Gender and University: Gender Studies and Research in Morocco Mohammed Masbah Abstract: Gender is considered as a new concept

in the Arab countries; its translation to Arabic produces a problem of meaning of this term, due to the absence of reference organizations of normalization of new words, i.e. neologism, what are the available translations of “Gender”? How to understand this term in social sciences? And what is the link between the scientific term, society and Academic Research? This paper focuses on the development of Academic Research and studies about Gender in Morocco, which knew a significant increase of interests in such topic since the 80s of the last century, by putting it in its social and historical context that lead to the development of studies and Research about Gender in Morocco, and monitoring the relationships between the development of feminist movement in Morocco and its impact on Academic Research on the subjects of Family, women and children. This paper tries to draw a map of Research and studies trends in those subjects conducted by Moroccan Researchers in social sciences, and monitors the main topics discussions, by focusing on two waves of research on the subject, and also giving two examples of studies about it. Index:  General introduction 1. in the meaning of Gender in Arabic and Arab world 2. in the sociological meaning of Gender 3. A َ cademic Research of Gender in Morocco 4. Summary 5. references 6. Appendix

I acknowledge with appreciation the helpful observations of Prof. Fatima Sadiqi, and correction of Khaoula Ajanae on the Draft of this paper

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The term “Gender” knew significant circulation in recent years by Researchers in social sciences. Also, an increasing interest in Gender studies in the world. Hence, Morocco for the goal to stand at the inequality between the sexes, the dismantling of foundations of this disparity and the challenges of power, and the aim to rebuild new relations between the sexes according to new paradigm more humane and more synthetic, than the reductionist model for human relations in one dimension (physical dimension), as defined by Herbert Marcuse, in his famous book, “One-Dimensional Man” (Marcuse-2002), which doesn’t allow to see the deeper dimensions of human phenomena, and sufficiency monitoring 'objective' cold data, as the master photographer, without a stand on the depth of the phenomena seen in its different ramifications. If there is an ambiguous concept today in the field of social sciences, it is the concept of 'Gender', which highlights the importance of this subject in two sides: scientific and social. From scientific point of view: the theme of “ family, women and children” and related issues, have specific nature, given to its contemporary, epistemological and methodological discussions related
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to this subject, The subject of family and women penetrates through a number of fields of knowledge in the social sciences. Law study legal texts and related legislative relationship between women and men, whether the Labor Code or the criminal law or family law, etc. ..., Politists examine the participation of women in political institutions and their involvement in the management of public affairs, Demographic, monitor and track the evolution of the relationship between women and men in society in terms of statistics and data. For Psychologists, it interests in Psychological and Intellectual composition and cognitive abilities for each sex. Also, the impact of the psychological dimensions in the nature of the relationship between the sexes. While Biologists study biological / anatomical differences between the sexes, and every discipline uses its own conceptual device, and employs theories and approaches which are very different from the sociological approach that we will try to present in this paper. On the social side, this subject is considered as controversial, with political dimensions, which take several forms on the public sphere, between different Ideological Currents in the Arab societies, especially between modernists, who privilege International reference
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(Treaties, laws, Conventions...) to National laws; and between Conservatives (Islamists, Nationalists) which give to national laws more Highness than all other laws whatever their origin. In Morocco, that can be proven by variation in attitudes through decisive phases, especially positions toward the two national marches on “Al khouta watanya li Idmaji al Maraa fi Tanmia”, or “the National Plan for the Integration of Women in Development”, and its related interactions and controversies, and then the release of Family Code in 2003. In this paper, We will try to analysis the term Gender and its Sociological connotations. I will try to analyze the development of studies and research concerning Gender in Morocco, relating it to its social, political and historical context, and then I will try to draw a map of some sociological Gender studies in Morocco.
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in the meaning of Gender in Arabic and Arab world

Before defining the term of «Gender», I want to address at first, the meaning of «term» itself, in Arabic language, «Mostalah « , «term», has the meaning of «Conciliation», i.e, “absence of disagreement», we say «istalaha alkawm», “people conciliate”, i.e; «something known» and taken for granted. in the field of science,
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«Term» is an «agreement between group of specialists in a specific field to the meaning of a word or number or signal or a concept. it is usually the result of accumulation of knowledge, and intellectual practices for a significant period of time, followed by an attempt to legalize This knowledge » (Messiri-1999), and it is necessary to use terms in the aim to « control and regulate the intellectual process, and framing practices of social thought in a systematic context, away from the chaos, to formulate a common logic between the interactions of individuals « (Messiri-1999). So the «term» has an important function of regulating the meaning for Researchers in a specific field. However, there is another problematic, related to the translation of the terms, so the translation of terms is somehow a kind of «explanation», therefore translators find themselves in front of a term, loaded of philosophical and cognitive latent significances, and this raises the question of re-building new terms, for the aim to redefine it, giving it new meanings according to philosophical and intellectual context which belongs to the Researcher / interpreter, it is a kind of building an alternative discourse in the social sciences as Syed Farid ALATAS proposes. Here is a quote from his article :” Alternative
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Arab Researchers are «Conciliated» around. there is also no «authentic» Arabic word which refer to «Gender».to the historical and cultural context.Discourses in South-east Asia”: “Alternative discourses are works that attempt to debunk ideas that have become entrenched in the social sciences. or « Genre» in French. in which drafting this term. It was formulated in a Western environment. and this is due . But if we tried to stand at some attempts of translation that have been formulated. analytical frameworks different from historical and cultural experience of Arabo-Islamic societies. Journalists…) in the Arabophone countries. The 1st is the literal 6 . For the relocation of the term of « Gender» from English. which stems from its historical experiences. and it is necessary to work hard for indigenization of that term in this area. Politists. partly as a result of colonialism and the continuing Eurocentrism in the social sciences “(Alatas-20006). that imposed a new situation concerning the sociological/scientific meaning of the word. There is no compatible translation of «Gender» that Actors (Researchers in social sciences. to the Arabic. until today. we will find at least three translations in Arabic language which indicate the word « Gender».as noted above .

Just for indication. and the 3rd « Nawe3 Al Ijtimai3i». in the linguistic production. to Arabic word. we are going to use all of the words mentioned before (Al nawe3 al Ijtima3i. For these reasons. the use and understanding of the word «Gender» is related to each Arab Country a side. and also to the weakness in translation to Arabic. and the creation of new words and their integration into the Arabic language. and the last is often used in the Maghreb (North Africa). Modern books and Reports contributed to the promotion of this word. Gender. It is close to the meaning of the «sexuality». In light of the weakness of linguistic institutions in the Arab world. different translations of the word «Gender» to Arabic keep obscure. or what we call Neology. And for this reason. From a procedural standpoint. and that is due to its extensive use by Moroccan media. The 2nd translated Gender to the word «Jounoussa».translation of « Gender». jounoussa) to 7 . the first two are used in the Arab Mashreq (Middle East). related to the absence of reference institutions in the Arab world that take in its conciderqtion the function of «Normalization» of translated or new words imported to Arabic.

or religion. and I quote: «Durkheim thought of modernity’s greater distinction between 8 . They take it « for granted». she talked about what sociologists said about sex inequalities. and tried to move closer to western sociology. It also didn't gave considerable attention to the differences between men and women. 1987).the same word «Gender». Durkheim and Marx « are not noted for their insights into ‘sex’ inequality (the word Gender was not known to them in its present usage) and in fact tended mostly to consider women’s subordinate social role as a natural ‘given’ (Holmes cited in Sydie. without investigating in epistemological and linguistic discussions or historicical context of this term. in sociological meaning of Gender If we move from trying to establish a definition of the word «Gender» in Arabic Sociology. 2. and that is due to the social context characterized by a world view which consider women as inferior. we will find that classical sociology doesn't have the concept of «Gender» on their priorities of analysis. Weber. as other topics: capitalism. Mary Holmes in her book « what is Gender» tried to show the point of view of classical sociologists in relation with « Gender». or Social Stratification. Fathers of sociology.

»1 Mary Holmes was surprised by the negligence of fathers of sociology to the sexual difference as something naturally determined.] Nevertheless these thinkers failed to examine ‘sex’ as an important social division and this view was long dominant within sociology (Oakley.]Marx recognized inequality between the sexes as a problem.. especially that they were stressed about « how social forces affected everything else »2. albeit a problem of secondary importance to capitalist exploitation of workers. Weber also saw women’s dependent social position as fundamentally determined by ‘the normal superiority of the physical and intellectual energies of the male’ (Weber cited in Sydie.. [. they specialized in their roles and this made the division of labor more efficient and society stronger..cit.. op. Op.]he argued that as society became more complex. 1974) [. 9 . biologically based evolution resulting from the progressive forces of a shift to organic solidarity [. more distinct differences in body and mind emerged between women and men.‘sex roles’ as a functional. 1987: 59).. and she was more surprised when she stated that this sociologists lived in an environment which contained feminists. She 1 2 Mary Holmes..cit.

« where the female is based on herself. Abd wahab Messiri. According to Dr. Which moved the Holiness and overview of the unseen from God to Man. and the male is based on himself. 3 4 Op. so the vision that Stem from New Feminism start from a conflict perspective. in relation with the development of what we can call « The SecondWave of Feminist Movement». Gender is used an analytical concept in the Social sciences since the beginning of the 70th in the last century. and the history of the humanity become the history of the conflict between men and women and the hegemony of men on women. in synchronization with the era of postmodernity.عبد الوهاب المسيري، النسوية: التمركز حول النثى!، موقع إسلم أون لين‬ 10 .said: « It also seems a little odd given that Weber’s wife Marianne was a notable German feminist and Marx’s daughter Eleanor was involved in feminist politics »3. ‫. and her tries to liberate herself from this hegemony » 4. promoted by a Human-centered (Humanist) vision in the 1st stages of secularization. the new Feminist movements is different from the old Liberation movements. From historical perspective.cit. and was still carrying the effects of loyalty of the Christian religiosity.

which is based on birth .e.New Feminism criticized the vision that has been dominant on many sociological studies. i. As noted above that the origin of the difference between sexes is due to a «nature» embedded in the biological sex. and the paradox is that men cannot give birth. these Gendered characteristics complicated by an array of other factors. «had perpetuated a division of labor that empowered men and disempowered women. and they have stronger physical bodies. So its role is linked to private space. which was considered by the new feminist campaigners as a kind of perpetuating inequalities between sexes. that allow them to take a social role of protectors. and they used to criticize the structures which underlie these statements by the calling for no link between the traditional role of women to its biological level . And according to the international Encyclopedia of The Social Sciences. and defenders. roles related to the Public Space.and its role as an educator for children. Men’s more active and dominant roles created an unequal relationship between the sexes that gave a rise to an 11 .

12 . which influenced sociological explanation about many subjects related to the position of women in the society.cit. op. Functionalism discussed « the difference of sexual role».p:4.oppressive ideology both within the home and. In the 50s and 60s of the last century. Volume 3: Ethnic Conflict. (2008).Inequality. Whether this was an intended (manifest) or unintended (latent) function of sex role differences did not seem to be of major interest to functionalists»6. However. 6 Mary Holmes. 2nd edition. Gender. more broadly.Darity Jr. Since the 70s of the 20th century. because they function to promote social stability. But this doesn't mean that sociologists didn’t give an importance to the topic before that time. and they argued that «sex role differences continue to exist. by using several concepts. p: 268. (Editor in Chief). MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA. They focused their interest and attention on understanding how men and women can «complement» the role of each other to keep society work efficiently. Sociology began to make distinction between «sex» (Biological difference between males and females). within institutionalized sexism»5. and between Gender (Social construction which construct difference between being man or woman). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. they couldn’t instate 5 William A. It also appeared among many Researchers in Chicago School in the 80s.

a reference on « Gender Studies». in our everyday life in the interaction with others. Anthony Giddens ask “What does it mean that Human is a Man? And what does it mean that is a Woman? 7. I quote: “we from sociological side. “constitute a fundamental side of our personalities crystallized in a very early stage in our lives and it is rooted during all our lives “Giddens add that we all participate in the creation and development of Gender. He considered that our conception of sexual identity. This statement is considered to be a Copernican revolution in «Gender Studies» and sexual inequalities. produce 7 185 :‫. a woman’ (de Beauvoir. but all of them return to the philosophical thesis of French philosopher Simone de Bouvoire (19881949) about the «second sex». but rather becomes. In this way. which constitute the most important reference in «Gender Studies». cited in Mary Holmes-2007). and also our sexual attitudes. relations and orientations. by her famous statement in this treatise: « ‘[o]ne is not born. « It was not nature but society or ‘culture’ that made women (and men) what they were (Mary Holmes-2007). 1988/1949: 295.أنتوني غدنز، علم الجتماع )مع مدخلت عربية(، ترجمة فايز الصياغ، المنظمة العربية للترجمة، بيروت، الطبعة الولى، 5002، ص‬ 13 .

and for women negative and kindness on the basis of biology. cit. which means that there are natural factors leading to inequality between sexes in almost all societies”.he nevertheless refutes allegations that gives to men aggressive character.and reproduce Gender by thousands of acts and behaviours we practice everyday “8. and he presented ideas of several sociologists which consider that “ specific sides in our biological construction of humansas Hormones. Giddens wondered about the extent of which we should consider the difference between men and women is related to biological difference. 14 . considering that levels of aggression and kindness vary from culture to culture and that theories that focus on “ natural difference” most of the times are based on “ data available about animal behaviour not anthropologist or historic data of human 8 Op. one way or another in all cultures.which makes the biological factor as the primar determinant of behaviours of men and women . chromosomes. and they add that the differences can be observed.is the responsible of innate differences between behaviours of men and women. Even if Giddens didn’t reject biological theory . the size of the brain and the genetic effects.

Cit. P : 190 10 15 . They produce roles for themselves and modify them”10. So 9 Op. This concept of sexual socialisation is close to the concept of ‘‘Habitus’’ of Pierre Bourdieu and his explanation of masculine hegemony as a kind of symbolic violence that structure the society. Cit. Op. To understand Gender and sexual difference. society expect from this individual to behave as women behave or as men behave “11. p : 186. “i. socialisation of sexual roles is not an easy series by itself. Individuals are not passive recipients to accept things passively. Cit. Giddens on his side. Giddens call for a study of Sexual socialisation. I quote: “Sexual socialisation is so strong that all people do not dare to oppose. because it can be confronted by several social institutions and the factors affecting in the process of socialisation.behaviour” 9. but “people are actors and active.e: understanding the way of learning expected roles of the sexes within social actors as family and media”. i. P :189 11 Op. Nevertheless. that individuals have a margin of the act concerning accepting or refusing or modificating ‘expected sexual roles in society’.e. recognize the importance of Sexual Socialisation. When the sexual identity of the individual (male or female) is determined.

and their representation of themselves as Immature and Ugly. Bourdieu tries to show the nature of relationship between dominant and dominated. and what is considered as symbolic violence practiced incorporeally by dominated. and that leads to a kind of “worthlessness”.cit : p : 62 16 .which gives the man the largest share and also in schemas inherent to each Habitus “12. by the way of accepting statements of dominants and “take it for granted”. I quote: “dominated apply on the relation of domination statements structured from a vision of dominants. Bourdieu gave an example of kbaylie (Amazighe region in Algeria) women. and consider that domination is natural and acceptable thing.بيير بورديو، الهيمنة الذكورية، ترجمة: سلمان قعفراني، المنظمة العربية للترجمة، الطبعة الولى، 9002، ص‬ Op. 12 13 60 :‫. make sure the objectivity of social structures and the activities of production and re-production constituted on the sexual division of production and re-production of biological and social work (labour) . but also a “Selfdeprecating”13.masculine hegemony find all the combined to fill the practice and the universal presence recognized for men. and which makes it accordingly appear as natural. To explain male hegemony. Not only that.

but I’m only going to monitor some features of the subject that may . Scientific Articles… that focused on the 17 .help the Researchers to discover some elements of the answer of those questions. and its signification in Sociological perspective. A َ cademic Research in Gender in Morocco After presenting the term of « Gender». the difficulties to translate it to Arabic. lectures. women and children knew a significant increase since the 80s of the last century that can be proven by the increase in the number of Conferences.3. by trying to answer several questions: • • When did sociological studies about Gender began? What are the objective conditions that contributed to the appearance of that kind of studies? • And what are the main topics discussed by Researchers? I’m not suggesting that I have the answer of the three questions in all their dimensions in this paper. I am going to discuss and present studies and Research about «Gender» in Moroccan Academic institutions. Academic Thesis. the Academic interest about the subject of family.hopefully .

the individualism and conflict of generations have increased and intensified. the nature of relation between couples and children. Social wise.subject of family. The structure of Moroccan family in particular. The interest in the subject is due to factors of multiple dimensions. knew a great transformation. as the decrease of the Father Role and subsequent conflict with the children. also the wives starting to work. by a number of new phenomena. It benefited from the increasing in the number of Researchers in the field and also from the support of international women Organizations. institutions and relations between individuals. from the model of extended family to nuclear family. These tensions are accompanied in some cases with 18 . the relation with extended family members. introduced a new way of negotiations about expenses and re-organization of roles inside the family. National Values Survey found that the development in Moroccan family has caused tension among the Family. women and children since that time. especially on family relations. According to several studies. That transformation had a significant effect. Moroccan society knew deep changes that affected its structures. and the content of the values governing the relationship.

The approach was academic and critical at the same time. It is related as well to the appearance of new Actors with new values and models of explanatory. The founding generation of Gender studies Those transformations cited above. women. seen particularly in the streets of big cities14.social illness that can be followed by violence against children or women. women and relationship between sexes in a transition society. but it is not the only factor among the factors that contributed to the high interest in this topic which is related to a new tendency in Moroccan sociology. or both of them for that matter. Also from the release of children who suffer from poverty. The majority of studies on women. for example: Mernissi describes the goal of a group of Researchers institued in the year of 1981 about the questions of family. 1.المجتمع والسرة والنساء والشباب، تقرير خمسين سنة من التنمية البشرية وآفاق سنة 5202، ص‬ 19 . contributed to link between sociological Research and engaging in influencing the public policy related to women and family. and children: « to contribute to the accumulation of scientific 14 43 :‫. family and children in the 80s « were obsessed by the change in women status. are considered as one of objective factors that contributed to the push of Research on the topic of family.

information on women. I mean data on the reality of women…. supplicated by Academic tools trying to develop a 15 Enquête sur l’Évaluation du Système National de la Recherche dans le Domaine des Sciences Humaines et Sociales. an activist in the USFP and Researcher about women issues. It also instituted a group of Researches under the group of « mokarabate» (Approaches) headed by Aicha Belarbi. SOCIOLOGIE. and D. ANTHROPOLOGIE et SCIENCE POLITIQUE AU MAROC. in several fields of human and social sciences17.E. 16 Op.لتفصيل في عناوين الطروحات أنظر الملحق في آخر الدراسة‬ 20 . and also the appearance of books translated to Arabic. and when I say scientific. in addition to that and since 1980. 30 thesis in Arabic. 47 in French and 17 in English. p : 13. It is a kind of “protestation” discourse.D.S.A or Master.cit. but focused on “Feminist studies “more than “Gender studies”.reached about more than a 100 title of Ph. and « they published between 1987 and 1999 about 9 books « 16. the development of scientific discourse about the status of women. Rapport de conjoncture. 17 ‫ ،الرسائل الجامعية المغربية، مؤسسة آل سعود‬CD، 2009، ‫. the number of Academic thesis that were published around Moroccan universities which treated the topic of «women» -in ascending. is certainly the development of this situation « 15. But Most of these studies didn’t use the term “Gender” in their sociological perspective as defined above.

18 The New Wave of Gender Studies 21 ‫ ،الترجمات العربية في العلوم النسانية والجتماعية، )9002(، مؤسسة آل سعود‬CD. or some books translated in the Machrek (East of the Arab World). . as The World Bank. between the year 1957 (One year after the independence) and 2007. there are only guides or reports from International Organizations. the Bibiolographical guide prepared by Al Saoud Foundation about the translated books to Arabic about the subject of “Gender” shows that they are limited in the number. Concerning translated books to Arabic. without talking about the accuracy of thier translation. as presented by the result of Research in the guide of Al Saoud Foundation 18 2.“scientist” discourse about “women liberation” or “women empowerment” in the public space and it doesn’t use “Gender” explicitly in its vocabulary. and the translations use the name of “ nawee al ijtima3i” or “ Gender” or “jounoussa” and all of them refer to “ Gender”. as shown by the bibliography Guide presented by Al Saoud Foundation in Casablanca about Academic thesis that were completed in Morocco or by Moroccans living abroad. There is a poverty in the number of Academic thesis and books translated to Arabic language. there are not more than six books.

you can check appendix above. and focusing on a specific place which is called “Area Studies”. and its shift from contestant discourse to Development Based Academic Research which is not necessarily linked to the aim of change in public policy. and the best of them in my opinion are: “identity and body: psychosocial approach of rural women in Ouad Laou’’. the example of region Chaouia”. but a tend to monitor change in relation between sexes. khouloud Sbai an eminent Psycho-sociologist at Hassan 2nd University. several Academic Thesis specialized on the subject of “Gender” has appeared19. and for details. and many other thesis in Human and social sciences about Gender.D Thesis of Prof. one is a Ph. Khouldoud Sbai and the second is the last book (2010) of Profs. There is also a thesis by Zaineb Miadi about the same subject of women body. Fatima Sadiqi and Moha Ennaji about women in 19 I gave only some example of thesis and books about Gender in Morocco. 22 .Since the beginning of the new century (2000). related to Academic research about Gender in Morocco since 1980(the year of the begining of research about that subject). That can show a significant change in the interest on Research about “Gender” in human and social sciences. she wrote a thesis under the direction of Fatima Mernissi: “The Body of women as a field of cultural written. I’m going to focus my interest on two examples. by Prof. In this way.

Prof. Khouloud based her Research on “Gender identity” in the allowance of “feminine identity”.the Middle East and North Africa. the Researcher focused on the representation of “Jebli” woman ( refer to the region of Jebala in north of Morocco) of her body. especially they are different in perspectives and field of Research. in the intersection between psychology and sociology. behaviors and evaluations to that 23 . So I’m going to present them related to their scientific and empirical importance. through a stand on various cognitions. Prof. both of them can be considered as a new generation of Gender studies in Morocco. In this relational context. on the grounds that there is no generalized feminine identity and talking about feminine identity is at the same time talking about a specify of each society and culture. 3. in a process of change and moving from a rural society closed on itself to a more open rural society to modernization process. and the implications of that representation to the evaluation of her identity. A talk about what makes women different from men in specific cultural and social system. Khouloud Sbai: Women Body and Gender identity This thesis focused on women body and its relation to the construction of Gender identity.

both at the aesthetic and health level or at moral religious level. Also. On a “Gender” based approach. by its guidance of biological evidence in a way that compromise with socialization. with show the vital role of socialization in the maintain of Gendered system. This symbolism which indicates that each culture has its own way of construction of Gendered identities. by promoting the division of roles between men and women. highlighting the implication of symbolic and cultural dimension to the representations of women of their body. functions and attitudes related to each sexes.. khouloud Sbai. Prof. and the evaluation of their identity in both rural and feminine dimensions.intimate field. tried to monitor some aspects of the deal of rural woman in “ouad laou” with her body. on the basis of “Gender” approach in the analysis of the process of the construction of psychosocial identity of rural women. a certain society determine an ensemble of roles. Researcher indicate that the condition of life of rural women is 24 . This latter. in light of the experienced characteristics that reflect to a large extent the sum of differences between rural and urban areas in Morocco.

caused to her marginalization that lead to make her away from gaining of modern life. which is represented by the lose of the unite view to self. doesn’t deny the efficiency of the search of alternative solutions to a “ re-balance” and the aim to the cognitive and emotional adaptation to the new systems. Prof. the thing that made the identity of rural 25 . which psychosocial dimensions appear as indicators of suffer from an “identity crisis”. and the relative increasing in the phenomenon of women rural emigration in the last years. But her “ crisis”. that feeds her ambition to get rid of this rural affiliation whenever the opportunity arises. reflect the impact of modernity on the dysfunction and lack of balance in rural mental in general. and feminine in specific. both individual and collective.considered as a major cause of the negative sense of her identity. Sbai described this situation in her work by what she called «double underestimates ». both material or moral suffer. is considered as a significant indicator of the suffering of rural women in the region of Jebala. and hinders the possibility of her self-esteem. caused to the suffer of « Jeblia » women of the forms of fragmentation and conflict and frustration.

and the process of linking women to men is considered as the first step to claim an independent Gender identity. not “Jariya” slave. history and cultural specify. as a methodology and a theoretical frame. or it is created for the entertainment of men or as immature 26 . beating all old representations to defining women by men or within him. the most important is reviewing the way of deal with her body. caused to the basic position of women body in the processes of social change. Prof Sbai arrived to a result that the process of liberalization of women body in our culture. as considering her the cause of the struggle in the world. on the basis “Gender” approach. which reflect the transformations and their efforts on several levels. This Research summarized. and of its deep implications on Gender relations.women in “ouad laou” as a process characterized by dynamics. should be go certainly in the way of maintaining our identity. start to look at woman as an autonomous being. with its contained emotional and sexual interactions between men and women. in order to re-position women and considering her as “ feminine” enjoying all the respect and recognition. she must build that on the basis of wanting to be a friend of man.

she is also director of the Isis Centre for Women and Development. and for this reason. she was nominated by King Mohamed VI as a member of the Royal Institute for Amazighe Culture (IRCAM) In March 2006.being. and in September 2006. Also. Fatima Sadiqi: leader of Gender studies in MENA Fatima Sadiqi is mixing between academic Research and parallel activities. in parallel to her academic work. to other representations that justified the authority of men to women and their exploitations. that Research highlighted that the relation of woman to her body had a deep implications about the sense of her identity. but is considered the most cause lead to what Gender identity knows of prejudice and injustice in her rights. she is occupying a post of Senior Professor of Linguistics and Gender Studies at the University of Fez. but we should keep in mind that many of Gendered injustice is due to positions and behaviors headed by women. it is unjust to link all causes of Gendered injustice to men. 4. she has been nominated by UN Secretary-General as 27 . She has held Fulbright Visiting Scholars at four US universities and founded the first graduate unit “Gender Studies” in Morocco.

She has also edited and co-edited a number of volumes. 2003). and women studies. The Northern Region (with Amira Nowaira.org/. the first can 20 Most of informations are gathered from her official site.20 She has published several studies and Research about both language. The Feminist Press.org/fatima-sadiqi-bio.one of the 8 women members of the Committee for Development Policy. Gender. and Language in Morocco (Brill. is the one that we are going to focus on this paper. http://www. she is the author of Women. Red Sea Press: 2008) and Women Writing Africa. and the site of Washinton Moroccan American Club : http://www.fatimasadiqi. This book is larger in perspective (Condition of women) and area(Middle East and North Africa) . If Khouloud Sbai focused her interests on a specific subject (Women Body and Gender Identity) in a limited area (Rural commune in North of Morocco). especially Amazighe language.wmc20. and her last co-edited book Women in the Middle East and North Africa: Agents of Change (Routledge 2010).wmc20. CUNY)21. including Migration and Gender in Morocco (with Moha Ennaji.html. according to its relevance.ma/ . Grammaire du Berbère (L’Harmattan. 21 http://www. Images on Women in Abdullah Bashrahil’s Poetry (The Beirut Institute: 2004). 28 . 1997).on. Azza El Kholy and Moha Ennaji.

by making their own history. without relating it to others studies and research. society. which can give us the opportunity to make a comparison between different Arab countries. and sociopolitical context. but im going to just present the main ideas of this book. about the concept of agency. Sadiqi thought that “ understanding women’s agency cannot be achieved without understanding the sources of power and power-negotiation in the region”. 29 . and general historical. on the basis of contemporary social and political theory. which is : women as active agents of change. cause it is not the main idea for this paper. not as they please but according to the norms regulating their culture. which is considered as the capacity to create a difference or the freedom to act otherwise.considered as Micro-Studies. Fatima sadiqi and Moha Ennaji tries to monitor the role of women in region Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by using a key conceptual issue. economic. in a specific situation. and between Local and regional differences related to Gender. from this perspective. and the second is Macro-studies.

Laroui. Hence. Israel. a culturally strong sense of religion. when we talk about that region of MENA. and legal issues in the region. To analysis this segregation between men and women in the regions of MENA. Egypt. and economic factors resulted in a number of sub-regional entities such as the Maghreb. she begins by socio-cultural context of the MENA region. etc. 2006) have demonstrated that women in fact invest both 30 . which is generally characterized by a space-based patriarchy whereby men are associated with the public space and women with the private space. the countries of the MENA region share women-linked commonalities that are strong.On the other hand. However. a smooth co-existence of tradition and modernity. Turkey and Iran. and multilingualism /multiculturalism. political. socio-cultural. political. Iraq and Syria. Becker. and pervasive: a space-based patriarchy. the importance of understanding the historical. 1977). Fatima sadiqi use a multidimensional analysis. from the perspective of this volume. the Gulf. 1975. (Abun-Nasr. economic. 1979. deep. we should keep in consideration difference and specific historical. even if some studies cited by the authors (Schaffer-Davis. a transitional stage in development.

It is within this conception of space that gender identities are constructed and power negotiated in the MENA region. It is true that women can be in some public spaces – for example. Sadiqi and Ennaji. men do not generally spend any time in the kitchen. but they cannot stay there as men are encouraged to. though with very different consequences. 1975. for example. is deeply spatial . The dichotomy public space/private space has been recently investigated within a genderbased dichotomy in which the social hierarchy of men and women is at the centre: the public space is the street and the market place where men evolve. Private space is culturally associated with powerless people (women and children) and is subordinated to the public space. Also. 2006). Rather. where men dictate the law. and the private space is the home where women live. lead 31 . too.spaces. Saadawi. on the street. so the taboo works for them. especially in semi-urban and rural areas. as opposed to mainstream Western patriarchy. 1982. but the cultural nature of the Arab-Muslim patriarchy. as cited by the authors (Mernissi. This view defines the public space as the locus of power and the production of social constraints and the private space with the locus powerimplementation. they must do their business and move on.

From the 1950s onwards. manage the state. 32 .business. for example.and nation-building imperatives in the region and the gender dynamics of these processes and policies greatly impacted development and social policy. The various social illnesses that characterize this region have a direct impact on women’s lives. they lack authority (that is. as cited by the authors (Moghadam. child custody and inheritance. with the exception of Tunisia and Morocco perhaps women in this region are legally defined as dependents in the family laws pertaining to divorce. Prof. For the political context in the MENA region. Thus. power sanctioned by society). both national and domestic. and control the economy. 2005). often decide on the economy of the household and on who marries who). although women have power in the private space (older women. A combination of neopatriarchal state. With very few exceptions. women in the MENA region still face gender discrimination that prevents them from reaching their potential. the evolution of social policy in the MENA region has had a heavily gendered history. Despite their impressive gains in education and health. Sadiqi and Ennaji argue that is not favorable to women’s empowerment.

like most developing regions. MENA has been hit by recurrent severe economic crises since the late 1970s. In cities. poverty has become more and more female as cited by the authors (Ennaji 2005). Likewise. female job opportunities are more directly hit by economic crises than male opportunities. instead. The most under-privileged classes are paying a high price for the adjustments. it is in the lower classes that one finds the largest number of female heads of households (Ennaji and 33 .On the Economical Context. the countries of the region have adopted “structural adjustments” to restore their economic and financial balance. Starting from the mid-1990s onward. This tendency is reinforced by an increase in divorce and has resulted in an increase in the number of female heads of households. The loosening of family ties and accelerated urban expansion have seriously broken traditional solidarity. From that period onward. are encouraged to take up precarious and low-paying jobs in the informal sector. the first victims in this process being poor women who are the victims of the decrease in employment prospects and the drastic cuts in social budgets. In times of crises. women are excluded from stable and high-paying jobs and.

Consequently. suits with the privacy of our societies. They constitute the most vulnerable social group and the least protected one. as a Globalised concept exported to Arab world. In the finish. women have to fight for many considerations that are taken for granted by men. This is in accordance with the prevalent view that women are not treated on an equal basis with men in the public sphere of work. and in the same 34 .Sadiqi. the sociological betting is to the possibility of Arabo-phone Sociologists to indigenize that concept and give it a local meaning. 2008). and according to what discussed above. and it is still constructing it meaning in the new environment. it is the result of a systematic depreciation of women’s work and status in all fields. Likewise. which gives to Researchers in the region of Middle east and north Africa a concept with complexes and humane significance. This situation is due neither to fate nor chance. women benefit less than men from economic and social progress in periods of growth. it appears that sociological debates about “ Gender” in the Arab world is still continuing in obviousity. and that its contents is not so Clair. poverty typically affects the families supported by a woman’s salary.

Social sciences do not still have the same recognition as Natural sciences. especially.time tend to universalism. 35 .

(in Arabic). (2004) (in Arabic). Male Hegemony. (2009) Al Saoud Foundation. One-Dimensional Man. translation of faiz souagh. Beirut. Arab Organization of translation. CD. society. (in Arabic). SOCIOLOGIE. Idafate. translation of: salmane ka3farani. The Definition and Types of Alternative Discourses. Al Saoud Foundation. and youth. Alternative Discourses in Asian Social Sciences : Responses to Eurocentrism. Syed Farid. under the direction of Rahma Bourqia. ANTHROPOLOGIE et SCIENCE POLITIQUE AU MAROC. Attarjamate Al Arabya fi Al Ouloum al insanya wa ijtima3ia. www.References: Herbert Marcuse. (2009) Rapport de conjoncture. CD. New Dehli: Sage Publications. Syed Farid. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. (in French). 1st publishing. Anthony Giddens.islamonline. attamarkouz hawla al ontha.net Pierre Bourdieu. (2010). Identity and body: psychosocial approach to rural women in ouad laou. London and New York 2002 Alatas. Beirut. 50 year of Human development. in Faculty of letter and human sciencesRabat. (2005). num:9/winter 2010. (1999). women. Sociology. And 2025 prospective. feminine – centrism. family. Beirut. Ph. 36 . Khouloud Sbai. Rahma Bourqia (editor). (2009). (in Arabic). 1st publishing. The Arab Journal of Sociology. (2006). cairo. Routledge Classics. Alatas.D thesis in Sociology. Enquête sur l’Évaluation du Système National de la Recherche dans le Domaine des Sciences Humaines et Sociales. (2009). With an introduction by Douglas Kellner. Rabat 2005. Arabic translations in human and social sciences. Alrassel Aljami3ia Almagherbia. Dar Achourouk. Encyclopedia of jews and Judaism and Zionism. Moroccan University Thesis. Elmessiri Abdel Wahab. Elmessiri Abdel Wahab. Arab Organization of translation.

MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA. (2007).Darity Jr. 37 .Mary Holmes. Gender. First published William A.Inequality. Volume 3: Ethnic Conflict. SAGE Publications Ltd. (Editor in Chief). 2nd edition. (2008). What is Gender? Sociological Approaches. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.

2 ---‬‫إد الفقيه، أحمد‬ ‫إشكالية الشغل النسوي : وضعية المرأة العاملة في إطار القانون الجتماعي المغربي‬ ‫761 ص.‫:‪Appendix‬‬ ‫22 ‪Thesis on Gender in Morocco‬‬ ‫‪Arabic‬‬ ‫-.4 ---‬‫الرياضي، أحمد‬ ‫التمثلت الجتماعية للمكانة العاطفية الجتماعية لدى المرأة وعلقتها بتشكيل السلوك‬ ‫عند الطفل : دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫التويجري، محمد.1 ---‬‫زهور، أربوح‬ ‫أوضاع المرأة بالمغرب السلمي من خلل نوازل المعيار للونشريسي : دراسة فقهية‬ ‫اجتماعية‬‫دكتوراه الدولة : الدراسات السلمية : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 3002‬ ‫الريسوني، أحمد. مشرف‬ ‫حدية، المصطفى. مشرف‬ ‫--------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫---------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫-----------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. ؛ 92 سم‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : القانون : الرباط ، كلية العلوم القانونية والقتصادية‬ ‫والجتماعية : 9891‬ ‫جلل، آمال.‬ ‫‪CD‬‬ ‫83‬ ‫22‬ .5 ---‬‫المسدالي، خديجة‬ ‫الرسائل الجامعية المغربية، )9002(، مؤسسة آل سعود للدراسات السلمية والعلمموم الجتماعيممة، قممرص مدمممج.3 ---‬‫مبتسم، مفتاحة‬ ‫الختيار في الزواج وعلقته بالستجابة العصابية لدى المرأة : دراسة ميدانية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : فاس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز‬ ‫: 6891‬ ‫ربيع، مبارك. مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.

01 ---‬‫الخير، أمينة‬ ‫المرأة وتولي الوظائف العامة : رؤية إسلمية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدراسات السلمية : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية :‬ ‫93‬ . مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.9 ---‬‫ابن مسعود، رشيدة‬ ‫المرأة والكتابة من خلل القصة القصيرة المغربية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدب : فاس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز :‬ ‫7891‬ ‫المنيعي، حسن. مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫‬‫-.6 ---‬‫مدغري علوي، رشيدة‬ ‫المرأة المغربية : التاريخ والمجتمع من القرن التاسع-القرن الخامس عشر إلى القرن‬ ‫الثاني عشر-الثامن عشر‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : التاريخ : فاس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز :‬ ‫2002‬ ‫العلوي القاسمي، هاشم. مشرف‬ ‫---------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.‫المرأة القروية بين الثوابت والمتغيرات : منطقة دكالة نموذجا، دائرة الزمامرة : دراسة‬ ‫سوسيوأنثربولوجية‬ ‫دكتوراه الدولة : علم الجتماع : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 0002‬ ‫ربيع، مبارك.7 ---‬‫السالمي، محمد‬ ‫المرأة المغربية بين الخطاب الشرعي والكتابات النسائية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم الجتماع : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫المسدالي، خديجة. مشرف‬ ‫---------------------------------------------------‬‫-.8 ---‬‫اشماعو الفهري، بشرى‬ ‫المرأة من منظور القرآن الكريم وقصصه‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدراسات السلمية : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية :‬ ‫9891‬ ‫الراجي الهاشمي، التهامي.

11 ---‬‫قوسال، خديجة‬ ‫تجليات المرأة في الشعر الشعبي : فن الزجل نموذجا‬ ‫الدكتوراه : الدب : الدار البيضاء ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية عين الشق : 3002‬ ‫خليل، محمد. مشرف‬ ‫حدية، المصطفى.61 ---‬‫04‬ . مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.31 ---‬‫بوبكيري، عائشة‬ ‫تمثل المرأة العاملة للمجال في المؤسسة الصناعية وعلقته بمردوديتها‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫التويجري، محمد.‫9991‬ ‫الريسوني، أحمد. مشرف‬ ‫--------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫. مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.21 ---‬‫أفرفار، علي‬ ‫تكون صورة المرأة لدى الطفل من 4 إلى 41سنة‬ ‫دكتوراه الدولة : علم النفس : فاس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز :‬ ‫2991‬ ‫معوض، خليل.41 ---‬‫حليم، كريمة‬ ‫تمثل المرأة المغربية للتحرر : المرأة المتعلمة نموذجا‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم الجتماع : فاس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر‬ ‫المهراز : 9991‬ ‫بحير، سعيد.51 ---‬‫معادي، زينب‬ ‫جسد المرأة القروية كمجال لكتابة ثقافية : نموذج منطقة الشاوية‬ ‫دكتوراه الدولة : الدب : الدار البيضاء ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية بنمسيك :‬ ‫2002‬ ‫المرنيسي، فاطمة.

12 ---‬‫كمال، بشرى‬ ‫صورة المرأة بين النص النقدي والنص الروائي المغربي‬ ‫14‬ .71 ---‬‫وانعيم، لطيفة‬ ‫دور المرأة في القرار الفلحي وانتشار الجديد بالهضاب‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الجغرافيا : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫ابن شريفة، عبد اللطيف. مشرف‬ ‫حدية، المصطفى. مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫.02 ---‬‫ميمتشيوي، فتيحة‬ ‫صراع الدوار لدى المرأة العاملة وعلقته بالقلق : دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫بلحاج، عبد الكريم.81 ---‬‫بنمسعود، فاطمة الزهراء‬ ‫سيكوباثولوجية الكتئاب عند المرأة المسنة : دراسة إكلينيكية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫التويجري، محمد.91 ---‬‫العشوري، فاطمة‬ ‫صراع الدوار عند المرأة الموظفة المتزوجة الم وعلقته بتوافقها النفسي‬ ‫والجتماعي : دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫ربيع، مبارك. مشرف‬ ‫الداشمي، عبد السلم. مشرف‬ ‫--------------------------------------------------------------‬‫. مشرف‬ ‫طحطح، فاطمة. مشرف‬ ‫--------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫-------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-. مشرف‬ ‫-------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.‫المعلومي، أسماء‬ ‫خطاب الروائيات العربيات : »الزمن الصيغة«، »كوابيس بيروت« لغادة السمان،‬ ‫»عين المرأة« لليانة بدر، »ذاكرة الجسد« لحلم مستغانمي، »الغد والغضب« لخناتة بنونة‬ ‫نموذجا‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدب : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫بحراوي، محمد.

22 ---‬‫القرشي، سليمان‬ ‫صورة المرأة في الشعر الندلسي من القرن الخامس الهجري إلى القرن الثامن‬ ‫الهجري‬ ‫الدكتوراه : الدب : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 0002‬ ‫بنجامع، عبد الباقي. مشرف‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.52 ---‬‫بيهي، علي‬ ‫صورة المرأة في شعر الجاهلية وفي صدر السلم : دراسة تحليلية نقدية‬ ‫دكتوراه الدولة : الدب : الجديدة ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 1002‬ ‫لوليدي، يونس. مشرف‬ ‫--------------------------------------------‬‫-.62 ---‬‫السعدية، ابن محمود‬ ‫صورة المرأة من خلل الخطاب التاريخي المدرسي الخاصة بمادة التاريخ في‬ ‫التعليمين الساسي والثانوي‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علوم التربية : الرباط ، كلية علوم التربية : 4991‬ ‫--------------------------------‬‫-.‫دكتوراه الدولة : الدب : مكناس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 6002‬ ‫العشيري، نادية.72 ---‬‫الكير، محمد‬ ‫علقات التجاهات نحو مراكز المرأة بالتوافق لدى المراهقين : دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬ ‫24‬ .42 ---‬‫شبشوب، فاطمة‬ ‫صورة المرأة في المسرح المغربي بين القتباس والتأليف‬ ‫664 ص. مشر‬ ‫--------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.32 ---‬‫إملوان، الصديق‬ ‫صورة المرأة في الشعر العربي المعاصر : دراسة وتحليل‬ ‫دكتوراه الدولة : الدب : مكناس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 4002‬ ‫العشيري، نادية. مشر‬ ‫---------------------------------------------------‬‫-. ؛ 92 سم‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدب : مكناس ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 7891‬ ‫رمز الوثيقة : 396 / 1 50 28‬ ‫----------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.

مشرف‬ ‫حدية، المصطفى. Faculté Doctorat‬‬ ‫.‪juridiques‬‬ ‫‪Economie‬‬ ‫‪de la participation de‬‬ ‫‪économiques et‬‬ ‫‪la femme à l'activité‬‬ ‫1002‪sociales‬‬ ‫‪économique national‬‬ ‫34‬ ‫:‪French‬‬ ‫‪Title‬‬ ‫‪Studen Professo faculty and‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫‪r‬‬ ‫‪year‬‬ . مشرف‬ ‫-----------------------------------------------------------------‬‫-.03 ---‬‫السراري، نجاة‬ ‫مظاهر جمال المرأة في شعر الغزل الجاهلي‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدب : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫عزة، حسن. مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫----------------‬‫-.‫ميدانية مقارنة‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 5991‬ ‫ربيع، مبارك.‪d'Etat‬‬ ‫‪modèles d'évaluation Djamila‬‬ ‫.92 ---‬‫بلحاج، عبد الحميد‬ ‫مسؤولية المرأة في السلم‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : الدراسات السلمية : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية :‬ ‫5991‬ ‫حمادة، فاروق. مشرف‬ ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‫----------------‬‫-. Ahmed des sciences‬‬ ‫. مشرف‬ ‫‪Type of‬‬ ‫‪diplomat‬‬ ‫‪e and‬‬ ‫‪speciality‬‬ ‫‪Analyse multivariée‬‬ ‫‪Chekro Laaboudi : Rabat .‪du marché du travail : uni‬‬ ‫‪.82 ---‬‫دمير، عزيز‬ ‫غياب المرأة العاملة خارج البيت وعلقته بالتوافق النفسي الجتماعي لدى البناء :‬ ‫مرحلة المراهقة‬ ‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا : علم النفس : الرباط ، كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية : 9991‬ ‫التويجري، محمد.

Dir. LouisSamira Jean :. Kress. Bordeaux 2 : 1982 Des hommes et des femmes : représentations sociolectales et structures sémiotiques dans des contes des Mille et une nuits Discours et la femme Kharbo Rey. d. Paris 8 : 1985 . uch. JAmina Jacques. Souma ya Caractéristiques Sareh. Jacques contexte culturel Naima marocain . chant et danse des femmes chez les Benikhaled. de la femme dans le Tabet. 44 Picardie. PierreAhmed Philippe Paris 1 : 1987 Dialmy. Maroc oriental Aspects comparatifs de l'hystérie chez la femme marocaine et française issue du milieu rural Au-delà de la pudeur : étude sur la sexualité de la femme marocaine Belyazi Calvet. Paris 5 : 1984 . .Approche sémiologique et linguistique du saf. Paris 5 : 1982 Doctorat de 3e cycle Linguistiq ue Doctorat de 3e cycle Sociologi e Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi e Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi e Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sciences de l'éducatio n Doctorat de 3e cycle : Linguistiq ue Doctorat Chouki. Rennes 2 : 1988 Naama neGuesso us. :. Roussel. socio-démographiques Saadia Louis de la femme marocaine fonctionnaire Conceptions et images Khaled Wittwer.

Houria Bensimo . Paris 5 : 1992 d'Etat : Sociologi e Diplôme d'études supérieure s: Littérature Doctorat : Sciences de l'éducatio n Laâla. Faculté des Abdellah lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999 . Zakia . Paris 13 : 1987 Doctorat de 3e cycle : Psycholog ie Alaoui Raphael. identité sexuelle. Naïma Faculté de philosophie 1987 Hammou : Oujda . Touh. femme musulmane : exemple pris au Maroc .au Maroc depuis le XIX siècle Discours préfeciel [sic] et représentations de la femme dans le roman féminin marocain de langue française de 1985 à 1995 Etendue et limite de la modernisation dans la condition féminine au Maroc : une étude socio-culturelle sur la persistance de la tradition dans la vie de la femme Etude de vécu sexuel de la femme marocaine à partir de deux échantillons de femmes hystériques Femme arabe. ti. Yves Rabeh. FèzArfoud Femmes maghrébines immigrées en France et contraception : enquête auprès de consultantes d'un service de gynécologie à Paris Femmes. . Caen : 1987 n. Freddy 1983 Sociologi Kebira e AbdulNour. Doris 45 . Strasbourg 2 : Doctorat : Ismaili. Sue. Hakima Roger Mzili. Paris 5 : 1983 Doctorat de 3e cycle : Démograp hie Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi Baumsti mler. changement dans une ville traditionnelle : A. Linda .

Faculté des sciences juridiques. Faculté des sciences juridiques. Fatiha . Bahija e .émergence de l'individu et résistance du groupe Images des femmes Belqziz Fougeyr dans la vie Hemim. Lahcen Djamila Galisson. Roger Rajae 46 . . Paris 3 : 1982 Doctorat de 3e cycle : . ollas. Paris 7 : 1983 Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi e Diplôme d'études supérieure s: Economie Diplôme d'études supérieure s: Economie Doctorat de 3e cycle : Philosoph ie Doctorat : Sciences de l'éducatio n Sociologi e : Oujda . Paris 8 : 1988 Cherka Daoudi. professionnelle : le Zakia Pierre cas de Marrakech L'Entreprenariat féminin au Maroc : obstacles rencontrés et recommandations pour le renforcement du rôle des femmes entrepreneurs L'emploi des femmes dans les PME-PMI : cas de la Wilaya de Meknès Sakhra oui. les enjeux du savoir ri. . Paris 8 : 1990 des femmes du Rif et e. économiques et sociales : 1993 L'expression plastique Belaich Couchot. oui. Edmond du Moyen Atlas Rachid marocain a L'identité culturelle et Khouda Berger. Guy chez la femme Khadija marocaine L'image de la femme dans les manuels de français et d'arabe de l'enseignement secondaire au Maroc L'image de la femme dans quelques romans maghrébins de langue Ziyyat. Paris 3 : 2001 Robert Berrada Fayolle. économiques et sociales : 1998 : Fès . Fathi.

Alami René El Kamou ri. Aomar . d économiques et sociales : 1983 La condition des El Abdel : Paris . Faculté femme en droit Fathia a. Jean1985 Malika Michel Aloman i Guenne d. . : Paris . Anouar études en Malika sciences sociales : 1986 La femme anglaise au Belkha Dulck. des hautes indépendant Alaoui. Ouafae Moulay Rachid. k. Toulouse 2 : . Paris 5 : 1983 Robert : Rabat . Bennoun : Rabat . Ecole femmes dans le Maroc Belghiti Malek. des sciences international public Mohame juridiques. Faculté des sciences juridiques. Paris 8 : 1986 L'évolution du statut juridico-social de la femme marocaine depuis l'indépendance La Condition de la femme marocaine à travers sa sexualité : le cas de la Khouribganaise La conception de la femme chez Tahar Ben Jelloun La condition de la femme au Maroc . P . Faculté 47 Deprez. . économiques et sociales : 1981 La condition de la Bennis. J.française L'émancipation des femmes marocaines et leur insertion dans la fonction publique El Lourau. Abderr azak Jouanny. Lille 3 : 1995 Littérature Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sciences de l'éducatio n Doctorat : Histoire Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi e Doctorat de 3e cycle : Littérature Doctorat d'Etat : Droit Diplôme d'études supérieure s : Droit Doctorat de 3e cycle : Sociologi e Doctorat Barkate Berthelot . Jean. Najet Arazou Martin.

Paris 3 : 1984 Ismaili. économiques et sociales : 1994 : Rabat . pratique du langage Khadija Denise par les femmes marocaines : approche 48 . Khatib. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999 Doctorat d'Etat : Economie Diplôme d'études supérieure s: Géographi e Doctorat de 3e cycle : Anthropol ogie Doctorat : Sciences politiques Diplôme d'études supérieure s : Droit Doctorat de 3e cycle : Linguistiq ue Alaoui Bammat . économiques et sociales : 1993 . Faculté des sciences juridiques. Paris 8 : 1995 i. Aicha l. Nadjm Kebira Oud-dine Abouna Demiche . Province de Tiznit). Abdallah Zineb Rafika : Rabat .foyer. Francine El Saaf. sous le règne de yat George III Hassani . Moham med : Rabat . Geiger. Halima Driss des lettres : 1981 de 3e cycle : Littérature La femme et le système arganeraie [sic] : quel enjeu relationnel spécifique à Tnine Day (région d'Anezi. Faculté des sciences juridiques. Paris 5 : 1987 La femme marocaine en France : justice civile et processus d'intégration. La participation de la femme à la vie politique au Maroc La pertinence du Bnoussi François paramètre sexe dans la na. Rachid a La femme dans l'économie marocaine Ouzzif. Fatima Refass. e. Ben Ali. Anti-Atlas occidental La femme marocaine dans l'islam Ziride.

Paris 5 : 1998 Frédéric J Linguistiq ue Amiti. Alain 1997 Doctorat : Littérature Berriss oul. Paris 7 : 1987 Doctorat de 3e cycle : Linguistiq ue : Rabat . El Salma Mostaph a Fahim Zine. Rivals. Toulouse 2 : . Doctorat Université de la de 3e Sorbone : 1983 cycle : Sociologi e . Rhita Anebar Kassai. Georges Fadila Maâdan Chadli.socio-linguistique du dialect de Marrakech La place réservée aux femmes dans les écrits et l'historiographie marocains relatifs au moyen-âge. Samira François. Claude 49 . Faculté Doctorat : des lettres et des Linguistiq sciences ue humaines : 2002 Toulouse 2 : 1987 Doctorat de 3e Iraqi. i. Khadija : Paris . Latifa Ducellier . che. Toulouse : 1985 Doctorat de 3e cycle : Littérature . . de la fin du Xe à la fin du XIVe siècle La situation de la femme à travers les proverbes en usage à Oujda : analyse formelle et sématique La voyante : étude socio-culturelle d'une catégorie de femmes marocaines dans un milieu citadin : RabatSalé Le personnage de la femme dans le roman marocain d'expression française Le tatouage et le langage des femme au Moyen-Atlas marocain : approche sémiologique Lecture sémioénonciative des contes marrakchis sur la femme Les femmes voilées au Maroc El Bouhsi ni.

Mohame d : Rabat .1 --- Naama ne Guesso us. 19191921. Aix-Marseille . Faculté Doctorat : des lettres et des Littérature sciences humaines : 2003 Regards sur la femme dans la nouvelle et le roman marocain de langue française Thème et statut de la femme marocaine à travers la littérature orale populaire : le proverbe comme exemple English --. Faculté des Doctorat : Mohame lettres et des Littérature d sciences : Tétouan humaines : 2007 50 . . Doctorat : Sociologi e Sabri. Jean1988 Michel. Miyna Saouri. Dir. 1929 Puberté et ménopause chez la femme marocaine Ayat Kfita. Bouchr a Dialmi.Ben M'sick : 1995 Dabezies . Anissa El Kaydi. Souma ya Benzak our Chami.Rhizlan e Les rites de mariage à travers deux générations de femmes kénitriennes : enquête sur quelques aspects du changement social au Maroc Les titres du peintre Max Ernest et le concept du collage : vers une esthétique de l’hétérogène : la période Dada. La femme sans tête. cycle : Sociologi e. Abdessa mad : Casablanca . Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines . Nadia Kabtane. André 1 : 1987 Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature Yamlahi. Nabat Berthelot . Toulouse 2 : .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999 Lebbady. Naïma American women's utopian novels : a thematic study of Mary B.] Davis Nichols. Saber. Dir. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 2000 Fabre.d. John S. Hasna.Tahri. Dir. Gliman's Herland Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat . Articulating the local and the global : a case study in Moroccan women’s magazines Doctorat . Nadia African American women writers : representations of black womanhood. The wings of the dove and Edity Whartons The house of mirth and The age of innocence Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat . Geneviève.4 --Skalli. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 1830s-1950s Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat . Dir.3 --Squali. Lane's Mizora and Charlotte P. Touria Archetypal patterns of women's development : a comparative study of selected characters in Henry James' The awkward age. Dir.2 --Tazmi.5 --51 . Loubna H. Ann M. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Dir. Pennsylvania state University : [S. Dennis K. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Major. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999 Elasri.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.6 --Bouabdelli. Mohamed Domestic violence against women in contemporary Morocco : a case study of the el-Jadida region Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat . Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 2003 Rhissassi. Hasna. Dir.8 --Lebbady. Dir. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7 --Dardar. Karima 52 . Khadija. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1997 Kennedy. Dir.9 --Arbia.Rafik. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 2005 Labbadi. Dir. Fouzia. Malika Beyond post colonial discourse : new problematics of feminine identity : representation [of] language in contemporary Moroccan Francophone women writing Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Casablanca . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Fatima Contemporary women's issues in Morocco : contending discourses Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Meknès .Aîn Chock : 1999 Safieddine. Valerie. Hasna Entrapment and escape : postmodernist and feminist uses of Gothic by selected contemporary women novelists Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat .

Women in love and Lady Chatterly's lover Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat .Morocco in British women's travel writing in the early twentieth century : a critical reading of Agnes Grove's Seventy one days camping in Morocco and Emily Keene's My life story Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès . Abdellatif. The speech of men and women in Fez 53 . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Dir.13 --Jaouhari Tissafi. Dir. Valerie.11 --El Alami. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1999 Bekkaoui. Khalid. H. Youssef Amine The erotic dimension in the style of D. Dir.12 --Lahmil. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Lawrence's The rainbow. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1999 Bekkaoui. S. Noufissa The mother-daughter relationship in contemporary North American women writers' fiction Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat .10 --Aït Hammu. Khalid. Abdelouahab Orientalist and anti-orientalist anthropology : the example of three twentieth century texts on marriage and women in Morocco Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès . Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1996 Kennedy. Dir. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1988 Kriem.

Lahcen. Dir.14 --Chekroune. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1989 Bentahila. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 2007 El Moudden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 2004 Haddad. Souâd Women. Ross. Fatima.17 --Addaouda. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1990 Stuart. Dir. Abdelali. Samira Tragedy of women in some of George Eliot's novels Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès . Abderrahim.16 --Chalkah. 54 . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Diplôme d'études supérieures : Linguistique : Fès . Fadwa Women beneficiaries attitudes towards literacy compaigns in Morocco : a tentative analysis Doctorat : Linguistique : Fès . Nora Women and political participation : the parliamentary experience of Moroccan women in the Senth Legislature. Gender and Thestade in Morocco : constraints and prospects Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat . 2002-2007 : a case study Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat .15 --Mirabet. Dir. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 2002 Sadiqi. Dir. Dir.

The memories of survivor and The marriage between zones three. 55 .18 --Bakkali. four and five Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat . Asmaa Women's quest for wholeness in Doris Lessing's novels with special reference to The four gated city. Najat. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines : 1998 Sebti. Dir.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

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