaLjh s[ yiVJ dr,y uj
q,oj B[dwbj m qisjV[ V[ u' Vei dr,y Wgag Rph drdobj lpSj
ds,ag m FjSj ria debj ldaepiJ V[ FjHg vjv' } WjSg spbjij
LWs lpSjdHbj ba[ bjdtbj _
jYsI mY AwvY Ksm kI bwxI qYsVw krI igAwnu vy lwlo ]
pwp kI jM\ lY kwblhu DwieAw jorI mMgY dwnu vy lwlo ]
srmu Drmu duie Cip Kloey kUVu iPrY prDwnu vy lwlo ]
kwjIAw bwmxw kI gl QkI Agdu pVY sYqwnu vy lwlo ]
musl mwnIAw pVih kqybw kst mih krih Kudwie vy lwlo ]
jwiq snwqI hoir ihdvwxIAw eyih BI lyKY lwie vy lwlo ]
KUn ky soihly gwvIAih nwnk rqu kw kuMgU pwie vy lwlo ]1]
\dav>e q^ 1 b>e 722-23|

LWs RpyjiV a'G Wjbs u' wpN ridabj Rph lji[ hg dHdahjl
fC%V rjv[ ujSs[ hV m dH,w f=l>e WjWj ug bjfS[ qpt a'G
lpSjdHbj wis[ lV dw #us blgG Wjhi u>evJ dr,y dryis[
lJ aj ljcj dqvjf WjWj ijq dl>z ug Vjv h'dHbj u' VjqZjig
l>fisj s[ qptg lV m$$ f=qjio s[ WyV h'S a'G Wjbs q"w[ sg
hwPqa sg e,v api fHg \Fjr b>ei[;g hwPqa| dw dwl[ ai%J

89
Part 4

b>ei[; ydvbj ujr[ w'Hg IaV wgaj ujH[ dwRpGdw@ dHh ;pvq
Whpa wi dihj h{ m$$ ijq dl>z V[ WyV wgaj m
h;Pi V[ RpDa, i ds,aj ##dul rwa hpwq h'dHbj dHV%J V[
\b>ei[;J V[| dHo[ fjSg rg VhgG fgSj@ bu[ dHV%J sj lqJ VhgG m$$
lFp dwAp hpwq[ bjrsj lFp dwAp hpwq[ ujdH m
##hJ u[ aphj} w'Hg hpwq h{ aJ aplgG wi'$$ WjWj ug V[
WyV wgaj m ##u' wpN h' dihj h{ hpwq Vjv h{ m WjWi hpwq
Vjv bjdHbj m H[qVjWjs s[ idhS rjv[ hjwq fgij } q>Vs[@
fPus[ lV fgi rg wijqjag lV fi dHh lq[G dwl[ sg wijqja
Vj yvg dur[G ldaepiJ V[ xpiqjdHbj h{ _
kotI hU pIr vrij rhwey jw mIru suixAw DwieAw ]
Qwn mukwm jly ibj mMdr muiC muiC kuier rulwieAw ]
koeI muglu n hoAw AMDw iknY n prcw lwieAw ]4]
\bjlj q^ 1@ b>e 417-18|

dHl lq[G dwl[ rg fgi xwgi V[ RpV%J sg lhjdHaj VhgG


wgag dwRpGdw hpwq VhgG lg m dHl ai%J i,Wg hpwq qhJfpitJ
ijhgG rias[ hV_
f=F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj mm
\eRpCg lptqVg|

l' dHh FjSj u' e'Gsj qv a[ ljogbJ Vjv ridabj Rph


bwjv fpit s[ hpwq Vjv ridabj m
ArVwvY ibllwvY inMdku ]
pwrbRhmu prmysru ibsirAw Apxw kIqw pwvY inMdku ]1] rhwau ]
jy koeI aus kw sMgI hovY nwly ley isDwvY ]
Axhodw Ajgru Bwru auTwey inMdk AgnI mwih jlwvY ]1]
prmysr kY duAwrY ij hoie ibqIqY su nwnku AwiK suxwvY ]

90
Part 4

Bgq jnw kau sdw AnMdu hY hir kIrqnu gwie ibgswvY ]2]10]
\bjlj q^ 5@ b>e 373|

e'Gs[ q,v sg dWiag H[Vg fjfqHg WSg dw dHl V[ WjWj


ug } ;dhi rg ds,aj lg m dHl sj f=l>e b,e[ bjr[ej m

mn ry hukmu mµin suKu hoie]


hpwqg dHVljV f=qjaqj Vjv dH,w lpi h' w[ bjfSg ljig
bf,Sa } ?aq wi ds>sj h{ ba[ lpt f=jfa wiw[ f=qjaqj
dr,y vgV h' uJsj h{ m dHl ai%J s[ bjsiLw a[ l,y[ l[rw
sj ugrV dVLjV Rpl f=qjaqj sg f=ga dVWjhpSg dwhj debj
h{ m dHl vHg Rph hpwqg W>sj h' w[ hpwq dr,y ugrV Waga
wisj h{ m hpwq q>V w[ f=rjV yCsj h{ ba[ hig sj qh,v v,Fsj
h{ m hpwq WpNSj a[ hpwq q>VSj s' r,t r,t yg;J Vj RpV%J s'hJ
dr,y u' xiw h{ Rpl } Vj hpwq uJ FjS[ lqN w[ } WC[ qhsPs
uh[ bioJ dr,y v{ dvbj uJsj h{ m dtbjv h{ dw w'Hg wLB
bj ujH[ uJ ZV WiWjs h' ujH[ bjds dHl } lqN w[ dHl
b,e[ dli Npwj s[Sj dHh hg Rpl sj hpwq q>VSj h{ m dHl ai%J
bjaqj } LJag@ lWi@ l>a't dqv uJs[ hV m lqp,y[ a"i a[ dlbjSf
rg dHl[ dr,y h{ dw dul yg; } Bjdvbj VhgG uj lwsj m f=qjaqj
dVijwji h{ bjfSj hpwq W'v w[ aJ s,lsj VhgG m dHl vHg
hpwq dr,y apidsbJ sg hpwq sg lqN bJrsg } a[ ugrV
upea v,Fsg h{ m bjf[ } f=qjaqj iPf epiP sg qpw>qv ajW[sjig
b>si dvbjRpSj f{Gsj h{ m hpwq q>VS rjvj hg lpt sg f=jfag
wi lwsj h{ m
FjHg rdibjq dl>z WjWj ug s[ l[rw hpwq bVplji dVaV[q

91
Part 4

wisj lg zi[vP w>q rg wisj t[ag sj w>q rg wisj fi dVIq


Vjv qdiIjsj bVplji uf af wiVj m qhJfpitJ s[ dqdvbJ
l[rj dlqiV dr,y qV v,esj h{ m dH,w rji WjWj bV>s dl>z
ug \wv[iJ rjv[| qhjiju V[ l>ea dr,y W{dnbJ qptgbJ } lrjv
wgaj ##u[ aphj} w'Hg fp,A[ dw aphjc[ ziJ b>si epiP e=>o ljdhW
s[ liPf i,Dt[ h'H[ hV a[ duV%J l>aJ w'v aplgG uJs[ h' wg Rph
l+g epiP e=>o ljdhW sj f+wjL wis[ hV@ q>Vs[ fPus[ hV@ dxi
aplgG Rpo[ wg v{S uJs[ h' fp>dVbj } Vjej VhgG f{S s[Gs[ m$$
dHh WyV WjWj ug V[ wHg rji sphijdHbj fi dwl[ V[ urjW
Vj ds,aj m bjdti WjWj ug V[ bjf hg RpD,ai dr,y xpiqjdHbj
dw ##aplgG wdhSj blgG dl,t hJ m l+g epiP e=>o ljdhW sg WjSg
dul lq[G fC%s[ hJ aJ lj} l>aJ w'v ujS sg f=[iVj dqvsg
h{ m blgG ldaepiJ s[ hpwq bVplji uJs[ hJ m Rpo[ uj w[ lj}
ldaepiP s[ yiVj sj Fi'lj dqvsj h{ Vjq ufS rjdvbJ sg
l>ea wiV Vjv epiP VjVw s[ zi sj dfbji r,DZ[ Rpl sg
l[rj a[ dlqiV dr,y qV v,e[@ dHhg ljcj l>aJ w'v ujS sj
blvg qV'io h{ m$$ dur[G _
bjr{ ljdhWp dyda a[dibJ Feaj dcdnbj mm
\b>e 520|

dHr[G hg dwl[ lpNrjV V[ s,dlbj h{ _


u' a>P yjh[G dw h' FerjV wg apu fi Vui fdhv[ mm
a'G Rpl w[ bjLw'G wg tjw-fj q[ wi ep;i fdhv[ mm
WjWj ug s[ wga[ WyVJ spbjij siljH[ eH[ qjie sg b,u
s[ lq[G dr,y tjl qh,aaj h{ m FjHg rdibjq dl>z qhJfpitJ sg
l>ea wiV s[ Vjv Vjv WjSg sj dlqiV rg wis[ lV dwRpGdw
WjWj ug V[ ##l>a ufjr{ Vjq$$ rjv[ WyV } l,y wi drtjdHbj
lg m hpS WjWj ug w'v l>eaJ sg bjrjujHg Whpa h' eHg lg m

92
Part 4

lF } dw=fj ds=LBg lswj qpijsJ dqv ihgbJ lV m FjHg rdibjq


dl>z sg lpfaVg qjHg FjeS s[ w>Vg rg dHh li'a fHg dw
WjWj ug sjaj WtLs[ hV dwRpG dw RpV%J s[ zi[ s' vCwgbJ
hg lV qjaj sj dy,a Rpsjl idh>sj lg fp,ai w'Hg VhgG lg m
dH,w dsV RpV%J V[ FjHg rdibjq dl>z ug } dwhj dw ##WjWj
ug hi f=jSg sg bjlj fPig wis[ hV m bjfJ rg RpV%J b,e[
W[Vag wiw[ r[t vHgH[ m bjfS[ Rpfi rg q[hi sg dVejh h'
ujH[@ bjfSg rg N'vg Fi ujr[ m$$
WjWj ug ##b>aiujqg hV lF sgbJ ujSs[ hV bjf hg
dw=fj wiVe[ m$$ FjHg rdibjq dl>z V[ RpD,ai dr,y dwhj m
wHg dsV v>z ujS a'G Wjbs qjHg V[ dxi dwhj$$ dw W[Vag
wi s[Sg lg@ ljij dsV l[rj wis[ h'@ dHh w>q RpV%J vHg r,cj
VhgG m$$
b,e' FjHg rdibjq dl>z V[ ldhu lpFj hg wdh ds,aj ##dw
l>a b>V[ hV@ RpV%J } VhgG faj q{G wg whJ m$$
dul lq[G FjHg rdibjq dl>z l[rj dr,y fh>pdybj aJ h;Pi
h,l w[ W'v[ ##hJ dxi lpSj rdibjq dl>bJ l>a dwa[ b>V[ hV m$$
FjHg ug V[ VgrgG fj vHg aJ ypf yjf tCj dihj qjV' wh[
vxuJ sj fAyjajf wi dihj h'r[ m
dxi WjWj ug V[ ypf } a'CdsbJ WyV wgaj ##blJ }
lF faj h{G m a>P ljcj l[rw h{G hpwq q>V w[ dlqiV wisj h{G m
blgG yjhp>s[ hJ dw a[i[ riej uf af rjvj hg w'Hg a{} s[HgH[ m
fi dHh' duhg iPh bu[ VhgG bjHg m hpS aJ ljc[ w'v LijWg
wWjWg h{@ vCjHg NeC[ wiV rjvj fi Vjq udfbj wi[ej m
zi lvjh wi vrgG@ h{ rg a[ij Iji e>ug qjVlj rjvj sl'Gsj
dl>z V>Wisji m

93
Part 4

FjHg ug } IwgV Vj bjdHbj@ lqNS v,ej dw WjWj ug


h,ls[ wdh ih[ hV m wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju) q{} aJ dHhg qV;Pi
h{ qp>cj h'r[ yjh[ dwh' duhj rg h'r[ m$$
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##y>ej u[ a{} IwgV VhgG bjRpGsj
aJ qp>cj bj dihj h{ Rpl sgbJ s' dVLjVgbJ Ijs i,tg m fdhvg
dw bjr[ej ljv s[ b>si b>si@ sPug fsjdHL r[v[ i'r[ej VhgG m
l' WyV l,y h' w[ W,yj h'dHbj m Rpl sj Vjq i,Ddtbj debj
##y>sj dl>z$$ r,cj h'dHbj aJ d;>seg Fi LijW fgag m vCjHg
NeC[ rg wga[@ vCjHg wiV vHg cJe ypw w[ lF a'G b,e[
h'Sj@ fi Vjv Vjv l+g epiP e=>o ljdhW sj Whpa lpvdNbj h'dHbj
bt>c fjng lg m
w'Hg ujdS V FPv{ FjHgmm
l' Fpv{ dulp bjdf FpvjH[ WpN{ dul{ WpNjHgmm
\f=Fjag q^ 1@ b>e 1344|

wdW,a
w"S a[ig dlxa Rpyji[ dHw ilVj l[@
zB zB rjlg u{l[ xPv qdh Wjl h{ m
lPiu q{G a[u iPf y>=sqj q{ lgavjaj lej H[w il iPf lp.s+aj
w' Fjl ]m
u'eV q{G u'eg qhjuV q{G qhjuV sil fil qV h'ra hpvjl
h{ m
w{l[ a[ig dlxa Rpyji[ ldaVjq dl>z ##qhJ hdiVjq hig$$ lpa[
f=wjL h{
\dHh f=l>e l+! y>sj dl>z s[ fp,ai l+! Vi>e dl>z a'G dqdvbj
h{ m|

94
Part 4

sMq pRswid bYd nwrwiex krx kwrx pRB eyk]


\b>e 714|

l,y[ lp,y[ f=[q sg wSg f=qjaqj hi f=jSg b>si fj w[ l>lji


dr,y F[usj h{ m fi xp,Bsg driv[ dhis[ b>si h{ m dul ligi
b>si xp,B bjr[ Rpl sj dhisj dHV%J Lp,Z hp>sj h{ Rplsg dwl[
f=ag Vxia@ q>s dtbjvg ba[ spLB FjrVJ Rpaf>V VhgG hp>sg m
Rpl } bjfS[ zi[vP ugrV s[ spt lpt sg YB rg bjfS[ f=gaq
sg tpLg b>si hg hp>sg h{ m Rph dH,w dtV qjai rg dfbji[ a'G
fi[ idhSj WisjLa VhgG wisj m ligiw spt r[v[ r{s hwgq
rg Rphg@ cjwBi srj rg Rphg@ ugrV rg Yhg a[ sjVg rg
Yhg udebjlP s[ qV sg FjrVj WS uJsj h{ m Rpl s[ qV
b>si aJ dH,w RpD,aq fsjio f{ yp,Ddwbj hp>sj h{ l[rj sj m u'
lF a'G l=[LB af q>dVbj debj h{ m dur[G -
epi l[rj afj dldi afp ljip mm
dHw,vr[ a"i a[ af,Ddlbj wiV rjvj aJ h>wjig h' uJsj
h{ fpijaV dHdahjl dr,Dy'G d;wi h{ dw af wiV sj bdZwji
r[s bVplji hi dH,w riV rjv[ } VhgG m iqjdHS sj dH,w
f=l>e h{ m l=g ijq ug bIp,DdZbj sj iju Fje l>Fjv[ h'H[ lg m
bIp,DdZbj b>si dH,w W=jhqS sj fp,ai qi debj m Rph Rpl sg
s[h } ypw w[ siWji s[ \iju FrV| b,e[ i,t w[ drivjf wiV
v,e dfbj m ijq ug s[ w>Vg i'S sg brj; fHg aJ RpV%J fp,DdAbj
##w"S i' dihj h{$$ m
l[rwJ V[ urjW ds,aj ##qhjiju ) dH,w W=jhqS sj fp,ai
qi debj h{ m Rph Rpl sg vjL yp,w dvbjdHbj h{ ba[ sirj;[
95
Part 4

b,e[ i,t w[ drivjf wi dihj h{ m$$


l=g ijq ug Wjhi bjH[ m W=jhqS V[ RpV%J } s[t w[ dwhj
##ijq ug aphjc[ iju b>si bZiq h' dihj h{ dul wiw[ q[i[
fp,ai sg W[-rwa q"a h'Hg h{ m u[ aplgG bZiq wiq rjv[ }
T>c dsRpG aJ q[ij fp,ai duRPGsj h' lwsj h{ m u[ q[ij fp,ai
duRPGsj Vj h'dHbj aJ q{G rg aphjc[ si b,e[ hg ligi dabje
dsbJej m$$
dvdtbj h{ dw ijq ug V[ W=jhqS } Zgiu ds,aj ba[ bjf
##bZiq wiV rjv[ sg Fjv b>si api fH[ m us avjL wis[
u>ev dr,y fhp>y[ aJ Rpo[ dH,w l>FPw Vjq sj LPsi fp,nj vBw
w[ af wi dihj lg@ fi Rph Rpl riV sj dul } af wiV
sj bdZwji VhgG lg m ijq ug V[ bjfSg avrji w,Tg a[ Rpl
sj dli w,B ds,aj m dli b,c hp>dsbJ hg W=jhqS sj fp,ai ugra
h' debj m
af a[ Feag dr,y b>ai h{ dwRpGdw wHg fjnw lqNSe[
dw ijq ug V[ dfAv[ afg LPsi sj aJ dli w,B ds,aj fi FgvVg
rg Lpsi lg Rpl s[ W[i tJs[ lV m FgvSg dr,y b>ai lg RplV[
Feag wgag lg m debjV a[ Feag dr,y rg b>ai h{ m dHl
drrjs dr,y f{S sg v'C qdhlPl Vj wis[ h'H[ FgvSg sg ljtg
f[L h{ m
dHlsj blvg Vjq ##ljWig$$ fi f=dl,Z Vjq FgvSg m us
f[dwbj ba[ lhpdibJ rv'G dVijL h' w[ bjaq h,Ddabj wiV
vHg u>ev dr,y bj eHg m Rpo[ dHl } qa>e qpVg s[ siLV
h'H[ m qpVg ug sg bjadqw ds=LBg V[ FgvSg } Feag s[ iPf
dr,y r[dtbj dw dHl sj dhisj dViAv a[ dVLwfB h{ m RpV%J
##ljWig$$ } hpwq wgaj ##W[Bg) Feag wi@ ijq ijq udfbj
wi@ l[rj h{ bjLiq dr,y NjCP s[dHbj wi m dHo[ V[C[ hg dH,w

96
Part 4

N"fCg WSj w[ dHl Feag sj qjie btdabji wi vRp@ dHl[


b>si hg ugrV sj blvg qV'io h{ m$$
ljWig V[ l[rj dlqiV LpiP wi ds,aj m dH,w dsV qa>e qpVg
woj wi ih[ lV aJ d;wi bjdHbj dw ijq ug f>fjli li'ri
a[ bjRpSe[ m dHh lpS w[ ljWig V[ fp,DdAbj ##qhjiju) dHh ijq
ug w"S hV ba[ dwo[ bjRpSe[ m$$
qa>e qpVg ug V[ ijq ug Wji[ ljig drdobj lpSj w[ dwhj
##dw ijq ug dHo[ hg bjRpSe[ ba[ dHl ila[ a[ hg bjRpSe[ m
qpVg ug s[ WyV lpS w[ FgvSg V[ #ijq ijq$ ufV sg
hi r[v[ dWiag WSj vHg ba[ hi i'; Rpl ila[ sg lxjHg
wiVg dul ila[ qpVg ug V[ ijq ug s[ bjRpS Wji[ s,Ddlbj
lg m F[Bj vHg W[igbJ a'G W[i dvbj w[ i,tS[ m
q>ae qpVg ug ligi dabjeS v,e[ aJ lji[ l[rw w'v bj
eH[ m FgvSg i' w[ wdhS v,eg ##q{G wg wiJeg lpbjqg ug q[ij
dHo[ w"S h{ aplgG siejh } uj ih[ h' m
qpVg ug V[ dsvjlj ds>s[ dwhj ##a[ij ijq h{ m dHo[ l[rj
wisg ihp us ijq ug bjRpSe[ lF a'G fdhvJ a{} siLV
s[Se[ m$$
qa>e qpVg ug s[ ligi dabjeS a'G Wjbs RpV%J s[ y[v[
FgvVg } a>e wis[ ih[ fi Rpl V[ ijq ug sg Rpcgw b>si
dHo[ hg sp,t awvgx N,v[ m ijq ug bjH[ aJ lF a'G fdhvJ FgvSg
sg N"fCg b>si eH[ m FgvSg siLV wiw[ ?pLg Vjv fjev
h' ihg lg m RplV[ f=FP s[ yiVJ sg l[rj wgag ba[ W[iJ sg
F[Bj b,e[ i,tg m

97
Part 4

wdW,a
h{ lg uja wg wqgVg@ iPf i>e a'G rg hgVg m
wpN y,u a'G rg hgVg@ dHw f=[q rjvg FgvSg m
yJHg yJHg s'Cg bjHg uPn[ W[i F[B dvbjHg m
i,Dt[ b,e[ tj ljHg q{G hJ spt NgvSg m
ijq ug V[ ljZ dabje[ f>dcaJ a'G sPi Fje[@
VhgG ZVgbj fjl vje[ W{n[ fjl FgvSg m
wdhS dHh aJ W[i dH,DV[ il Fi[ h{V dq,Dn[@
b,e[ ws[ VhgG dc,Dn[ Z>V a>P h{ FgvSg m
dHl ai%J ijq ug V[ Feag sg wsi wgag dwRpGdw RpV%J
} Fea dfbji[ hV m Feag wiV sj lji[ riVJ } h,w h{ m
ta=g@ W=jhqS@ LPs@ r{l Rpfs[lp yhp riVj wRp lJNj mm
\lPhg q^ 5 b>e 748|

l[rj ba[ Feag s'V'G dVi>wjig fpiL hg wi lwsj h{ m l[rj


rg b{lg ##du,a vjdHbj daa vje$$ bjfSg qi;g VhgG m
ljyj ljdhWp dwifj wi{ mm l' l[rwp uq a[ w{lj ci{ mm
\ZVjlig q^ 1 b>e 661|

l' dHl ai%J sj Feag FjrVj@ dlsw Fi'lj i,tS rjvj


siug dl,t fdirji FjHg ugRpS dl>z Fpy'G wvJ sj lg m dHV%J
s[ zi'G qjHg fiajf w"i l,yg LiZj a[ dHwjei qV wiw[ l[rj
wisg lg m dH,w dsV qjHg sj fp,ai Wl>a dl>z Wgqji h' debj m
Rpqi f>u wp ljv sg h'S wiw[ tli[ sg Wgqjig Vjv fgCa
lg m W,yj dWvwpv hg W[bjl h' debj qjHg rg Rpl s[ w'v W{ng
ihg l[rj wiV Vj uj lwg m spfdhi sj lqJ h' debj h;Pi
WjWj ug qhjiju V[ Vgvj dl>z } brj; s[ WpvjdHbj ba[
hpwq ds,aj ##qjHg } v{ w[ bjRp b,u l[rj dr,y VhgG bjHg m

98
Part 4

Rpl } wdhSj dw Vjv dH,w zCj fjSg sj Fi w[ vHg bjr[ m$$


Vgvj dl>z #lda WyV$ wdh w[ api dfbj m qjHg s[ zi fh>py
w[ Rpl } WjWj ug sj WyV lpSj ds,aj m qjHg V[ l'dybj dw
W,yj rg ljhJ a[ h{ m fi WyV rg VhgG q'CSj m fi Rpl dlsw
sg fwg qjHg V[ zCj fjSg sj Fiw[ dli Rpfi i,t dvbj a[
Vgvj dl>z Vjv api fHg m qjHg sj yjyj u' dHV%J w'v idh>sj
lg wdhS v,ej ##WgWg a>P api yvg H[G W,y[ sg wg hjva h{ m$$
qjHg V[ RpD,ai ds,aj ##l[rj VhgG A,csg b,e[ u' f=q[Li } qV;Pi h{ m
qjHg h;Pi s[ yiVJ dr,y fh>py eHg m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
##WgWg zCj bjf hg vjh v' m$$ dxi Vgvj dl>z } hpwq h'dHbj
##qjHg s[ zC[ sg liJ wi' m$ Vgvj dl>z zCj dqdSbj hpwq
bVplji #liJb$ wgag m aJ qhjiju WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
#Lp,Z h{ m$ qjHg } hpwq h'dHbj ##NjCP bjds sg l[rj wi'$$ dHl
l[rj Rpfi>a h;Pi V[ yiVJ } zpBS sg l[rj ds,ag m WjWj ug
qhjiju lqjZg dr,y h' eH[ m qjHg Rpcgwsg lg dw A[ag ApBg
dqv[ fi bjf V[ lqjZg Vj t'vg@ aiwjvJ f{ eHgbJ m us h;Pi
V[ lqjZg t'vg aJ qjHg a'G y[hi[ r,v Vj a,dwbj debj h;Pi
s[ qpt a[ Whpa a[u f+ajf lg m V[ai t'v[ ba[ WyV wgaj ##qjHg
zi ujRp vjv V" Wi V" h{ m VjVj s'haj w"cgbj Vjv t[c
ih[ hV m$$
##lda WyV$$ wdh w[ qjHg zi } api fHg m us zi bjHg
aJ wg r[tsg h{ dw VjVj s'haj w"cgbJ t[c ih[ hV m qjHg
sj qV ?pLg dr,y ##Z>V WjWj ug$$ ##Z>V WjWj ug$$ ej dihj
lg m qjHg s[ yjy[ V[ dwhj dw ##WjWj ug r,Dv'G dul lq[G a>P zi'G
eHg qp>cj Rpl lq[G a'G hg ngw h'Sj LpiP h' debj lg m dxi q{G
fajl[ z'v w[ dfvjH[ m$$ qjHg V[ dxi l[rj h'i rg LiZj Vjv
wiVg LpiP wi ds,a[ m dH,w dsV qjHg V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju )

99
Part 4

ljc[ drhC[ dr,Dy'G dWVJ hrj a'G dq,Bg Rpcsg h{ m$$


WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHh s' ipfH[ v{ ujRp m zi dr,y
s,W s[S@ w'Hg drzV VhgG fr[ej m$$ l' hpS dHh fdirji h;Pi
sgbJ WiwaJ sj lswj Whpa yCsgbJ wvJ dr,y h{ m dHl
fdirji s[ da>V cjwBi b{q!b{l!b{q! cg!b{q! Wg!Wg!b{l! dH,w
t[agWjCg bxli@ dH,w b{x!lg!bjHg bxli h{ m dH,w cjwBi
wiVv qdh>si dl>z dqvBig sg l[rj wi ih[ hV m dwl[ fsjio
sg wqg VhgG m hpS rg c[i[ b>si qjHg epidsbjv w"i dHl[
fdirji sg hi r[v[ l[rj dr,y a,afi idh>sg h{ m
\dHh f=l>e qjHg epidsbjv w"i \qjHg f=ajf w"i sg }h|
a'G dqdvbj h{|

moih inrgun miq QorIAw


qMU sd hI dIn dieAwl ]
\b>e 203|

h[ rjdhepiP dfaj ) a[ij Vjq udfbj VhgG uJsj m a>P bjsqgbJ


sj L'=qSg s[raj h{ m f=q[Li a>P lF wjiu lrjisj h{ m bjfS[
F>cjdibJ dr,y sjaj WtLS rjvj lir'aq sjaj h{ a[i[ bap,B
F>cji[ hV m dHh tvwa a[ig lif+lag h[n bjfSg ugrV L{vg
} a'isg h{ m l>lji sgbJ lF ds=LBgqjV rlaPbJ Rpl wia[
sg iyVj hV m dHh aV@ ZgbJ fp,ai h'i diLa[ Vja[ lF Rpl
sg qjdHbj hV m qVp,t Rpl s[ hpwq bVplji hg uVq dr,y bjRpGsj
h{ NPn[ aV } l,yj q>V w[ spdVbjrgG rlaPbJ Vjv q'h wiw[
l,y[ a'G dViepVgbJ h' uJsj h{ bdebjVg fpiL sg WpZg dHh
NPng qjdHbj u' W,svJ sg AJ rJe dAV Fi sg h{@ } lqNS
a'G blqio h' uJsg h{ m l>ljiw l>W>ZJ } dyi lsgrg ujS

100
Part 4

w[ Rph blojHg lpt qjSsj h{ ba[ bjfS[ VjLrjV ligi }


wHg f=wji Vjv dL>ejisj h{ bjfS[ lpt sg f=jfag vHg sPdubJ
} spt ds>sj h{ m dHh dViepVgbJ qvgV WpZg sj qjvw hp>sj
h{ dHh qhJfpitJ s[ iPf dr,y bjf dHl l>lji dr,y dryi[ f=FP
} fAjS VhgG lws[ Rpl s[ wga[ h'H[ epSJ } lqN VhgG lws[
ljcg Wp,Zg dHVg drLjv VhgG hp>sg u' blgG qhJfpitJ sg vgvj
} lqN lwgH[@ fi Rph sgV sdHbjv hi r[v[ dHVljVg Fv[
vHg hg l'ys[ hV m
dHhg qhJfpitJ sj Rps[L h{ epiP qjie siljRpSj m wiV
wijRpS rjvj lF f=FP bjf hg h{ dHVljV dHl s[ wjiVjdqbJ
a[ dwa>P wisj h{ Rpl sg wiVg } Fp,v uJsj h{ m u[ Rph WtdLLJ
rg riajRpGsj h{ aJ rg qVp,t sg q,a a'G Wjhi h' w[@ w'Hg
fPiWv[ wiqj rjvj hg dHV%J } wWPv wisj h{ m dHl[ ai%J sj
dWiaJa WjWj l'hS dl>z s[ zi h'dHbj m
WjWj l'hS dl>z s[ zi s' fp,ai lV ueaj dl>z ba[ Wp,Z
dl>z m Wp,Z dl>z ws[ ws[ WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV rg bjRpGsj
idh>sj lg m dH,w dsV qhjiju V[ WyV wgaj ##Wp,Z dl>z ) a>P
i'; bjdHbjwi m$$
##qhjiju ) w>q dr,y ipN[ idh>s[ hJ lqJ z,B dqvsj h{ m$$
Wp,Z dl>z V[ RpD,ai ds,aj m
h;Pi V[ dxi WyV wgaj ##z,B a'G z,B lqJ w,T dvbj
wi' m$$ fi bjdHbj ;iPi wi' dHl dr,y aphjcj Fvj h{
Wp,Z dl>z V[ urjW dr,y dwhj ##qhjiju ) blvgba dHh
h{ dw q{G dHw,vj w>q wiV rjvj hJ dHl wiw[ lqJ VhgG dqvsj m$$
fjaLjh V[ ldhu lpFj h' WyV wgaj ##a[i[ zi w>q rjv[
W>s[ Whpa h' ujSe[ fi bjdHbj ;iPi wi' m$$

101
Part 4

qhJfpitJ sj WyV ldhu lpFj h'r[ uJ dwl[ h'i b>sj;


dr,y h'r[ lda hg h>psj h{ m hpS Wp,Z dl>z i'; rJe WjWj ug
s[ siLV wiV bjRpGsj ba[ WyV lpSsj idh>sj m dH,w dsV
Wp,Z dl>z siLV wiV bjdHbj aj h;Pi V[ s' ipfH[ Rpl r,v
wiw[ dwhj ##Wp,Z dl>z dHh s' ipfH[ v{ uj m$$
Wp,Z dl>z V[ dHVwji wi ds,aj a[ dwhj ##qhjiju ) v'w
ljZP@ l>aj } qjdHbj q,oj B[ws[ hV a[ q{G aphjc[ w'v' s' ipfH[
v{ vrJ m$$ h;Pi V[ da>V rjig Rphg WyV wgaj fi Wp,Z dl>z
V[ VJh wi ds,ag wpN lq[G Wjbs dxi dH,w dsV us'G Wp,Z dl>z
siLV wiV bjdHbj aJ WjWj ug s[ V[C[ h' w[ W{n debj m
b>aiujqg qhJfpitJ V[ Rpl sg yjsi s[ vC Vjv \dwVji[ Vjv|
s' ipfH[ W>V ds,a[ m Wp,Z dl>z } dHV%J rji[ w'Hg faj Vj v,Ddebj m
Rph zi yvj debj m Ljq sj lqJ lg Rpl sj dWlaij zi
rjdvbJ drAj i,Ddtbj lg m Rpl V[ bjfSg bjsa bVplji i';
sg ai%J ljx lpoi[ dWlai[ RpD,fi yjsi x[ig m yjsi s[ vC
Vjv W>V[ h'H[ s' ipfH[ fjr[ RpD,fi uj r,u[ m Rpl[ rwa Rpl }
dtbjv bjdHbj dw dHh aJ Rphg s' ipfH[ hV u' WjWj ug q{}
ds,a[ lV m ija aJ v>zj vHg fi lr[i[ hg s' ipfH[ v{ w[ WjWj
ug fjl dB,v[ RpD,fi bj debj m Vqlwji wiw[ w'v W{n w[ s'
ipfH[ bjfSg u[W dr,Dy'G w,T w[ WjWj ug b,e[ i,t w[ wdhS v,ej$
#qhjiju ) aplgG dHh s' ipfH[ q[ig yjsi vC W>V ds,a[@ q{G dHh
VhgG v{S[ q[i[ a[ dw=fj wi' m v'w aphj} f{l[ s[ w[ uJs[ hV
q{G aphjc[ w'v' v{ w[ ujrJ m$$
h;Pi V[ dxi WyV wgaj ##Wp,Z dl>z i,t v{Gsj dHh ipfH[)$$
Rpl V[ dxi urjW s[ ds,aj m
WjWj ug WyV wgaj ##y>ej dxi a[ig qi;g h{ a>P dHh s'
ipfH[ } f{l[ lqN W{nj blgG aJ a{} dHh s' df>c ds,a[ lV@

102
Part 4

dwRpGdw a[i[ Vjv WyV h'dHbj lg dw qp>c[ w>q rjv[ Whpa h'
ujSe[ m RpV%J } dxi ;qgV rg aJ yjhgsg lg@ a>P q"wj VhgG
lJF ldwbj m$$
l' dHh WyV b,Bv h{ Wp,Z dl>z sj fdirji aJ Whpa rdZbj
h{ fi Rph s' ipfH[ q'CV wiw[ df>c s' VhgG dqv[ m dur[G xpiqjV h{_
ugb u>a ldF fjA{ wdibj f=oq[ diuwp lqjhjmm4mm
\b>e 1235|

apvlg sjl ug s,ls[ hV ^


fdhv[ WVg f=jvWZ fjA{ WdVbj l=gimm
apvlg Wja byiu h{ qV VhgG WjZ{ Zgimm
\dHh f=l>e Wp,Z dl>z s[ fdirji a'G dqdvbj h{ m|

qqI vwau n lgeI siqguir rKy Awip ]3]


\eRpCg q^ 5 b>e 218|

qVp,t f=qjaqj sg wiVg a'G W[tWi idh>sj h{ m u[ w'Hg ligiw


i'e h' debj aJ cjwBig lhjdHaj Vjv dHvju h' debj Rpl
sj dlhij \LjWjl| cjwBi } uJsj h{ m fi dHl s[ RpvB u[
FjS[ b>si bj debj aJ w'dlbj f=qjaqj } uJsj h{ m fi bi'eaj
dqvS lq[G Rpl sg WtdLL }@ q[hi } Fpvj ds,aj uJsj h{ m
f=FP sg dw=fj ds=LBg qjVr ujag a[ h'r[ aJ a,ag hrj rg VhgG
v,esg@ dwRpGdw ligiw wLB@ s,pt@ lp,t RpV%J sg lif=lag h[n
hpwq sg Rpcgw dr,y tC[ hV m blvgba lqNS rjvj L[=lB
Wp,ZgqjV aJ Rpl sg i;j b>si hg l>ljiw ugrV ugRPGsj h{ m
WjWj ug sj l[rw l[n e'igbj q,v WCj Fi'l[ rjvj dHVljV
lg m hi r[v[ hpwq dr,y idhSj@ l[rj FjrVj qV b>si WSg

103
Part 4

idhSg m dH,w dsV fjaLjh V[ hpwq ds,aj dw ##e'igbj q,v b,u


dHo[ fdhi[ f{Sj h{ m$$
e'igbj q,v V[ dwl[ z[ivP ;iPig w>q wjiV Vj bj lwS
sg q;WPig s,lg m
h;Pi V[ dwhj ##y>ej w'Hg bjfSg oJ dwl[ h'i } F[u s[ m$$
e'igbj q,v ##ldaWyV$$ wdh w[ zi r,v yvj debj m Rpl V[
dH,w h'i l[rjsji u{ dl>z } fdhi[ f{S vHg dwhj m fi Rpl
V[ rg Bjv qB'v wiV sg w'dLL wgag@ WhjVj WSjdHbj dw
q[i[ zirjvg dHw,vg zi dr,y h{ Rph cisg ih[eg m e'igbj
q,v V[ Rpl } yji bjV[ s[ w[ dwhj ##dHh v{ bjfSj wijdHbj@
zi[ dwl[ h'i Wp,Tg } fj s[rgG m
u{ dl>z q>V debj ba[ WjWj fjl bj debj m Vqlwji
wiw[ hpwq fp,AS v,ej m
h;Pi V[ hpwq wgaj ##ljhqS[ w>Z } T'b vj w[ W{n uj
ljig ija dHo[ hg W{nSj h{ m$$
##ldaWyV$$ wdh w[ u{ dl>z w>Z Vjv bjljij v{ w[ W{n
debj m bZg ija h'Hg aJ wg r[dtbj dw WjWj ug h;Pig b>si
dH,w WCg cijrSg iPh tCg h{ m s' RpGevJ qP>h dr,y fj i,tgbj
hV m u{ dl>z } IwgV Vj bjr[ dw q{G lpfVj s[t dihj hJ dw
hwgwa m dHV%g s[i } WjWj ug Wjhi bjH[ a[ fp,AS v,e[ dw
##u{ dl>z cdibj aJ VhgG wg s[dtbj m$$
u' wpN r[dtbj lg Rpl V[ s,l ds,aj m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
##hpS Wjwg sg ija a>P bjijq Vjv W[dxwi h' w[ l" uj m$$ lr[i
h' eHg aJ u{ dl>z s[ ljog bjfS[ e,DdcbJ a[ dwijH[ sj lqjV
v,s w[ v{ bjH[ a[ Rpl } bj w[ wdhS v,e[ ##a>P rg ljc[ Vjv
y,v m$$ Rph cisj uJsj VhgG lg m dHaV[ WjWj ug bj eH[ fp,AS

104
Part 4

v,e[ ##wg e,v h{ m$$


u{ dl>z V[ dwhj ##h;Pi q[i[ ljog FjC[ sj lqjV v,s dvbjH[
hV q{G rg ujSj lg m$$
WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##dw>Vj dwijdHbj dqvsj h{ m$$ ##ug
yji bjV[ dqvs[ hV m$$
h;Pi h,l w[ wdhS v,e[ ##bjh v{ yji bjV[ fi ujSj ljcg
bjdebj a'G dWVJ VhgG m$$
o'C%[ hg dq>Bj Wjbs yC%a dl>z l[rjsji bj debj m RplV[
WjWj ug s[ yiVJ b,e[ q,oj B[dwbj a[ W{n debj m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##u{ dl>z hpS a>P uj lwsj h{ ljcj
l[rw bj debj h{ m$$ u{ dl>z zi yvj debj m yC%a dl>z
sj vCwj sgrjV dl>z bj w[ bjfS[ dfaj } wdhS v,ej ##dfaj
ug bjfSg q,N VhgG dqvsg \q,N sp,Z VhgG ds>sg| aplgG zi yv[
ujRp m$$
WjWj ug a'G bjdebj v{ w[ yCa dl>z bjfS[ fp,ai sgrjV
dl>z } h;Pig l[rj dr,y dWnj w[ yvj debj m Rpl } lqNj
debj dw dWVJ hpwq dwl[ fjl[ VhgG ujSj bjRpSj m wjxg s[i
W{nS a'G Wjbs b,w o,w w[ l'yS v,ej dHo[ W{nS sj wg xjdHsj
h{ ljZJ w'v wg h{ m dwRpG Vj WjWj ug a'G bjdebj v{ vHg
ujr[ m h;Pi V[ bjdebj Vj ds,ag m o'C%j lqJ W{n w[ b,t Wyj
w[ zi } yvj bjdHbj m zis[ dwl[ rg ugb } s,Ddlbj VhgG
dw q{G dWVJ bjdebj a'G bjdHbj hJ m ija f{ eHg aJ Whpa
cijRpS[ ds=L ljhqS[ bjRpS v,e[ m cisj h'dHbj ygwJ qji[ m
lji[ zi rjv[ ci eH[ dw qp>c[ } wg h' debj m dfaj V[ fp,DdAbj
##dw bjdebj v{ w[ bjdHbj lg m$$ RpKai dr,y VhgG$$ dwhj@
yCa dl>z N,B lqN debj Rpl } Vjv v{ w[ WjWj ug w'v

105
Part 4

bj debj@ a[ wdhS v,ej ##qhjiju ) dHl } ci v,esj h{ m


WjWj ug h,l w[ wdhS v,e[ ##wjwj ljZJ w'v wg h{ m$$ sgrjV
dl>z V[ bjfSg evag sg qjxg q>eg aJ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
##y>ej ujh hpS ci VhgG v,esj m$$ Vjv hg q,Bg sj uv rg
ds,aj m Rph ngw h' debj m

Apxy bwlk Awip riKAnu pwrbRhm gurdyv ]


\b>e 820|

f=qjaqj dWVJ dHl uea b>si a[ij w'Hg lhjHg VhgG hp>sj
dHh qjaj@ dfaj@ fp,ai ZgbJ dHlaig a[i[ sp,t dr,y lhjHg VhgG
hp>s[ m dlix a[ig l[rj hg wi lws[ hV@ fi sp,t VhgG r>cj lws[
a[i[ sp,t sj lhjHg@ r>cjrS rjvj dH,w f=q[Li sj Vjq h{ dHh
bjfSg dw=fj lswj a[i[ sp,t sg dVdriag wi lwsj h{@ dHh
a[ig i,Ddtbj wi lwsj h{@ Wjwg lF lpbjiog hV m Z>V s"va
;qgV a[ l>fag dul a[ a>P bjfSj h,w uajRpGsj h{ lpbjl taq
hp>dsbJ hg fijH[ h' uJs[ hV b>av[ lq[G aJ yji w,fC[ hg hp>s[
hV u' rg fijH[ Wl hp>s[ hV m h[ dHVljV ) Rph f=qjaqj u'
sgVj a[ sdHbj wiV rjvj sp,tj sj VjL wiV rjvj h{@ Rpl
Vjv ws[ dfbji VhgG rZjdHbj m dHh uea ija s[ lpfV[ s[
dVbjHg h{ u' b,t tpvdsbJ hg VLB h' uJsj h{ m
sp,tj } sPi wiV rjv[ f=qjaqj s[ Vjq } lqN' dul }
dlqi w[ bujqv a[ eVwj fPiV a"i a[ qpwa h' eH[ lV Rpls[
dfbjdibJ Fjr qhJfpiLj sg l[rj wi' m Vjis qpVg sj Rpfs[L
lpS w[ Wjvw ZiP f=q[Li s[ FuV dr,y v,e debj m Rpl by,v
bldoi@ lsgrg a[ dViF{-fs qpwag } f=jfa wi dvbj lg m
Vjq dlqiV rjv[ FeaJ sg i,Ddtbj f=FP bjf wisj h{ Rpl
epis[r fjiW=hq } hq[LJ bjfS[ b>e l>e lqN' u' liW sp,t
106
Part 4

dVrjiV h{ m dHl[ hg ai%J WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sg


dw=fj spbjij Vjq dlqiV rjv[ ba[ l[rj wiV rjv[ FjHg qdhajW
dl>z s[ z[ivP sp,t sg dVriag h'Hg m qhJfpit dHh lF wpN
wiV sg lqi,oj i,ts[ hV dwRpGdw _
bfVg eda bjdf ujV{ m lpdS lpdS bri rtjV{ mm
\ijqwvg q^ 5 b>e 894|

l^ qdhajW dl>z sp,Z sg l[rj wis[ idh>s[ lV m iP.qg idhS


lq[G rg sp,Z v{ w[ uJs[ lV m fv[e sg Wgqjig bjfS[ u'WV
a[ lg m zi zi b>si x{v yp,wg lg m qdhajW dl>z sj vCwj
biuV dl>z Wgqji h' debj m Wgqjig dul f=jSg } h' uJsg
lg Rpl } dWqji lqdNbj uJsj lg dwRpGdw RpV%J dsVJ dr,y
dHvju rg z,B hg h>psj lg Fdr,ta WyV wiV lq[G l>a WjWj
qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug xpiqjdHbj wis[ lV ##dw w'Hg lqJ bjr[ej
qVp,tg dlbjSf Whpa r,Z ujH[eg@ qpis[ } rg ugRPGsj wi v{Se[ m
FjHg Vgvj dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju) dxi epiP f=q[Li
} w"S q>V[ej m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Vgvj dl>z ) f=q[Ldi } q>VS'
aJ fdhvJ hg hB ujSe[ m w'Hg drivj hg uf[ej m fi us
qpisj ugra h' ujH[ej aJ uWislag dwl[ } VhgG q>VS ds,aj
ujr[ej m u' Vjq uf[ej luj sj h,wsji lqdNbj ujr[ej ba[
l>lji sj VjL rg \?jaqj| Rpl[ rwa h'r[ej m$$
WjWj qdhajW dl>z i'; V[q Vjv sp,Z sg l[rj Wiwiji
i,tS vHg WjWj ug w'v sp,Z v{ w[ fhp>y[ m h;Pi V[ zi[vP hjva fp,Ag m
W;pie qdhajW dl>z V[ vCw[ sg dWqjig WjWa s,Ddlbj
dul lq[G dHh ljig drdobj lpSj dihj lg WjWj ug b>ai dZbjV
h' eH[ \Fjr V[ai W>s wi vH[| Rpl V[ W[Vag wi vHg fi
h;Pi bjfS[ dV,ug bV>s dr,y qla ih[ lqJ Wagsj debj qdhajW

107
Part 4

dl>z rg hpwq sg Rpcgw b>si W{nj dihj m da>V z>B[ Wjbs


h;Pi V[ V[ai t'v[ m qhJfpit us'G dHh' duhg dWiag dr,y h'
ujS aJ dHl b>ai qjVr sj Fvj h{ dur[G -
BPBg ejTVhji e'pfjv mm
\eRpCg lptqVg q^ 5|

e'fjv Vjv dH,w iPf h' w[ u' rg wiV f=rjV hp>sj h{ m


hdi l>ap wi[ l'Hg firjSp mm
Rpfi'wa xpiqjS ridabj aJ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##qdhajW
dl>z #Lp,Z h{$$ zi yv[ ujRp W,yj ngw njw h{ m qjHg Rpl vHg
sp,Z n>Tj wi ihg h{ aphjcg Rpcgw dr,y h{@ aphjc[ ujS a[
sp,Z dfbjH[eg m$$
qdhajW dl>z s[ ujS Rpfi>a qjHg V[ sp,Z W,y[ } dfvjdHbj m
Rpl V[ W,y[ Vjv dfbji wgaj a[ WjWj ug sj v,t v,t LpwijVj
wgaj m W,yj ngw njw lg dHRpG qdhlPl h' dihj lg wg wsg
Wgqji hg VhgG h'dHbj m
dHh WyV WjWj qdhajW dl>z s[ f'ai[ l=! epiyiV dl>z
a'G dqdvbj h{ m

dyh iCjMdVI aUx mJUxw


guir sjix jIau DrwieAw ]
\ijqwvg wg rji b>e 964|

qjVr ujag sj qV r,l \wjWP| dr,y VhgG bj dihj dHl


s[ dr,y FBwS iPfg da=LVj r,l ihg h{ m dHh dHAjrJ a[ wjqVjrJ
wjiV dHh dBw VhgG lwsj FBwsj idh>sj h{ m WCj hg agWi
u;Wj uJ drwji wi'Z rg dHl dr,y r,lsj h{ m dul V[ hi
f=wji sg lp,Z uJ bwv } VjL wiw[ dHh bq'vw iaV iPf

108
Part 4

debjV } lF fjl'G t' dvbj h{ m Fjr wi'Z dr,y bjdHbj qjVr


lF bwv lp,Z } dAw[ B>e w[ qhJ z'i fjf wi ds>sj h{ u'eg
v'w WC[ IaV wiw[@ epSrjV v'w epSJ sj riSV wiw[ hji
eH[ hV fi dHh y>yv qV wjWP dr,y VhgG bjRGpsj m fi us'G
fiq-fpit f=qjaqj sdHbjv hp>sj h{ aj qV } rl dr,y wiV
sgbJ lF upeaJ drZgbJ bj uJsgbJ hV m f=qjaqj sg LiV
dr,y hg LJag h{ m dBwjRP h{ ) r[s fpijV bjds fCV lpSV
sj dHhg vjF h{ dw f=jSg f=qjaqJ sg Feag wi[ Vjq dlqi[ m
lrie-Viw@ b>dq=a-dWt@ l'Vj a[ f{lj \qjdHbj Rplada-
dV>sj dul f=jSg vHg WijWi hV a[ dul } v'F@ q'h@ spt-
lpt wjq wi'Z W>V VhgG lws[ Fjr dul a[ dHV%J sj w'Hg bli
VhgG hp>sj Rphg qhJfpit@ W=hq debjVg h{ m Rpl } qpwa lqN' m
dHh qpwag dHw,vr[ uf af wgdabJ VhgG dqvsg dwl[ fPiV
qhJfpit sg LiV dr,y bjdHbj dqvsg h{ dwRpGdw bSujS[
fJZg } dWVJ sKl[ blvg q>d;v sj qjie VhgG dqvsj m
WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug dB,v[ Rpfi W{n[ lF ai%J
s[ f=jSgbJ sgbJ spdVbjrgG ba[ f=qjio sgbJ v'CJ fPigbJ
wi ih[ hV m w'Hg dVijL VhgG qpCsj m
VhgG tjvg debj w'Hg Aphj u' a[i[ sjqV l[ mm
dHw l>a q>cvg WjWj ug w'v bj w[ ndhig lg RpV%J dr,y
dH,w l>a Z>Vj dl>z Vjq s[ ljZP lV u' ##i"vj h[Cg$$ df>c V[C[
bdhqseC% q>cg s[ lV m drdsbj fC% w[ rg q>cvg s[ Vjv
dryis[ lV m drsrjV WS w[ rg dlqiV bdFbjl VhgG A,dcbj
dlqiV wis[ ih[ m
b>dq=a r[vj h'dHbj aJ l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug dB,v[ s[ df,A[
rjv[ avjW \A,fC| dr,y dHLVjV wiV eH[ m h;Pi dB,v[ Rpfi
Bdhv ih[ lV m us'G RpV%J fjSg } dhvjdHbj aJ WjWj ug }
109
Part 4

brj; lpSg aJ h;Pi V[ l>ldw=a sj lv'w Rpyjdibj m dul sj


bio lg _ ##dul } aplgG f=jfa wiVj yjhp>s[ h' Rph fPi[ ldaepiP
sg dw=fj a'G dWVJ VhgG dqvsj m$$
gur ikrpw ijh nr kau kInI iqh ieh jugiq pCwnI ]
\b>e 633|

RpD,ai dr,y l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug V[ rg l>ldw=a lv'w fdCbj m


dul sj Fjr lg m$$ w'Hg wvu,pe dr,y b{lj lq,io h{ u' Rpl
} dqvj lwsj h'r[ m dul sg l>ea wiw[ f=q[Li sg f=jfag h'r[ m
WjWj ug V[ dxi WyV wgaj ##w'Hg qhJ udebjlP uV h'r[
u' hi WyV lda wiw[ q>V[ aJ dqv lwsj h{ m$$ dxi qplwij
w[ WyV wgaj ##W[Lw Lia vj vjRp m$$
Wl dHaVj dHLjij dqvS sg s[i lg NB l>a Z>Vj dl>z
h;Pi s[ yiVJ Vjv bj upC[ m dwRpGdw RpV%J } aJ dHhg q>d;v
sg Fjv lg m WjSg dr,y xpiqjV h{ _
aj a[ dWvqp fvp dTv V wgu{ ujdH ljZP yidV vegu{mm
\wdvbjVp q^ 4 b>e 1326|

qhJfpit aJ Whpa hV fPuVgw rg hV fi WjWj l>a qhJ


hdiVjq dl>z ug rie[ driv[ hg hV m u' ljZPbJ } rg ajwaJ
WtLs[ lV m qhJfpit l[rw vHg Rphg h{ u' epiP VjVw Vjv@
epiP e=>o ljdhW Vjv u'C[@ dqvjf wijr[@ W>seg sj ilaj sKl[@Rpl
s[ siLV wgagbJ qV LJa h'r[ f=qjaqj sg Nvw V;i bjr[ m
bjr{ ljdhWp dyda a[dibj Feaj dcdnbj mm
\ePuig fRpCg b>e 520|

hpS l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug dB,v[ RpD,fi bj eH[ yiVJ a[ q,oj


B[dwbj a[ hpwq sg Rpcgw dr,y tC' eH[ m
h;Pi WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##aphj} hpwq b>si idhSj

110
Part 4

fr[ej m hpwq ba[ drZg bVplji dVaV[q wiVj fr[ej dH,w dsV
Vei dr,Dy'G f=Ljsj q>e w[ l,a dsV Rpl Vjv hg dViWjh wiVj
h'r[ej m dsV ija dlqiV dr,y Waga wiVj h'r[ej m$$
l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug V[ ##lda WyV$$ wdh w[ dli Npwj ds,aj m
qhJfpitJ sg dw=fj spbjij bap,B dlqiV y,vsj dihj dxi
b{lg br,loj WS eHg dw qV dBw debj m xpiqjV h{_
epi ljtg b>adi ujeg mm aj y>yv qda dabjeg mm
epi ljtg wj Rpugbjij mm aj dqdBbj lev b>Z%jij mm
\l'idn q 1 b>e 599|

hpS us dHdqahjV dr,y fjl h'H[ aJ WjWj ug V[ hpwq


ds,aj ##hpS bjfSj blojV WSjRp a[ Rpo[ dBw' \dWiju'|$$ m RpV%J
W[Vag wgag$$ qhjiju ) dwo[ bjlS vjrJ m$$
hpwq h'dHbj ##FjHg iPf[ \xPv adhlgv| ih' ui w[ i,tS
rjvg rlaP h{ dHl } l>Fjv' \ui w[ uJ Wisjla wiw[| i,tSj m
wijqja dstjS sj bjf } hpwq VhgG m$
dHh ljig dlKdtbj a[ WtdLL v{ w[ l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug hpwq
bVplji FjHg iPf[ yv[ eH[ m Wjwg sg d;>seg sj ljij lqJ
FjHg iPf[ s[ blojV a[ hg Waga wgaj m WjWj ug sj l>W>Z
dHV%J Vjv x[i rg dihj dul Wji[ ljtgbJ b,e[ b>dwa wgagbJ
ujSegbJ m
\dHh f=l>e l+! Wvrgi dl>>z ug V[ WjWj l=g ijq dl>z ug
qvPw[ rjdvbJ fjl'G lpS w[ dvtjdHbj h{ m|

111
Part 4

28
Awpy cwtswl Awip hY pwDw Awpy cwtVy pVx kau Awxy ]
Awpy ipqw mwqw hY Awpy Awpy bwlk kry isAwxy ]
iek QY piV buJY sBu Awpy iek QY Awpy kry ieAwxy ]
ieknw AMdir mhil bulwey jw Awip qyrY min scy Bwxy ]
ijnw Awpy gur muiK dy vifAweI sy jn scI drgih jwxy ]11]
\b>e 553|

h[ f=q[Li Vjis@ drbjl@ ZiP bjds u{l[ diLg a[ig Rplaag


wis[ ih[ m a>P dV,w[ a'G dV,w[@ r,c[ a'G r,c[ } Wp,Zg WtLg@ Ziag
bwjL@ fjajv@ WSj w[ dH,w a'G Whpa iPf h' debj m hi ugr
V[ a{} Z>V Z>V dwhj b"i yp,f h' eH[ m h[ rjdhepiP a>P bjf hg
fC%V rjvj h{ bjf[ hg Rplajs h{ bjf dfaj a[ qjaj h{ bjf
hg Wjvw dlbjS wga[ m dH,w drdsbj fC% fC% w[ l'Ng fjRpGs[
hV m dHhVJ } a>P bjf hg dlbjSf WtLsj h{ m iju[ b"i eigW
a{} dH,w lqjV hV m a>P sr{a idha ]G epSj s[ tujV[ ba[
lqp>si a[ig bjdebj dWV%J a[ig Feag VhgG wi lwsj m dwa[
a>P qpivgbJ a[ WgVJ rujRpGsj h{ dwa[ dw=LV WS w[ eRPbJ
yijRpGsj h{ m dwa[ l>aJ ba[ ljZPbJ s[ f=jS h{ dwa[ s[h a'G
dWVJ dViepS liPf dwa[ liepS liPf h{ m dwa[ epiP VjVw WS
w[ dryisj h{ m dwa[ qhJfpit brajiZjig h{ m a>P a[ a[ig wpsia
wqjv h{ a>P lF } q'h v{S rjvj h{ m a[i[ iPf dr,y W{n qhJfpit
rg spVgbJsjij sgbJ qV'wjqVj fPigbj wiV vHg l>lji b>si

112
Part 4

bjfSg lpe>Zg Wt[i uJs[ hV m dHV%J qhJfpitJ sg l[rj b>si


h'i rg f=jSg bjRpGs[ hV u' zjvSj zjvs[ h'H[ bjf sg Wegyg
sj dH,w xp,v WS uJs[ hV m dHh zjvSj z,B h{ uJ r,Z h{
dHh aJ bjf } hg faj h{ m dHVljV aJ dH,w d;>seg \uVq|
sg zjvSj hg s[t lwsj h{ m fi lqi,o qhJfpit aJ FPawjv
\dfAv[ up,eJ sg| s[ uVqJ sg wqjHg rg ujSs[ hV m aJ l,a[
Wvr>c[ V[ dwhj h{ _
V[C{ dsl{ qjav'w apZ lpN{ sPi mm
\b>e 967|

qVp,t } bev[ dH,w dq>B sj faj VhgG hp>sj fi l>a qhjaqJ


sPi s[ lq[G sgbJ@ Fdr,ta sgbJ ujSs[ hV m FPa wjv \Wga
debj lqJ| uJ dfAv[ V[Cv[ l>W>ZJ Wji[ aJ qhJfpit hg ujSs[
hV m dHl ai%J s[ WjWj ug qhjiju qhJ hdiVjq dl>z s[ Vjv
w'Hg dfAv[ uVqJ s[ l>W>Z l>a WjWj bV>s dl>z ug qhjiju
s[ lV m dul wiw[ bjf sj dqvjf WjWj ug Vjv l>a rZjrj
dl>z ug vdhi[ tjV[ rjdvbJ ijhgG h'dHbj m
qhJfpit sg ugrV woj dvtSg dHVljVg Wp,Zg a'G Wjhi
h{ dwRpGdw _
ljZ wg qdhqj W[s V ujVdh mm u[aj lpVdh a[aj WdtbjVdh mm
\b>e 272|

WjWj ug bV>s dl>z ug sj duV%J wp l>W>Z WjWj qhJ hdiVjq


dl>z ug Vjv dihj h{ Rpl rji[ u' w'Hg f=l>e idh debj h'r[
aJ bev[ dhKl[ dr,y ds,aj ujr[ej m
WjWj bV>s dl>z ug sj f=eB lqJ l>qa dWw=qg 1927
b>dq=a r[v[ sj h{ m dfaj ug WjWj u{ dl>z ug ba[ qjaj lsj

113
Part 4

w"i ug s[ zi y>V ydCbj lg m Wjv br,loj a'G Wjbs WjWj


ug wpN lqJ bjfS[ dfaj ug Vjv ijudeig sj w>q wijRpGs[
ih[ lV m dHV%J s[ w>q rji[ da>V lWPa dqv[ hV m
dw=fjv dl>z@ svgf dl>z s[ dfaj WjWj wfPi dl>z b"vt
V[ s,Ddlbj dw ##h;Pi wv[iJ rjdvbJ V[ ljcj sirj;j
WSjdHbj lg m$$
ueijRpG q>cg rjv[ sirj;[ } rg bjf ug s[ wi wqvJ
sg A'h f=jfa h'Hg m dHo'G w>q wis[ wis[ h;Pi ljdhW ujS
lq[G ila[ ipCwg AjRpSg epispbjij ljdhW l[rj wgag dlix l,y
t>c h;Pi ljdhW fhp>yS rjla[ dwijdHbj dabji wiV vHg m
f>siJ ipf{ qhgV[ s[ dhljW sl qhgV[ a[ a[ij dsV ipCwg l[rj
wgag m l>ea ujS VhgG s[ ihg lg dH,w l' ipfH[ h'i rg bjf
ug } F[B wga[ fi bjf h;Pi ljdhW } yv[ eH[ m
ci'vg FjHg Vei dr,y zp>qc dl>z ljh' w[ f,ag FjHg s[
sirj;[ sg Rpljig wgag m
dHl a'G Wjbs hpwq bVplji w>q dabje ds,aj dur[G wWgi
ug xpiqjRpGs[ hV _
aVVj WpVVj lFp aduY h{ wWgi mm
hdi wj Vjqp dvt vgY ligi mm
dwRpGdw brloj dHh WS eHg lg m
uW vep ajej WjhRp W[hg mm aW vep dWli{ ijqp lV[hg mm
\ePuig Feaj WjSg b>e 524|

FjHg ljdhW ci'vg s,ls[ lV dw wv[iJ rjv[ h;Pi xpiqjdHbj


wis[ lV ##dw us'G blgG w>q wis[ lg aJ ljcgbj wpN LiaJ
zi s[ qjvw } lqNjHgbJ hp>sgbJ lV dur[G dw_

114
Part 4

1! w'Hg iju@ q;sPi ljc[ Vjv xjvaP e,v Vj wi[ us


w'Hg yg; q>egH[ A[ag hj;i h'r[ m
2! blgG w>q a[ fAC w[ bjdHbj wiJe[ m us bjRpSj
w>q RpV%J hg wi s[Sj m
3! w>q sg q;sPig z,B vrJe[ m
l,yt>c l=g bWyv Vei fhp>y w[ h;Pi V[ b>dq=a fjV wiw[
b>egn[ s[ dHLVjV vHg uv sg l[rj h{,c e=>og qjV dl>z a'G
qV;Pi wirj vHg ba[ Vjv hg v>ei sg l[rj wiVg m dH,w
ljv c[T fdhi idh>sg ija } b>egnj ljdhW s[ dHLVjV
wijrjRpS vHg e'sjrig Vsg dr,Dy'G uv v{ w[ bjRpSj m dHl
l[rj s"ijV bjf ug } s' rji ldaepiJ s[ siLV f=a,t iPf
dr,y h'H[ m
dHw rji WjWj ug a?a ljdhW sg f=wiqj dr,y W{n[ wgiaV
lirS wi ih[ lV@ byjVw dH,w vCwj h;Pi s[ dH,w rji
l,u[ ba[ dH,w rji tKW[ fjl[ Vjv tdh w[ v>dzbj m wHg rji
b,e[ df,A[ h' w[ lqjZg ldoa h'H[ m fi duo[ rg W{nS Rph Wjvw
Rpo[ hg yvj ujr[ m qV dr,y dtbjv bjdHbj dw hpS bjdHbj
aJ zPi dsbJe[ m bjf VgrgG fjHg W{n[ lV aJ s{rg Wjvw
bj debj@ bjf V[ o'C%g dVe%j RpaJh wiw[ aKdwbj aJ l=g epiP
hdidw=LV ljdhW sj liPf V;i bjdHbj@ wpN ldw>BJ Wjbs
sLq[l dfaj dxi bjtgi epiP VjVw s[r ug sj liPf h' eH[ m
bjf ug V[ yiVJ a[ Vqlwji wgag b,e[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj
##blgG dwl Vjv t[cgH[@ ljcj t[cS } dy,a wisj lg m
sPlig rji dxi c[T fdhi ija idh>s[ bjf uv sg ejei
lgl a[ dBwjHg rjfl bj ih[ lV aJ slq dfaj wvegZi
115
Part 4

fjaLjh s[ siLV h'H[ m lji[ fjl[ f=wjL h' debj@ fdhvJ bjf
ug V[ lqdNbj dw dsV yC debj fi dHh VhgG h'dHbj lg m
l' b>adi l' Wjhdi bV>amm
zdB zdB dWbjdf idhbj Fer>amm
\eRpCg lptqVg q^ 5|

iPf slq[L dfaj s[ liPf dr,y ljhqS[ h' debj m


dViepS a[ liepSp ogbjmm
\dlZ e'lB b>e 940|

Rpl ldaepiJ sj liPf dHV%J f=FjrLjvg lg dw NKdvbj VhgG


uj dihj lg m WjWj ug bV>s dr,y h' eH[ m Vqlwji wiV lq[G
lgl RpD,fi i,tg ejei sj dtbjv rg Fp,v eH[ m dwRpGdw ##lp,Z
Wp,Z drli eHg m dHaV[ } wvegZi fjaLjh hg V[ qptjidW>s
a'G brj; s[ w[ WyV wgaj ##qjvr[ sqsq[ ljdhW fhp>y w[
fC%jHg wi'G m$$
dHh slq[L dfaj sj dHLjij spdVbjrgG fCjHg r,v VhgG
lg dHh aJ dqvjf wirjSj lg Fp,y'G rjv[ l>a WjWj ug qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug Vjv m dur[G FerjV dw=LV V[ egaj dr,y dwhj
h{ ##h[ biuV u' q{} ufs[ hV RpV%J } bjfS[ Vjv dqvjRpS
sg upeag q{G bjf s,lsj hJ dul wiw[ q{} dqv uJs[ hV m$$
dHl ai%J hg rjiaj h'Hg dur[G xigs ljdhW sj xpiqjV h{ _
bjdf vgH[ vdC vjdH sdi sir[l l[ mm
\bjlj l[t xigs b>e 488|

RpV%g l' b,n Hglrg dH,w ljv a[ij dsV l,yt>c l=g h;Pi
ljdhW l[rj wiV Rpfi>a h;Pi WjWj bV>s dl>z ug hpwq bVplji
bWyv Vei a'G y,v w[ sqsqj ljdhW fh>py eH[ m fi dHo'G

116
Part 4

wHg wjiVJ wiw[ qV RpyjB h' debj m dxi ldaepiP s[ yiVJ


dr,y bisjl wgag m bisjl qV;Pi h'Hg hpwq bjdHbj ##vdhi[
tjV[ l>a rZjrj dl>z ug fjl fhp>y' m$$
siejhg bwjLWjSg s[ hpwq } ##ldaWyV$$ wdhw[ vdhi[
tjV[ r,v yv fH[ m vdhi[ tjV[ l>a rZjrj dl>z ug s[ blojV
a[ fh>py w[ RpV%J } uj Vqlwji wgag m h;Pi ljdhW a'G sqsqj
ljdhW bjRpS ba[ Rpo'G siejhg hpwq sg drdobj lpSj w[ bjf
ug V[ l>aj } drdsbj fC%jRpS vHg W[Vag wgag m l>a rZjrj
dl>z ug f>ujWg \epiqptg| s[ fdhv[ f>u b,ti bjfS[ fdr,ai
h,o Vjv WjWj ug h,o fwC w[ RpCj b{Cj@ HgCg@ l,lj@ hjhj
f>u rji Wpvj w[ dxi dvtrjH[ f>u rjig btgi WyV wgaj
##a[ij w,dBbj uqJ sj xjhj$$ fpijaV-qhJfpit rg dHh WyV
wis[ lV dw uqJ sj xjhj dlqiV wiV Vjv@ ljZP sg l[rj
wiV Vjv w,DdBbj uj lwsj h{ m dHl s[ Vjv hg dVaV[q sg
ajwgs h' uJsg lg m fi WjWj ug bV>s dl>z ug qhjiju aJ
fdhvJ hg dlqiV Whpa wis[ lV m RpV%J V[ aJ dlqiV dlsw@
Fi'l[ ba[ dVqiaj sgbJ dqljvJ spVgbj b>si wjdHq wgagbJ
hV m dHl[ hg ai%J WjWj ug qhjiju sg h;Pig l[rj sg dqljv
WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[ wjdHq wgag u' spVgbJ $y h'i ljZP
l>f=sjdH b>si z,B dqvsg h{ m
hpS WjWj ug V[ fCjHg LpiP wgag dur[G _
fjZj epiqpdt bjtgb{ yjBdCbj qda s[dH mm
Vjqp lqjvhp Vjqp l>eihp vjhj ue qdh v[dH mm
\b>e 938|

Rpfivg br,loj dr,y l>a rZjrj dl>z ug lV u' lF }

117
Part 4

Rpfs[L wis[ lV Y!b!H! fC%V sg fCjHg aJ dH,w WhjV[ qjai


lg m blvg fCjHg aJ dHh lg m xpiqjV h{ _
lyg fBg lyp qdV fCgb{ lWsp lp ljip mm
VjVw l' fdCbj l' f>dcap WgVj dulp ijq Vjqp edvhjip mm
\b>e 938|

WjWj ug V[ duaVg l[rj dqvSg wi v{Sg ba[ Wjwg lqJ


dHwJa dr,y W{n w[ Waga wiVj m dHo[ wigi@ NjC Whpa lV m
dH,w Whpa r,cj l,f idh>sj lg m dHl wiw[ NjC Whpa lV m dHl
wiw[ Rpo[ w'Hg VhgG uJsj lg m l>a rZjrj dl>z ug@ WjWj ug
bV>s dl>z ug sg dWiag r[t w[ blyiu idh>s[ lV m dH,w
dsV l>a ug l=g epiP e=>o ljdhW sg h;Pig b>si W{n[ lV dw
WjWj ug rg bj eH[ m Vqlwji wiV Rpfi>a dVqiaj ldha
WjWj ug V[ W[Vag wgag m ##qhjiju ) sjl } ldaepiJ s[ siLV
wijY m$$
l>a rZjrj dl>z ug WjWj ug } epiP e=>o ljdhW sg ajdWbj
b>si v{ eH[ ba[ ipqjvj ypw w[ wdhS v,e[ ##vRp wi vRp
siLV m$$
WjWj ug V[ W[Vag wgag ##sjl } bjfSg RpGevg Vjv lqNj
w[ fjn wijY m qp,T a'G dldtbj dsY m vdhi[ rjdvbJ } qp,T
a'G dl,dtbj Vjv f>u fRpCgbJ fCjHgbJ m Wjbs dr,y l>aJ V[
hpwq Vjqj dvbj l'idn sg rji sj lv'w lg m
H[ qV hdi ug dZbjdH aP dHw qdV dHw dyda FjdH mm
\l'idn wg rji b>e 653|

WjWj ug V[ df,A[ dH,w hg f>eag fCg a[ W{ije Vjv V[a=J


sj Vgi e>ej@ uqVj sg ai%J rdh apdibj m A[ag Vjv Wjhi

118
Part 4

yv[ eH[ wpN lqJ Wga ujS Wjbs dxi dH,w dsV dHr[G hg
h'dHbj LWs fdCbj
ldaepip ljuVp fpitp rc fjdHbj
hdi ildw ildw xv vjdeWj mm
\b>e 697|

dHh LWs lpSw[ h;Pi WjWj ug Rpo[ Vj ndhi lw[ Wjhi


} yv[ eH[ m WjWj ug sg dHh br,loj s[t w[ l>a rZjrj dl>z
ug l'yS v,e[ dw duhCg fCjHg dHV%J fCVg h{ Rph aJ Fp,y'G
rjv[ WjWj ug hg fCj lws[ hV m wpN bil[ Wjbs l>a rZjrj
dl>z V[ WjWj ug sj Vjq fp,dAbj aJ WjWj ug V[ bjfSj Vjq
l>ea dl>z s,dlbj m fi l>aJ V[ hpwqVjqj dvbj a[ LWs bjdHbj m
ZVjlig WjSg Fea da=v'yV ug wg _
VjijdHS dV>sl wjdH FPvg erjig mm
\b>e 695|

dHh LWs s[ bZji a[ bjf ug sj Vjq V>s dl>z i,Ddtbj m


dxi b,ti #b$ b,e[ vjdHbj lg WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug qhjiju V[ m wpN dsVJ Wjbs l>a rZjrj dl>z ug WjWj
ug } Vjv v{ w[ Fp,y'G fhp>y eH[ m dHl r[v[ dHh f>u dl>z hig
dl>z dVh>e@ FerjV dl>z@ f>dca dwLV dl>z l>a rZjrj dl>z
ug s[ iPf dr,y lV m ila[ dr,y hig dl>z dVh>e fp,AS v,ej
##bjfJ Fpy'G uj ih[ hJ fi@ RpV%J f=ag q[i[ b>si wpN L>w[ hV m
l>a rZjrj dl>z ug dwhj ##dl>zj qhJfpitJ f=ag w'Hg L>wj VhgG
wigsj@ Rph aJ lqi,o hV@ bjf f=q[Li iPf hV m$$
##q{G aJ hg q>Vjej u[ q[ij Vjq v{ w[ WvjRpSe[ m$$ hig
dl>z V[ dwhj m

119
Part 4

fi dHl } dxi b,De'G bjdtbj@ hpS dVh>e a[ ljog ai%J


ai%J sgbJ brj;J ds>s[ uj ih[ hV dur[G Vsg sj fjSg Ziag
sg dh,w a[ eCehjB fjRpGsj brj; ds>sj uj dihj hp>sj h{
fi lqp>si dr,y uj w[ bjfSg fAjS rg VhgG i,t lwsj m dHl[
ai%J hig dl>z Vsg s[ fjSg sg ai%J brj;J ds>s[ uj ih[ hV
lqp>si rieg drLjv ajwa WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug
r,v dur[G_
epiP lq>psp Vsg ldF dltg Vja{ duap rdcbjHg mm
\qjN wg rji@ b>e 150|

Fp,y'G fhp>y w[ l>aJ V[ l[rjsji } WjWj ug b,e[ W[Vag wiV


vHg dwhj ##dw vdhi[ tjV[ rjv[ l>a rZjrj dl>z a[ RpV%J s[
l>eg siLV wiV bjH[ hV ##bjdebj h{$$
l[rw V[ uj W[Vag wgag m h;Pi V[ hpwq ds,aj ##bjRpS
dsRp m$$ bjdebj dqvS a[ l>a rZjrj dl>z ug b,e[ h' eH[
a[ Wjwg df,A[ h' dB,v[ RpD,fi yCS v,e[ m h;Pi bjlS a'G RpD,n
w[ Wjhi bj eH[ ba[ bjRpGdsbJ hg WyV wgaj ##rZjrj dl>z
bjdebj h{ m$$ dxi hig dl>z r,v qptjdaW h' w[ WyV wgaj-
ea uja s>ej h{ a[ig@ h{ a>P bCgbv y,BP mm
lptj fgr[ tjH[G bxgqJ@ r[hvj fpiL dVt,BP mm
a>P wdh>sj lg v{ w[ q[ij Vjq WpvjrS@ VhgG q{ fjlj r,BP mm
bj WHg hig dl>z dVh>e q,oj B[w lp dh,BP mm
\wiaj debjVg q[hi dl>z u{s-wv[ij a'G|

l>a rZjrj dl>z ug s[ Vqlwji wiV a'G fdhvJ hg hig


dl>z dVh>e yiVJ a[ Tdh dfbj m wpN lqJ ypf riag ihg m
dxi h;Pi V[ WjWj V.s dl>z ug r,v a,w w[ WyV wgaj m

120
Part 4

##LpZ h{$$ ljcj W>sj ljc[ w'v fh>py debj h{ m hpS blgG ujSs[
hJ dHh m \WjWj ug bV>s dl>z ug r,v dHLjij lg| blgG ws'G
s[ bjH[ h'H[ hJ@ a>P dHV%J dyi dwo[ dihj bjRpSj aJ fdhvJ
yjhgsj lg m$$
b,e'G WjWj bV>s dl>z ug V[ h,o u'C W[Vag wgag ##fjaLjh
lF wpN bjf s[ h,o h{ m$$ dur[G
ugb u>a a[i[ Zji[ mm f=F c'ig hjdo apqji[ mm
\l'idn q^ 5|

bjdebj dqvS a'G Wjbs l>a rZjrj dl>z ug ba[ hig


dl>z vdhi[ tjV[ } y,v fH[ m ila[ dr,y l>aJ } hig dl>z }
fp,dAbj ##L>w[ sPi h' eH[ m$$
##qhjiju ) q{G aJ bF'v hg lg dHo[ aJ wpN h'i hg r[dtbj m
dHh aJ f=q[Li sj iPf bjf dAf[ W{n[ hV m$$ dVh>e V[ Rpai ds,aj m
l>a rZjrj dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj hig dl>z dHh fPiV
wia[ fpit sj liPf hV m dHh aJ spVgbJ s[ Fv[ vHg bjH[
hV m dHh liW LwagqjV spVgbJ } b>Zwji a'G w,TS vHg
bjfS[ W'vJ wiqJ a[ dryjiJ sg i'LVg v{ w[ bjH[ hV ) dHV%J
sg Rplaag wdhS lpVS a'G rg Rpy[ig h{ m bjfSg ea bjf
hg ujSs[ hV m
t>c W=hq>c W[b>a RpZjiShjdibj mm
a[ig l'Fj apZp ly[ q[i[ dfbjdibj mm
\ijqwvg wg rji b>e 963|

\f>dca dwLV dl>z s[ s,lS bVplji h{|

121
Part 4

Awpy hIrw rqnu Amolo ]


Awpy ndrI a'v[ qolo ]
\b>e 1053|
qVp,t bjfSg l'yS Lwag qpajdWw f=FP sg apvVj spdVbjrgG
fsjioJ } fdhv ds>sj h{ fi dHh \f+FP sg dwifj| bqv'w
hgi[@ urjhija iaVJ a'G WhPqp,vg fsjio h{ dul V[ dHl }
f=jfa wi dvbj h{ Rph hg dHl sg wgqa ujS lwsj h{ m dul
V[ dHl } fidtbj VhgG Rph dHl s[ qjf a'v s[ f{qjdVbJ }
wg ujS{ m h[ f=jSg u[ dHh hgi[ urjhija a'G rg wgqag a[ l,y[
sg siejh b>si qpwag dsrjRpS rjv[ fsjioJ sj rfjig WVSj
h{ aJ Rpl f=q[Li sj dlqiV wi ba[ bj upC fPiV qhJfpit
sg l>ea Vjv@ duV%J FeaJ s[ qV b>si f=qjaqj sg rdcbjHg
r,lsg h{ m dl=LBg f=qjaqJ sg iyVj h{@ dHl VjLrjV l>lji
a'G ligi dabje ih[ v'wJ } s[t w[ rg dHVljV bjfS[ bjf
} bldoi a[ bqi lqNs[ hV m dHl ugr V[ f>u drwjiJ s[
r,l h' w[ f=qjaqj } Fpvj ds,aj h{ m fp,aiJ dqaiJ a[ qjdHbj
s[ q'h s[ W>ZV dr,y bjfS[ bjf } dHRpG uwC v{Gsj h{ dur[G
dq=e i[delajV uJ qjiPov dr,y yqwsg i[a } fjSg lqN
w[ Rpl sg f=jfag vHg FBwsj h{ ba[ bjdti ujV s[ ds>sj
h{ m bduhg hjva qjVr sg h{ u' wPC s[ l>lji } blvgba
ba[ l,pt iPf lqNw[ FBw dihj h{ dHh' duhg FBwSj a'G ApBwjij
dqvsj h{ qhJfpitJ sg l>ea wdibJ@ yiV LiV bjdHbJ fi
dHh dqvsg hg fpiWv[ wiqJ s[ ZVg } h{ m
l>a rZjrj dl>z ug s[ yv[ ujS a'G Wjbs l>a WjWj ug

122
Part 4

bV>s dl>z ug } qhJfpit WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ fjl WpvjdHbj


ba[ dH,w LWs sKl[ w[ Rpl } ufS sj hpwq ds,aj WjWj ug
bV>s dl>z ug V[ ##lda WyV wdh w[ dli Npwj ds,aj m h;Pi
sj hpwq lg ##dHwJa ue%j dVrjl wi' m dHw lq[G hi i'; siLV
wi ujdHbj wi' m$$
dHl a'G Rpfi>a dHwJa dr,y uj w[ dVaV[q s[ Vjv hg LWs
s[ bdFbjl dr,y vgV h' eH[ m wpN hg dsVJ Wjbs diZgbJ
dlZgbJ ba[ epfa LwagbJ f=a,t iPf dr,y ljhqS[ bjRpS
v,e fHgbJ m dH,w dsV lpFjrw hg bjf V[ RpV%J } WyV wgaj
#aplgG w"S h' FjHg m$
RpV%J RpD,ai ds,aj$$ qhjiju ) blgG dVi>wji sgbJ epfa
LwagbJ iygbJ h'HgbJ hJ m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dw dHo[ wg v{S bjHgbJ h' m$$
RpD,ai lg ##aplgG lj} Ijs wgaj ba[ blgG yvgbJ bjHgbj m
duhCj LWs aplgG uf ih[ h'@ Rpo[ blgG hj;i hp>sgbJ hJ duo[
dHh sj ujf h'r[ej m$$
urjW lpS w[ WjWj ug h{ijV h' eH[ dryji bjHg dw hpS
wg wgaj ujr[ dHV%J yg;J sg lj} v'C VhgG fi qjdvw b,e[
dHVwji dwr[G wigH[ W'vSj ngw VhgG blgG dHV%J yg;J sg v'C
VhgG lqNs[ m
u[ Ziag lF w>yVp wdi sgu{ dWVp Vjr{ brip V FjdHbj ijq mm
FjHg episjl ug xpiqjRpGs[ hV _
l'dHVj ipfj vt qSj@ vt Fi[ F>cjij mm
q'ag qjdSw hgdibj@ Whp q'v bfjij mm
s[l r[l vt iju Fje@ fieS[ hujij mm
diZg dlZg u'e F'e bFiS lgejij mm

123
Part 4

wjq Z[Vp vt fjdiujda@ dy>ajqdS fjij mm


yji fsjio lev xv@ vt v'F vpFjij mm
epidlt f'h V h>zVg@ ljZ l>de RpZjij mm
\rji 38 fRpCg 4|

yjdi fsjio bjtgbdV ldaepi s[dH V epidlt q>e{ mm


bndldZ dVZg Vr{ didZ V epidlt Tjw{ B>e{ mm
wjqZ[Sp vt vtqg fhp>y V h>z{ T>de lpT>e{ mm
vt fjil vt fjdiuja hdo V Aphsj xv V bF>e{ mm
a>a q>a fjt>c vt Wjugei Wjujig V>e{ mm
fgi qpigsg ejtCg dHwl b>de V b>edS b>e{ mm
epi dlt sPu{ Fjrhp l>e{ mm
\rji 28 fRpCg 2|

dHh' duhgbJ LwagbJ wdnV wqjHg rjdvbJ } hg f=jfa


hp>sgbJ hV m duVg wdnV wqjHg dHV%J qhJfpitJ sg } lqNSj
b'tj h{ RpV%J hg dHVJ sg fidwiaw t[c } lqNSj b"tj h{ m
dHh u' rg wis[ lV f=a,t VhgG m dHVljV } bjfSg ajwa
sj bdhljl VhgG h'S ds>s[ lV m
\dHh WyV WjWj bV>s dl>z ug s[ h;Pig l[rw WjWj h;Pi
dl>z ug a'G dqdvbj|
myry swhw mY hir drsn suKu hoie ]
hmrI bydin qU jwnqw swhw,
Avru ikAw jwnY koie ]
\ZVjlig q^ 4 b>e 670|

f=q[Li a[i[ siLV q[i[ vHg spiv,F dVbjqa h{ m q[ig d;>seg


sj bjV>s@ ?pLg@ ba[ lpt a[i[ sgsji dr,y hg h{ m f=FP V[ bjfSg

124
Part 4

wvJ riaj w[ bsFp,a dl=LBg sg ljZVj wgag h{ dur[G bwjL


dr,y lPiu@y>siqJ ajdibJ sj yqwgvj iPf@ Ziag RpD,a[ bV[wJ
f=wji sg WVlfag@ fhjCJ sgbJ y'BgbJ@ xpBs[ h'H[ yLq[@ lqp>si
s[ fjSg sgbJ vdhiJ@ dHVljVg t'u spbjij bV[w f=wji s[
buPW[ hV m fi dHV%J s[ siLV wiV Vjv lpt sg f=jfa VhgG
hp>sg m dHl[ vHg aJ f>yq fjaLjh l=g epiP biuV s[r ug V[
a[i[ Vjq } siLV } hg lptJ sg qVg b{vjdVbj h{ m epiqptJ
s[ qpt a'G bjf sg Rplaag wirjRpS vHg lptqVg ljdhW sg
WjSg sj RpyjiS wgaj h{ dul dhis[ dHh lptJ sg qVg dVrjl
wisg h{@ RpV%J l,y[ rfjigbJ } siejh b>si fiq fsrg f=jfa
h>psg h{ dHh fsrg qhJfpitJ sg dw=fj spbjij epiqpt uV fjRpGs[
hV a[ dxi #ZiP aji[ s[ ai%J l>lji b>si yqws[ hV m qVqpt
aJ dH,w BpB[ aji[ sg ai%J h{ u' bwjL dr,y a[u eag Vjv
bjfSg yqw dtvji w[ dlqB uJsj h{ Rph bjfSg dAV Fi
sg d;>seg q'h qjdHbj dr,y qla h' w[ W[bio erj ds>sj
h{ m qjdHbj sj f=wjL spVgbJ b>si dtvjisj h{ fi bjfSg
d;>seg sgr[ h[n hV%[i rJeP hg yvg uJsg h{ fi f+FP sj dlqiV
wiV rjv[ lPiu sg ai%J f=wjLrjV h' w[ lsgrg wjv aw dyi>ugr
idh>s[ hV@ dwRpGdw RpV%J V[ bjfSj lF wpN f=q[Li sg Feag
b>si hg lqidfa wgaj hp>sj h{ RpV%J sg dhis[ dHhg brj;
hp>sg h{ ##hqig W[sdV aP ujVaj ljhj brip dwbj ujV{ w'dH$$ m
a>P ljc[ spt lpt bjf ujSsj h{G m r,c[ r,c[ W=hq debjVg wdh>s[
bjH[ hV dw dVi>wji a[ Fi'lj i,dtbj lF wjiu ijl hp>s[ hV
a[ v'w f=v'w lpZisj h{ T'Hg dqvsg h{ m fi bu'wj fdCbj
dvdtbj aWwj F'dawrjsg h{ m wHg v'w bduh[ hV u' i,W a'G
Yfij duhj F{ tJs[ hV@ qV"aJ q>Vs[ hV fi RpV%J b>si dwl
liW lqiorjV sg beqg i,W aJ sj drLrjl VhgG Wvdw x'wj
\o'oj| ci duhj hp>sj h{ m z,B hg v'w hV u' lhg bioJ dr,y
125
Part 4

epiqpt hV a[ rjdhepiP s[ lVqpt ugrV ugRPGs[ hV m dHl


Vjlawrjsg dryjiZjij sj wjiV bjadqw drdsbj sg l'Ng
sj Vj h'Sj h{ m dVi>wji sg YB dr,y drbwag Rpl lq[G bjRpGsj
h{ us'G Rpl dr,Dy'G b>hq[r sg ZjiVj qp,w ujr[@ q{G a'G qpwa h'Sj
dVdriag h{ dVdriag f=jfa wgdabJ dWVJ fiq-a,a sg f=jfag
Vhk h' lwsg m dul wPC s[ l>lji a'G Rpfi Rpn w[@ dVqiaj
sj F'ij fpB w[ WjWj bV>s dl>z ug qhjiju V[ dHh fiq-
fsrg sg f=jfag fjHg@ dwRpGdw fiq-a,a hg f=qjaqj h{ m
WjWj ug bV>s dl>z ug qhjiju diZgbJ dlZgbJ sg v'C
VhgG lg lqNs[ m dHV%J a'G ApBwjij fjRpS vHg bjf h;Pi WjWj
ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug b,e[ W[Vag wiV vHg dB,v[ Rpfi fhp>y
eH[ m Vqlwji wiV Rpfi>a W{n eH[ dwRpGdw h;Pi lqjZg dHldoa
lV m wpN s[i Wjbs h;Pi V[ V[ai t'v[ aJ WjWj ug bV>s dl>z
ug V[ dxi Vqlwji wgag a[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wiV v,e[ ##eigW
dVrj; ) hpwq h'r[ aJ dH,w W[Vag wiVg h{ m$$
##s,Dl' wg bjtSj yjhp>s[ h'$$ WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj m
WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##fjaLjh) duhCj LWs bjf ug W?dLbj
h{ Rpl Vjv bugW hg ai%J sgbJ yg;J ljhqS[ bjRpGsgbj
hV m wdhS lpVS vHg quWPi wisgbJ hV m dlqiV dr,y qV
VhgG dBwsj m$$
##u' ljhqS[ bjRpGsgbJ hV Rph wg bjtsgbJ hV($$ h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj m
##Rph wdh>sgbJ hV sl' wg w>q h{ lj} dwr[G WpvjdHbj
] m h;Pi ) sjl } aJ W'vS sj faj VhgG m Vj b,e[ ws[ bjHgbJ
hV m q{G aJ aphjcj hpwq qV w[ ufg uj dihJ m$$ WjWj bV>s
dl>z ug V[ RpD,ai ds,aj m

126
Part 4

##aphj} v'C VhgG dHV%J sg ($$ h;Pi V[ f=LV wgaj m


##VhgG h;Pi WjWj ug sj urjW lg m$$
spVgbj s[ l>a qh>a xwgi dHV%J s[ df,A[ df,A[ dxis[ hV m
aplgG v'C VhgG lqNs[@ dHh hpwq Vjv hg bjHgbJ hV m$$ h;Pi
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj m
WjWj bV>s dl>>z ug s[ ypf idhS a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[
dxi f=LV wgaj ##dxi wg yjhgsj h{ u[ dHV%J sg v'C VhgG ($$
##qhjiju) dHV%J } bjfS[ yiVJ dr,y i,Dt' a[ q{} epiP VjVw
l,y[ fjaLjh s[ siLV wirjRp RphVJ sg f=ga Wtl' m$$ WjWj
ug sg W[Vag lg m
ijup V yjhRp qpwda V yjhRp qdV f=gda yiV wqvji[ mm
\s[re>Zjig qhvj 5 rj b>e 534|

AQvw
wW s[tRp f=Fp bjfVj bjaq w{ i>de mm
q[hi wi' WtdLL wi'@ idhqa wi' mm
ljy[ ljdhWj dwbj Vjhg zdi a[i{ mm
h;Pi q[hi s[ zi bjH[ ba[ WyV wgaj ##y>ej x[i qPv
q>ai sj ujf wi' m$$ fdhvJ ljig Lij wirjHg m dxi hpwq wgaj
##a[iJ l' rjig WyV wi' ##wh' q{G a[ij ##q{G a[ij$$ m WjWj ug
Fp,y'G rjdvbJ V[ bjfSj h,o h[n i,t w[ Rpfi WjWj ug bV>s
dl>z ug sj h,o i,t w[ bjfS[ sPu[ h,o Vjv h,o WjWj ug sj
vj w[ deSag wis[ ih[ m bjdti WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{$$ hpwq
h'dHbj ##yjvg dsV vejaji qPv q>ai sj lrj v,t fjn wi' m$$
dHl ai%J qdiIjsj rg lqNj ds,ag a[ WyV wgaj ##wdnV zjvSj
zjvSg fr[eg m dH,w l' dH,w f>eag sj l>fB fjn ba[ 12 ljv

127
Part 4

l=g h;Pi ljdhW \bdWyv Vei| l[rj ejei sg wiVg h{ m$$ WjWj
bV>s dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) dH,w ljv sjl V[
l[rj wgag h{ Rpl a'G Wjbs u' Rpo[ dWiaJa ridabj Rph rg
s,l ds,aj m$$
dHh lpS w[ WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ dwhj ##u[
ldaepiP ljdhW s[ siLV h' eH[ hV a[ hpwq Vjv dHo[ bjRpSj
h'dHbj h{ aJ ##LpZ h{ m$$ WyV wis[ h;Pi b>ai dZbjV h' eH[ m
wpN lq[G Wjbs V[ai t'v[ aJ hpwq wgaj ##l>fB fjn wiV[ f{Se[ m
w>q d;bjsj h{ lqJ z,B h{ m y>ej ljrZjV h' w[ idhSj u[
w'Hg qpLdwv f[L bjr[ aJ dWVJ dwl[ L>w[ s[ fp,A v{Sj m hpS
aplgG dHo'G yCs[ rjv[ \fPiW rjv[| fjl[ ujRp ba[ bjfSj w>q
wi' m$$
##lda WyV$$ sj RpyjiV wiw[ WjWj ug Fp,y'G a'G y,v fH[ m

kbIr hir hIrw jn jauhrI ly kY mWfY hwt ]


jb hI pweIAih pwrKU qb hIrn kI swt]
\lv'w Fea wWgi ug b>e 1373|

epiP wjv a'G b,u a,w hi epidl,t sg epiP V[ fit wgag


h{ m Rpl s[ bjadqw drwjl } Bp>W w[ s[dtbj h{ dur[G hgi[ sj
fjitP Rpl } l,B vj w[ s[tsj h{ m fit wgag l=g epiP VjVw
V[ FjHg vdhSj ug sg u' fit[ ujS a'G Wjbs l=g epiP b>es
s[r ug sg fsrg fj eH[ m fit wgag f>u dfbjdibJ sg slq
dfaj l=g epiP e'dW>s dl>z ug qhjiju V[ m drljtg sj dshjCj
lg m drLjv f>cjv b>si h;jiJ sg deSag dr,y l>eaJ dWijuqjV
ldaepiJ s[ siLVJ vHg drbjwvp lV fi us'G dWuvg rjeP.
dvLwji[ qjisg a[e } ZPh w[ slq dfaj V[ f>cjv dr,y bj

128
Part 4

w[ xpiqjdHbj ##lj} b,u dH,w lgl sg v'C h{ m$$ dHh fit lg


?jvl[ sg@ lF V[ VgrgbJ fj vHgbJ@ wHg F,u eH[ a[ wHg
F,uS vHg dabji h' eH[ m fi duV%J V[ bjfS[ epiP } dHh
wdh A,dcbj lg ##q[ij qpN qdh wpN VhgG u' dwAp h{ l' a[ij mm
a[ij apN wRp lRpfa[ dwbj vje{ q[ij$$ Rph ws'G F,us[ hV@
Rph q"a a'G dViF{ hV m f>u dl,t rjig rjig RpD,n a[ fit dr,y
fPi[ RpD,ai w[ f>u dfbjdibJ sg fsrg fj eH[ m duV%J s[ ds=C
dHijs[ sg ZjiVg lswj dl,tg h'Gs dr,y bjHg m dul V[ f=[q sg
evg dr,y bjrSj h'r[ bjfj rji w[ uVq lrjiVj h'r[ Rphg
qVp,t ldaepiJ sg fit dr,y fPij Rpai[ej@ VhgG aJ Vwvg hgi[
sg ai%J f>u drwjij sj ljdubj h'dHbj dstjr[ sj epiqpt BpwC[
BpwC[ h' ujr[ej m l' dHhg dHqdahjV dr,Dy'G epui ih[ hV WjWj
ug qhjiju bV>s dl>z ug m f=gdtbj rg l?a h{ fi f=gdtbjiog
rg dlsw s[ WvrjV hV r[tSj h{ dwr[G wpnjvg dr,y T,v w[
l'Vj yqw dvbjRpGsj h{ m
hpwq bVplji Fp,y'G a'G y,v w[ fPiW rjv[ fjl[ dHwJa ue%J
s[t w[ bjlS vj dvbj m dVaV[q bji>F wi ds,aj ba[ hpwq
bVplji hi i'; V[q Vjv Fp,y'G bjRpSj m h;Pi WjWj ug qhjiju
Fp,y'G rjdvbJ V[ LiJ wiVg ba[ dH,w Wjlg i'Bg \W[hj f=Ljsj|
u' fjSg Vjv devg wgag hp>sg lg A,wS vHg bjfSg dVejh
wiw[ s[Sg m vPS dqiy rg VhgG s[Sj m WjWj ug bV>s dl>z
ug qhjijuj V[ lda WyV wiw[ A,w v{Sj@ q,oj B[wS a[ rjdfl
yv[ ujSj m dHl ai%J hi i'; dVaV[q s[ Vjv dHh rg dVaV[q
WSj dvbj m dHl[ lq[G b>si dH,w h'i f=gdtbj sg vCg bji>F
h'Hg dur[G FjHg episjl ug sj woV h{ _
tjdS RptdS wdT bjSs[ dViq'vw hgij mm
uRphigbj hdo bjrsj RpdH edhi e>Fgij mm

129
Part 4

quvl b>sdi s[ts[ fjdaljh rugij mm


qpvp widV buqjdH w{ ljhj qV Zgij mm
bhidS Rpa{ idt w{ zS zjRp ligij mm
w' drivj hg ndhiJrsj sieh epi fgij mm
du>Vg r,cg uqja fCjHg sg h'r[eg zjvSj Rpl b>si r,Z
h'r[eg@ fi us f=gdtbj fjl h' ujr[eg aJ xv rg RpV%J hg
lptsjHg h'r[ej m dVaV[q widsbJ agh dsV h'H[ aJ qV b{lgbJ
deSagbJ dr,y v,e debj dw dHwjeiaj ?aq h' eHg m qV
dr,y xpiV[ ija dsV WSs[ idhS[ m dVaV[q wiV v,e[ rg qV
xpidVbJ b>si s'dCbj ih[ m qV sg LJag bv'f h' eHg u'
dVaV[q dr,y bV>s WNsj lg@ il bjRpGsj lg lF fi vj w[
RpD,cdebj m dlix qV sg wvfVj hg idh eHg m Whpa IaV
wiV a'G Wjbs rg us qV LJa Vj h'dHbj aJ xpiVj WdSbj
dw WjWj ug s[ yiVJ dr,y W[Vag wgag ujr[ m bev[ dsV us'G
siLV wiV bjH[ aJ W[Vag wgag ##fjaLjh m fdhvJ us rg
xpiVJ WSsj aJ ldaepiJ s[ siLV h' uJs[ qV LJa idh>sj
ba[ dHwjeiaj dr,y upCsj m fi hpS wg h' debj lF wpN
bv'f debj h{ m
Fp,y'G rjv[ WjWj ug h;Pi V[ xpiqjdHbj dHl ai%J hg hp>sj
h{@ us'G dH,w br,loj Wsv w[ sPug b>si f=r[L wisg h{ Rpl
lq[G sg f=gdtbj h{ m aplgG dxwi Vj wi' LpZ h{ m
WyV lpS w[ WjWj ug wv[iJ rjv[ LiJ wirj w[ f=Ljsj
u' dqdvbj A,w w[ bjfS[ blojV a[ yv[ eH[ m dxi Wjwg s[
sl dsVJ dr,Dy'G idh>s[ dsV@ qV dHwJeiaj dr,y bj debj
ba[ bV>s drdtbjV wiV a'G r,Z h' debj m dHl lq[G sg RpD,yg
a[ lpyg ilsjdHw br,loj sj dH,w WyV ##FjHg ci'vg ug$$
} lpSjdHbj u' RpV%J v[tw } sKdlbj m WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ

130
Part 4

WyV wgaj ##FjHg ci'vg$$ dHV%J dsVJ dr,y lj} dHh' duhj
bV>s bjdHbj drbjdtbj wiV a'G Wjhi h{@ duhCj yjvglj
blgG Fp,y'G rjdvbJ s[ hpwq bVplji RpV%J s[ yiVJ dr,y idh
w[ wgaj m$$
yjvg dsV fPi[ h'S a'G Wjbs h;Pi WjWj ug V[ dH,w epBwj
Lij wiw[ wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug } ds,aj ba[ hpwq ds,aj ##hpS
Wjhi dryi w[ wqjHg wqjRpGs[ ih'@ ws[ ws[ bj w[ siLV
wi ujdHbj wi' m$$
bjf V[ ##lda WyV Rpyjdibj ba[ yiVJ RpD,fi lgl dVrj
w[ Vqlwji wgaj m hpwq sg fjvSj wiV vHg h;Pi a'G bjdebj
v{ w[ bjf dryiV vHg api fH[ m f=gdtbj wdnV a'G wdnV h'
ihg h{ fi f=gdtbjiog dVqiaj@ ldhVLgvaj@ dabje@ ds=Caj
s[ lpVdhig q,Z qjie a[ api w[ dVfp>Vaj s[ fp>u WS w[ fji
dVwvs[ hV Fjr fjl h' w[ uJs[ hV m dHl ai%J fjl h' w[
WtdLLJ f=jfa wis[ hV qhJfpit )
u' qjedh njwpi bfpV[ a[@ l'Hg l'Hg s[r{ mm
VjVw sjlp qpt a[ u' W'v{ Hghj RPhj lyp h'r{ mm
\ZVjlig q^ 5@ b>e 681-82|

u' qpijs blgG sja[ a'G q>eJe[ ;iPi dqv[eg fi blgG l'ygH[
dw wg q>egH[( spdVbjrgG lpt s[ Vjv sp,t y>WdCbj hp>sj h{@
dur[G Zp,f Vjv AJ ba[ dsV Vjv ija m dHl vHg u[ q>eSj
hg h{ aJ hi ul q>egH[ m dul s[ Vjv uVq sg vjvlj a[
qiV s[ F{b a'G idha h' ujHgH[ m

131
Part 4

Apuny jn kw prdw FwkY]


Apny syvk kI srpr rwKY]
\e^ lptqVg q^ 5|

u' f=jSg hRpq{ } dabje w[ bjfS[ epiP sg i;j b>si


idh>sj h{ m hi wjiu wiV vHg f=FP sg Ijs } qV sg s"C
dr,y aiugh ds>sj hJ m Rpl sj fisj f=q[Li bjf T,wsj h{ m
spVgbJ rjv[ ugr bjaqj vHg wLB f{sj wis[ hV dwRpGdw
dHh qjdHbj sj Av wfB h{ m dHl tpsei; spVgbJ b>si Rphg
q'h qjdHbj s[ flji a'G Wy lwsj h{ m dul V[ qhJfpit sg
l>ea wgag ba[ Rpl sg LiV dr,y drLrjl wgaj h[ m u' Rpl
sg YB lswj@Rpl } bZji q>V w[ ugrV L{vg yvjRpGsj h{@
dwRpGdw qVp,t sj bZji h{ f=q[Li sg YB m
wi{ edu>sp l>pc wg y'B mm Vjqj RpWi{ hdi wg YB mm
\F{iRp Vjq s[r ug b>e 1166|

bwjv fpit Rpl sg hi oJ iKdtbj wisj h{ m Rpl sj


fisj w,usj h{ m si'fag sj fisj wKdubj FerjV dw=LV
spbjij@ wPC sg wdyhig b>si l,y sg du,a h'Hg m ldaepiP VjVw
s[r ug qhjiju V[ dH,w rji by,v rBjv[ dl,ZJ Vjv e'LB
wgag m dlZJ V[ bjfSg I'e Lwag ria w[ ldaepiP ug a[ f=Fjr
fjRpS sg w'dLL wgag by,v rBjv[ dLrijaig sj q[vj lg m
W[dqljv dHw,n dr,y ldaepiP Vjv dl,Z e'LB h'Hg m dl,Z bjfSg
q,a } ldaepiJ ljhqS[ dl,Z wiV dr,y Vjwjq ih[ b>a }

132
Part 4

v'wJ dr,y bjfSj f=Fjr wjdHq i,tS vHg dl,ZgbJ LwagbJ


sj lhjij v{Sj dfbj m FjHg episjl ug sj woV h{ _
dHdh lpdS WydV u'egliJ qjdi dwvw Whp iPdH RpnjHg mm
tdB silV wRp t[dsbj wdvupde VjVw W[sg bjHg mm
dldZ W'vdV ldF brtZgbj a>a= q>a= wg ZpV' yCjHg mm
iPf rBjH[ u'egbj dl>z Wjdz Whp ydvda dstjHg mm
dHdw fdi wdiw{ RpcidV f>tg dur{ ih[ vgvjHg mm
dHw Vje h'dH fRpS A'dCbj dHwVj ritj bedV rljHg mm
aji[ a'C[ F>eiVjo dHw ydC dqiejVg uvp adi ujHg mm
dlZJ bedV V WpN{ WpNjHg mm
\rji 1 fRpCg 40|

dul lq[G b,e sg ritj h'Hg duhCg l>ea ldaepiP sg h;Pig


dr,y lg lF ciV v,e[ m ldaepiJ V[ v'wJ s[ qVJ a''G ci vjhpS
sj q"wj ngw lqdNbj dwRpGdw dl,Z v'wJ } ciJ Zqwj w[ ujdH;
a[ VujdH; q>eJ qVJ v{Gs[ lV m v'wJ dr,y Vjq ufS a[ dya
u'CV sg dWiag sg f=f,waj bjr[ m dl,ZJ sj ci v'wJ s[ qVJ
a'G sPi wiV ba[ f=q[Li sj f=Fjr WVjRpSj ldaepij V[@ ngw
lqdNbj m ldaepij V[ h;Pig dr,y W{n[ l[rw #bdu,a[ i>Zjrj$
} hpwq ds,aj ##bdu,dabj Rpnw[ l>ea s[ bjv[ spbjv[ vwgi
dt,y s[ m$$
bdu,a[ dl,t V[ #lda WyV wdh w[ vwgi dt,y ds,ag m dl,Z
u' b,e riljRpS s[ yqawji wi ih[ lV hpS vwgi a'G df,A[
hg ih[ bdu,a[ V[ V[C[ hg dH,w avjW s[ fjSg RpD,fi yjsi drAj
ds,ag ba[ bjf RpD,fi W{n w[ qi[ h'H[ f>AgbJ } RpD,fi } lpBS
v,e fH[ m f>Ag ugra h' w[ RpD,cS v,e fH[ m v'w RpZi dHw,n[
h'S[ LpiP h' eH[ m qjV' dH,w aqjLj h' dihj h'r[ m b>a dl,Z bjfSj
133
Part 4

Wv vj w[ o,w eH[ m fi bdu,aj bjfSg t[c t[cg debj m v'wJ


s[ dHw,n r,v dHLjij wiw[ ldaepiJ V[ xpiqjdHbj ##ljhqS[
dHw,n wg h{ m$$
dl,Zj V[ tpvjl[ s[ iPf dr,y RpD,ai ds,aj ##VjVw ug aphjcj
y[vj bdu,aj hg aJ h{ m$$
h;Pi V[ dH,w dl,t F[u w[ bdu,a[ } WpvjdHbj m Rpl r,v
a,w w[ Rpl sg ljig ajwa rjdfl v{ vHg a[ Rph dH,w fjl[
h' w[ W{n debj m wpN lq[G Wjbs hg dH,w dqlaig dl,t V[ bjfS[
dH,w b,n ljv s[ fp,ai } v{ w[ h;Pi s[ yiVJ dr,y W[Vag
wgag ##fjaLjh) wpN ljv fdhvJ q{G bjf ug s[ yiVJ dr,y
bisjl wiw[ fp,ai sg sja q>eg lg a[ WyV wgaj lg dw
q{G fp,ai bjf ug } F[GB wiJ m l' eigW dVrj; ) fp,ai hj;i h{ m$$
ldaepiP V[ hpwq wgaj ##v,wCJ dHw,ngbJ wiw[ dytj
WSjY m$$
hpwq bVplji dytj dabji h' eHg m dxi hpwq h'dHbj ##b,e
vj dsY m$$
b,e vj ds,ag eHg aglij hpwq h'dHbj W,y[ } ##dw b,e
dr,y Ajv qjis[ m$$ W,y[ V[ b,e dr,y Ajv qji ds,ag m lji[ r[tS
rjv[ ba[ dl,Z h{ijV f=[LjV h' ih[ lV dw dHh wg h' dihj h{ m
b,e ?aq h' eHg Wjvw Rpl[ ai%J lhg lvjqa W{nj lg m ldaepiJ
V[ brj; s[ w[ W,y[ } WpvjdHbj m Rpl V[ bjw[ Vqlwji wgag m
Rpl Wjvw[ s[ dyhi[ a[ bV"tj hg a[; lg m ldaepiJ WyV wgaj
##Wjvw a>P dVhjv h' debj h{ q>e u' h'i u' q>eSj h{ m$$
W,y[ V[ W[Vag wgag ##fjaLjh ) blgG FpvShji hJ aplgG

134
Part 4

WtdL>s h' m$$ dw=fj wi' bdu,a[ i>Zjr[ a[ q[hi wi' m$$
l=g epiP VjVw s[r ug V[ dxi xpiqjdHbj ##wpN h'i q>e
v{$$ Wjvw V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) q[hi s[ zi dr,y bjH[
h' aJ dl,ZJ } rg qjx wi dsY m$$
lji[ v'w dHh V;jij r[tS rjv[ dHl fiRpfwjig Wjvw
a[ h{ijV lV m b>a dr,y ldaepiJ V[ Wjvw } hpwq wgaj ##zi
ujRp@ Vjq uf' a[ h'iJ } ufjRp m$$ Wjvw sj Vjq ldaepiJ
V[ epiqpt WtdLbj m dl,t h'r[ a[ hpwq q>VS rjvj h'r[ Rphg
ldaepiJ sj blvg dl,t h{ m
dul ai%J Wjvw V[ b,e dr,y wps w[ rg bjfS[ vHg wpN
VhgG q>debj m q>debj aj bdu,a[ i>Zjr[ ba[ dl,ZJ vHg dHh'
duh[ Wjvw } Rpsjlg WSj w[ u>evJ } VhgG a'dibj hpwq
wgaj ##zi uj w[ ih' m$$
de=hp WVp lqldi lhdu lpFjdH mm
\bjlj q^ 1@ b>e 352|

dHl[ hg ai%J Fp,y'G rjv[ WjWj ug V[ WjWj bV>s dl>z ug


} bjf dryiV vHg hpwq ds,aj ba[ dxi wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj
ug V[ q>debj rg bjfS[ vHg VhgG fiRpfwji vHg m fjnw l>a
Z>Vj dl>z ug Wji[ f=l>e fC% ypw[ hV m dHV%J V[ WiwaJ v{ w[
FjHg iPf[ c[i[ bj vjH[ lV m \FjHg iPfj| rg dHdahjlw Vei
h{ m dHl Vei } l=g epiP hdie'dW>s ljdhW s[ hpwq bVplji
apwvjSg a'G RpD,n w[ FjHg ljZP FjHg iPf y>s ug s[ dfaj V[
bWjs wgaj lg m awigWV ljig bjIP RpV%J V[ dHo[ hg Waga
wgag m| l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug } a'iV lq[G WjWj ug qhjiju V[
hpwq wgaj lg aplgG wqjHg Whpa wgag h{ ba[ h'i rg wiVg
135
Part 4

h{ m fi wijqja VhgG dstjSg aphj} hpwq dHl } l.Fjv \uiw[|


i,tS sj h{ m$$
dHw rji Whpa wjv f{ debj m v'w fjSg a[ WjdiL a'G
dWVJ aCx ih[ lV m l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug s[ l[rw V[ W[Vag wgag
##qhjiju ) w'Hg Rpfjb wi' qgGh f{ ujH[@ v'w Whpa sptg hV m$$
RpV%J } wga[ h'H[ l>wvf sj dtbjv Fp,v debj a[ WyV wgaj
##df>c s[ v'wJ } dHw,n[ wiw[@ ue wi dsY qgGh f{ ujH[ej m$$
WjWj ug sj WyV lg ##dw Z>Vj dl>z a>P duV%J qgGh yjhp>sj h{
frj lwsj h{ fi hpwq VhgG rjvg e,v } V;i b>sj; wi
ds,aj m lq,eig bjBj zg bjds dHw,nj h'Sj LpiP h' debj m ##ue$$
sg dabjig h' eHg m fsjio riaVj LpiP h' debj fi qgGh Vj
dfbj m qhJfpit Wiwaj WtL w[ rg riaV a'G l>w'y wirjRGps[
hV u[ hpwq Vj h'r[ aJ lF wpN hp>s[ h'H[ rg Wiwa VhgG hp>sg m
dur[G xpiqjV h{_
dul wj de=hp dadV sgbj ajvj wp>ug epi lRpfjHg mm
bdVw Rpfjr wi[ VhgG fjr{ dWVp ldaepi liSjHg mm
\b>e 205|

v'wJ dr,y qgGh Vj f{S wjiV wjxg dVijlaj rZg m liwjig


qjqv[ sgbJ dy,ngbJ bjRpS v,e fHgbJ m RpV%J dsVJ dr,y
wjv f{ ujS wjiV qjqvj s[Sj rg b"tj lg m v'wJ V[ dHw,n[
h' w[ V>WisjiJ } dwhj ##dw aphj} faj hg h{ dw u' wpN lg
Rph aJ ue $a[ vj ds,aj h{ qjqvj dwo'G s[HgH[ m$$ qjqv[ sg
RpeijHg dr,y s[i h' ujS sj wjiV liwji VjFj dibjla V[
fp,dAbj m FjHg iPfj VjF[ sg dibjla dr,y f{Gsj lg m liwji
fp,A fCajv wgag aJ ljig whjSg l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug s[ dli
a[ bj fHg m ijuj hgij dl>z VjF[ rjdvbJ V[ l>a Z>Vj dl>z
136
Part 4

ug s[ ri>B de=xajig ujig wi ds,a[ de=xaji wiV rjv[ Vjuq


\ojS[sji| V[ l>a ug } dqv w[ ljig hwgwa s,lg a[ wdhS
v,ej ##q{G s' yji dsV v[B aJ wi lwsj hJ fi ri>B ?aq
VhgG wi lwsj m
l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug V[ bjfSj dH,w l[rw WjWj ug s[ yiVJ
dr,y F[dubj m Rpl } ajwgs wgag dw ##fdhvJ FjHg rdibjq
dl>z ug w'v uj w[ ljig hwgwa s,lSg h{ dxi Rpl } Vjv
v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wiVg h{ l[rw a[ idhq wiV vHg m$$
l[rjsji V[ Fp,y'G fh>py w[ FjHg rdibjq dl>z ug } ljig drdobj
lpSjHg m dxi WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wiV vHg api fH[ m rdibjq
dl>z V[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag s[ iPf dr,y ljig whjSg lpSjHg m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##Rpl V[ bjfSg qi;g dwRpG wgag@ wiVj
lg aJ hpwq v{Gsj m$$ l[rjsji V[ dwhj ##qhjiju ) evag h'
eHg qjx wi dsY m$$ h;Pi q[hiWjV h'H[ wdhS v,e[ ##FjHg
rdibjq dl>z a>P Vjv uj ba[ RpV%J dH,w LWs s[ fjn wiV
sg qdiIjsj lqNjHg@ dHh fjn wiVj h{ m qgGh f{ ujH[ej m$$
l[rw aJ FjHg iPf[ a'i ds,aj a[ h;Pi WjWj ug V[ VjF[ rjv[
iju[ } aji fj ds,ag@ dvdtbj lg ##\bjf sj dwbj bdhrjv
h{| aphjcj wg hjv h{ m$$
iju[ hgij dl>z r,v'G api>a urjW bjdHbj ##bjf w' q[ij
hjv ujSV[ wg dwbj ;iPia h{ m$$ qhJfpitJ s[ ri>B ujig wiV
rjv[ sj hLi \hjv| wg hp>sj h{ Rph h'Sj LpiP h' debj m dB,wj
difspqV dl>z s[ f[B dr,y sis LpiP h' debj wpN hg lq[G dr,y
vjdHvju h' debj m dHZi'G o'C%g s[i Wjbs hg h;Pi V[ dH,w
l[rw dHv{ygbJ s[ w[ VjF[ } F[u ds,aj ba[ ##wdh>s[ dw lj}

137
Part 4

a[ij hjv ujVS sg aJ v'C fHg dw a>P ljc[ W[B[ } h,owCg


vjRpS sj hpwq ds,aj h{ m hpS s,l h,owCg ljc[ l[rw } fdhvJ
v,eg uJ a[i[ fp,a } m$$
l[rw V[ dwhj ##h;Pi ) dHh wdhS sg q[ig dh>qa VhgG h'Sg m$$
h;Pi V[ dwhj ##a>P iju[ w'v ujSj hg h{ u' wdhSj h{ blgG
bjf hg wdh s[rJe[ m u[ ijuj de=xajig s[ hpwq rjfl v{ vr[
aJ dH,w dHv{yg dB,w[ } s[ s[Sg m$$
VjF[ fhp>y w[ l[rw V[ ijuj hgij dl>z } WjWj ug s[ WyV
lpSj ds,a[ m dBw[ sg hjva bag tijW lg m iju[ V[ evag q>V
w[ h;Pi a'G l[rw ijhgG qjxg sg q>e wgag ba[ de=xajig ri>B
i,s wi ds,a[ m l[rw V[ WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji dH,w dHv{yg
dBw[ } s[ ds,ag m dBw[ sj sis W>s h' debj Rph bijq dr,y
h' debj m ijuj dHh w"aw s[t w[ h{ijV h' debj ba[ h;Pi
s[ siLV wiV sj qV WSj dvbj m siLV wiV sj f=l>e b,e[
bjr[ej m dHl a'G Rpfi>a FjHg iPf{ qgGh rg hpwq bVplji f{
debj m dHvjwj ?pL h' RpD,dnbj m ljig dl=lBg qhJfpit s[ hpwq
dr,y hp>sg h{ dwRpGdw qhJfpit f=q[Li sj hg iPf hp>s[ hV m
\dHh f=l>e l+! u'de>si dl>z dTv'G \wjwj ug| ba[ l+! Wvrgi
dl>z a'G dqdvbj|

AYsI lwl quJ ibnu kaunu krY ]


\qjiP WjSg idrsjl ug b>e 1106|

h[ dfbji[ ) dHh' duhg wiVg a[i[ dWVJ w'Hg VhgG wi lwsj


f=a,t w"aw wiV sg lq,ioj aJ fPiV qhJfpit hg i,ts[ hV m
du>VJ f=FP sg Feag wiw[@ Rpl Vjv bojh dfbji fj w[@ dHh

138
Part 4

lF f+a,t wiV sg Lwag ZjiV wgag h'Hg h{ m dHVljV sg


duh' duhg yg; Vjv f=ga v,e eHg Rph' duhj h' ujr[ej m epiP
e=>o ljdhW ug dr,y rjdhepiP s[ dfbji sg e,v wgag h{ m dHl[
ai%J iqjdHS@ egaj a[ wpijV ligx dfbji sg Whpf,tg qdhqJ
siljRpGs[ wdh>s[ hV dw ligi lrjlJ Vjv ugGsj h{ ba[ bjaqj
f=gag Vjv m epiP VjVw s[r ug sj qjie hg f=[q qjie h{ m
f=[q ljcg d;>seg sj bZji h{ m bjadqw RpD,yaj sg lgCg h{@
lqjduw TJy[ sj Zpij h{ a[ f=FP s[ dqvjf vHg f,wj ijh rg m
dfbji sg br,loj dHaVg RpD,yg a[ lVqjV uVw h{ dw ##IjiC[
sj loi$$ rg b{L bijq sg d;>seg Vjv'G r,Z bV>sqHg ujfsj
h{ m bduhj f=[q f>yq fjaLjh V[ bjf f=jSJ sg bhPag s[ w[
f=yjdibj h{ m dHl f=[q sg dqljv } f,wj wiV vHg l=g epiP
a[e Whjsi ug V[ bjfSj WvgsjV ds,aj m bduh[ f=[q@ fa>e[
rJe lq[G RpD,a[ bjfS[ bjf } VAjri wiw[ rg bjfS[ f=gaq
s[ siWji dr,y qwWPv h' uJs[ hV m dxi dHh f=[q sgrjV[ f=q[Li
s[ siWji dr,y dH,w bdhq fsrg fj v{Gs[ hV m u' yjh>ps[ hV
wi lws[ hV m ljig dl=LBg Rpl hpwq dr,y h' uJsg h{ u' v%gvj
riajRpSg yjh>ps[ h'S bjfSg Lwag Vjv qhJfpit riaj lws[
hV m dHl ai%J sg Lwag sj f=I'e wgaj WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug V[ y'iVg } ijSg sj dtajW WtdLbj m
F[tjig a[ ijup wijr{ mm ijuj a[ F[tjig mm
\lji>e wWgi ug b>e 1252|

c[i[ s[ v>ei dr,y f=Ljsj ria dihj s[t w[ s' urjV bjsqg
a[ dH,w RpV%J sg qpdBbji F{S f=Ljsj AwS vHg bjH[ m fi
l[rw V[ dwhj dw dHh hpwq dWV%j VhgG dqvSj m fdhvJ WjWj
ug fjl'G bjdebj v{ w[ bjRpSj fr[ej m dHh da>V[ hg WjWj ug
139
Part 4

s[ siLV wiV vHg dB,v[ r,v ujS v,e[ m aJ l[rw V[ WjWj


ug fjl W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) dH,w vCwg dul s[ fjl dH,w
l'Bg v'h[ s[ f'vi[ rjvg h{ m siLV wiV ba[ v>ei AwS sg
bjdebj v{Sj yjh>psg h{ m$$
h;Pi WjWj ug V[ hpwq ds,aj bjRpS dsY m$$
\WjWj ug v'hj qKo[ VhgG vjRpGs[ lV fi dHl } l'Bg rg
Vjv v{ w[ bjRpS vHg wdh ds,aj m|
l[rw V[ RpV%J } WjWj ug sj hpwq lpSj ds,aj m da>V[ RpD,fi
dBvj ljdhW a[ yv[ eH[ m
WjWj ug V[ fp,dAbj #w"S h'@ dwo'G bjH[ h'@ wg w>q wis[ h' m$$
qp>c[ aJ W'v[ VhgG RpV%J sg F{S W'vg ##qhjiju ) q[ij Vjq
#ejqJ$ h{ m dHh q[i[ Fij hV m blgG y'i hJ m ljcj w>q y'ig
wiVj h{ dsV s[ rwa q{G q>eS s[ WhjV[ zi sgbJ uVjVgbJ
w'v b>si yvg uJsg hJ a[ dVejh wi bjRpGsg hJ dw w>Z
} dwl oJ a'G fjC \l>V| v,e lwsj h{ m us'G ija h' uJsg
h{ aJ blgG fjC vj w[ y'ig wis[ hJ a[ bjfSj epujij wis[
hJ blgG uja s[ lJhlg \L{lg| hJ m
fjaLjh V[ WyV wgaj ##dHh u' l'Bg a[i[ fjl h{ lj} s[ s[ m
##qhjiju ) aplgG dHl a'G y>eg WSj vr'e[ m dHh aJ q{G wp,a[
dW,v[ a'G i,tg h{ m$$ ejqj V[ urjW ds,aj m
##dHh l'Bg lj} s[ s[ blgG dHl a'G wHg w>q dvbj wiJe[ m
a{} dHl l'Bg Wsv[ ijSg WSj dsbJe[ m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m
ejqj V[ l'Bg ds,ag a[ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj m ##ujh ijSg WS
eHg m$$

140
Part 4

v>ei AwS Rpfi>a Rph da>V[ hg yv[ eH[ m wpN dsVJ Wjbs
hg Rph Whjrvfpi dibjla dr,y Rph y'ig wiV sj w.q wiV
v,e[ m dHw dsV q"w[ a[ hg y'ig wis[ xC[ eH[ m qpw,sqj y'ig
sj y,dvbj ba[ w{s h' eHg m da>VJ } Whjrv fpi u[v dr,y
W>s wi ds,aj m dH,w dsV VrjW Whjrvfpi u[v sj qpbjdHVj
wiV bjdHbj m us VrjW ejqj sg W{iw b,e[ fhp>dybj aJ
dHl sg lp>siaj } s[t w[ Rpo[ hg ipw debj ba[ u[v bdZwjig
} fp,AS v,ej ##dHh vCwg w"S h{ dHh dwl s'L dr,y w{s
w,B ihg h{ m$$
bdZwjig V[ urjW ds,aj ##uVjW ) dHh vCwg a[ s' dHl
s[ FjHg y'ig s[ w[l dr,y w{s w,B ih[ hV m$$
VrjW V[ hpwq ds,aj #dHl } api>a dihjb wiw[ q[i[ qdhvJ
dr,y F[dubj ujr[ m q{G dHl Vjv Vwjh wiJej m dHh q[ig W[eq
WS[eg m hpwq sg api>a ajqgv wgag ujr[ m$$
W>sgtjV[ a'G qdhvJ dr,y fhp>y eHg m VrjW V[ wj;g Wpvj
w[ dVwjh wirj dvbj m ##ejqj$$ ijSg WS eHg m qhJfpitJ
sj WyV b,Bv l=g f=a,t iPf dr,y ljhqS[ bj debj m hji dL>eji
v,debj h'dHbj h{ qV WjWj ug s[ yiVJ dr,y lusj wi dihj
h{ a[ boiP dfbji Vjv yiVJ } qV sg wvfVj ijhgG Z' ih[
hV m qhJfpitJ b,e[ l,y W'vS sg dHhg fsrg dqvg m VrjW
} wdh w[ bjfS[ Fij rg dihjb wirj vH[ ba[ RpV%J } dH,w
dH,w df>c epuji[ vHg s[ srj ds,aj m qdhvJ dr,y idh>sg h'Hg
rg ldaepiJ s[ WyV hi r[v[ Ijs i,tsg m dH,w dsV ljig hwgwa
VrjW } lpSj ds,ag Rpl } rg WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV vHg
f=[dibj m wpN lq[G Wjbs s'V'G fag faVg WjWj ug s[ siLV

141
Part 4

wiV vHg Fp,y'G wvJ fhp>y eH[ m l[rw fjl biu'Hg wgag dw
##fjaLjh s[ siLV wiV[ hV m$$ l[rw V[ WjWj ug b,e[ RpV%J
sg bi; epujig aJ hpwq dqdvbJ ##bj ujS dsY m$$
VrjW ba[ W[eq Vqlwji wiw[ W{n eH[ m h;Pi V[ a,w
w[ WyV wgaj #WS eHg Vj ijSg m$$ bjh ) fHg h{ a[ig l'Bg
dHl V[ ijSg WSj ds,ag h{ m fi dHh hpS ljc[ w'v hg ih[eg m$$
W[eq V[ b,e[ h' w[ wpN qjdHbj F[GB wiVg yjhg fi h;Pi V[
i'w ds,aj dwRpGdw Rpl s[ qV sg FjrVj b>aiujqaj sg V;i
Vjv s[t vHg lg dw dHh qp>cj yjh>psg h{ m WyV wgaj ##qp>cj
bu[ VhgG h'r[ej m$$ siLV wiV Rpfi>a qpC eH[ sPug rji dxi
bjHg m h;Pi V[ dxi WyV wgaj ##b;[ w'Hg qplvj aphjc[ zi
VhgG u>qsj m$$ Rpl V[ rg f,vj VhgG A,dcbj dwRpGdw Rpl V[
f=a,t s[t dvbj lg dw dHh fPiV qhJfpit LiW LwagqjV hV m
aglig rji dxi bj eHg m h;Pi V[ f=l>Vaj b>si WyV wgaj
##hpS fp,ai h'r[ej m$$ LdhVLjh fjl'G dq,ngbJ qpijsj v{ w[ rjfl
y,vg eHg m ljv Wjbs zi fp,ai h' debj m y'og rji N'vgbJ
Fi w[ siLV wiV vHg bjHg ba[ Vjv hg wpN F[BJ v{ w[
bjHg m F[Bj f>u l" ipfHgbJ dH,w Ljhg dvWjl rjvg fpLjw uigsji
u'Cj@ w>eVj sg u'Cg@ h,o sgbJ RpGevj rjla[ Ajf \duV%J
dr,y Ve uC[ h'H[ lV|@ l'V[ sg ACg@ uigsji slaji bjds
wHg wpN v{ w[ bjHg h;Pi h,l w[ WyV wiV v,e[ ##dHl sg
wg v'C lg@ ljc[ dHh dwl w>q h{ m$$
W[eq V[ dli dVrj W[Vag wgag ##h;Pi dHh sja rg \fp,ai
sg sja| dHh rg lF wpN aphjcj hg h{ w>q bj ujH[ej dur[G
wWgi ug sj xpiqjV h{ _

142
Part 4

wWgi q[ij qpN qdh dwAp Vhg u' dwAp h{ l' a[ij mm
a[ij apN wRp lRpfa[ dwbj vje{ q[ij mm
\lv'w wWgi ug@ b>e 1375|

W[Vag Rpfi>a h;Pi V[ lF yg;J f=rjV wi vHgbJ Ljhg


dvWjl ws[ ws[ ija } fdhVs[ lV m dxi iujHg sg Wp,wv qji
w[ wpN lqJ W{n[ idhSj m dxi tujV[ dr,y l>Fjv s[Sj m l'Bg
s[ b,u rg siLV wirjH[ uJs[ hV m dHl } ijSg rjvg l'Bg
bjts[ hV m h;Pi s[ lq[G u[ w'Hg Wgqji h' uJsj aJ WyV wis[
lV ##ijSg rjvg l'Bg dHl s[ Vjv fj dsRp ngw h' ujr[ej m$$
dHl ai%J Wgqji } bijq bj uJsj m
l'Bg fiojdH dH,w h'i f=l>e h{ m w,yg Fp,y'G s[ l[rw FjHg
u{qv dl>z s[ da>V vCw[ lV m uv'i dl>z Rpqi 27 ljv ba[
duRpS dl>z sg Rpqi 22 ljv s'r[G Ljsg Lpsj lV m byjVw
s'VJ sg q"a h' eHg m drywjivj vCwj HgLi dl>z wpbjij
lg m dH,w qjHg V[ dHl a[ yjsi fj vHg m dfaj u{qv dl>z
fp,aiJ sg q"a sj lsqj Vj N,v ldwbj Rph rg yCjHg wi
debj m dwl[ V[ WjWj ug } ?Wi ds,ag dw l+! u{qv dl>z yCjHg
wi debj h{ m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj aplgG lj} fdhvJ dwRpG VhgG
s,dlbj m Rpl V[ bu[ VhgG qiVj lg _
Rpl s[ bu[ 27 ljv Wjwg lV m Rpl } ujS VhgG s[Sj
lg@ y>ej ) dHl zi hg dxi uVq vr[ej m
dHw ljv Wjbs HgLi dl>z s[ zi vCwj f{sj h'dHbj
WjWj ug fjl vCw[ Wji[ s,dlbj aJ WyV h'dHbj ##dHh u{qv
dl>z de,v qpC w[ bjdHbj h{ bjfS[ zi dr,y lajHg ljv Wjwg
Rpqi epuji[ej a[ Wjwg h'i Rpqi rg vr[ej m u' dHl uVq sg h{ m$$

143
Part 4

lajHg ljv Wjbs dHh vCw[ epiWyV dl>z s[ whg rug


ba[ v,a tijW h' eHg cjwBi V[ lvjh ds,ag ##dw dHl sg
v,a w,BSg fr[eg dwRpGdw fvq s'C eHg h{ m$$ h;Pi Rpl lq[G
#y'vj$ A,c eH[ lV m epiWyV dl>z s[ qjq[ q'aj dl>z \wjhV
dl>z rjvj| } qhJfpitJ sj WyV Ijs bjdHbj ##dw dHh dHl
uVq sg Rpqi F'e[ej m$$ yv' Rpo[ hg v{ w[ uJs[ hJ m epiWyV
dl>z } v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ c[i[ fhp>y eH[ m Rpl lq[G e,sg RpD,fi
WjWj Vi{S dl>z ug qhjiju dWijuqjV lV m RpV%J fjl W[Vag
wgag ##dw qhjiju ) dHl sg v,a wBSg fr[eg$$ dw=fj wi' m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj$$ w'Hg e,v VhgG dHh RpV%J s[ WyV
Vjv f{sj h'dHbj h{ m dHl sj rjv rg dr>1505ej VhgG hp>sj m
dHh ijSg rjvg l'Bg dHl s[ Vjv fj dsY ngw h' ujr[ej m
WyV bB,v h' debj@ epiWyV dl>z ngw h' debj ba[ l+! epiWyV
dl>z dHh laiJ dvtS r[v[ a,w q"uPs h{ m
bBv WyV ljZP uVj lF qdh f=eBjdHbj mm
\b>e 812|

VjVw wydCbj dlRp a'dC TPdT luS l>a fdwbj m


\b>e 1102|

YdH ugr>s[ drApCdh YdH qpdHbj V ujhg A'dC mm

\wdW,a|
uJ w{ dZbjVj bV>s dry h'dH w[ qla dlr
Ac w{ l>lji Rpa[ yCe[ w{vjl h{ m
lVw@ lV>sV@ lVjaV@ l>a wpqji@ uj w{ fjrV[ } F[t Zjdibj

144
Part 4

Rpsjl h{ m
ljisj@ eS[L@ dH=s@ w'B@ s[r a[agl@ l=h>l= qpt l[l uf[ Vjq
lrjl lrjl h{ m
la a[ bV>a dry i,ag V xti ujS'@ ##qhJ hdiVjq hig$$
lpa[ f=wjl h{ m
w'Hg b>sj;j ljv wp fdhvJ dH,w l[n bW'hi a'G WjWj ug
s[ c[i[ bjdHbj lg dul V[ s,dlbj lg ##dw ejqj L{LS$$ sj
Rph vCwj ljcg dibjla Whjrv fpi sj ijuj lg m WBrjij
h'S a'G Wjbs blgG bW'hi bj eH[ m dHh l[n s[ WyV sjl
yiVuga dl>z V[ c[[i[ sg l>ea a'G lpS[ hV m

quTw swihbu jo dyvY soeI suKu pweIAY ]


qhJfpitJ sg l>ea wisj h'dHbj dHVljV hpwq dr,y idh
w[ hi ai%J s[ ZV \fp,ai@ ;qgV@ qwjV bjds| sg f=jfag wi
v{Gsj h{ m hpwq dr,y idh w[ hg WtdLL dqvsgbJ hV m us
ljdhW w'Hg sja apn w[ WtLS aJ Rpl dVbjqa sg hj;ig
s[rVhji lrjqg sj LpwijVj wiV vHg qhJfpit w'v vrjHg
ujr[ u' dHh sjaJ upBjRpS sg lq,ioj i,ts[ hV aJ dw RpV%J
s[ q[hi sg Vsdi lswj lpt sg f=jfag h'r[ m fi u[ f=jSg qVqjVg
wi[ aJ Rph dVbjqa sptsjHg h' uJsg h{ m dur[G wje; RpD,a[
v,eg liwjig q'hi Rpl sg wgqa V'B s[ iPf dr,y WSj ds>sg
h{@ fi dWVJ q'hi rjv[ wje; i,sg wiw[ ujv ds,aj uJsj
h{ m dHl[ ai%J qhJfpit sg q'hi a'G dWVJ RpV%J spbjij WtdLbj
h'dHbj ZV i,sg wje; rJe ijt h' uJsj h{ m fi u[ qhJfpit
ZV apn w[ WtLS a[ f=jSg Rpl } hpwq b>si ria[ aJ lptsjHg

145
Part 4

h'r[ej m fi u[ lr{ dH,Aj lswj W[tWi h' ujH[ aJ xv f,wS


a'G fdhvJ hg NC uJsj h{ dur[G xpiqjV h{_
yapijHg dlbjSf dwa{ wjdq V bjHgb{ mm
apnj ljdhWp u' s[r{ l'Hg lptp fjHgb{ mm
\b>e 396|

l[qj df>c sj f[=qg l+! bai dl>z lg dul V[ iPqg idh>s[


lq[G WjWj ug sg bSo,w l[rj wgag lg sj hrjvj s' da>V dh,l[
dr,y bj yp,dwbj h{ m l+! bai dl>z s[ zi s' vCwgbj lV
WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wiV Rpfi>a s' vCdwbJ V[ uVq dvbj m
r,c[ sj Vjq epids,a dl>z ba[ A'Bj wjwC dl>z lg m bai
dl>z a'G Wjbs epids,a dl>z rg l[rj wisj dihj dul } WjWj
ug qhjiju ##WjsLjh$$ dwhj wis[ lV m dHV%J Wji[ dfAv[ dh,l[
dr,y Ajdfbj uj yp,wj h{ m epids,a dl>z upbjV h' debj a[
Ljsg h' eHg m RpV%J s[ zi vCwj f{sj h'dHbJ aJ zi rjdvbJ
dryji wgag dw wjw[ sj Vjq WjWj ug a'G hpwq v{ w[ i,dtbj
ujr[ m W,y[ } v{ w[ fdirji h;Pi s[ yiVJ dr,y bj debj m
epids,a dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) wjw[ V[ uVq dvbj
h{ m q[hi wi' dHl sj Vjq wg i,tgH[ m$$
h;Pi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##N>cj dl>z$$
wpN lq[G Wjbs sPlij W,yj h'dHbj m dxi Fp,y'G WjWj ug w'v
Vjq i,tS vHg bjH[ m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##N>cj dl>z$$ m
Vjq lpVS Rpfi>a epids,a dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##eigW dVrju)
fdhv[ sj Vjq rg N>cj dl>z sPu[ sj Vjq rg N>cj dl>z m dH,w
} WpvjrJe[ s'V'G W'vSe[ m wje;J dr,y rg ngw VhgG h'r[ej m$$
W[Vag lpS Rpfi>a h,l w[ WyV wgaj ##fdhvJ r,cj N>cj@

146
Part 4

sPuj A'Bj N>cj m vRp f{ debj Vj xiw m$$


Rpl a'G Wjbs s' vCw[ h'H[ aJ Fp,y'G VhgG bjH[ a[ zi
hg Vjq i,t dvbj m dH,w y>s dl>z a[ sPlij ajij dl>z m lqJ
fj w[ epids,a dl>z ba[ fdirji siLV wiV bjdHbj m W,y[
t[cS v,e fH[ bjf s'V'G WjWj ug w'v W{n eH[ m qjHg V[ brj;
s[ w[ W,dybJ } WpvjdHbj ##y>s dl>z a[ ajij dl>z dHZi bjRp m$$
WjWj ug V[ fp,dAbj ##dHh y>s dl>z a[ ajij dl>z w"S hV m
qjHg V[ RpD,ai ds,aj ##dHh N>c[ h'iJ s[ s' A'B[ Fij hV m WjWj
ug V[ WyV wga[ ##qjHg a[i[ y>s dl>z V[ e'cg qji ujSg h{
a[ aji[ dAf ujSj h{ fi u[ aplgG hpwq Vjv i,ts[ aJ l,a N>c[
h'S[ lV m$$
qjHg dHl iqu } lqN Vj lwg@ Fp,v WtljRpS vHg w'Hg
W[Vag VhgG wgag m wpN dsV Wjbs s'V'G vCw[ lrierjl h'
eH[ m dxi s' h'i rg h'H[ fi w'Hg Vj Wdybj m
N>cj dl>z s'VJ s[ fdirji ba[ bjf b,u a,w WjWj ug
s[ si sg l[rj wis[ bj ih[ hV m
WjWj ug s[ w"awJ dr,Dy'G dH,w f=a,t f=qjS m dH,w rji qjN[
sg l>ea WjWj bV>s dl>z ug qhjiju s[ hpwq bVplji Fp,y'G
WjWj ug qhjiju s[ siLVJ vHg bjHg m qjHg FjeS qjV sg
l>ea dr,y lg@ dHl sj df>c yPVgbJ d;v%j vjh"i lg RplV[ WjWj
ug fjl W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) \dHw vCwg u' Rpl sg f'aig
lg| dHh ljcg vCwg ija } lp,ag h'Hg s>s wigy sg h{ m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHh tlq } tjSg h{@ tlq }
tjH[eg m$$ Fjr dHh drZrj h' ujr[eg m
dHh lpS w[ qjHg FjeS b,tJ Fi bjHg a[ W[Vag wiV
v,eg ##qhjiju ) dHl a[ dw=fj wi' m q[hi s[ zi dr,y bjRp m$$
147
Part 4

WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a>P fp,dAbj blgG s,l ds,aj m dHh


w'Hg lijf rjvg e,v VhgG dHh bB,v h'Shji h{ m$$
qjHg V[ dxi aivj wgaj ##fjaLjh ) aplgG WtdL>s h' m aplgG
bB,v } Bjv lws[ h' ljc[ a[ idhq wi' m$$
qhjiju WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##b,Aj ) u[ Whpag du,s
wisg h{ aJ wpN h>cj w[ \Fjr sl f>siJ ljv| fi tjH[eg ;iPi m$$
l' dHh rg hpwq bVplji hg ridabj m du>Vg s[i sj lqJ
qjHg FjeS s[ W[Vag wiV Vjv dqdvbj y>ej lpt sj v>dzbj m

\wdW,a|
h'S hji Bjv[ l>a@ qpH[ w' ugrjv[ l>a@ l>a u[ dVwjv[ FjHg
xijV Rph x,lsj m
l>a dry i,W r,l[@ hi e,v bjf s,l[@ duhCj q>V[ lptg r,l[
lsj ih[ h,lsj m
ih[ yiVJ $y u[hCj qp,w[ uVqj sj e[Cj f{Gsj uqj sj V N[Cj
Rph l,y t>c r,lsj m
dqv[ spZ bi fPa A,c ujS f>u sPa@ h'r[ Fvg wiaPa vjhj
dqv[ Vjq il sj m
l>a WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju s[ ugrV Vjv
l>W>dZa dHdahjl sgbJ fplawJ c[i[ dr,Dy'G dqvsgbJ hV m
V'B _ fjnwJ f=ag dVqiaj ldha W[Vag h{ dw u[ dwl[
f=[qg s[ fdirji Vjv uJ dwl[ diLa[sji l>W>Zg WjWj ug s[ WyV
dwl[ rg ai%J s[ h'H[ h'S aJ Rph l,uS c[ij i.Pqg rjvj \Fp,y'G
wvJ| dr,y f+l>e dvtrj w[ ujS sg t[yv ;iPig wiV m

148
Part 4

l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug


q>si qphji VjVwli a'G FppKy' ljdhW a,w
l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj uVq df>c qphji adhlgv
ugij d;v%j dxi';fpi drt[ qjaj l'qjr>ag w"i ba[ dfaj lisji
ueaji dl>z s[ e+dh drt[ 1 hjC \15 uPV 1954| } b>dq+a
r[v[ h'dHbj m WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug dHvjw[ dr,y fPi[ qjV ba[
ldawji rjv[ fpiL lV m bjf ug s[ dfaj ug 25 ljv bjfS[
df>c s[ lif>y ih[ m WjWj ug bjfS[ fdirji dr,y 6 Fij ba[
2 F{SJ dr,y lF a'G A'B[ hV m WjWj ug V[ f>u wvjlJ bjfS[
df>c s[ V[C[ liwjig f+dHqig lwPv q>si qphji dr,y fjl wgagbJ m
dHl drywji WjWj ug bjfS[ sjsj vjF dl>z \WjfP ug| Vjv
uJ dHw,v[ hg WjWj lp.si sjl ug fjl ujdHbj wis[ lV m dHV%J
sj c[ij df>c a'G 6 dwv'qgBi sg sPig $a[ w'B Hgl[ tJ drt[
ldoa ] m WjWj lp.si sjl ug WjWj l+g y.s sg fPuj wis[ hV
ba[ Vjq ufjMs[ hV m WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj A'Bg Rpqi
dr,y hg episbji[ uj w[ lal.e dr,y hg qV vej idh>sj lg m
WjWj lp>si sjl ug V[ dHV%J sg veV $a[ dyhij fCw[ WjfP
vjF dl>z ug } wdh ds,aj lg m dHh aJ l>a qhJ fpiL hV m
WjWj ug f>urg wvjl s[ bjtig f[fi a'G Wjbs sPli[ dsV
hg WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug s[ wdhS qpajWw VjVwli ueijRG
bj eH[ m 12 ljv sg Rpqi dr,y WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug V[ dHV%J
sg dcRPBg lptqVg ljdhW sj fjn wiV ba[ u'Cg a[ hiq'Vgbq
sg drdsbj dl,tS dr,y vej ds,ag m wgiaV sg drdsbj a'G
149
Part 4

Wjbs WjWj ug sg dcRPBg wiVfpi njn \e>ejVei| dHvjw[


dr,y vej ds,ag m 14 ljv sg RpKqi dr,y 2 ljv aw bjf
V[ dHo[ l[rj wgag m us dw w'Hg h'i Wdh>eq dHo[ ujS vHg
dabji Vhk lg m 16 ljv sg Rpqi dr,y bjf ug sg dcRPBg
WjWj ug V[ epispbjij VjVwli vpdZbjS[ \Vdhi s[ w>T[ vjHg|
Rpl njn dr,y wjxg ljv l[rj wgag m WjWj ug V[ dHo[ idh
w[ vpdZbjSj VjVwli njn $a[ WjWj HgLi dl>z fWdvw lwPv
FjHg iSZgi dl>z Vei } qpw>qv wijdHbj m dHl a'G Wjbs
WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ df>c 15 H[wC ;qgV dr,y epispbjij VjVwli
q>si qphji ba[ fWdvw lwPv q>si qphji sg dabjig wijHg
ba[ wHg ljv dHo[ l[rj wgag m dHl a'G Wjbs l>a WjWj wp>sV
dl>z ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg duo[ w>q ipwSj uJ VrgG l[rj
wijRpSg h'r[@ WjWj ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[ m bjf
ug V[ A'Bg RPqi dr,y hg wji l[rjrJ LpiP wijRpS Vjv wHg
l[rjrJ fPigbJ wgagbJ@ wjxg bu[ y,v ihgbJ hV duV%J dr,y'G
lwPv a[ wjvu rg hV m duV%J dr,y f>ujW@ IP!fg! ijulojV@
qhjijLBi qsijl h''i rg wHg lB[BJ Ljdqv hV m awigWV
w'Hg 60-70 blojVJ sgbJ l[rjrJ wirjHgbJ a[ h'i rg l[rjrJ
y,v ihgbJ hV m
WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug duo[ bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[
lV m bjf ug l[rj fPig wiw[ wlr,Bg $a[ fPi[ Rpais[ lV m l.a
WjWj wp.sV dl>z ug fjl us'G rg Wjhivg l>ea bjRpSg uJ
w'Hg W[Vag wiVg aJ WjWj ug V[ wdhSj ljij wpN lptg w'v
] Fdibj dfbj ] u' qi;g v{ vr' m duo[ WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug
V[ l[rj sj bjtSj WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug V[ dHvjw[ dr,y'G l>ea

150
Part 4

dvbj w[ l[rj wijrjRpSg m FpKy' ljdhW li'ri sg l[rj bji>F


h'Hg WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug Wdh>eqJ ba[ l>eaJ lq[a WjWj t[q
dl>z ug w'v FpKy' ljdhW fhp>y[ ba[ bjtS v,e[ l,ptj dl>z bjf
ug } l"Gf ds,aj ] m dHl a'G Wjbs l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug
sj l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug fjl bjRpSJ ujSj LpiP h' debj a[
V[Caj r,Z eHg m WjWj t[q dl>z ug s[ hpwq Vjv qjvj@ epBw[
s[L s[ w'V[ w'V[ dr,y r>cS uJs[ bt>c fjn@ l.fB fjn@ apw-
apw rjv[ qhJ l.fB fjn VjVwli sgbJ njnJ dr,y wirjH[
ba[ l>eaJ } b>dq+a A,wS vHg f[+iVj wgag ba[ f+yji dha
wHg i[v IjaijrJ@ W,l IjaijrJ@ uhj; Ijaij@ ljdHwv
IjaijrJ wgagbJ m l.a WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug s[ lrierjl h'S
a'G Wjbs l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug V[ l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug
sg idhVqjHg dr,y 250 wqi[ h;Pi ljdhW@ \liJrj| 5 epispbji[
ljdhW wHg v.ei yvjH[ a[ l>a WjWj t[q dl>z bjtig BjdHq
a[ bjf ug sg dcRPBg uf af $a[ vejHg duhCg bjf ug
V[ WjtPWg dVFjHg dHl a'G tpL h' w[ l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug V[
x'V a[ bjf ug } tpLgbJ WtLgbJ dw blk s,l Vhk lws[
dw blk a[i[ $a[ dw.V[ tpL hJ m
l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug V[ ljigbJ fjri bjx bBjiVg WjWj
ug s[ Vjq wgagbJ lV m 3 fjri bjx bBjiVg h;Pi ljdhW@
2 VojV[ a[ uiVv fjri bjx bBjiVg WjWj ug s[ Vjq wgagbJ
lV m
l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug s[ lrierjl h'S a'G Wjbs slqg
s[ q'w[ 5-02-2010 } s[L drs[L a'G@ dViqv[@ l>fisjdH@
sqsqg Bwljv@ uo[W>sgbJ dHvjw[ s[ ljigbJ f>yjdHaJ r,v'G

151
Part 4

dv,ta wiw[ c[i[ s[ f>ur[ qp,tg l[rjsji rKu'G slaji W.sg wgag
eHg ba[ c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy' wvj sj qp,tg ojdfbj debj m
l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug rKv'G 14 dsVJ dr,y iP.qg ljdhW df>c
l[qJ dr,y aJW[ sgbJ f"CgbJ rjvj li'ri l.eaJ s[ ldhI'e
Vjv dabji wirjdHbj dHl l[rj lW>Zg 4 dsV Wjbs WjWj
qhJ hdiVjq dl>z sgbJ fpijaV dvtaJ dr,y'G li'ri Wji[ dvta
dqvg m li'ri fPij dv,ta qpajWw hg WdSbj lg m hpS WjWj lpts[r
dl>z ug F,Dy' ljdhW drt[ v.ei hjv sg l[rj@ sgrjV hjv sg
l[rj ba[ e,sg ljdhW $a[ l'V[ yJsg sg l[rj wirj ih[ hV m

¬¬¬

152