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, 25(4), 2015: 235-246

ISSN: 2226-5899

Nutritional, functional and health promoting attributes of red

kidney beans; A review
Aamir Shehzad1, Umer Masood Chander1, Mian Kamran Sharif1, Allah Rakha1, Anam Ansari1 and Muhammad
Zuhair Shuja2
National Institute of Food Science & Technology (NIFSAT), Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Corresponding author:


Numerous practices of poor nutrition are resulting in under malnutrition and over malnutrition. These conditions
caused by a complex array of issues, including dietary inadequacy, infections, and socio-cultural factors.
Malnutrition can lead to wasting and stunting, micronutrient deficiencies, as well as diabetes and other diseases.
Shifting towards plant based diet is good approach to tackle protein energy malnutrition and health issues. In this
context, Red kidney beans consider to be high in component like protein (possess essential amino acid)
carbohydrates, dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins. Proteins are normally considered as the prominent
macronutrient in red kidney beans. Consumption of red kidney beans has been linked to decreased occurrence of
chronic non communicable diseases such diabetes, cancer, obesity and coronary heart diseases. Similarly, red kidney
beans contain a variety of phytochemicals. These phytochemicals like, flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidants are
conforming to offer protective physiological effects in the body against numerous ailments i.e. cancer, diabetics,
cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative. Thus the present aim of this review is to highligh the magnitude of
the phytochemicals on such ailments.

Keywords: malnutrition, nutrient deficiencies, kidney beans, neurodegenerative,

INTRODUCTION formulation and processing of complementary foods

such as beans and maize (Ijarotimi, 2006).
Malnutrition is presently prevalent all-around the
globe. In this perspective, the extremely thoughtful An alternative choice for optimum nutrients
matter is dietetic issues about protein energy requirements for the consumers is the
malnutrition (Iqbal et al., 2006). Existence level of supplementation, fortification, and enrichment of diet
malnutrition is challenged and generally shifted from with plant proteins. Therefore priority has been given
30 to 60% in elderly people (Smolineret al., 2008). to the nutritional examination of proteins from
Malnutrition denotes both the over nutrition and various plant species (Mubarak, 2005). Protein
under nutrition latter one is more prominent (Green supply to whole mankind to a satisfactory level is a
and Watson, 2005). world level challenge which intensified fears about
protein energy malnutrition. Mostly, supplementation
The nutritional statistics in Pakistan depicted that low of cereal based foods with pulses i.e. green pea, black
consumption of protein proved to be harmful up to and white chickpea, red kidney beans and lentils is
great extent. It has been stated that almost 50% of utilized to minimize this issue (Boye et al., 2010).
infants and children mortality is linked to different
kinds of malnutrition (GOP, 2015). In Pakistan, it is Beans have been proved very crucial leguminous
widespread immensely in Baluchistan, KPK, Sindh crops, efficiently involve in the fixation of nitrogen
and Punjab with the percentage of 73% 69%, 64% from atmosphere. Due to high protein content and
and 51% respectively, (NNS, 2011). In order to essential amino pulses are considered as an important
abolish the issues of malnutrition among the people, source of protein in developing and vegetarian
various researches have been conducted on the nations. These are also known as poor man meat.

Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences (2015), Volume 25, Issue 4, Page(s): 235-246
PAK. J. FOOD SCI., 25(4), 2015: 235-246
ISSN: 2226-5899

Cereal based diets added with pulses are supposed as Kidney beans show a vigorous role in human diet,
supplemented foods in order to enhance their protein mainly enhance the dietetic status of low earning
content and lysine bio-availability (Bahnassey et al., population (Milan-Carrillo et al., 2007). These are
1986). Almost 70% of the whole world pulses utilized in culinary diets as dried beans or canned
production is used for human consumption. beans. They have gained much importance in the fruit
Commonly known pulses (chickpea, cowpea, lentil, and vegetable processing factories in the
mung bean, mash bean, kidney beans etc) are usually manufacturing of frozen fermented or canned foods.
cultivated in rabi and kharif seasons. A very little Also,used in salads and appetizers.
production is observed in Pakistan due to certain
limiting factors (Chaudhry et al., 2002). The globally Nutritional Aspects
production of pulses was surveyed to exceed 176
million tons in 2003, of which 40 million produced in Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are
Africa and about 63 million in India. splendid sources of energy, proteins, carbohydrates
minerals and vitamins (Rehman & Shah 2004; Yin et
Among the pulses kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris is al., 2008). These are renowned for their higher
a conventionally consumed human diet. It is derived dietary fiber, minerals and protein contents. The flour
from common bean ancestor; usually dark red in and protein essence these red kidney beans depicted
colour and kidney shaped. Also known as common vital functional features (Tang, 2008). These beans
bean, snap dragon, navy bean, pinto bean, rajma and possess excellent nutritional profile with 22.7 %
surkh lobia. Leading producing countries are Brazil, protein, 3.5 % mineral, 1 % fat and 57.7 %
United States, India, China, Turkey and Ethopia carbohydrates out of which total carbohydrates have,
(Sahadevan et al., 2012). In Southeast Asia, 38.6 % starch and 18.8 % dietary fiber (60 %
consumption of pulses is reasonable and a good insoluble and 40 % soluble). Its protein has highest
variety of species are grown, produced and used as lysine content about 5 % (Thapa, 2012; Qayyum et
seeds and green vegetative pods in various (Nyau, al., 2012).
2014). Consumption of red kidney beans in Pakistan
is 50,000 tons and production is hardly attained about Proteins mostly found in these beans are storage
10,000 tons means importing 40,000 - 50,000 tons, proteins i.e. 75-80%. Important nitrogenous
major exporter of kidney beans to Pakistan is China compounds and amino acids are supplied by these
(PARC, 2014). It has an indispensible value in proteins to the early seedlings. Kidney beans are
human diet and enhances the nutritional status of low excellent source of lysine, and can be used for the
income community up to prestige level. Beans have fortification of cereal based products (Loggerenberg,
two or three folds more amounts of protein than 2004). These have higher level of RS in comparison
cereals and provide suitable path for eliminating the to cereal grains and tuber (Yadav et al., 2010). The
protein malnutrition. Thus potential for beans to be merit of this bean is its great caloric index and
used as nutraceuticals and functional food is thus protein quantity. The scientists have provoked that
very promising. The nutraceutical components of small amount of phenolic compounds and phytates
food support health and also provide basic nutrients. (available in legumes) may be defensive against CVD
Various studies have been proved that consuming red and cancer (Ramirez-Cardenas et al., 2008).
kidney beans reduced the risks of diabetes and Carbohydrates Fermentating ability of red kidney
obesity (Geil & Anderson, 1994). As compared to beans can results in the generationof SCFAs and
other starchy foods red kidney beans starch is lowers the intestinal pH (Fernandes et al., 2010). Red
digested much slowly and possess very low glycemic kidney beans are best source of vitamin B group,
index (Nyau, 2014). Foods with low glycemic essential minerals like K, Ca, Mg, P and iron too
responses intend to produce loss spikes in blood (Souci et al., 2000). These are prestigious source of
glucose and proved to be beneficial to diabetic plant based dietary protein mainly in areas where
patients. Low glycemic foods enhanced adipocyte utility of meat is prohibited or limited owing to
insulin- mediated sugar usage in in vitro (Wolever et reasons like scarcity, religious restrictions, cultural
al., 1987), secondly the speed of catabolism of starch customs and unaffordable price of meat protein. Most
from beans is slower (Leathwood & Pollet, 1988). studies have pointed out the health friendly role of
Beans have been observed to have tendency to confer these beans including decreased threats of CVD
weight management owing to their low glycemic (Flight and Clifton, 2006).
index, resistant starch and great satiety level
(Hotamisligil, 2003). Amino Acid Profile

Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences (2015), Volume 25, Issue 4, Page(s): 235-246
PAK. J. FOOD SCI., 25(4), 2015: 235-246
ISSN: 2226-5899

Red kidney beans show excellent amino acid profile epidemiological results indicate that they also pose
mainly rich in lysine, leucine, aspartic acid,glutamic potential health benefits (De Pascual-Teresa et al.,
acid and arginine. Beans provide optimum amount of 2010). They have a beneficial role in many diseases
essential amino acids when utilized with cereals and such as neurodegenerative conditions, cancer and
other sulphur containing products (Boye et al., cardiovascular disease (Williams et al., 2004). 1g of
2010a). The glutamic and aspartic acids are mainly flavonoids should be consumed from diet based on
acidic in nature and present in raw as well as fruits and vegetables per day. The beneficial actions
processed beans. Except for cysteine, methionine and of flavonoids are driven from their antioxidant
tryptophan, the raw and processed red kidney beans property and affinity for proteins (De Pascual-Teresa
replenish the FAO/WHO amino acid needs for et al., 2010).
teenagers. Red kidney beans provide 10.2g glutamic
Phenolic acids
acid, 9.5g aspartic acid, 1.2g cysteine, 1.7g
methionine, 3g histidine, 4.4g alanine, 5.2g glycine, Phenolic acids are classified as aromatic secondary
3.4g threonine, 3.3g proline, 3,7g isoleucine, 3.1g metabolites of plant (Tomas-Barberan and Espin,
tyrosine, 4.6g phenylalanine, 4.1g valine, 3.1g serine, 2001) and universally present in plants kingdoms
6.9g arginine, 7glysine and 7.2g leucine per 100g (Dai and Mumper, 2010). They are generally referred
(Audu and Aremu, 2011). Cowpea is methionine and to as phenols that have carboxylic acid functionality.
threonine rich legume. It also contains glutamic acid These compounds are important for growth and
& aspartic acid which are non- essential amino acids. reproduction of plants and are synthesized as a
Cowpea has essential amino acids in higher quantity response to environmental factors such as moderate
whilst lentil is rich in non-essential amino acid (Iqbal chilling and pollution (Valentine et al., 2003).
et al., 2006). Broad bean has methionine/cystine as Naturally phenolic acids consist of two different
the limiting amino acids. However, mostly all other carbon structures: (1) the hydroxycinnamic and (2)
EAAs fulfill the people needs though the quantity in hydroxybenzoic structure. Hydroxycinnamic acids
contrast to egg is lower (Mortuza et al., 2009). are formed as simple esters with hydroxyl-carboxylic
acid (Mandal et al., 2010) and their derivatives have
The availability of essential amino acids in more antioxidants ability as compared to
significant quantity ameliorates the nutritional level hydrooxbenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxycinnamic
of the plant based protein. Microwave cooking acid derivatives has more potential for delocalization
method does not cause any adverse effect on the of the phenoxyl radical (Steenkamp et al., 2013).
essential amino acid however; intensive and frequent Phenolic acids are usually included in study due to
processing of bean at high temperature reduced the their beneficial role against oxidative damage and
availability of essential amino acidss (Gurumoorthi et degenerative diseases such as inflammation, cancer
al., 2008; Hadjipanayiotou and Economides, 2001). and cardiovascular diseases (Battisti et al., 2008).
They have gained more importance due to their
Flavonoids antioxidant properties and used in food products (Dai
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plants and and Mumper, 2010). Phenolic acids also have unique
have polyphenolic structure. They are synthesized taste, flavor and health-promoting effects found in
through the polypropanoid pathway having fruits and vegetables (Tomas-Barberan and Espin,
phenylalanine its primary component (Manach et al., 2001).
2004). They consist of C15 atoms in their main Antioxidant
nucleus and two aromatic rings which are linked
through a heterocyclic pyrane ring. All flavonoids Antioxidants are the compounds that prevent the
have a C6-C3-C6 basic structural skeleton with two human, animal and animal cells from harmful effects
aromatic C6 rings (A and B) and a heterocyclic ring of free radicals (Kukic et al., 2006). Phenolic acids
(C) which has a one oxygen atom (Cushnie et al., and flavonoids are the natural source of antioxidants
2005). They can be classified into flavanols which are produced from plants. They are
[monomeric (catechin, epicatechin)] and flavonols considerable sources of antioxidants and more
(quercetin) on the base of oxidation state of rings and efficient than Vitamin C, E and carotenoids (Dai and
the link between the aromatic rings (Williams et al., Mumper, 2010). The antioxidant characteristics of
2004). phenolic and flavonoid compounds are driven from
Flavonoids are naturally present in fruits and other their capability to regulate the antioxidant defense,
foods from plant sources. They are used for some scavenging the radical species (Cotelle, 2001). The
technological purposes and organoleptic reduction property of phenolic compounds rely on the
characteristics. But different experimental and number of free hydroxyl groups present in molecular
structure (Ghasemzadeh and Ghasemzadeh, 2011),
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ISSN: 2226-5899

whereas flavonoids capability as antioxidants to different diseases such as obesity, diabetes, tooth
depends on position of hydroxyl groups and some decay, chronic constipation, appendicitis, polyps,
other features in chemical structure (Saxena et al., tumors (Rodriguez et al., 2006). The one way to
2012). move up the fiber contents in diet is the enrichment
of food products with pure isolated fiber. It can be
Oxidative stress has a role in different diseases such done by the incorporation of cereals, fruits and
as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and in aging vegetables by-products which are rich source of non-
process (Astley, 2003). When antioxidants are digestible carbohydrates (Nassar et al., 2008).
present in lower quantity as compared to substrate Dietary fiber can be classified as insoluble or soluble
then they can prevent the oxidisable substrate from (Zhang et al., 2011) and each class has different
oxidation (Lucio et al., 2009). Free radicals have a physiological effects (Ajila and Rao, 2013). The ratio
role in different physiological functions such as between two classes of dietary fiber is important for
defense, signal transduction, cell proliferation and nutritional and functional properties (Jaime et al.,
apoptosis. On the other hand, the exposure of main 2002). The soluble dietary fiber faces bacterial
biomolecule like lipid, DNA and protein of human fermentation in the GIT and affects the carbohydrates
body to surplus quantity of free radicals leads to and fat metabolism. Whereas insoluble fraction lower
different physical disorders such as diabetes, cancer the incidence of constipation by reducing the
and cardiovascular diseases (Lee et al., 2004). gastrointestinal transit time and also hinder the
Studies related to flavonoids indicated that they have development of rectal cancer (Bingham et al., 2003).
a property to scavenge the peroxyl, alkyl peroxyl and
superoxide hydroxyl radicals and peroxynite in Health benefits of red kidney beans
organic and aqueous environments (Duthie et al., Red kidney bean and cancer
2000). The disturbance of balance between free Cancer is referred to as a multi-step disease. Factors
radicals and antioxidant may induce oxidation and such as environmental, physical, chemical, metabolic
leads to cellular impairment (Kukic et al., 2006). and genetic factors have a direct or indirect role in
Dietary flavonoids can prevent the DNA damage the development of cancer (Fimognari et al., 2005).
from free-radicals through a mechanism other than Cancer is attributed to independent DNA replication
solely direct free radical scavenging. The results and cellular division of abnormal cells which leads to
obtained from a pulse radiolysis studies and plasmid induction of cancerous tumors and causes the
test system have indicated that they can lower the risk destruction of adjacent tissue or lymphatic system. It
of single strand breaks in double stranded DNA and has been reported that phenolic acids present in red
residual base destruction through fast chemical repair kidney beans have anticancer characteristic (Nyau,
(Anderson et al., 2000). Some flavonoids may 2014; Duranti, 2006). They can act as an inhibiting
chelate the transition metal ions which are required agent and hinder the development of tumors from
for formation of reactive oxygen species and inhibit initiated stages. They can also suppress cell
the lipoxygenase reaction at initiation stages (Ross multiplication in vitro (Scalbert et al., 2005).
and Kasum 2002). Antioxidants are also used in food Cancer metastasis is characterized by spreading of
products to avoid the oxidation of foods, oxidation cells and leads to formation of secondary tumors
process of food begin with exposing them to (Weng and Yen, 2012). Gallic acids (3, 4, 5-
environmental elements like air, light and trihydroxybenzoicacid) have showed anti-metastatic
temperature (Hras et al., 2000). action against different cancer cells. In stomach
Dietary fiber cancer, they have a hindrance effects on protein
Dietary fiber was defined by AACC (2000) as edible associated to metastasis and cytoskeletal
fraction of plants or carbohydrates (non-starchy), redeployment signal pathways such as Cdc42, Ras,
cannot be digested by human body enzymes to RhoA, RhoB, RhoB, Rac1, PI3K, and p38. This
absorbable components and undergo partially or fully action of gallic acid is driven from their anti-
fermentation in large intestine (Duxbury, 2004). migratory properties against AGS cell migration by
Dietary fibers are considered as an important portion inhibiting the expression of MMP-2/-9and
of human diet and has several beneficial cytoskeletal F-actin (Ho et al., 2010). Poly-phenols
physiological functions (Raninen et al., 2011) The effect the pro-carcinogens by modifying the
daily recommended level of dietary fiber in the diet is manifestation of cytochrome P450 enzymes required
25 to 30 g/day (Gorecka et al., 2010). for their activation (Scalbert et al., 2005).
The highly processed diet results in lower fiber The poly-phenols anticancer effects have been
contents (Kendall et al., 2010). In developed reported in animals. When poly-phenols induced to
countries, the diet with low fiber contents can leads mice or rats with the application of carcinogenic

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ISSN: 2226-5899

agents they decreased number of tumorsand their By 2030, 23.6 million people will die from
growth (Yang et al., 2001). These effects were cardiovascular diseases mostly from stroke and heart
observed at different sites such as skin, lung, diseases (Williams et al., 2004). Cardiovascular
duodenum, and colon. Polyphenols including diseases occur due to irregularity of heart and blood
catechins, flavanones and isoflavones were tested for vessels and include heart attacks, stroke,
their proactive effects and all of them showed hypertension, rheumatic heart disease and heart
proactive properties (Scalbert et al., 2005). The failure. The major risk factors for development of
inverse relationship between flavonol intake and CVD are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and
induction lung cancer has been documented in tobacco consumption (WHO, 2013). Cardiovascular
different studies (Knekt et al., 2002). Similarly disease refers to inflammatory disease and leading
catechin intake also has inverse relation with rectum cause of mortality and morbidity in developed
cancer in cohort of postmenopausal American countries. The development of CVD depends on the
women (Arts et al., 2002). Flavonoids can act as concentration of oxidized lipoproteins in arterial sub
angiogenesis inhibitors (Caltagirone et al., 2000) and endothelium (Sanchez-Muniz, 2012).
play an important role as angiogenesis inhibitors. The beneficial actions of phenolic acids and
Angiogenesis is referred a controlled process occurs flavonoids in preventing CVD are due to their
in the human body and it includes endogenous antioxidant activity (Heim et al., 2002), prevention of
angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Angiogenesis atherosclerosis (Tripoli et al., 2007), effects on
inhibitors interfere the angiogenesis steps such as platelet aggregation (Lamuela-Raventos et al., 2005).
lumen formation, proliferation and migration of Antioxidants play an important role in prevention of
endothelial cells (Paper, 1998). CVD. Atherosclerotic plaques start at a damaged
endothelial site. They have a crucial role in
The vital role of dietary fiber in preventing the
preventing endothelial abnormality (Thomson et al.,
numerous diseases has been accepted in well-
2007) and limited the lipid peroxidation (Griendling
documented studies. The diets rich in fiber can
and FitzGerald, 2003) which is a key step in
reduce the risk of different types of cancer (Jimenez-
atherogenesis (Wootton-Beard and Ryan, 2011). The
Escribano et al., 2001). Dietary fiber might reduce
intakes of flavonoids can prevent ischaemic stroke
the prevalence of colon cancer (Eshak et al., 2010) by
and possibly decreased CVD mortality (Mursu et al.,
decreasing the digestion and absorption of macro-
nutrients and reduces the contact time between
Flavonoids as antiatherogenic can impede the LDL
intestinal lumen and carcinogen (Raninen et al.,
oxidation and introduced endothelial apoptosis by
2011). Similarly a case-control study from
different cellular apoptotic mechanism (Choi et al.,
Switzerland also shows the positive effects of fiber
2008). It has been indicated in animal atherosclerosis
intake in lowering the incidences of colorectal cancer
model that flavonoids have a capability to delays the
(Levi et al., 2001). They prevent from colorectal
development of atherosclerotic plaque. It can reduce
cancer by producing short chain fatty acids, inducing
the endothelial abnormality which is the main step in
fermentation in large bowel and speedy passage of
atherosclerosis development (Grassi et al., 2008).
food material from the large intestine (Sharma et al.,
Flavonoids have an interaction with membrane lipids,
and modify the membrane fluidity which leads to
The oesophageal cancer is the sixth leading reason of antiagregatory and disaggregatory impact on human
caner related deaths. The case of oesophageal cancer platelets (Furusawa et al., 2003). They can also
varies according to area (Ferlay et al., 2010). The inhibit the platelet function by antagonism of definite
prevention of oesophageal cancer becomes important membrane receptors in these cells (Navarro-Nunez et
and dietary fiber has a protective effect against the al., 2009). The intake of catechin can lower the
oesophagal cancer (Jessri et al., 2011). The chances of coronary death but it has no effects on
oesophageal cancer patients reported less use of total stroke (Arts et al., 2002).
dietary fiber and regular intake of fiber has an inverse
Researchers suggested that positive effects of dietary
relationship with oesophageal risk (Tang et al.,
fiber on heart diseases are based on the associations
2013). Dietary fiber impedes the oesophageal cancer
of dietary fiber with cholesterol and bile acid
by eliminating the damaged cells and carcinogens
absorption (IFIC, 2008). Total dietary fibers intake
from the oesophageal epithelium (Coleman et al.,
can lower the serum LDL cholesterol values while
2013) and by inhibiting cellular proliferation and
soluble fibers have a link to reduce the systolic blood
enhancing apoptosis (McFadden et al., 2008).
pressure and total cholesterol values (He et al., 1995).
Red kidney bean and cardiovascular disease The increased consumption of soluble and insoluble
dietary fibers have direct effects on CVD by targeting
Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences (2015), Volume 25, Issue 4, Page(s): 235-246
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ISSN: 2226-5899

risk elements. Numerous epidemiological and clinical and the frequency of evacuation (Spiller and Spiller,
studies showed that higher consumption of dietary 2001). Ingested fiber changes the gastrointestinal
fibers can lower the CVD events due to their effects environment by effecting on fecal micro-biota
on LDL-cholesterol. It was demonstrated that 1% through short chain fatty acids production, lowering
reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels corresponds to 1- colonic pH and supporting the beneficial bacterial
2% reduction in development of CVD (Kendall et al., growth. Carbohydrates (inulin) as pre-biotics agents
2010). can alter or stimulate the growth of health beneficial
Dietary fiber can affect the bile acid metabolism species which are already present in colon
(Ridlon et al., 2006). In small intestine dietary fiber (Roberfroid, 2007) and leads to irritable bowel
comes into contact with bile acids that reduce re- syndrome (Silk et al., 2009).
absorption and increases their movement towards the Red kidney bean and diabetes
large intestine (Dongowski et al., 2003). In intestinal
The presence of polyphenols in plants demonstrates
lumen hydrated fibers form a layer of thick unstirred
their therapeutic property. They impede the
water and this work as physical barrier that results in
absorption of glucose in small intestine and its re-
lowering the re-absorption of cholesterol and bile
absorption in kidney. Catechin enhanced the
acids, finally this result in increased fecal yield of
tolerance against glucose induced from sucrose or
cholesterol and bile acids (Theuwissen and Mensink,
starch ingest in rats (Scalbert et al., 2005). World
2008). They can also reduce the concentration of
health organization reported that type 2 diabetes
cholesterol and some other lipids by increasing
refers to resistance against insulin or its deficiency
aqueous phase viscosity and changes the droplet
(WHO, 2006). Insulin removes the glucose from
disruption (Mun et al., 2005). Some fibers inhibit the
blood by liver cells and muscles. Antioxidants can
emulsification of lipids in the small intestine by
improve the insulin sensitivity by carbohydrates
binding the bile salts (Thongngam and McClements,
utilization through their link with digestive enzymes
2005) which have the direct contact of fiber and
(Bryans et al., 2007).
lipase enzyme that leads to reduction in enzymatic
activities (Klinkesorn and McClements, 2009). The regulation of blood glucose level is the main
objective in diabetes management. The glycaemic
GI tract and red kidney bean phytochemicals
control has a great importance in management of type
Phenolic compounds and their bacterial fermented 2diabetes. The soluble fiber fraction can control the
products show beneficial effects in colon. The diets glycemic by slowing down and decreasing the
rich in flavonoids also effect the microbial absorption of glucose from intestine (Brown et al.,
composition of gut flora (Gee and Johnson, 2001). 1999). Several studies related to diabetics have
Flavonoids and some other phenolic compounds have shown that diets contain higher fiber contents and
a protective function in GI tract due to their ability of low GI rating lead to better glycated proteins levels
scavenging the reactive oxygen and chlorine species. which are helpful in controlling the glycaemic index
They can hinder the heme protein based peroxidation (Kendall et al., 2006). They can reduce the incidence
in the stomach and also able to impede the DNA of diabetes type 2 (Eshak et al., 2010) by lowering
induced domination. Usually dietary iron is not the digestion and absorption of macronutrients and
properly absorbed in the body. Phenolic compounds reducing the contact time between intestinal lumen
can chelate iron and prevent from peroxidation and carcinogens (Raninen et al., 2011). The water
effects of colonic iron. They can also chelate the soluble fibers enter in small intestine where they
redox active transition metal ions and reduce their thicken the content of small intestine and modulate
pro-oxidant capability (Halliwell et al., 2005). the digestive process by reducing the nutrients
diffusion for absorption and interaction time of food
Soluble viscous dietary fibers normalized the stool and digestive enzymes.
condition (firms loose / liquid stool in diarrhea,
softens hard stool in constipation) due to their gel- Red kidney beans and neurodegenerative diseases
formation and water holding properties (Marlett and
Neurological diseases are based on oxidative stress
Fischer, 2003).The insoluble fibers effectively
which have effects on brain tissues (Halliwell, 2001)
increase the fecal mass and also promote the
and includes mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's
regularity (Cummings, 2001). Fermentable fibers
and Parkinson's disease (Devore et al., 2010).
increase bacterial mass in the colon and promote
Antioxidants can play a role in their prevention
health beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and
(Cantuti-Castelvetri et al., 2000). Many human
lactobacilli (Roberfroid, 2005). Dietary fibers can act
studies show the polyphenols (flavanols) effects on
as pre-biotic agent, due to their chemo-protective
cognitive function. The interaction between dietary
functions which include fecal bulking, speedy transit
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PAK. J. FOOD SCI., 25(4), 2015: 235-246
ISSN: 2226-5899

flavanols and cognitive impairment indicate that they 8. Battisti, V., L.D. Maders, M.D. Bagatini,
can prevent from induces of neurodegenerative K.F. Santos, R.M. Spanevello, P.A.
diseases (Patel et al., 2008). In several studies, it has Maldonado, A.O. Brule, C. Araújo Mdo,
been showed that flavonoids (plant foods) M.R. Schetinger and V.M. Morsch. 2008.
consumption has ability to enhance the cognitive Measurement of oxidative stress and
performance (Spencer, 2010). The application of antioxidant status in acute lymphoblastic
catechin based injection to mice brings up a positive leukemia patients. Clin. Biochem. 41: 511-
change in memory impairment through cerebral 518.
ischemia (Matsuoka et al., 1995). The property of
polyphenols to effects the neurological health are due 9. Bingham, S.A., N.E. Day, R. Luben, P.
to their ability to effects the peripheral, Ferrari, N. Slimani, T. Norat, F. Clavel-
cerebrovascular blood flow and lower the Chapelon, E. Kesse, A. Nieters, H. Boeing,
neurological damage induced by neruo-inflammation A. Tjonneland, K. Overvad, C. Martinez,
and neurotoxins (Fraga and Oteiza, 2011). M. Dorronsoro, C.A. Gonzalez, T.J. Key, A.
Trichopoulou, A. Naska, P. Vineis, R.
Tumino, V. Krogh, H.B. Bueno-de-
Red kidney bean can be a potential ingredient to be
Mesquita, P.H. Peeters, G. Berglund, G.
utilized in a nutraceutical and functional foods. It
Hallmans, E. Lund, G. Skeie, R Kaaks and
may be helpful in ameliorating chronic diseases
E. Riboli. 2003. Dietary fiber in food and
which have affected the masses worldwide.
protection against colorectal cancer in the
European Prospective Investigation into
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