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Interaction comparison

Van der Waals /

Ion - Ion Ion - Dipole Dipole - Dipole H. bonding Cation - π Anion – π* π-π crystal close
Strength / kJ
100-350 50-200 5-50 6-120 80 1-50 0.4-4
- can be very strong - weaker than ion- - relatively weak - subset of dipole-dipole - a special subset of - very weak - relatively weak - very weak
bonds, sometimes ion - directional forces interactions dipole-dipole - interaction of - heavily influenced by the - depend on the
even stronger than - directional force - observed in carbonyl - directional interactions interactions anions and π* nature of the π system polarizability of
covalent bonds - can be attractive or compounds in solid - very important in nature - directional orbitals - directional interactions the molecule
- attractive or repulsive state - highly dependent on the interactions - present only in - highly dependent on the - non-directional
repulsive - medium range – - highly dependent on dielectric constant of the - interaction of electron-deficient dielectric constant of the interactions
- non-directional 1/r2 the dielectric constant medium aromatic rings with aromatic systems medium - appear due to
force - highly dependent of the medium - primary (donor-acceptor) cations from below - F- can interact - Hunter-Sanders model temporary
- highly dependent on on the dielectric and secondary (between and above with electron rich polarization of the
the dielectric constant of the neighbouring h-bonded - highly dependent aromatics electron clouds
constant of the medium groups) on the dielectric (Van der Waals)
medium - sulphur and phosphorus- constant of the - minimalization of
containing species the best medium the void spaces in
acceptors and donors the crystal (crystal
- halogen-containing species close packing)
the worst acceptors and
Description donors
- various types of geometries
(a - linear, b-bent, c-
donating bi and e- - electron-rich / electron-
trifurcated, f - three-centre, deficient stacking favoured
e- accepting bifurcated) sort of like ion-ion
- donor-acceptor interactions
visible in the UV
- highly dependent on the
dielectric constant of the
- not exclusive to aromatics –
double and triple bonds can
interact this way too

Induced-fit Lock and key concept

® guest triggers changes in the receptor or host
® as the enzyme and substrate approach each ® guest has geometric size, interaction and shape complementarity to the
other, the binding site of the enzyme changes receptor or host
its shape resulting in more precise fit ® allows discrimination between different guests, i.e. only perfectly
® a host can interact with different (similar) complimentary guests will fit inside
guests ® misleading rigidity
® a key process in biological molecular ® underestimates the effects of entropy