You are on page 1of 76

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

College of Engineering and Technology


Department of Chemical Engineering

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

The quality of any body of surface or ground water is a


function of either both natural influences and human influences.
Without human influences water quality would be determined
by the weathering of bedrock minerals, by the atmospheric
processes of evapotranspiration and the deposition of dust and
salt by wind, by the natural leaching of organic matter and
nutrients from soil, by hydrological factors that lead to runoff,
and by biological processes within the aquatic environment that
can alter the physical and chemical composition of water.

Typically, water quality is determined by comparing the


physical and chemical characteristics of a water sample with
water quality guidelines or standards. Drinking water quality
guidelines and standards are designed to enable the provision
of clean and safe water for human consumption, thereby
protecting human health. These are usually based on
scientifically assessed acceptable levels of toxicity to either
humans or aquatic organisms.

Declining water quality has become a global issue of


concern as human populations grow, industrial and agricultural
activities expand, and climate change threatens to cause major

alterations to the

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 40


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

hydrological cycle.

An emerging water quality concern is the impact of personal care products and
pharmaceuticals, such as birth control pills, painkillers and antibiotics, on aquatic
ecosystems. Little is known about their long-term human or ecosystem impacts, although
some are believed to mimic natural hormones in humans and other species.Poor water
quality has a direct impact on water quantity in a number of ways. Polluted water that
cannot be used for drinking, bathing, industry or agriculture effectively reduces the amount
of useable water within a given area.

Water quality standards (WQS), according to U.S. Environmental Protection


Agency, are legally binding norms that describe the desired ambient condition (i.e., level of
protection) for a waterbody and consist of the following three principle
elements:

1. The “designated uses” of the state’s waters, such as public water supply,
recreation, propagation of aquatic life and wildlife, or navigation;
2. “Criteria” specifying the amounts of various pollutants, in either
numeric or narrative form, that may be present in those waters without
impairing the designated uses (note - criteria include any one or more
of three components: magnitude, duration, and frequency); and,
3. Anti-degradation requirements providing for protection of existing water uses and
limitations on degradation of high quality waters.

Also, according to the Department of Environmental and Natural


Resources defined water quality guidelines (WQG) in the DENR
Administrative Order No. 2016-08 as the level for a water constituent or
numerical values of physical, chemical, biological and bacteriological or
radiological parameters which are used to classify water resources and
their use, which does not result in significant health risk and which are not
intended for direct enforcement but onlyfor water quality management
purposes, such as determining time trends, evaluating stages of deterioration or
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 41
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

enhancement of the water quality, and as basis for taking positive action in preventing,
controlling or abating water pollution.

Water quality in a body of water influences the way in which communities use the
water for activities such as drinking, swimming or commercial purposes. More specifically,
the water may be used by the community for:

 Supplying drinking water


 Recreation (swimming, boating)
 Irrigating crops and watering stock
 Industrial processes
 Navigation and shipping
 Production of edible fish, shellfish and
crustaceans
 Protection of aquatic ecosystems
 Wildlife habitats
 Scientific study and education.

Importance of Water Quality Standards

Water quality criteria are developed by scientists and provide basic


scientific information about the effects of water pollutants on a
specific water use. They also describe water quality requirements for
protecting and maintaining an individual use. Water quality criteria
are based on variables that characterize the quality of water and/or
the quality of the suspended particulate matter, the bottom sediment
and the biota. Many water quality criteria set a maximum level for the
concentration of a substance in a particular medium (i.e. water,
sediment or biota) which will not be harmful when the specific
medium is used continuously for a single, specific purpose. For some
other water quality variables, such as dissolved oxygen, water quality

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 42


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

criteria are set at the minimum acceptable concentration to ensure the maintenance of
biological functions.

Water quality standards are important because they help to address and solve many
types of water quality problems. Standards help to monitor and assess water quality
problems stemming from improperly treated wastewater discharges, runoff or discharges
from active or abandoned mining sites, sediment, fertilizers, and chemicals from
agricultural areas, and erosion of streambanks caused by improper grazing practices.
Water quality standards are used to:

 Protect beneficial uses, such as healthy fish, bugs, and plant


communities, swimming and other water recreation, and fish
consumption;
 Evaluate water monitoring data used to assess the quality
of the state’s water resources;
 Identify waters that are polluted or impaired or in need of
additional protection; and
 Set effluent limits and treatment requirements for discharge
permits and clean-up activities.

Classification of Water Bodies in the Philippines

The classification of water, as defined in Section 5.0 of the DENR Administrative


Order No. 2016-08 or the Water Quality Guidelines and General Effluent Standards of 2016
is divided in two. The first type, presented in Table 1, is fresh water defined as the water
containing less than 500 parts per million dissolved salt, sodium chloride, such as that in
groundwater, rivers, ponds and lakes. The second is marine water, presented in Table 2,
which refers to waters with salinity levels not less than 30 parts per thousand, at least 95%
of the time.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 43


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table 1. Water Body Classification and Usage of Freshwater

Classification Intended Beneficial Use


Public Water Supply Class I- Intended primarily for waters having watersheds,
which are uninhabited and otherwise protected and which require only approved
Class AA
disinfection in order to meet the National standards for Drinking Water (NSDW) of
the Philippines.
Public Water Supply Class II- Intended as sources of water supply that will require
Class A complete treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) in
order to meet the PNSDW.
Recreational Water Class I- Intended for primary contact recreation such as
Class B bathing, swimming, skin diving, etc. (particularly those designated for tourism
purpose.)
1. Fishery Water for the propagation and growth of fish and other aquatic
resources.
Class C
2. Recreational water class II- For boating, fishing, or similar activities
3. For agriculture, irrigation, and livestock watering
Class D Navigable waters

Table 2. Water Body Classification and Usage of Marine Waters

Classification Intended Beneficial Use


Class SA 1. Protected Waters- Waters designated as national or local marine parks,
reserves, sanctuaries, and other areas established by law (Presidential
Proclamation 1801 and other existing laws), and/or declared as such by
appropriate government agency, LGUS, etc.
2. Fishery Water Class I- Suitable for shellfish harvesting for direct human
consumption
Class SB 1. Fishery Water Class II- Waters suitable for commercial propagation of shellfish
and intended as spawning areas for milkfish (Chanos chanos) and similar
species
2. Tourist Zones- For ecotourism and recreational activities
3. Recreational Water Class I- Intended for primary contact recreation (bathing,
swimming, skin diving, etc.)
Class SC 1. Fishery Water Class III- For the propagation and growth of fish and other
aquatic resources intended for commercial and sustenance fishing
2. Recreational Water Class II- For boating, fishing, or similar activities
3. Marshy and/or mangrove areas declared as fish and wildlife sanctuaries
Class SD Navigable waters

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 44


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

General Provisions on Water Classification


1. Classification of a water body according to a particular designated use or uses
does not preclude use of the water for other purposes that are lower
inclassification provided that such use does not prejudice the quality requiredfor
such waters.
2. Water classifications are arranged in the order of the degree of
protectionrequired, with Class AA and SA having generally the most stringent
waterquality, respectively, for fresh surface waters and marine/coastal waters;
andClass D and SD waters have the least stringent water quality for fresh
surfacewaters and marine waters, respectively.
3. The main objective of the water quality criteria is to maintain the
minimumconditions necessary to assure the suitability of water for its
designated useor classification.
4. Any person regulated under these rules or having a substantial interest in
thischapter may seek reclassification of waters by filing a petition with the
DENRgiving all necessary information to support the petition.
5. All reclassifications of water shall be adopted, only after public notice
andhearing and upon affirmative findings by the DENR Regional Office
concerned that:
i. The proposed reclassification will establish the present and futuremost
beneficial use of the waters;
ii. Such a reclassification is clearly in the public interest, and
iii. The proposed designated use is attainable, upon consideration
ofenvironmental, technological, social, economic and institutionalfactors.
6. For purposes of classification or reclassification the following minimum
waterquality parameters are to be considered:
i. Dissolved oxygen (DO)
ii. pH
iii. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 45
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

iv. Total Coliform Organisms

Water Quality Guidelines


Water quality criteria have been widely established for a number of traditional
water quality variables such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand for
periods of five or seven days (BOD5 and BOD7), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and
nutrients. Such criteria guide decision makers, especially in countries with rivers affected
by severe organic pollution, in the establishment of control strategies to decrease the
potential for oxygen depletion and the resultant low BOD and COD levels.
The following quality standards is defined in Section 69 of the DENR Administrative
Order No. 34 Series of 1990 with the subject of Revised Water Usage and
Classification/Water Quality Criteria Amending Section Nos. 68 and 69, Chapter III of the
1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations.

A. Minimum Guidelines for Surface Waters. All surface waters of the country shall be
free from:
1. Domestic, industrial, agricultural, or other man-induced non-thermalcomponents of
discharges which, alone or in combination with othersubstances or in combination
with other components of discharges (whetherthermal or non-thermal)
i. That settle to form putrescent deposits or otherwise create a nuisance;or
ii. That float as debris, scum, oil, or other matter in such amounts as toform
nuisances; or
iii. That produce color, odor, taste, turbidity, or other conditions in suchdegree as to
create a nuisance; or
iv. That are acutely toxic; or
v. That are present in concentrations which are carcinogenic, mutagenic,or
teratogenic to human beings or to significant, locally occurringwildlife or aquatic
species; or
vi. That pose a serious danger to the public health, safety or welfare.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 46


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

2. Thermal components of discharges which alone, or in combination with


otherdischarges or components of discharges (whether thermal or non-thermal):
i. That produce conditions so as to create nuisance; or
ii. That increases the temperature of the receiving body of water (RBW)so as to
cause substantial damage or harm to the aquatic life orvegetation therein or
interfere with the beneficial uses assigned to theRBW.

B. Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh Waters


1. Conventional and Other Pollutants Affecting Aesthetics and Oxygen Demand

Table 3. Water Quality Guidelines for Conventional and Other Pollutants


Contributing to Aesthetics and Oxygen Demand for Fresh Waters(a)

PARAMETER UNIT CLASS AA CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C CLASS D (b)


Color PCU 15 50 (c) (c) (c)

Temperature (d) (max.


°C rise 3 3 3 3
rise in deg. Celcius)
pH (range) 6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 8.5 6.0 - 9.0
Dissolved Oxygen (e) % satn 70 70 70 60 40
(Minimum) mg/L 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.0
5-Day 20°C BOD mg/L 1 5 5 7(10) 10(15)
Total Suspended
mg/L 25 50 (f) (g) (h)
Solids
Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 500 (i) 1,000 (i) - - 1,000 (i)
Surfactants (MBAS) mg/L nil 0.2(0.5) 0.3(0.5) 0.5 -
Oil/Grease
(Petroleum Ether mg/L nil 1 1 2 5
Extracts
Nitrate as Nitrogen mg/L 1.0 10 nr 10(j) -
Phosphate as
mg/L nil 0.1(k) 0.2(k) 0.4(k) -
Phosphorus
Phenolic Substances
mg/L nil 0.002 0.005(l) 0.02(l) -
as Phenols
MPN/
Total Coliforms 50(m) 1,000(m) 1,000(m) 5,000(m) -
100 mL
MPN/
Or Fecal Coliforms 20(m) 100(m) 200(m) - -
100 mL
Chloride as Cl mg/L 250 250 - 350 -
Copper mg/L 1.0 1.0 - 0.05(o) -
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 47
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Footnotes for Tables 3,4,5, and 6.


(a) - Except as otherwise indicated, the numerical limits in Tables 1 and 3 are yearly
average values. Values enclosed in parentheses are maximum values.
(b) - For irrigation purposes, SAR should have a minimum value of 8 and a maximum value
not to exceed 18. Boron should not exceed 0.75 mg/L.
(c) - No abnormal discoloration from unnatural causes

(d) - The allowable temperature increase over the average ambient temperature for each
month. This rise shall be based on the average of the maximum daily temperature readings
recorded at the site but upstream of the mixing zone over a period of one (1) month.
(e) - Sampling taken between 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM
(f) - Not more than 30% increase
(g) - Not more than 30 mg/L increase
(h) - Not more than 60 mg/L increase
(i) - Do not apply if natural background is higher in concentration. The latter will prevail
and will be used as baseline
(j) - Applicable only to lakes or reservoirs, and similarly impounded water
(k) - When applied to lakes or reservoirs, the Phosphate as P concentration should not
exceed an average of 0.05 mg/L nor a maximum of 0.1 mg/L
(l) - Not present in concentrations to affect fish flavor/taste
(m) - These values refer to the geometric mean of the most probable number of coliform
organism during a 3-month period and that the limit indicated shall not be exceeded in 20
percent of the samples taken during the same period
(n) - For spawning areas for Chanoschanos and other similar species
(o) - Limit is in terms of dissolved copper
nil - Extremely low concentration and not detectable by existing equipment
--- - Means the standard of these substances are not considered necessary for the present
time, considering the stage of the country's development and DENR capabilities, equipment
and resources.
nr - Means No Recommendation made

2. Toxic and other Deleterious Substances. The maximum limits for thesetypes of
pollutants according to classifications or use of the receiving body of water are
found in Table 4.

Table 4. Water Quality Criteria for Toxic and Other Deleterious Substances for Fresh
Waters (For the Protection of Public Health)

PARAMETER UNIT CLASS AA CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C CLASS D

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 48


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Arsenic (i) mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.01


Cadmium (i) mg/L 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05
Chromium (i)
mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 ------
(hexavalent)
Cyanide mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 ------
Lead (i) mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 -----
Total Mercury (i) mg/L 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
Organophosphate mg/L nil nil nil nil nil
Aldrin mg/L 0.001 0.001 - - -
DDT mg/L 0.05 0.05 - - -
Dieldrin mg/L 0.001 0.001 - - -
Heptachlor mg/L nil nil - - -
Lindane mg/L 0.004 0.004 - - -
Toxaphane mg/L 0.005 0.005 - - -
Methoxychlor mg/L 0.10 0.10 - - -
Chlordane mg/L 0.003 0.003 - - -
Endrin mg/L Nil nil - - -
PCB mg/L 0.001 0.001 - - -
Note: 1. Limiting values of organophosphates and organochlorines may in the meantime
serve as guidelines in the interim period pending the procurement and availability of
necessary laboratory equipment. For Barium, Cobalt, Fluoride, Iron, Lithium, Manganese,
Nickel, Selenium, Silver and Vanadium, the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations, Section 69
may be considered.

C. Water Quality Guidelines for Marine and Coastal Waters


1. Conventional and Other Pollutants Affecting Aesthetics and Oxygen Demand.
Thecriteria for Class SA, SB, SC and SD are found in Table 5.

Table 5. Water Quality Guidelines for Conventional and Other Pollutants Affecting
Aesthetics and Exerting Oxygen Demand for Coastal and Marine Waters.

PARAMETER UNIT CLASS SA CLASS SB CLASS SC CLASS SD


Color PCU (c) (c) (c) (c)

Temperature (d) (max. rise in °C) °C rise 3 3 3 3


pH (range) 6.5 - 8.5 6.0 - 8.5 6.0 - 8.5 6.0 - 9.0
% satn
Dissolved Oxygen (e) (Minimum) 70 5.0 70 5.0 70 5.0 50 2.0
mg/L
5-Day 20°C BOD mg/L 3 5 7(10) -
Total Suspended Solids mg/L (f) (g) (g) (b)

Surfactants (MBAS) mg/L 0.2 0.3 0.5 -


Oil/Grease (Petroleum Ether mg/L 1 2 3 5
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 49
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Extract)
Phenolic Substances as Phenols mg/L nil 0.01 (1) -
MPN/
Total Coliforms 70(m) 1,000(m) 5,000(m) -
100 mL
MPN/
Fecal Coliforms nil 200(m) - -
100 mL
Copper mg/L - 0.02(n)(o) 0.05 (o) -

2. Toxic and Other Deleterious Substances. The maximum limits for toxic andother
deleterious substances for waters classified as Class SA, SB, SC and SD waters are
found in Table 6.

Table 6. Water Quality Guidelines for Toxic and Other Deleterious Substances for
Coastal and Marine Waters (for the Protection of Public Health)

CLASS
PARAMETER UNIT CLASS SA CLASS SB CLASS SD
SC
Arsenic (i) mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 -
Cadmium (i) mg/L 0.01 0.01 0.01 -
Chromium (i) (hexavalent) mg/L 0.05 0.1 0.1 -
Cyanide mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 -
Lead (i) mg/L 0.05 0.05 0.05 -
Total Mercury (i) mg/L 0.002 0.002 0.002 -
Organophosphate mg/L nil nil nil -
Aldrin mg/L 0.001 - - -
DDT mg/L 0.05 - - -
Dieldrin mg/L 0.001 - - -
Heptachlor mg/L nil - - -
Lindane mg/L 0.004
Toxaphane mg/L 0.005 - - -
Methoxychlor mg/L 0.10 - - -

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 50


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Chlordane mg/L 0.003 - - -


Endrin mg/L nil - - -
PCB mg/L 0.001 - - -
Note: 1. Limiting values of organophosphates and organochlorines may in the meantime
serve as guidelines in the interim period pending the procurement and availability of
necessary laboratory equipment. For Barium, Cobalt, Fluoride, Iron, Lithium, Manganese,
Nickel, Selenium, Silver and Vanadium, the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations, Section 69
may be considered.

D. Groundwater Quality Guidelines. Groundwater shall be maintained at a quality


consistent with its intended beneficial usage. For purposes of preserving and protecting
groundwater quality, the following criteria shall be maintained.

Table 7. Groundwater Quality Guidelines


Intended Beneficial Use Groundwater Quality Guidelines
Source of Potable Water and Other Domestic Adopt Class A WQG (except BOD and Dissolved
Use Oxygen)
Bathing and Other Primary Contact Adopt Class B WQG (except BOD and Dissolved
Recreation Oxygen)
Adopt Class C WQG (except BOD, Dissolved Oxygen,
Irrigation, Fish Culture, Livestock Watering
and Total Suspended Solids)

Important Considerations on Water Quality Guidelines


The water quality guidelines are set regardless of the assimilative capacity of water
bodies, and to ensure that assimilative capacities are not exceeded, the water quality
guidelines set forth in the Tables 3-6 are:
a. Annual average of at least 10 data sets for primary parameters except for fecal coliform.
b. Annual average of at least 4 data sets for secondary inorganic parameters.
c. Geometric mean of at least three data sets per quarter for fecal coliform. Further,
maximum allowable limit for fecal coliform is twice the water quality guidelines per
sample.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 51


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

d. Maximum allowable limit for secondary metals and organics parameters.


e. For water quality parameters that are naturally occurring in the Philippines, the natural
background concentration as determined by EMB shall prevail if the concentration is
higher that the WQG; provided that the maximum increase is only up to 10 percent and
that it will not cause any risk to human health and the environment.

Methods of Analysis

For purposes of these regulations, any water sample taken for the purpose of
classification or for determining compliance with the water quality criteria shall be
analyzed in accordance with the methods enumerated in Table 8. The table also applies to
determine compliance to effluent regulations.

Table 8. Approved Methods of Analysis

PARAMETER METHOD OF ANALYSIS


ARSENIC Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate Method (Colorimetric)
BOD5 Azide Modification (Dilution Technique)
BORON Carmine Method (Colorimetric Method)
CADMIUM Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (West ashing
with concentrated HNO3, + HCl
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS Gas Chromatography (ECD)
CHROMIUM (Hexavalent) Diphenyl Carbazide Colorimetric Method
COLOR Visual Comparison Method (Platinum Cobalt Scale)
CYANIDE Specific Ion Electrode Method
DISSOLVED OXYGEN Azide Modification (Winkler Method), Membrane
Electrode (DO meter)
FECAL COLIFORMS Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique or Membrane
Filter
LEAD Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
NITRATE AS NITROGEN Bruccine Method for Saline Waters, specific Ion
Electrode Meter for Fresh Water
OIL AND GREASE Gravimetric Method (Petroleum Ether Extraction)
ORGANO PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS Gas Chromatography (FPD)
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) Gas Chromatography (ECD)
pH Glass Electrode Method
PHENOLIC SUBSTANCES Chloroform Extraction Method
PHOSPHATE AS PHOSPHORUS Stannous Chloride Method
SETTLEABLE SOLIDS Imhoff Cone Method

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 52


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

SURFACTANTS (MBAS) Methylene Blue Method (Colorimetric)


TEMPERATURE Use of Mercury-Filled Thermometer
TOTAL COLIFORMS Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique or Membrane
Filter
TOTAL MERCURY Cold Vapor Technique (Mercury Analyzer, AAS)
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS Gravimetric Method

Significant Parameters for Selected Types of Industries

Most industrial processes pose less demanding requirements on the quality of


freshwater and therefore criteria are usually developed for raw water in relation to its use
as a source of water for drinking-water supply, agriculture and recreation, or as a habitat
for biological communities. Criteria may also be developed in relation to the functioning of
aquatic ecosystems in general. The protection and maintenance of these water uses usually
impose different requirements on water quality and, therefore, the associated water
quality criteria are often different for each use.

As a guide to dischargers and regulatory agencies the significant parameters to be


considered for monitoring purposes are indicated in Table 9.

Table 9. Significant Parameters for Selected Types of Industries

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER PARAMETERS


BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids, Settleable Solids, Oil and
A. BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
Grease
B. CEMENT, CONCRETE, LIME & GYPSUM pH, Suspended Solids, Dissolved Solids, Temperature
BOD5, COD, pH, Suspended Solids, Dissolved Solids
C. DAIRY PRODUCT PROCESSING
Settleable Solids
D. FERRO ALLOY MFG. (electric furnace Suspended Solids, Chromium (hexavalent) Oil and
with wet air pollution control) Grease, Phenols, Phosphates
E. FERTILIZER INDUSTRY Nitrogen Chloride, Chromium, Dissolved Solids, Nitrate,
Fertilizer Industry Phosphate Fertilizer Suspended Solids pH, Phosphorus, Suspended Solids,
Industry Temperature, Cadmium, Arsenic
F. GRAIN MILLNG INDUSTRY BOD5, Suspended Solids, Temperature
G. INORGANIC CHEMICALS, ALKALIES AND pH, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids,
CHLORINE INDUSTRY Chlorides, Sulfates, COD, Temperature
H. LEATHER TANNING & FINISHING BOD5, COD, Chromium, Oil and Grease, pH,
INDUSTRY Suspended Solids, Color, Dissolved Solids
I. LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY BOD5, COD, Total Suspended Solids, pH, Color, Total
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 53
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Coliforms
BOD5, COD, Suspended Solids, pH, Oil & Grease,
J. MEAT, FISH AND FRUIT CANNING
Dissolved Solids
BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids, Settleable Solids, Oil and
K. MEAT PRODUCTS INDUSTRY
Grease, Total Coliforms, Toxic Materials
Oil and Grease, Heavy Metals (Cr, Cd, etc.). Suspended
L. METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY
Solids, Cyanide
M. MINERAL ORE PROCESSING (Mining Suspended Solids, Heavy Metals (Hg, Cn, Cd, etc.),
Industry) Arsenic
BOD5, COD, pH, Total Suspended Solids, Total
N. ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRY
Dissolved Solids, Oil (Free-Floating)
INDUSTRY BOD5, Heavy Metals, COD, Oil (Total) pH,
O. PETROLEUM REFINING Phenols, Suspended Solids, Temperature, Total
Dissolved Solids
P. PLASTIC MATERIALS & SYNTHETIC BOD5, COD, pH, Total Suspended Solids, Oil and
INDUSTRY Grease, Phenols
BOD5, COD, pH, Total Suspended Solid, E. Coli, Color,
Q. PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY
Heavy Metals, Dissolved Solids, Oil & Grease, Phenols
INDUSTRY Oil and Grease, pH, Cyanide, Phenol,
STEEL
Suspended Solids, Temperature, Chromium
SUGAR CANE PROCESSING INDUSTRY BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids, Oil and grease
BOD5, COD, pH, Suspended Solids, Chromium,
TEXTILE MILL INDUSTRY
Phenols, Color, Oil and Grease
BOD5, Color, Chromium, Oil and Grease, pH,
THERMAL POWER GENERATION
Phosphate, Suspended Solids, Temperature

Water Quality Management System

With reference to the Article 1, Section 5 of the Clean Water Act, the department, in
coordination with National Water Resources Board (NWRB), shall designate certain areas
as water quality management areas using appropriate physiographic units such as
watershed, river basins or water resources regions. Said management areas shall have
similar hydrological, hydrogeological, meteorological or geographic conditions which affect
the physicochemical, biological and bacteriological reactions and diffusions of pollutants in
the water bodies, or otherwise share common interest or face similar development
programs, prospects, or problems.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 54


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

A technical secretariat for each management area is hereby created which shall be
part of the Department and shall provide technical support to the governing board. They
shall be composed of at least four (4) members who shall have the following minimum
qualifications:

a) One (1) member shall be a member of the Philippine Bar;

b) One (1) member shall be a Chemical Engineer, Chemist, Sanitary Engineer,


Environmental Engineer or Ecologist or have significant training and experience in
chemistry;

c) One (1) member shall be a Civil Engineer or Hydrologist or have significant training and
experience in closely related fields and mainly experience on ground water, respectively;
and

d) One (1) member shall be a Geologist or Biologist or have significant training and
experience in closely related fields.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 55


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Drinking Water Quality Standards

Access to safe drinking-water is important as a health and development issue at a


national, regional and local level. In some regions, it has been shown that investments in
water supply and sanitation can yield a net economic benefit, since the reductions in
adverse health effects and health care costs outweigh the costs of undertaking the
interventions. This is true for major water supply infrastructure investments through to
water treatment in the home. Experience has also shown that interventions in improving
access to safe water favor the poor in particular, whether in rural or urban areas, and can
be an effective part of poverty alleviation strategies.

The Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality explains requirements to ensure


drinking-water safety, including minimum procedures and specific guideline values, and
how those requirements are intended to be used. The volume also describes the
approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including guideline values. It includes fact
sheets on significant microbial and chemical hazards. The development of this third edition
of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality includes a substantive revision of approaches
to ensuring microbial safety. This takes account of important developments in microbial
risk assessment and its linkages to risk management.

These criteria describe water quality requirements


imposed on inland waters intended for abstraction of
drinking water and apply only to water which is treated
prior to use. In developing countries, large sections of the
population may be dependent on raw water for drinking
purposes without any treatment whatsoever.
Microbiological requirements as well as inorganic and
organic substances of significance to human health are included.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 56


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Water quality criteria for raw water used for drinking-water treatment and supply
usually depend on the potential of different methods of raw water treatment to reduce the
concentration of water contaminants to the level set by drinking-water criteria. Drinking
water treatment can range from simple physical treatment and disinfection, to chemical
treatment and disinfection, to intensive physical and chemical treatment. Many countries
strive to ensure that the quality of raw water is such that it would only be necessary to use
near-natural conditioning processes (such as bank filtration or low-speed sand filtration)
and disinfection in order to meet drinking-water standards.

The DENR Administrative Order No. 26-A Series of 1994 or the provision of Chapter
II of the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines designated the new and updated criteria for
the drinking water in the Philippines.

Standard Parameters and Values for Drinking Water Quality

A. Standard Values for Bacteriological Quality

The primary objective of bacterial examination of drinking water is the detection of


fecal pollution. Although it is now possible to detect the presence of many pathogens in
water, the methods of isolation and detection are often complicated and lengthy. It is
therefore impossible and impractical to identify every disease causing organism present in
water. The approach is to use normal enteric organisms which are the coliform group
especially E. coli as the essential indicator to fecal pollution. These organisms are easy to
detect and their presence in a sample indicates that water may be contaminated with
organisms that can cause disease.

Table 10. Standard Values for Bacteriological Quality

Standard Value (No. /


Source and Mode of Supply Bacteria
100mL)
a. All drinking-water E. Coli or Thermotolerant 0
supplies under all (fecal) coliform bacteria
circumstances (Level l, ll, lll,
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 57
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Bottled water and


Emergency Water Supplies
b. Treated water entering E. Coli or Thermotolerant 0
the distribution system (fecal) coliform bacterial

Total Coliforms 0
c. Treated water in the E. Coli or Thermotolerant 0
distribution system (fecal) coliform bacteria

Total Coliforms Must not be detectable in


any 100mL sample. In case
of large supplies where
sufficient samples are
examined, it must not be
present in 95% of samples
taken throughout any
twelve month period

Table 10.1 Standard Value for Biological Organisms

Constituents Permissible Limit


Total Count/mL 10

B. Physical and Chemical Quality: Health Siginificance

Table 11. Inorganic Consituents

Constituent Maximum Level (mg/L)


Antimony 0.005
Arsenic 0.01
Barium 0.7
Boron 0.3
Cadmium 0.003
Chromium 0.05
Cyanide 0.07
Flouride 1.0
Lead 0.01
Mercury (total) 0.001
Nitrate as NO3- 50
Nitrate as NO2- 3

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 58


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Selenium 0.01

Table 11.1. Organic Constituents (Pesticides)

Constituents Maximum Level (µg/L)


Aldrin & Dieldrin 0.03
Chlordane 0.2
DDT 2
Endrin 0.2
Heptachlor and Heptachlor epoxide 0.03
Lindane 2
Methoxychlor 20
Petroleum oils & grease nil
Toxyphane 5
2,4 - D 30
2,4,5 - T 9

C.Physical and Chemical Quality: Aesthetic Quality

The Aesthetic Objective is established for parameters that may impair the taste,
smell, or colour of water; or which may interfere with the supply of good quality water.
They do not cause adverse health effects.

Table 12. Standard Values for Physical and Chemical Quality : Aesthetic Quality

Constituent or Characteristic Maximum Level (mg/L)


Taste Unobjectionable
Odor Unobjectionable
Color 5 TCU
Turbidity 5 NTU
Aluminum 0.2
Chloride 250
Copper 1
Hardness 300 (as CaCo3) *
Hydrogen Sulfide 0.05
Iron 1
Manganese 0.5
pH 6.5 - 8.5
Sodium 200 *

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 59


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Sulfate 250
Total Dissolved Solids 500
Zinc 5*

D. Disinfectant and Disinfectant By-Products

Disinfection is of unquestionable importance in the supply of safe drinking-water.


The destruction of microbial pathogens is essential and very commonly involves the use of
reactive chemical agents such as chlorine. Disinfection is an effective barrier to many
pathogens (especially bacteria) during drinking-water treatment and should be used for
surface waters and for groundwater subject to faecal contamination. Residual disinfection
is used to provide a partial safeguard against low-level contamination and growth within
the distribution system.

Table 12. Standard Values for Disinfectant and Disinfectant By-Products

Constituents Maximum Level (mg/L)


a. Disinfectant
Chlorine (residual) 0.2 -0.5
b. Disinfectant
By-products
Bromate 0.025
Chlorite 0.2
2,4,6 trichlorophenol 0.2
Formaldehyde 0.9
Phenolic substances 0.001
Bromoform 0.1
Dibromochloromethane 0.1
Bromodichloromethane 0.06
Chloroform 0.2

Table 12.1 Chemicals of No Health Significance at Concentrations Normally Found in


Drinking-Water

In consonance with the findings of WHO,


Asbestos the Department of Health does not

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 60


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Tin prescribe any standard values for these


Silver compounds sincethey are not hazardous to
human health at concentrations normally
found in drinking-water

E. Radiological Constituents

The health risk associated with the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in
drinking-water should also be taken into consideration, although the contribution of
drinking-water to total exposure to radionuclides is very small under normal
circumstances.

Table 13. Standard Values for Radiological Constituents

Constituents Activity Level (Bq/L)


gross alpha activity 0.1
gross beta activity 1

Methods of Analysis

The following examinations are required for drinking water:

a. Initial Examination- The physical, chemical and bacteriological examinations of


water from newly constructed systems or sources are required before they are
oprated and opened for public. Eamination of water for possible radioactive
contamination should also be done initially.
b. Periodic Examination- Water from existing sources is subject to bacteriological
examination as often as possible but the interval shall not be longer than six monts,
whole general systematic chemical examination shall be conducted every 12 months
or oftener. Examination of water sources shall be conducted yearly for possible
radioactive contamination.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 61


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Regular examination of water will have to be carried out in order to determine its
potability.

The results of this examination shall be expressed as follows:

a) Bacteriological

Multiple Tube Fermentation MPN/100mL; or absence or absence of


coliform organisms

Membrane Filter Colonies / 100mL

MMO-MUG(Auto-analysis Colilert) presence or absence of coliform


organisms

b) Biological Counts /mL

c) Chemical mg/L or unless otherwise stated

d) Physical as appropriate

e) Radiological Becquerel/Liter (Bq/L)

Microbiological Requirements

Water used for drinking must be free from pathogenic organisms responsible for
waterborne diseases. These pathogenic organisms include bacteria, viruses, protozoans
and helminths.

Elimination of all these pathogenic agents from drinking-water is essential for the
protection of public health. Two approaches can be used to reduce the risk of bacterial,
viral and parasitic infection to a negligible level: providing drinking-water from a source
verified free of fecal contamination or adequately treating fecally contaminated water.

Bacteriological Requirements

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 62


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

The primary objective of bacterial examination of drinking water is the detection of


fecal pollution. Although it is now possible to detect the presence of many pathogens in
water, the methods of isolation and detection are often complicated and lengthy. It is
therefore impossible and impractical to identify every disease causing organism present in
water. The approach is to use normal enteric organisms which are the coliform group
especially E. coli as the essential indicator to fecal pollution. These organisms are easy to
detect and their presence in a sample indicates that water may be contaminated with
organisms that can cause disease.

Sampling and Analaysis for Bacteriological Quality

In order to determine whether the water supplied is safe or acceptable for human
consumption, (i.e. free from pathogenic or disease causing organisms) samples should be
collected from the water supply system for the bacteriological examination of the water(i,e.
total coliforms, thermotolerant (fecal) coliform bacteria and E. coli). The samples should be
representative of the whole water supply system [i,e. samples from the water source,before
and after treatment if any, and from a reasonable number of points. For disinfected water,
free residual chlorine should be measured during sampling.

Frequency of Sampling

The minimum number of samples to be collected and examined periodically mustcbe based
on the mode and source of water supply (see Table 14.1). The procedure, identification and
location of sampling are indicated in Table 14.2. However, frequency of sampling should
also take into account the past frequency of records yielding unsatisfactory results, the
quality of raw water treated, the number of raw water sources, the adequacy of treatment
and capacity of the treatment plant, risks of contamination at the source and in the
distribution system, the size and complexity of the distribution system, the risk of an
epidemic and the practice of disinfection.

Table 14.1 Minimum Frequency of Sampling for Drinking-Water Supply Systems

Source and Mode Of Supply Population Served Minimum Frequency of

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 63


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Sampling
a. Level I 90 - 150 Once in every three (3)
months
b. Level II 600 Once in every two (2)
months
c. Level III Less than 5,000 5,000 - 1 sample monthly 1 sample
100,000 per 5,000 population
monthly

more than 100,000 20 sample plus 1 sample


per 10,000 population
monthly
d. Bottled Drinking ---- Water Once every two
Months
e. Emergency Supplies of ---- Before delivery to users
Drinking Water.

Table 4.2 Methods of Sampling for Drinking-Water Supply System

Source and mode of Procedure of Location of


Sample volume
Supply Sampling Sampling Points
Level I Pump water to Sample is taken The volume of the
waste for two(2) directly at the sample should not
minutes to remove mouth of the pump be less than 100mL.
water in the water
column. Then flame
the mouth of pump
before taking
sample (optional )
Level II Allow water to Sample is taken The volume of the
waste for at least 14 from the farthest ) samples should not
one (1) minute. standpipe and at the be less than 100 mL.
Flame the tap before entering point of the
sample is taken distribution system.
(optional)
Level III Remove any filters Sample is taken The volume of the
(rubber or plastic ) from the source of sample should not
and allow water to the distribution be less than 100mL.
run to waste for at system and taps at
least one (1) minute. strategic sampling

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 64


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Flame the tap before point within the


the sample is taken distribution
(optional ) network.
BOTTLED Same procedure as Sample is taken The volume of the
DRINKING- WATER above for samples from manufacturer's sample should not
taken from the stock and outlets be less than 100 mL.
source
EMERGENCY SUPPY Sample is taken at The volume of the
OF DRINKING- storage containers sample should not
WATER and mobile tankers be less than 100mL.
before being served
to end users.

Examining Laboratories

The examination of drinking water shall be performed only in private or government


laboratories duly accredited by the Department. It is the responsibility of operators of
water systems to submit to accredited laboratories water samples for examination in a
manner and at such intervals prescribed by the Department. Examination of samples shall
be performed by the following laboratories:

a. Department of Health Laboratory

b. Laboratories of Water Supplies

c. Laboratories Accredited by the Department of Health

Other Protective Measures

To protect drinking water from contamination, the following measures shall be


observed:

a. Washing clothes or bathing within 25 meters from any well or other source of
drinking water is prohibited.
b. No artesians, deep or shallow well shall be constructed within 25 meters from any
source of pollution.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 65


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

c. No radioactive sources or materials shall be stored within a radius of 25 meters


from any well or source of drinking water unless the radioactive source is
adequately safely enclosed by proper shielding.
d. No person charged with the management of a public water supply system shall
permit any physical connection between its distribution system and that of any
other water supply, unless the latter is regularly examined as to its quality by those
in charge of the public supply to which the connection is made and found to be safe
and potable.
e. The installation of a booster pump to boost water direct from the water distribution
line of a water supply system, where low-water pressure prevails is prohibited.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 66


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

WATER TREATMENT

Water Treatment in General

Water must have eye appeal and taste appeal before we will drink it with much relish.
Instinctively we draw back from the idea of drinking dirty, smelly water. Actually far more
important to our well-being is whether or not water is safe to drink. If it holds disease
bacteria, regardless of its clarity and sparkle, we should avoid it. Let's consider these two
highly important aspects of water: portability and palatability.

Regardless of any other in which they can grow. These organisms gain entry into water
through a variety of sources. They enter from natural causes, surface drainage and sewage.
Many of the organisms in water are harmless. In fact, they are extremely beneficial to man.
Others have a wide nuisance value and still others are the source of disease. In general, we
are primarily concerned here with organisms
which are potential disease-producers. These
are of five types: bacteria, protozoa, worms,
viruses, fungi. The presence of certain
organisms of these various types can lead to
such infectious diseases as typhoid fever,
dysentery, cholera, jaundice, hepatitis,
undulant fever and tularaemia.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 67


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

There are other diseases as well, which


spread through drinking unsafe water.
Tremendous strides have been made in
the control of these diseases within recent
years. Much of the credit must go to
sanitary engineers for their careful,
consistent control of public water
supplies. Biologically, there are two major classifications for our purposes. We can classify
water organisms either as members of the plant or animal kingdoms.The following ways
are the natural ways, in which water is purified: Bacteria and algae consume organic waste;
Micro-organisms devour bacteria and algae; Oxidation renders organic matter harmless;
Ultra-violet rays of sun have germicidal effects.

Under the broad heading of plant forms, we can classify the following:

Algae - These organisms are found throughout the world. They constitute the chief group of
aquatic plants both in sea and fresh water. Algae range in size from microscopic organisms
to giant seaweeds several hundred feet in
length. They contain chlorophyll and other
pigments which give them a variety of colors.
They manufacture their food by photosynthesis.
Algae thrive well in stagnant surface waters
especially during the warm weather. Algae
gives water fishy, grassy another even more
objectionable odors. While algae-laden waters
are repulsive to man, animals will drink them
and the presence of blue-green algae has been known to cause the death of cattle drinking
this water.

Diatoms - Diatoms belong to the algae family. Some exist as single cells; others are found as
groups or colonies. More than 15,000 forms of diatoms are known to exist. Diatoms have

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 68


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

silica-impregnated cell walls. At time they release essential oils which give water a fishy
taste.

Fungi - Fungi are another large group of plant forms.


Like the algae, fungi have many varieties included
among these are molds and bacteria. Fungi are not
able to manufacture their own food. They exist by
feeding on living things or on dead organic matter.
Depending on their individual characteristics, they are
usually colorless but may vary in this respect.

Molds - One important category of fungi is molds. This


group of fungi feeds entirely on organic matter. They decompose carbohydrates such as
sugars, starches and fats as well as proteins and other substances. They thrive ideally in
water that has a temperature range of approximately 80 degrees to 100 "F. The presence of
molds is generally a strong indicator of heavy pollution of water.

Bacteria - Bacteria are another important class of fungi. Again numerous smaller groupings
are possible. Among the higher organisms in this group are the iron, manganese and
sulphur bacteria. These higher bacteria gain their energy from the oxidation of simple
organic substances. Lower forms of bacteria can be grouped as those that are helpful and
those that are harmful to man. Those harmful to man are mainly the disease-producing
organisms. Helpful organisms hasten the process of decomposing organic matter and by
feeding on waste material; they aid in the purifying of water. All bacteria are sensitive to
the temperature and pH of water. Some bacteria can tolerate acid water. But for the most
part, they thrive best in waters that have a pH between 6.5 to 7.5, that is essentially neutral
waters. As to temperature, most pathogenic or disease bacteria thrive best in water of body
temperature. Beyond this no hard and fast statements can be made. Some bacteria are
more resistant to heat than are others. Some are more sensitive to cold. At low
temperatures, for example, some bacteria may become dormant for long periods of time
but will still continue to exist. Interestingly enough, the waste products of their own growth

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 69


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

can hamper bacteria and may even prove toxic to them. Animal forms like plant life thrive
in water providing conditions are right. Among the higher forms of animal life found in
water are fish, amphibians (turtles and frogs), mollusks (snails and shellfish) and
anthropoids (lobsters, crabs, water insects, water mites and others). Concern here is with
those lower forms of animal life in water. Again, some are helpful to man as scavengers;
others are injurious as possible sources of infection. Principal ones of concern are as
follows:

Worms - There are three types of worms found


in water. For the most part, they dwell in the
bed of the material at the bottom of lakes and
streams. There they do important work as
scavengers. The rotifers are the only organisms
in this category at or near the surface. They live
primarily in stagnant fresh water. The eggs and
larvae of various intestinal worms found in
man and warm-blooded animals pollute the
water at times. They do not generally cause
widespread infection for several reasons. They are relatively few in number and are so
large they can be filtered out of water with comparative ease.

Protozoa - Another basic classification in the animal kingdom is that group of microscopic
animals known as protozoa. These one-celled organisms live mainly in water either at or
near the surface or at great depths in the oceans. Many live as parasites in the bodies of
man and animals. Sometimes, drinking water becomes infested with certain protozoa
which are not disease-producing. When present, they give the water a fishy taste and odor.
Some protozoa are aerobic, that is, they exist only where free oxygen is available. Some
exist where no free oxygen is available. Others can either be aerobic or anaerobic.

Nematodes - Nematodes belong to the worm family. They have long, cylindrical bodies
which have no internal segments. Interestingly enough, those nematodes which are found

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 70


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

in the bodies of men and warm-blooded animals are large enough to be visible to the naked
eye; those living in fresh water or the soil are microscopic. Nematodes can be a problem in
drinking water because they impart objectionable tastes and odors to water. They are also
under suspicion of being carriers of the type of disease-bearing bacteria found in the
intestines of warm-blooded animals though studies show that possibility is somewhat
remote. Nematodes are apt to be found in
municipal waters derived from surface
supplies.

Viruses - As yet not too well understood is


that group of parasitic forms known as
viruses. Too small to be seen under a
microscope, viruses are capable of causing
disease in both plants and animals. Viruses
can pass through porcelain filters that are
capable of screening out bacteria. At least
one virus that produces infectious hepatitis is water born. Drinking water contaminated
with this virus is hazardous. As the reader can see from even this brief summary, there is a
tremendous variety of living organisms in water. To understand and classify the countless
varieties requires an immense amount of knowledge and time. These organisms, whether
plant or animal forms, are pathogenic or disease-producing; they make water unsafe to
drink. For obvious reasons, even where there is just a possibility that water contains
pathogenic organisms, it must be considered contaminated. While there are a large and
varied number of pathogens, no single contaminated water supply is apt to contain more
than a few of these countless varieties. On one hand this is fortunate but, at the same time it
makes detection of pathogens extremely difficult in terms of a routine water analysis. Since
both speed and accuracy are essential, laboratory scientists need a sure way to expedite
detection of pathogens. They have a dependable answer in a group of readily identified
organisms that indicate possible contamination. These indicator organisms are the
coliform bacteria. Study has proved that these coliform bacteria indicate the presence of

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 71


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

human or animal wastes in water. Coliform bacteria naturally exist in the intestines of
humans and certain animals. Thus, the presence of these bacteria in water is accepted
proof that the water has been contaminated by human or animal wastes. Although such
water may contain no pathogens, an infected person, animal or a carrier of disease, could
add pathogens at any moment! Thus, immediate corrective action must be taken. The
presence of coliform bacteria shows water is contaminated by human wastes and is
potentially contaminated with pathogens. In short, these bacteria become a measure of
guilt by association. The other side is this: the mere absence of coliform bacteria does not
assure there are no pathogens. However, this is considered unlikely. Just how can water be
tested for the presence of coliform bacteria? These organisms cause the fermentation of
lactose (the crystalline sugar compound in milk). When water containing coliform bacteria
is placed in a lactose culture, it will cause fermentation resulting in the form of gas. This
confirms the suspicions. The Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for coliforms in
drinking water is zero organisms detectable per 100 mL. Recognizing the danger, what can
be done to provide adequate protection against contamination? When a water supply
becomes contaminated, correct the problem at once. This means going beyond treatment
alone - important as this may be. It is a basic rule of water sanitation to get to the source of
the problem and eliminate it. If a well, for example, becomes badly contaminated, it is
necessary to trace the contamination to its source and, if possible, remedy the situation. It
may even be necessary to seek out a new source of supply

WATER DISINFECTION

Treatment of a water supply is a safety factor, not a corrective measure. There are a
number of ways of purifying water. Techniques such as filtration may remove infectious
organisms from water. They are, however, no substitute for disinfection. The following are
the general methods used for disinfecting water:

Boiling - This involves bringing the water to its boiling point in a container over heat. The
water must be maintained at this temperature 15 to 20 minutes. This will disinfect the
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 72
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

water. Boiling water is an effective method of treatment because no important waterborne


diseases are caused by heat-resisting organisms.

Ultraviolet Light - The use of ultraviolet light is an attempt to imitate nature. As you recall,
sunlight destroys some bacteria in the natural purification of water. Exposing water to
ultraviolet light destroys pathogens. To assure thorough treatment, the water must be free
of turbidity and color. Otherwise, some bacteria will be protected from the germ-killing
ultraviolet rays. Since ultraviolet light adds nothing to the water, there is little possibility of
its creating taste or odor problems. On the other hand, ultraviolet light treatment has no
residual effect. Further, it must be closely checked to assure that sufficient ultraviolet
energy is reaching the point of application at all times.

Use of Chemical Disinfectants - The most common method of treating water for
contamination is to use one of various chemical agents available. Among these are chlorine,
bromine, iodine, potassium permanganate, copper and silver ions, alkalis, acids and ozone.
Bromine is an oxidizing agent that has been used quite successfully in the disinfecting of
swimming pool waters. It is rated as a good germicidal agent. Bromine is easy to feed into
water and is not hazardous to store. It apparently does not cause eye irritation among
swimmers nor are its odors troublesome.

One of the most widely used disinfecting agents to ensure safe drinking water is
chlorine. Chlorine in cylinders is used extensively by municipalities in purification work.
However, in this form chlorine gas (Cl,) is far too dangerous for any home purpose. For use
in the home, chlorine is readdy available as sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) which
can be used both for laundering or disinfecting purposes. This product contains a 5.25%
solution of sodium hypochlorite which is equivalent to 5 % available chlorine. Chlorine is
also available as calcium hypochlorite which is sold in the form of dry granules. In this
form, it is usually 70% available chlorine. When calcium hypochlorite is used, this
chlorinated lime should be mixed thoroughly and allowed to settle, pumping only the clear
solution. For a variety of reasons not the least of which is convenience, chlorine in the
liquid form (sodium hypochlorite) is more popular for household use. Chlorine is normally

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 73


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

fed into water with the aid of a chemical feed pump. The first chlorine fed into the water is
likely to be consumed in the oxidation of any iron, manganese or hydrogen sulphide that
may be present. Some of the chlorine is also neutralized by organic matter normally
present in any supply, including bacteria, if present. When the "chlorine demand" due to
these materials has been satisfied, what's left over -the chlorine that has not been
consumed - remains as "chlorine residual". The rate of feed is normally adjusted with a
chemical feed pump to provide a chlorine residual of 0.5 - 1.0 ppm after 20 minutes of
contact time. This is enough to kill coliform bacteria but may or may not kill any viruses or
cysts which may be present. Such a chlorine residual not only serves to overcome
intermittent trace contamination from coliform bacteria but, also provides for minor
variations in the chlorine demand of the water. The pathogens causing such diseases as
typhoid fever, cholera and dysentery succumb most easily to chlorine treatment. The cyst-
like protozoa causing dysentery are most resistant to chlorine. As yet, little is known about
viruses, but some authorities place them at neither extreme in resistance to chlorination.

There are three basic terms used in the chlorination process: chlorine demand,
chlorine dosage and chlorine residual. Chlorine demand is the amount of chlorine which
will be reduced or consumed in the process of oxidizing impurities in the water. Chlorine
dosage is the amount of chlorine fed into the water. Chlorine residual is the amount of
chlorine still remaining in water after oxidation takes place. For example, if water has 2.0
ppm chlorine demand and is fed into the water in a chlorine dosage of 5.0 ppm, the chlorine
residual would be 3.0 ppm.

For emergency purposes, iodine may be used for treatment of drinking water. Much work
at present is being done to test the effect of iodine in destroying viruses which are now
considered among the pathogens most resistant to treatment. Tests show that 20 minutes
exposure to 8.0 ppm of iodine is adequate to render a potable water. As usual, the residual
required varies inversely with contact time. Lower residuals require longer contact time
while higher residuals require shorter contact time. While such test results are
encouraging, not enough is yet known about the physiological effects of iodine-treated

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 74


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

water on the human system. For this reason, its use must be considered only on an
emergency basis.

Silver in various forms has been used to destroy pathogens. It can be added to the
water as a liquid or through electrolytic decomposition of metallic silver. It has also been
fed into water through an absorption process from silver-coated filters. Various household
systems have been designed to yield water with a predetermined silver concentration.
However, fluctuations in the flow rate often result in wide variations in the amount of silver
in the water. In minute concentrations, silver can be highly destructive in wiping out
disease-bearing bacteria. While long contact time is essential, silver possesses residual
effect that can last for days. Silver does not produce offensive tastes or odors when used in
water treatment. Further, organic matter does not interfere with its power to kill bacteria
as in the case with free chlorine. Its high cost and the need for long periods of exposure
have hindered its widespread acceptance.

Copper ions are used quite frequently to destroy algae in surface waters but these
ions are relatively ineffective in killing bacteria.

Disease-bearing organisms are strongly affected by the pH of a water. They will not
survive when water is either highly acidic or highly alkaline. Thus, treatment which sharply
reduces or increases pH in relation to the normal range of 6.5 to 7.5 can be an effective
means of destroying organisms.

Industrial Water Treatment Process

Water from downpours, dams, lakes, rivers, and ground water go through several
stages of treatment processes to obtain clean, odorless, and disinfected water. Some
processes are pure physical treatment such as screening, filtration and sedimentation,

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 75


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

while others require chemical treatment such as coagulation, disinfection, and aeration
(oxidation)

Screening
Pumps draw raw water from
reservoirs, lakes, rivers, streams, wells or
underground aquifers. Water travel from
pipelines from the water pumping
screening. Fish, aquatic plants, sticks, and
other large foreign materials are removed
by passing raw water in to a mesh. The
mesh is fitted with a scraping mechanism
that removes build-up, to allow for
continuous flow of raw water.

Aeration
Aeration is a unit process in which
air and water are brought into intimate
contact. Turbulence increases the aeration
of flowing streams (Figure 4-1). In
industrial processes, water flow is usually
directed countercurrent to atmospheric or
forced-draft air flow. The contact time and
the ratio of air to water must be sufficient
for effective removal of the unwanted gas.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 76


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Methods of Aeration

Two general methods may be used for the aeration of water. The most common in
industrial use is the water-fall aerator. Through the use of spray nozzles, the water is
broken up into small droplets or a thin film to enhance countercurrent air contact. In the
air diffusion method of aeration, air is diffused into a receiving vessel containing counter-
current flowing water, creating very small
air bubbles. This ensures good air-water
contact for "scrubbing" of undesirable
gases from the water. Water-Fall Aerators
Many variations of the water-fall principle
are used for this type of aeration. The
simplest configuration employs a vertical
riser that discharges water by free fall into
a basin. The riser usually operates on the
available head of water. The efficiency of
aeration is improved as the fall distance is
increased. Also, steps or shelves may be added to break up the fall and spread the water
into thin sheets or films, which increases contact time and aeration efficiency. Coke tray
and wood or plastic slat water-fall aerators are relatively similar in design and have the
advantage of small space requirements. Coke tray aerators are widely used in iron and
manganese oxidation because a catalytic effect is secured by contact of the
iron/manganese-bearing water with fresh precipitates. These units consist of a series of
coke-filled trays through which the water percolates, with additional aeration obtained
during the free fall from one tray to the next. Wood or plastic slat tray aerators are similar
to small atmospheric cooling towers. The tray slats are staggered to break up the free fall of
the water and create thin films before the water finally drops into the basin. Forced draft
water-fall aerators are used for many industrial water conditioning purposes. Horizontal
wood or plastic slat trays, or towers filled with packing of various shapes and materials, are
designed to maximize disruption of the falling water into small streams for greater air-

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 77


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

water contact. Air is forced through the unit by a blower which produces uniform air
distribution across the entire cross section, cross current or countercurrent to the fall of
the water. Because of these features, forced draft aerators are more efficient for gas
removal and require less space for a given capacity. Air diffusion systems aerate by
pumping air into water through perforated pipes, strainers, porous plates, or tubes.
Aeration by diffusion is theoretically superior to water-fall aeration because a fine bubble
of air rising through water is continually exposed to fresh liquid surfaces, providing
maximum water surface per unit volume of air. Also, the velocity of bubbles ascending
through the water is much lower than the velocity of free-falling drops of water, providing
a longer contact time. Greatest efficiency is achieved when water flow is countercurrent to
the rising air bubbles.

Iron and Manganese Removal

Iron and manganese in well waters occur as soluble ferrous and manganous
bicarbonates. In the aeration process, the water is saturated with oxygen to promote the
following reactions:

The oxidation products, ferric hydroxide and manganese dioxide, are insoluble.
After aeration, they are removed by clarification or filtration. Occasionally, strong chemical
oxidants such as chlorine (Cl2) or potassium permanganate (KMnO4) may be used
following aeration to ensure complete oxidation.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 78


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Dissolved Gas Reduction

Gases dissolved in water follow the principle that the solubility of a gas in a liquid
(water) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid at
equilibrium. This is known as Henry's Law and may be expressed as follows:

Ctotal = kP
Where:
Ctotal = total concentration of the gas in solution
P = partial pressure of the gas above the solution
K = a proportionality constant known as Henry's Law Constant

However, the gases frequently encountered in water treatment (with the exception
of oxygen) do not behave in accordance with Henry's Law because they ionize when
dissolved in water. For example:

Carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia are soluble in water under certain
conditions to the extent of 1,700, 3,900, and 531,000 ppm, respectively. Rarely are these
concentrations encountered except in certain process condensates. In a normal
atmosphere, the partial pressure of each of these gases is practically zero. Consequently,
the establishment of a state of equilibrium between water and air by means of aeration

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 79


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

results in saturation of the water with nitrogen and oxygen and nearly complete removal of
other gases.

As the equations above show, ionization of the gases in water is a reversible


reaction. The common ion effect may be used to obtain almost complete removal of these
gases by aeration. If the concentration of one of the ions on the right side of the equation is
increased, the reaction is driven to the left, forming the gas. In the case of carbon dioxide
and hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen ion concentration may be increased by the addition of an
acid. Bicarbonate and carbonate ions in the water will form carbon dioxide, which can be
removed by aeration.

In a similar manner, an increase in hydroxyl ion concentration through the addition


of caustic soda aids in the removal of ammonia.

Gas removal by aeration is achieved as the level of gas in the water approaches
equilibrium with the level of the gas in the surrounding atmosphere. The process is
improved by an increase in temperature, aeration time, the volume of air in contact with
the water, and the surface area of water exposed to the air. As previously indicated, pH is
an important consideration. The efficiency of aeration is greater where the concentration of
the gas to be removed is high in the water and low in the atmosphere.

LIMITATIONS

Temperature significantly affects the efficiency of air stripping processes. Therefore,


these processes may not be suitable for use in colder climates. Theoretically, at 68°F the
carbon dioxide content of the water can be reduced to 0.5 ppm by aeration to equilibrium
conditions. This is not always practical from an economic standpoint, and reduction of
carbon dioxide to 10 ppm is normally considered satisfactory.

Although removal of free carbon dioxide increases the pH of the water and renders
it less corrosive from this standpoint, aeration also results in the saturation of water with
dissolved oxygen. This does not generally present a problem when original oxygen content

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 80


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

is already high. However, in the case of a well water supply that is high in carbon dioxide
but devoid of oxygen, aeration simply exchanges one corrosive gas for another.

The efficiency of aeration increases as the initial concentration of the gas to be


removed increases above its equilibrium value. Therefore, with waters containing only a
small amount of carbon dioxide, neutralization by alkali addition is usually more cost-
effective.

The complete removal of hydrogen sulfide must be combined with pH reduction or


chemical oxidation.Nonvolatile organic compounds cannot be removed by air stripping. For
example, phenols and creosols are unaffected by the aeration process alone.

Clarification

Suspended matter in raw water supplies


is removed by various methods to provide a
water suitable for domestic purposes and most
industrial requirements. The suspended matter
can consist of large solids, settable by gravity
alone without any external aids, and
nonsettleablematerial, often colloidal in nature.
Removal is generally accomplished by
coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The combination of these three processes is
referred to as conventional clarification.

Coagulation is the process of


destabilization by charge neutralization.
Once neutralized, particles no longer repel
each other and can be brought together.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 81


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Coagulation is necessary for the removal of the colloidal-sized suspended matter.

Flocculation is the process of bringing together the destabilized, or "coagulated,"


particles to form a larger agglomeration, or "floc."

Sedimentation refers to the physical removal from suspension, or settling, that


occurs once the particles have been coagulated and flocculated. Sedimentation or
subsidence alone, without prior coagulation, results in the removal of only relatively coarse
suspended solids.

Steps of Clarification

Finely divided particles suspended in surface water repel each other because most of the
surfaces are negatively charged. The following steps in clarification are necessary for
particle agglomeration:

 Coagulation. Coagulation can be accomplished through the addition of inorganic


salts of aluminum or iron. These inorganic salts neutralize the charge on the
particles causing raw water turbidity, and also hydrolyze to form insoluble
precipitates, which entrap particles. Coagulation can also be effected by the addition
of water-soluble organic polymers with numerous ionized sites for particle charge
neutralization.
 Flocculation. Flocculation, the agglomeration of destabilized particles into large
particles, can be enhanced by the addition of high-molecular-weight, water-soluble
organic polymers. These polymers increase floc size by charged site binding and by
molecular bridging.

Therefore, coagulation involves neutralizing charged particles to destabilize


suspended solids. In most clarification processes, a flocculation step then follows.
Flocculation starts when neutralized or entrapped particles begin to collide and fuse to
form larger particles. This process can occur naturally or can be enhanced by the addition
of polymeric flocculant aids.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 82


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Inorganic Coagulants

Table 5-1 lists a number of common inorganic coagulants. Typical iron and
aluminum coagulants are acid salts that lower the pH of the treated water by hydrolysis.
Depending on initial raw water alkalinity and pH, an alkali such as lime or caustic must be
added to counteract the pH depression of the primary coagulant. Iron and aluminum
hydrolysis products play a significant role in the coagulation process, especially in cases
where low-turbidity influent waters benefit from the presence of additional collision
surface areas.

Variation in pH affects particle surface charge and floc precipitation during


coagulation. Iron and aluminum hydroxide flocs are best precipitated at pH levels that
minimize the coagulant solubility. However, the best clarification performance may not

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 83


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

always coincide with the optimum pH for hydroxide floc formation. Also, the iron and
aluminum hydroxide flocs increase volume requirements for the disposal of settled sludge.

With aluminum sulfate, optimum coagulation efficiency and minimum floc solubility
normally occur at pH 6.0 to 7.0. Iron coagulants can be used successfully over the much
broader pH range of 5.0 to 11.0. If ferrous compounds are used, oxidation to ferric iron is
needed for complete precipitation. This may require either chlorine addition or pH
adjustment. The chemical reactions between the water's alkalinity (natural or
supplemented) and aluminum or iron result in the formation of the hydroxide coagulant as
in the following:

Polyelectrolytes

The term polyelectrolytes refers to all water-soluble organic polymers used for
clarification, whether they function as coagulants or flocculants.

Water-soluble polymers may be classified as follows:

 anionic-ionize in water solution to form negatively charged sites along the polymer
chain
 cationic-ionize in water solution to form positively charged sites along the polymer
chain
 nonionic-ionize in water solution to form very slight negatively charged sites along
the polymer chain

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 84


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Polymeric primary coagulants are cationic materials with relatively low molecular
weights (under 500,000). The cationic charge density (available positively charged sites)
is very high. Polymeric flocculants or coagulant aids may be anionic, cationic, or nonionic.
Their molecular weights may be as high as 50,000,000. Table 5-2 describes some typical
organic polyelectrolytes.

For any given particle there is an ideal molecular weight and an ideal charge density
for optimum coagulation. There is also an optimum charge density and molecular weight
for the most efficient flocculant.

Because suspensions are normally nonuniform, specific testing is necessary to find


the coagulants and flocculants with the broadest range of performance.

Primary Coagulant Polyelectrolytes

The cationic polyelectrolytes commonly used as primary coagulants are polyamines


and poly-(DADMACS). They exhibit strong cationic ionization and typically have molecular
weights of less than 500,000. When used as primary coagulants, they adsorb on particle
surfaces, reducing the repelling negative charges. These polymers may also bridge, to
some extent, from one particle to another but are not particularly effective flocculants. The
use of polyelectrolytes permits water clarification without the precipitation of additional
hydroxide solids formed by inorganic coagulants. The pH of the treated water is
unaffected.

The efficiency of primary coagulant poly-electrolytes depends greatly on the nature


of the turbidity particles to be coagulated, the amount of turbidity present, and the mixing
or reaction energies available during coagulation. With lower influent turbidities, more
turbulence or mixing is required to achieve maximum charge neutralization.

Raw waters of less than 10 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) usually cannot be
clarified with a cationic polymer alone. Best results are obtained by a combination of an
inorganic salt and cationic polymer. In-line clarification should be considered for raw
waters with low turbidities.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 85


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Generally, waters containing 10 to 60 NTU are most effectively treated with an


inorganic coagulant and cationic polymer. In most cases, a significant portion of the
inorganic coagulant demand can be met with the cationic polyelectrolyte. With turbidity
greater than 60 NTU, a polymeric primary coagulant alone is normally sufficient.

In low-turbidity waters where it is desirable to avoid using an inorganic coagulant,


artificial turbidity can be added to build floc. Bentonite clay is used to increase surface
area for adsorption and entrapment of finely divided turbidity. A polymeric coagulant is
then added to complete the coagulation process.

The use of organic polymers offers several advantages over the use of inorganic
coagulants:

 The amount of sludge produced during clarification can be reduced by 50-90%. The
approximate dry weight of solids removed per pound of dry alum and ferric sulfate
are approximately 0.25 and 0.5 lb, respectively.
 The resulting sludge contains less chemically bound water and can be more easily
dewatered.
 Polymeric coagulants do not affect pH. Therefore, the need for supplemental
alkalinity, such as lime, caustic, or soda ash, is reduced or eliminated.
 Polymeric coagulants do not add to the total dissolved solids concentration. For
example, 1 ppm of alum adds 0.45 ppm of sulfate ion (expressed as CaCO3). The
reduction in sulfate can significantly extend the capacity of anion exchange systems.
 Soluble iron or aluminum carryover in the clarifier effluent may result from inorganic
coagulant use. Therefore, elimination of the inorganic coagulant can minimize the
deposition of these metals in filters, ion exchange units, and cooling systems.

Coagulant Aids (Flocculants)

In certain instances, an excess of primary coagulant (whether inorganic, polymeric,


or a combination of both) may be fed to promote large floc size and to increase settling
rate. However, in some waters, even high doses of primary coagulant will not produce the

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 86


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

desired effluent clarity. A polymeric coagulant aid added after the primary coagulant may,
by developing a larger floc at low treatment levels, reduce the amount of primary
coagulant required.

Generally, very high-molecular-weight, anionic polyacrylamides are the most


effective coagulant aids. Nonionic or cationic types have proven successful in some
clarifier systems. Essentially, the polymer bridges the small floc particles and causes them
to agglomerate rapidly into larger, more cohesive flocs that settle quickly. The higher-
molecular-weight polymers bridge suspended solids most effectively.

Coagulant aids have proven quite successful in precipitation softening and clarification to
achieve improved settling rates of precipitates and finished water clarity.

Color Reduction

Frequently, the objective of clarification is the re-duction of color. Swamps and


wetlands introduce color into surface waters, particularly after heavy rainfalls. Color-
causing materials can cause various problems, such as objectionable taste, increased
microbiological content, fouling of anion exchange resins, and interference with
coagulation and stabilization of silt, soluble iron, and manganese.

Most organic color in surface waters is colloidal and negatively charged. Chemically,
color-producing compounds are classified as humic and fulvic acids. Color can be removed
by chlorination and coagulation with aluminum or iron salts or organic polyelectrolytes.
Chlorine oxidizes color compounds, while the inorganic coagulants can physically remove
many types of organic color by neutralization of surface charges. The use of chlorine to
oxidize organic color bodies may be limited due to the production of chlorinated organic
by-products, such as trihalomethanes. Additional color removal is achieved by chemical
interaction with aluminum or iron hydrolysis products. Highly charged cationic organic
polyelectrolytes can also be used to coagulate some types of color particles.

Coagulation for color reduction is normally carried out at pH 4.5 to 5.5. Optimum pH
for turbidity removal is usually much higher than that for color reduction. The presence of
sulfate ions can interfere with coagulation for color reduction, whereas calcium and
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 87
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

magnesium ions can improve the process and broaden the pH range in which color may be
reduced effectively.

Conventional Clarification Equipment

The coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process requires three distinct unit


processes:

 high shear, rapid mix for coagulation


 low shear, high retention time, moderate mixing for flocculation
 liquid and solids separation

Horizontal Flow Clarifiers

Originally, conventional clarification units consisted of large, rectangular, concrete


basins divided into two or three sections. Each stage of the clarification process occurred
in a single section of the basin. Water movement was horizontal with plug flow through
these systems.

Because the design is suited to large-capacity basins, horizontal flow units are still
used in some large industrial plants and for clarifying municipal water. The retention time
is normally long (up to 4-6 hr), and is chiefly devoted to settling. Rapid mix is typically
designed for 3-5 min and slow mix for 15-30 min. This design affords great flexibility in
establishing proper chemical addition points. Also, such units are relatively insensitive to
sudden changes in water throughput.

The long retention also allows sufficient reaction time to make necessary
adjustments in chemical and polymer feed if raw water conditions suddenly change.
However, for all but very large treated water demands, horizontal units require high
construction costs and more land space per unit of water capacity.

Upflow Clarifiers

Compact and relatively economical, upflow clarifiers provide coagulation,


flocculation, and sedimentation in a single (usually circular) steel or concrete tank. These

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 88


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

clarifiers are termed "upflow" because the water flows up toward the effluent launders as
the suspended solids settle. They are characterized by increased solids contact through
internal sludge recirculation. This is a key feature in maintaining a high-clarity effluent
and a major difference from horizontal clarifiers.

Because retention time in an upflow unit is approximately 1-2 hr, upflow basins can
be much smaller in size than horizontal basins of equal throughput capacity. A rise rate of
0.70-1.25 gpm/ft² of surface area is normal for clarification. Combination softening-
clarification units may operate at up to 1.5 gpm/ft² of surface area due to particle size and
densities of precipitated hardness.

In order to achieve high throughput efficiency, upflow units are designed to maximize the
linear overflow weir length while minimizing the opportunity for short-circuiting through
the settling zone. In addition, the two mixing stages for coagulation and flocculation take
place within the same clarification tank.

Although upflow units may provide more efficient sedimentation than horizontal
designs, many upflow clarifiers compromise on the rapid and slow mix sequences. Some
types provide rapid, mechanical mixing and rely on flow turbulence for flocculation;
others eliminate the rapid mix stage and provide only moderate turbulence for
flocculation. However, in most cases, users can overcome rapid mix deficiencies by adding
the primary coagulant further upstream of the clarifier.

Sludge Blanket and Solids-Contact Clarification

Most upflow designs are called either "sludge blanket" or "solids-contact" clarifiers.
After coagulation and/or flocculation in the sludge blanket units, the incoming water
passes through the suspended layer of previously formed floc.

Because the centerwell in these units is often shaped like an inverted cone, the rise
rate of the water decreases as it rises through the steadily enlarging cross section. When
the rise rate decreases enough to equal the settling rate of the suspended floc exactly, a
distinct sludge/liquid interface forms.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 89


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Sludge blanket efficiency depends on the filtering action as the freshly coagulated or
flocculated water passes through the suspended floc. Higher sludge levels increase the
filtration efficiency. In practice, the top sludge interface is carried at the highest safe level
to prevent upsets that might result in large amounts of floc carryover into the overflow.
Excessive sludge withdrawal or blowdown should also be avoided. The sludge blanket
level is often highly sensitive to changes in throughput, coagulant addition, and changes in
raw water chemistry and temperature.

"Solids-contact" refers to units in which large volumes of sludge are circulated


internally. The term also describes the sludge blanket unit and simply means that prior to
and during sedimentation the chemically treated water contacts previously coagulated
solids. Solids-contact, slurry pool units do not rely on filtration as in sludge blanket
designs.

Solids-contact units often combine clarification and precipitation softening. Bringing


the incoming raw water into contact with recirculated sludge improves the efficiency of
the softening reactions and increases the size and density of the floc particles. Figure 5-3
illustrates a typical solids-contact unit

In-Line Clarification

In-line clarification is the process of removing raw water turbidity through the
addition of coagulant just prior to filtration. In-line clarification is generally limited to raw
waters with typical turbidities of less than 20 NTU, although upflow filters may tolerate
higher loading. Polyelectrolytes and/or inorganic coagulants are used to improve filtration
efficiency and run length. Polymers are favored because they do not create additional
suspended solids loading, which can shorten filter run length.

Filter design may be downflow or upflow, depending on raw water turbidity and
particle size. The downflow dual-media unit generally consists of layers of various grades
of anthracite and sand supported on a gravel bed. After backwashing, the larger anthracite
particles separate to the top of the bed, while the more dense, smaller sand particles are at
the bottom. The purpose is to allow bed penetration of the floc, which reduces the

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 90


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

potential for excessive pressure drops due to blinding off the top portion of filter media.
Thus, higher filtration rates are realized without a significant loss in effluent quality.
Normal filtration rates are 5-6 gpm/ft².

Coagulant Selection and Feeding for In-Line Clarification

The choice of a polymer coagulant and feed rate depends on equipment design and
influent water turbidity. Initially, in-line clarification was used in the treatment of low-
turbidity waters, but it is now being used on many types of surface waters. For most
waters, the use of a polymeric cationic coagulant alone is satisfactory. However, the
addition of a high-molecular-weight, anionic polymer may improve filtration efficiency.

Polymer feed rates are usually lower than those used in conventional clarification, given
the same raw water characteristics. Complete charge neutralization and bridging are not
necessary and should be avoided, because total coagulation or flocculation may promote
excessive entrapment of suspended solids in the first portion of the filter media. This can
cause blinding of the media, high pressure drops, and short operating runs.

Sufficient polymer is applied only to initiate neutralization, which allows attraction and
adsorption of particles through the entire bed. Often, polymer feed rates are regulated by
trial and error on the actual units to minimize effluent turbidity and maximize service run
length.

Because optimum flocculation is undesirable, polymers are injected just upstream of the
units. Normally, a short mixing period is required to achieve the degree of reaction most
suitable for unit operation. Dilution water may be recommended to disperse the polymer
properly throughout the incoming water. However, it may be necessary to move the
polymer injection point several times to improve turbidity removal. Due to the nature of
operation, a change of polymer feed rate will typically show a change in effluent turbidity
in a relatively short period of time.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 91


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Filtration

Filtration is used in addition to


regular coagulation and sedimentation for
removal of solids from surface water or
wastewater. This prepares the water for
use as potable, boiler, or cooling make-up.
Wastewater filtration helps users meet
more stringent effluent discharge permit
requirements.

Filtration, usually considered a simple mechanical process, actually involves the


mechanisms of adsorption (physical and chemical), straining, sedimentation, interception,
diffusion, and inertial compaction.

Filtration does not remove dissolved solids, but may be used together with a
softening process, which does reduce the concentration of dissolved solids. For example,
anthracite filtration is used to remove residual precipitated hardness salts remaining after
clarification in precipitation softening.

In most water clarification or softening processes where coagulation and


precipitation occur, at least a portion of the clarified water is filtered. Clarifier effluents of
2-10 NTU may be improved to 0.1-1.0 NTU by conventional sand filtration. Filtration
ensures acceptable suspended solids concentrations in the finished water even when
upsets occur in the clarification processes.

Typical Construction

Conventional gravity and pressure rapid filters operate downflow. The filter
medium is usually a 15-30 in. deep bed of sand or anthracite. Single or multiple grades of
sand or anthracite may be used.

A large particle bed supports the filter media to prevent fine sand or anthracite from
escaping into the underdrain system. The support bed also serves to distribute backwash

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 92


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

water. Typical support beds consist of 1 8-1 in. gravel or anthracite in graded layers to a
depth of 12-16 in.

Types of Media

Quartz sand, silica sand, anthracite coal, garnet, magnetite, and other materials may
be used as filtration media. Silica sand and anthracite are the most commonly used types.
When silica is not suitable (e.g., in filters following a hot process softener where the
treated water is intended for boiler feed), anthracite is usually used.

The size and shape of the filter media affect the efficiency of the solids removal.
Sharp, angular media form large voids and remove less fine material than rounded media
of equivalent size. The media must be coarse enough to allow solids to penetrate the bed
for 2-4 in. Although most suspended solids are trapped at the surface or in the first 1-2 in.
of bed depth, some penetration is essential to prevent a rapid increase in pressure drop.

Sand and anthracite for


filters are rated by effective
particle size and uniformity.
The effective size is such that
approximately 10% of the
total grains by weight are
smaller and 90% are larger.
Therefore, the effective size is
the minimum size of most of
the particles. Uniformity is
measured by comparison of effective size to the size at which 60% of the grains by weight
are smaller and 40% are larger. This latter size, divided by the effective size, is called the
uniformity coefficient-the smaller the uniformity coefficient, the more uniform the media
particle sizes.

Desirable media size depends on the suspended solids characteristics as well as the
effluent quality requirements and the specific filter design. In general, rapid sand filters

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 93


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

use sand with an effective size of 0.35-0.60 mm (0.014-0.024 in.) and a maximum
uniformity coefficient of 1.7. Coarse media, often 0.6-1.0 mm (0.024-0.04 in.), are used for
closely controlled coagulation and sedimentation.

Mixed Media Filter Beds

The terms "multilayer," "in-depth," and "mixed media" apply to a type of filter bed
which is graded by size and density. Coarse, less dense particles are at the top of the filter
bed, and fine, more dense particles are at the bottom. Downflow filtration allows deep,
uniform penetration by particulate matter and permits high filtration rates and long
service runs. Because small particles at the bottom are also more dense (less space
between particles), they remain at the bottom. Even after high-rate backwashing, the
layers remain in their proper location in the mixed media filter bed.

Table 6-1 lists four media that are used in multilayer filtration. Several other mixed
media combinations have also been tested and used effectively. The use of too many
different media layers can cause severe backwashing difficulties. For example, if all four
materials listed in Table 6-1 were used in the same filter, a wash rate high enough to
expand the magnetite layer might wash the anthracite from the filter. High wash water
requirements would also result.

Anthracite/sand filter beds normally provide all of the advantages of single-media


filtration but require less backwash water than sand or anthracite alone. Similar claims
have been made for anthracite/sand/garnet mixed units. The major advantages of dual-
media filtration are higher rates and longer runs. Anthracite/sand/garnet beds have
operated at normal rates of approximately 5 gpm/ft² and peak rates as high as 8 gpm/ft²
without loss of effluent quality.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 94


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Capping of Sand Filters

Rapid sand filters can be converted for mixed media operation to increase capacity
by 100%. The cost of this conversion is much lower than that of installing additional rapid
sand filters.

Capping involves the replacement of a portion of the sand with anthracite. In this
conversion, a 2-6 in. layer of 0.4-0.6 mm (0.016-0.024 in.) sand is removed from the
surface of a bed and replaced with 4-8 in. of 0.9 mm (0.035 in.) anthracite. If an increase in
capacity is desired, a larger amount of sand is replaced. Pilot tests should be run to ensure
that a reduction in the depth of the finer sand does not reduce the quality of the effluent.

Gravity Filters

Gravity filters (see Figure 6-1) are open vessels that depend on system gravity head
for operation. Apart from the filter media, the essential components of a gravity filter
include the following:

 The filter shell, which is either concrete or steel and can be square, rectangular, or
circular. Rectangular reinforced concrete units are most widely used.
 The support bed, which prevents loss of fine sand or anthracite through the
underdrain system. The support bed, usually 1-2 ft deep, also distributes backwash
water.
 An underdrain system, which ensures uniform collection of filtered water and
uniform distribution of backwash water. The system may consist of a header and
laterals, with perforations or strainers spaced suitably. False tank bottoms with
appropriately spaced strainers are also used for underdrain systems.
 Wash water troughs, large enough to collect backwash water without flooding. The
troughs are spaced so that the horizontal travel of backwash water does not exceed
3-3 ft. In conventional sand bed units, wash troughs are placed approximately 2 ft
above the filter surface. Sufficient freeboard must be provided to prevent loss of a
portion of the filter media during operation at maximum backwash rates.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 95


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

 Control devices that maximize filter operation efficiency. Flow rate controllers,
operated by venturi tubes in the effluent line, automatically maintain uniform
delivery of filtered water. Backwash flow rate controllers are also used. Flow rate
and head loss gauges are essential for efficient operation.

Pressure Filters

Pressure filters are typically used with hot process softeners to permit high-
temperature operation and to prevent heat loss. The use of pressure filters eliminates the
need for repumping of filtered water. Pressure filters are similar to gravity filters in that
they include filter media, supporting bed, underdrain system, and control device; however,
the filter shell has no wash water troughs.

Pressure filters, designed


vertically or horizon-tally, have
cylindrical steel shells and dished
heads. Vertical pressure filters (see
Figure 6-2) range in diameter from 1 to
10 ft with capacities as great as 300
gpm at filtration rates of 3 gpm/ft².
Horizontal pressure filters, usually 8 ft
in diameter, are 10-25 ft long with
capacities from 200 to 600 gpm. These
filters are separated into
compartments to allow individual
backwashing. Backwash water may be
returned to the clarifier or softener for
recovery.

Pressure filters are usually


operated at a service flow rate of 3 gpm/ft². Dual or multimedia filters are designed for 6-8
gpm/ft². At ambient temperature, the recommended filter backwash rate is 6-8 gpm/ft²

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 96


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

for anthracite and 13-15 gpm/ft² for sand. Anthracite filters associated with hot process
softeners require a backwash rate of 12-15 gpm/ft² because the water is less dense at
elevated operating temperatures. Cold water should not be used to backwash a hot
process filter. This would cause expansion and contraction of the system metallurgy,
which would lead to metal fatigue. Also, the oxygen-laden cold water would accelerate
corrosion.

Upflow Filters

Upflow units contain a single filter medium–usually graded sand. The finest sand is
at the top of the bed with the coarsest sand below. Gravel is retained by grids in a fixed
position at the bottom of the unit. The function of the gravel is to ensure proper water
distribution during the service cycle. Another grid above the graded sand prevents
fluidization of the media. Air injection during cleaning (not considered backwash because
the direction of flow is the same as when in-service) assists in the removal of solids and
the reclassification of the filter media. During operation, the larger, coarse solids are
removed at the bottom of the bed, while smaller solids particles are allowed to penetrate
further into the media. Typical service flow rates are 5-10 gpm/ft².

Automatic Gravity Filters

Several manufacturers have developed gravity filters that are backwashed automatically
at a preset head loss. Head loss (water level above the media) actuates a backwash siphon
and draws wash water from storage up through the bed and out through the siphon pipe
to waste. A low level in the backwash storage section breaks the siphon, and the filter
returns to service.

Automatic gravity filters are available in diameters of up to 15 ft. When equipped with a
high-rate, multilayer media, a single large-diameter unit can filter as much as 1,000 gpm.

In-Line Clarification

In-line clarification is the removal of suspended solids through the addition of in-
line coagulant followed by rapid filtration. This process is also referred to as in-line

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 97


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

filtration, or contact filtration. The process removes suspended solids without the use of
sedimentation basins. Coagulation may be achieved in in-line clarification by either of two
methods:

 an inorganic aluminum or iron salt used alone or with a high molecular weight
polymeric coagulant
 a strongly cationic organic polyelectrolyte

Because metal hydroxides form precipitates, only dual-media filters should be used
with inorganic coagulant programs. Floc particles must be handled in filters with coarse-
to-fine graded media to prevent rapid blinding of the filter and eliminate backwashing
difficulties. Where a high molecular weight polymeric coagulant is used, feed rates of less
than 0.1 ppm maximize solids removal by increasing floc size and promoting particle
absorption within the filter. This filtration technique readily yields effluent turbidities of
less than 0.5 NTU.

The second method of coagulant pretreatment involves the use of a single chemical,
a strongly charged cationic polyelectrolyte. This treatment forms no precipitation floc
particles, and usually no floc formation is visible in the filter influent. Solids are removed
within the bed by adsorption and by flocculation of colloidal matter directly onto the
surface of the sand or anthracite media. The process may be visualized as seeding of the
filter bed surfaces with positive cationic charges to produce a strong pull on the negatively
charged particles. Because gelatinous hydroxide precipitates are not present in this
process, single- media or upflow filters are suitable for poly-electrolyte clarification.

In-line clarification provides an excellent way to improve the efficiency of solids removal
from turbid surface waters. Effluent turbidity levels of less than 1 NTU are common with
this method.

Softening

Precipitation softening processes are used to reduce raw water hardness, alkalinity,
silica, and other constituents. This helps prepare water for direct use as cooling tower

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 98


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

makeup or as a first-stage treatment followed by ion exchange for boiler makeup or


process use. The water is treated with lime or a combination of lime and soda ash
(carbonate ion). These chemicals react with the hardness and natural alkalinity in the
water to form insoluble compounds. The compounds precipitate and are removed from
the water by sedimentation and, usually, filtration. Waters with moderate to high hardness
and alkalinity concentrations (150-500 ppm as CaCO3) are often treated in this fashion.

Chemistry of Precipitation Softening

In almost every raw water supply, hardness is present as calcium and magnesium
bicarbonate, often referred to as carbonate hardness or temporary hardness. These
compounds result from the action of acidic, carbon dioxide laden rain water on naturally
occurring minerals in the earth, such as limestone. For example:

Hardness may also be present as a sulfate or chloride salt, referred to as


noncarbonate or permanent hardness. These salts are caused by mineral acids present in
rain water or the solution of naturally occurring acidic minerals.

The significance of "carbonate" or "temporary" hardness as contrasted to


"noncarbonate" or "permanent" hardness is that the former may be reduced in
concentration simply by heating. In effect, heating reverses the solution reaction:

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 99


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Cold Lime Softening

Precipitation softening accomplished at ambient temperatures is referred to as cold lime


softening. When hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2, is added to the water being treated, the following
reactions occur:

If the proper chemical control is maintained on lime feed, the calcium hardness may
be reduced to 35-50 ppm. Magnesium reduction is a function of the amount of hydroxyl
(OH-) alkalinity excess maintained.

Noncarbonate or permanent calcium hardness, if present, is not affected by


treatment with lime alone. If noncarbonate magnesium hardness is present in an amount
greater than 70 ppm and an excess hydroxyl alkalinity of about 5 ppm is maintained, the
magnesium will be reduced to about 70 ppm, but the calcium will increase in proportion to
the magnesium reduction.

For example, in cold lime treatment of a water containing 110 ppm of calcium, 95
ppm of magnesium, and at least 110 ppm of alkalinity (all expressed as calcium
carbonate), calcium could theoretically be reduced to 35 ppm and the magnesium to about

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 100


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

70 ppm. However, an additional 25 ppm of calcium would be expected in the treated water
due to the following reactions:

To improve magnesium reduction, which also improves silica reduction in cold


process softening, sodium aluminate may be used. The sodium aluminate provides
hydroxyl ion (OH-) needed for improved magnesium reduction, without increasing calcium
hardness in the treated water. In addition, the hydrolysis of sodium aluminate results in
the formation of aluminum hydroxide, which aids in floc formation, sludge blanket
conditioning, and silica reduction. The reactions are as follows:

Warm Lime Softening

The warm lime softening process operates in the temperature range of 120-140°F (49-
60°C). The solubilities of calcium, magnesium, and silica are reduced by increased
temperature. Therefore, they are more effectively removed by warm lime softening than
by cold lime softening. This process is used for the following purposes:

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 101


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

 To recover waste heat as an energy conservation measure. The water to be treated is


heated by a waste stream, such as boiler blowdown or low-pressure exhaust steam,
to recover the heat content.
 To prepare feed to a demineralization system. The lower levels of calcium,
magnesium, and especially silica reduce the ionic loading on the demineralizer
when warm lime-softened water is used rather than cold lime-softened water. This
may reduce both the capital and operating costs of the demineralizer. However,
most strong base anion resins have a temperature limitation of 140°F (60°C);
therefore, additional increases in temperature are not acceptable for increasing the
effectiveness of contaminant reduction.
 To lower the blowdown discharge from cooling systems. Cooling tower blowdown
may be treated with lime and soda ash or caustic to reduce calcium and magnesium
levels so that much of the blowdown may be returned to the cooling system. Silica
levels in the recirculating cooling water are also controlled in this manner.

In any warm lime or warm lime-soda ash process, temperature control is critical
because temperature variations of as little as 4°F/hr (2°C/hr) can cause gross carryover of
the softener precipitates.

Hot Process Softening

softening is usually carried out under pressure at temperatures of 227-240°F (108-


116°C). At the operating temperature, hot process softening reactions go essentially to
completion. This treatment method involves the same reactions described above, except
that raw water CO2 is vented and does not participate in the lime reaction. The use of lime
and soda ash permits hardness reduction down to 0.5 gr/gal, or about 8 ppm, as calcium
carbonate.

Magnesium is reduced to 2-5 ppm because of the lower solubility of magnesium


hydroxide at the elevated temperatures.

Silica Reduction

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 102


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Hot process softening can also provide very good silica reduction. The silica
reduction is accomplished through adsorption of the silica on the magnesium hydroxide
precipitate. If there is insufficient magnesium present in the raw water to reduce silica to
the desired level, magnesium compounds (such as magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfate,
magnesium carbonate, or dolomitic lime) may be used. Magnesium oxide is the preferred
chemical because it does not increase the dissolved solids concentration of the water.

Good sludge contact enhances silica reduction. To ensure optimum contact, sludge is
frequently recirculated back to the inlet of the unit.

Cold or warm process softening is not as effective as hot process softening for silica
reduction. However, added magnesium oxide and good sludge contact will improve
results.

Predicted analyses of a typical raw water treated by various lime and lime-soda
softening processes are presented in Table 7-1.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 103


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Reduction of Other Contaminants

Treatment by lime precipitation reduces alkalinity. However, if the raw water


alkalinity exceeds the total hardness, sodium bicarbonate alkalinity is present. In such
cases, it is usually necessary to reduce treated water alkalinity in order to reduce
condensate system corrosion or permit increased cycles of concentration.

Treatment by lime converts the sodium bicarbonate in the raw water to sodium
carbonate as follows:

Calcium sulfate (gypsum) may be added to reduce the carbonate to required levels.
The reaction is as follows:

Reduction of Other Contaminants

Lime softening processes, with the usual filters, will reduce oxidized iron and
manganese to about 0.05 and 0.01 ppm, respectively. Raw water organics (color-
contributing colloids) are also reduced.

Turbidity, present in most surface supplies, is reduced to about 1.0 NTU with
filtration following chemical treatment. Raw water turbidity in excess of 100 NTU may be
tolerated in these systems; however, it may be necessary to coagulate raw water solids
with a cationic polymer before the water enters the softener vessel to assist liquid-solids
separation.

Oil may also be removed by adsorption on the precipitates formed during treatment.
However, oil in concentrations above about 30 ppm should be reduced before lime

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 104


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

treatment because higher concentrations of oil may exert a dispersing influence and cause
floc carryover.

Coagulants/Flocculants/Sludge Conditioners

Organic polymer flocculants and coagulants are preferred over inorganic salts of
aluminum or iron. Polymers add minimal dissolved solids to the water and their use
results in reduced sludge quantity compared to the use of inorganic coagulants. Inorganic
coagulants must react with raw water alkalinity to form the metallic precipitate that aids
in clarification and sludge bed conditioning. For example, alum reacts as follows:

The precipitated aluminum hydroxide is incorporated within the sludge produced


by the softening reactions. This increases the fluidity of the softener sludge, which allows
for increased solids contact, improving softening and effluent clarity.

Waters producing high calcium-to-magnesium precipitation ratios usually need


sludge bed conditioning chemical feed for proper operation. Specialized organic polymers
are available for proper conditioning of the sludge bed without the use of inorganic salts.

Four potentially adverse effects of using inorganic salts may be noted:

 The inorganic salt reduces the alkalinity. This converts the hardness to noncarbonate
hardness, which is not affected by lime. As a result, inorganic salts increase hardness
in water that is naturally deficient in bicarbonate alkalinity.
 When the water is to be treated further by ion exchange, regenerant consumption is
increased.This is due to the higher hardness and the added soluble sulfate/chloride
load.
 The carbon dioxide generated by the reaction has a lime demand which is twice that of
the bicarbonate. Therefore, increased chemical addition is required.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 105


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

 Soluble aluminum in the softener effluent interferes with softened water alkalinity
titrations, even when very low levels of soluble aluminum exist. This interference,
which necessitates an increase in lime feed, causes falsely low (2P - M) readings and
may be partly responsible for the additional removal of magnesium seen when
aluminum salts are used.

Limitations

Given proper consideration of raw water quality and ultimate end use of the treated
water, the application of precipitation processes has few limitations. However, operational
difficulties may be encountered unless the following factors are controlled:

 Temperature. Cold and warm units are subject to carryover if the temperature varies
more than 4°F/hr (2°C/hr). Hot process units are less sensitive to slight
temperature variations. However, a clogged or improper spray pattern can prevent
proper heating of the water, and carryover can result.
 Hydraulics. In any system, steady-state operation within design limits optimizes the
performance of the equipment. Rapid flow variations can cause severe system
upsets. Suitable treated water storage capacity should be incorporated into the total
system design to minimize load swings on the softener.
 Chemical Control. This should be as precise as possible to prevent poor water
quality. Because of the comparatively constant quality of most well waters, changes
in chemical feed rates are largely a function of flow only. However, surface water
quality may vary hourly. Therefore, for proper control, it is imperative that users
perform frequent testing of the raw water as well as the treated effluent, and adjust
chemical feed accordingly.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 106


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Ozonation

Ozone is an unstable gas


comprising of three oxygen atoms, the
gas will readily degrade back to
oxygen, and during this transition a
free oxygen atom, or free radical form.
The free oxygen radical is highly
reactive and short lived, under normal
conditions it will only survive for
milliseconds.

Ozone is a colorless gas that has an odor similar to the smell of the air after a major
thunderstorm.Ozone has a greater disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses
compared to chlorination. In addition, the oxidizing properties can also reduce the
concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur and reduce or eliminate taste and odor problems.
Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur in the water to form insoluble metal oxides or
elemental sulfur. These insoluble particles are then removed by post-filtration. Organic
particles and chemicals will be eliminated through either coagulation or chemical
oxidation. Ozone is unstable, and it will degrade over a time frame ranging from a few
seconds to 30 minutes. The rate of degradation is a function of water chemistry, pH and
water temperature.

Ozonation Process

The formation of oxygen into ozone occurs with the use of energy. This process is
carried out by an electric discharge field as in the CD-type ozone generators (corona
discharge simulation of the lightning), or by ultraviolet radiation as in UV-type ozone
generators (simulation of the ultraviolet rays from the sun). In addition to these
commercial methods, ozone may also be made through electrolytic and chemical reactions.
In general, an ozonation system includes passing dry, clean air through a high voltage
electric discharge, i.e., corona discharge, which creates and ozone concentration of
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 107
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

approximately 1% or 10,000 mg/L. In treating small quantities of waste, the UV ozonation


is the most common while large-scale systems use either corona discharge or other bulk
ozone-producing methods

The raw water is then passed through a venturi throat which creates a vacuum and
pulls the ozone gas into the water or the air is then bubbled up through the water being
treated. Since the ozone will react with metals to create insoluble metal oxides, post
filtration is required.

Primary Advantages to Ozone

1. Ozone is effect over a wide pH range and rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses, and
protozoans and has stronger germicidal properties then chlorination. Has a very
strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time.

2.The treatment process does not add chemicals to the water.

3. Ozone can eliminate a wide variety of inorganic, organic and microbiological


problems and taste and odor problems. The microbiological agents include bacteria,
viruses, and protozoans (such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium).

Disadvantages to Ozone

1. There are higher equipment and operational costs and it may be more difficult to
find professional proficient in ozone treatment and system maintenance.

2. Ozonation provides no germicidal or disinfection residual to inhibit or prevent


regrowth.

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 108


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

3. Ozonation by-products are still being evaluated and it is possible that some by-
products by be carcinogenic. These may include brominated by-products, aldehydes,
ketones, and carboxylic acids. This is one reason that the post-filtration system may
include an activate carbon filter.

4.The system may require pretreatment for hardness reduction or the additional of
polyphosphate to prevent the formation of carbonate scale.

5.Ozone is less soluble in water, compared to chlorine, and, therefore, special


mixing techniques are needed.

6.Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues associated with ozone generation.

Ozone is a more effective disinfectant than chlorine, chloramines, and even chlorine
dioxide. An ozone dose of 0,4 mg L-1 for 4 minutes is usually effective for pre-treated water
(low NOM concentration) [39]. Several studies proved that ozone, unlike chlorine products,
can deactivate resistant micro-organisms (see resistant microorganisms page). However,
as ozone rapidly decomposes in water, its life-span in aqueous solutions is very short (less
than one hour). Therefore ozone is less suitable for residual disinfection and can be used
only in particular cases (mainly in short distribution systems). Chlorine and chlorine
dioxide often replace ozone as a final disinfectant. For primary disinfection (prior to the bio
filtration), ozone is very suitable. This will lead to a more complete disinfection and a lower
disinfectant concentration.

Odor and taste elimination

Odor and taste production in drinking water can have several causes. Odor and taste
forming compounds can be present in raw water, but they can also be formed during water
treatment. These compounds may derive from the decomposition of plant matter, but
normally they are a result of the activity of living organisms present in the water [5].
Inorganic compounds such as iron, copper and zinc can also generate some taste. Another

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 109


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

possibility is that the chemical oxidation (chlorine treatment) leads to an unpleasant tastes
and odors.

Odor and taste forming compounds are often very resistant. This causes elimination
to be a very intensive process [33]. For the elimination of taste and odor, several processes
can be appropriate, such as oxidation, aeration, granular active carbon (GAC) filtration or
sand filtration. Usually, a combination of these techniques is applied.

Ozone can oxidize compounds in a range of 20–90% (dependent on the type of


compound) [6]. Ozone is more effective for the oxidation of unsaturated compounds. As
was the case for the oxidation of pesticides, ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide (AOP
process) is more effective than ozone alone. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are
examples of resistant odorous compounds, which are often present in the water. These are
produced by algae and have a low odor and taste threshold. Nevertheless, ozone is still very
affectively removes these compounds, see figure 1.

Generally, the most effective way to remove taste and odor components appears to
be a combination of pre-oxidation and filtration [5]. Table 2 shows several combinations of
techniques to improve taste. Ozone with sand filtration and GAC filtration is the most
efficient combination (82% removal).

1. Chlorine treatment
Chlorine readily combines with chemicals dissolved in water, microorganisms, small
animals, plant material, tastes, odors, and colors. These components "use up" chlorine and
comprise the chlorine demand of the treatment system. It is important to add sufficient
chlorine to the water to meet the chlorine demand and provide residual disinfection.
The chlorine that does not combine with other components in the water
is free (residual) chlorine, and the breakpoint is the point at which free chlorine is available
for continuous disinfection. An ideal system supplies free chlorine at a concentration of 0.3-
0.5 mg/l. Simple test kits, most commonly the DPD colorimetric test kit (so called because
diethyl phenylenediamine produces the color reaction), are available for testing breakpoint
and chlorine residual in private systems. The kit must test free chlorine, not total chlorine.
CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 110
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Contact time with microorganisms

The contact (retention) time (Table 1) in chlorination is that period between the
introduction of the disinfectant and when the water is used. A long interaction between
chlorine and the microorganisms results in an effective disinfection process. The contact
time varies with chlorine concentration, the type of pathogens present, pH, and
temperature of the water. The calculation procedure is given below.

Contact time must increase under conditions of low water temperature or high pH
(alkalinity). Complete mixing of chlorine and water is necessary, and often a holding tank is
needed to achieve appropriate contact time. In a private well system, the minimum-size
holding tank is determined by multiplying the capacity of the pump by 10. For example, a
5-gallons-per-minute (GPM) pump requires a 50-gallon holding tank. Pressure tanks are
not recommended for this purpose since they usually have a combined inlet/outlet and all
the water does not pass through the tank.

Chlorination levels

If a system does not allow adequate contact time with normal dosages of
chlorine, superchlorination followed by dechlorination (chlorine removal) may be
necessary.

Superchlorination provides a chlorine residual of 3.0-5.0 mg/l, 10 times the


recommended minimum breakpoint chlorine concentration. Retention time for
superchlorination is approximately 5 minutes. Activated carbon filtration removes the high
chlorine residual.

Shock chlorination is recommended whenever a well is new, repaired, or found to


be contaminated. This treatment introduces high levels of chlorine to the water. Unlike
superchlorination, shock chlorination is a "one time only" occurrence, and chlorine is
depleted as water flows through the system; activated carbon treatment is not required. If

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 111


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

bacteriological problems persist following shock chlorination, the system should be


evaluated. More information regarding shock disinfection can be found at Shock Well
Disinfection Website

Chlorination Guidelines

Chlorine solutions lose strength while standing or when exposed to air or sunlight.
Make fresh solutions frequently to maintain the necessary residual. Maintain a free
chlorine residual of 0.3-0.5 mg/l after a 10-minute contact time. Measure the residual
frequently. Once the chlorine dosage is increased to meet greater demand, do not decrease
it.Locate and eliminate the source of contamination to avoid continuous chlorination. If a
water source is available that does not require disinfection, use it.

Keep records of pertinent information concerning the chlorination system.

Types of chlorine used in disinfection

Public water systems use chlorine in the gaseous form, which is considered too
dangerous and expensive for home use. Private systems use liquid chlorine (sodium
hypochlorite) or dry chlorine (calcium hypochlorite). To avoid hardness deposits on
equipment, manufacturers recommend using soft, distilled, or demineralized water when
making up chlorine solutions.

Liquid Chlorine Dry Chlorine

 household bleach most common form  powder dissolved in water


 available chlorine range:  available chlorine: 4%
 produces heavy sediment that clogs

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 112


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

5.25% (domestic laundry bleach) equipment; filtration required


18% (commercial laundry bleach)  dry powder stable when stored properly
 dry powder fire hazard near flammable
 slightly more stable than solutions from dry
materials
chlorine
 solution maintains strength for 1 week
 protect from sun, air, and heat
 protect from sun and heat

Equipment for continuous chlorination


Continuous chlorination of a private water supply can be done by various methods.
The injection device should operate only when water is being pumped, and the water pump
should shut off if the chlorinator fails or if the chlorine supply is depleted. A brief
description of common chlorination devices follows.

Chlorine Pump (commonly used, positive displacement or chemical-feed device,


 adds a small amount, of chlorine to the water,
 dose either fixed or varies with water flow rates
 recommended for low and fluctuating water pressure,
 chlorine drawn into the device then pumped to water delivery line

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 113


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Figure 1. Pump type (positive displacement) chlorinator


Figure 2. Injector (aspirator) chlorinator

Suction Device:
 The line from chlorine supply to the suction side of water pump,
 chlorine drawn into the water held in the well pump,
 dosage uniformity not assured with this system,
 some suction devices inject chlorine directly into well water, increasing the contact time
between microorganisms and disinfectant; water/chlorine mixture is then drawn into the
well pump

Aspirator (see Fig. 2):

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 114


PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

 simple, inexpensive mechanism,


 requires no electricity,
 the vacuum created by water flowing through a tube draws chlorine into a tank where it
mixes with untreated water,
 treated solution fed into the water system,
 chlorine doses not consistently accurate

Solid Feed Unit:


 waste treatment and swimming pool disinfection,
 requires no electricity,
 controlled by a flow meter,
 the device slowly dissolves chlorine tablets to provide continuous supply of chlorine
solution

Batch disinfection:
 used for fluctuating chlorine demand,
 three tanks, each holding 2 to 3 days' water supply, alternately filled, treated and used

CHE 429 – Environmental Engineering: Water Treatment 115