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Types of Solids
1. Geometrical in shape
2. Bounded by planes or faces
3. Highly Ordered 3-D arrangement of Particles
4. Have sharp melting and boiling points
Examples: Diamond, NaCl, sugar and CuSo4
1. Do not have definite geometrical shape
2. Randomly arranged in 3-D
3. Don’t have sharp melting points
4. It is formed due to sudden cooling of liquid.
5. Melt at a wide range of temperature
Examples: Rubber, glass, coal and Coke (metallurgical)
Crystal Lattice and Unit Cell

Unit Cell
- Most basic and least volume consuming repeating structure of any solid.
- Crystalline lattice is the regular repeating pattern of atoms in a crystal
- Lattice Contribution
 Corner: 1/8 of a point
 Face: ½ of a whole point
 Body: 1 whole point
Characteristics of a crystal structure
 Coordination number- the numbers of atoms touching a particular atom, or the
number of nearest neighbors.
 Atomic Packing Factor (APF)- the fraction of space occupied by atoms assuming
that atoms are hard spheres
Basic Cubic Unit Cell

Simple Cubic Unit Cell (Simple Cubic Stacking)

- No. of atoms per unit cell: 1/8 × 8 =1 atom
- Rare due to low packing density (only Polonium has this structure)
- Contains 8 corner atoms
- Coordination number: 6
- Relationship between a and r: a=2r
𝟏( 𝝅𝒓𝟑 )
- 𝑨𝑷𝑭 = = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐
Body Centered (Hexagonal Close Packing)
- No. of atoms per unit cell: (1/8 × 8) + 1 = 2 atom
- Atoms touch each other along cube diagonals
- Contains 1 center atom and 8 corner atoms
- Coordination number: 8
- Relationship between a and r: 𝑎 = 𝒓
𝟐( 𝝅𝒓𝟑 )
- 𝑨𝑷𝑭 = 𝟒 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟖
( 𝒓)𝟑
Face Centered (Cubic Closest Packing structure)
- No. of atoms per unit cell: (1/8 × 8) + (1/2 × 6) = 4 atom
- Atoms touch each other at face diagonals
- Contains 6 face atoms and 8 corner atoms
- Coordination number: 12
- Relationship between a and r: 𝑎 = √𝟖𝒓
𝟒( 𝝅𝒓𝟑 )
- 𝑨𝑷𝑭 = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟒
Theoretical density : 𝝆 = 𝑽
𝒄 𝑵𝑨
Where: n= no. of atoms / unit cell
A= atomic weight [g/mol]
Vc= Volume/ unit cell [cm3/unit cell]
NA= Avogadro’s no. (6.023 × 1023 atoms/mol)
Example Problem:
Example 1: Lead, Pb, is used in solders and as radiation shield. It adopts the face centered cubic
unit structure with each of the atom having a diameter of 0.35 nanometer. Find the theoretical
density of lead if the molecular weight of this metal is 207.2 g/mol.
𝑽𝒄 𝑵 𝑨
𝟒 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎 (𝟐𝟎𝟕. 𝟐 )
𝝆= 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝟏𝟎−𝟕 𝒄𝒎 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎
(√𝟖 (𝟎. 𝟏𝟕𝟓𝒏𝒎 × 𝟏 × 𝟏𝒏𝒎 )) (𝟔. 𝟎𝟐𝟑 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟑 )

Note: It is important to know and put units to easily determine the end units
𝝆 = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟑𝟒𝟕𝟐
Example 2: Copper had the most essential industrial applications of the three coinage metals
[Group 1B(11)]. Its crystal structure adopts cubic closest packing, and the edge length of the
unit cell is 361.5 pm. What is the atomic radius of copper?

𝑎 = √𝟖𝒓

361.5 𝑝𝑚 = √𝟖𝒓
𝒓 = 𝟏𝟐𝟕. 𝟖𝟎𝟗𝟔 𝒑𝒎
Example 3: Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-
resistant. It has a density of 16.4 𝑔/𝑐𝑚3 and a molecular weight of 180.948 g/mol. What is the
atomic radius of Ta if it adopts the body centered cubic unit structure?
𝑽𝒄 𝑵 𝑨
𝒈 𝟐 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎 (𝟏𝟖𝟎. 𝟗𝟒𝟖 )
𝟏𝟔. 𝟒 = 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝒄𝒎𝟑 𝟑
𝟒 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎
( 𝒓) (𝟔. 𝟎𝟐𝟑 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟑 )
√𝟑 𝒎𝒐𝒍

𝒓 = 𝟏. 𝟒𝟑𝟖𝟐 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟖 𝒄𝒎
Bonding in Solids
1. Molecular (formed from molecules) - usually soft with low melting points and poor
- Solids made of molecules held together by van der waals force
- Properties: brittle, low melting point, poor conductors of heat and electricity
- Ex.: Ice, dry ice, sugar, inert gases (O2 , N2 , H2 )
2. Covalent - very hard with very high melting points and poor conductivity.
- 3D collection of atoms held together by covalent bonds
- Properties: high melting point, poor conductors of heat and electricity
- Ex.: Diamond, quartz, graphite
3. Ionic (formed form ions) - hard, brittle, high melting points and poor conductivity.
- Solids held together by ionic bonds
- Properties: brittle, high melting point, poor conductors of electricity
- Ex.: NaCl, Copper(II) Nitrate, ZnS
4. Metallic (formed from metal atoms) - soft or hard, high melting points, good conductivity,
malleable and ductile. A solid with only one type of atom is also called ‘atomic.
- Solids composed of metals
- Properties: variable melting and boiling points, good conductor of heat and electricity
- Ex.: Copper, Iron, Silver, Gold

History of Polymers
- 4.5 Billion years ago, polymers already existed
- The human body is made up of polymers such as nucleic acid and proteins
- 1500s: Mayans used polymers from local rubber trees, for ball games
- 1844: Charles Goodyear discover vulcanization by combining natural rubber with sulfur and
heating it to 270 degrees Fahrenheit. Vulcanized rubber is still used up to this date
- 1910: Oldest recorded synthetic polymer known as Bakelite was fabricated by Leo Bakeland
- 1927: Large Scale Production of vinyl-chloride resins begins. This are widely used today to
make plumbing pipes (PVC) and bottles
- 1930: Polystyrene is invented and used for video cassettes and other packaging. Extended
polystyrene (Styrofoam) is used in cups and thermally insulated containers
- 1938: Wallace Carothers of Dupont Company produced nylon. Nylon is a common material
used in clothes and ropes
- 1971: S. Kwolek develops Kevlar. It is a high strength material that can withstand high
temperature and is used in bullet proof vests and fire proof garments
- Greek prefix “poly” which means “many” and suffix “meros” which means “parts”
- is a large molecule made up of chains or rings of linked repeating subunits, which are
called monomers.
- usually have high melting and boiling points
- has high molecular weight, can reach more than 1,000,000 g/mol.
Classifications of Polymers
Homopolymer- a polymer containing only one monomer
Ex. A + A + A + A …. To AAAA….
Copolymer- a polymer containing two or more different monomers.
A + B + A + B …. To ABAB….
Linking of Polymer

Classifications of Polymers (Based on the origin)

 Natural polymers
- polymers that results only from raw materials that are found in nature
- (aka Biopolymers) serve key functions in organisms, acting as structural proteins,
functional proteins, nucleic acids, structural polysaccharides, and energy storage
- Monomer: Amino Acid
- they play a key role in nearly all biological processes
- Compose 15% of our body
- Functions are:
 transport and storage of vital substances
 coordinated motion
 mechanical support
 protection against diseases
- Monomer: Simple sugar (monosaccharide)
- Empirical formula is CH2O
- Functions are:
 Food storage/source (e.g. starch)
 Structural Material (e.g. cellulose)
- Monosaccharide- require the least effort by the body to break down, meaning they are
available for energy more quickly than disaccharides.
 Glucose - the body's main source of energy and is found in fruit such as pasta,
whole grain bread, legumes and a range of vegetables.
 Fructose - this 'fruit sugar' found in foods such as fruit, honey, some vegetables
and soft drinks.
 Galactose - this is a component of lactose (the 'milk sugar') and can be found in
foods such as legumes, dairy products and dried figs.
- Disaccharide
 Sucrose - referred to as 'table sugar' and chemically consists of glucose plus
fructose. It is a common form of sugar found in sugarcane, some fruits and
vegetables, and products which have been sweetened (e.g. cereal, ice cream,
baked desserts and yoghurt).
 Lactose - referred to as 'milk sugar' and chemically consists of glucose and
galactose. Lactose is found primarily in dairy products but is often added to bread
and baked goods, lollies, cereals and processed snacks.
 Maltose - referred to as 'malt sugar' and chemically consists of two glucose
molecules. Maltose is found in cereals containing barley and 'malt products' such
as malted milkshakes, lollies and beer.
- Polysaccharide- large polymers consisting of many monosaccharide units
 Cellulose - Main component in cotton, wood, papers, and many others
 Natural rubbers
 Polymers of isoprene with minor impurities
 Harvested from rubber trees through ‘tapping’
Nucleic Acids
- Monomer: Nucleotides
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) among the largest molecules known; they have molar
masses of up to tens of billions of grams.
- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) - molar mass of about 25,000 g
- Functions
 Store and transfer genetic information
 To direct the synthesis of new protein
 Synthetic Polymer
- are prepared by a chemical reaction, often in a lab
- are used to make plastics, adhesives, paints, mechanical parts, and many common
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET/ PETE)
- Used in carbonated drink bottles, peanut butter jars. Plastic film and
microwaveable plastic
High Density Polyethylene(HDPE)
- Used in detergent bottles, milk jugs and molded plastic cases
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
- Used in construction such as sewerage
- Monomer: Vinyl Chloride
- Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames and flooring
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
- Wash bottle, shower curtains, clamshell packaging, packaging films (sandwich
bags and other food products) and shrink wrap
Polypropylene (PP)
- Used for drinking straw, yoghurt containers, cup for instant noodles, appliances,
car fenders(bumpers) and plastic pressure pipe systems
Polystyrene (PS)
- Uses include protective packaging, containers, lids, bottles, trays, tumblers
- Monomer: Styrene
- Expanded polystyrene is also known as Styrofoam.
Polyethylene (PE)
- Most common plastics
- Primary used for packaging
- Monomer: ethylene
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Teflon
- Hydrophobic and has high heat resistance
- Used as coating of non-stick frying pans and other cookware.
- Monomer: tetrafluoroethylene
 Synthetic rubbers
 Called elastomers
 Made from petroleum products such as ethylene, propylene and butadiene
Ex. Styrene-Butadiene rubber (SBR)
 Formed by the addition of butadiene to styrene in a 3:1 ratio
 Used in bubble gums and tires
- Used in fibers, films and plastic bottles
- Polyethylene terephthalate
- Brand Name: Dacron
Two categories of synthetic polymers
- Thermoplastics: soften when heated and become firm when cooled
 The most popular type of plastics because it can be recycled
 Ex. P.E., PVC. P.S.
- Thermosets: soften when heated but hardens permanently
 Decomposes when reheated, thus it cannot be recycled
 Ex. Vulcanized rubber, bakelite and melamine
Polymerization- a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to
form polymer chains.
 Types
 Addition Polymerization- involves the repeated linking of monomers with
double bonds. The double bond of one monomer breaks and links onto the
neighbouring monomer.
 Product is the exact multiple of the original monomer molecule
 Examples: LDPE, HDPE, PVC, PP and PS
 Follows chain mechanism
 Monomers undergo self-addition to each other without loss of by products
 Monomers are linked together through C—C covalent linkages
 High polymers formed fast
 Linear polymers are produced with or without branching
 Condensation Polymerization- involves monomers reacting together and
releasing a small molecule in the process. The small molecule is commonly water
or hydrochloric acid (HCl).
 Follows step mechanism
 Monomers undergo intermolecular condensation with continuous loss of
by products such as H2O, HCl, NH3
 Covalent linkages are through functional groups
 The reaction is slow and polymer molecular weight increases steadily
throughout the reaction
 Linear or cross-linked polymers are produced
Properties of Polymers
- Chain length
Longer chains yield higher strength and higher melting points
Degree of Polymerization
The number of monomer units in a polymer:𝑫𝑷 = 𝑴𝒘 𝒑𝒐𝒍𝒚𝒎𝒆𝒓
 High polymers- polymers with high degree of polymerization (MW = 104 to 106)
 Oligopolymers- those polymers with low degree of polymerization
- Side group
polar side groups give stronger attraction between polymer chains, increasing its strength
 Isotactic polymer- side groups that are on the same side of the backbone
 Syndiotactic polymer- Side groups on alternating sides of the backbone
 Atactic polymer- Side groups on random sides of the backbone.
- Crystallinity
Polymers are part crystalline and part amorphous
Higher crystallinity increases the strength and reduces the flexibility of the polymer
 The % crystallinity is given by
𝝆𝒄 (𝝆𝒔 − 𝝆𝒂 )
%𝒄𝒓𝒚𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒚 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝝆𝒔 (𝝆𝒄 − 𝝆𝒂 )
Where: ρc= density of the completely crystalline polymer
ρa= density of the completely amorphous polymer
ρs= density of the sample
examples of amorphous polymers are polystyrene and poly (methyl methacrylate)
examples of crystalline polymers are polyethylene and PET polyester.



- The most essential and abundant substance on Earth

- Cells are mostly made up of water, as well as most of the cells are surrounded by water.
The Molecular structure of Water
- It is made up of two Hydrogen atoms connected by a covalent bond to one Oxygen
- H and O atoms do not share electronegativity evenly. The O atom has more p+ so
electrons spend more time near the oxygen making it slightly negative and the two
hydrogen atoms become the slightly positive.
- The uneven charge of electrons makes water polar.
- A single hydrogen bond is weaker than a single covalent bond, however groups of
hydrogen bonds are very strong.
Hydrogen bonds

- Strong hydrogen bonds occur among polar covalent molecules containing H and one of
the three small, highly electronegative elements: F, N, O
- The attraction between a slightly positive H atom on one water molecule to the slightly
negative O atom of another is known as hydrogen bond
- Each water molecule can form four hydrogen bonds with other molecules
- Because of the hydrogen bond, the water has a boiling point of 100°C higher than if the
bond were not present
Intermolecular forces in Water
 Dipole-Dipole attractions: The intermolecular forces arise due to the presence of dipoles
in the molecules. Polar molecules attract each other. “like attracts like”
 Ion-Dipole attractions: This involves a charged molecule attracting a polar molecule.
Intermolecular Forces in Solution Formation
- Substances with similar types of intermolecular forces dissolve in each other. “Like
dissolves Like”
- When a solute dissolve in a solvent, the following forces must be comparable in strength
in order for a solution to form.
 solute-solute interactions
 solvent-solvent interactions
 solute-solvent interactions
Effect of Temperature on Solubility of Ionic Compounds

- This temperature dependence is sometimes referred to as retrograde or inverse solubility,

and exists when a salt's dissolution is exothermic;
- According to Le Chatelier's principle, extra heat will cause the equilibrium for an
exothermic process to shift towards the reactants.

- The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of

𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆
𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 =
𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
- Several quantitative expressions of concentration are used in chemistry.
Quantitative units of Concentration
 Molarity (M)
- The molar concentration of a solution of a chemical species is the number of moles of
the solute species that is contained in one liter of the solution (not one liter of the
𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 (𝒎𝒐𝒍) 𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 (𝒎𝒎𝒐𝒍)
𝑴= =
𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 (𝑳) 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 (𝒎𝑳)
- Example: A solution is prepared by dissolving 25.8 grams of magnesium chloride
(MgCl2, MW = 95.21) in water to produce 250.0 mL of solution. Calculate the molarity
of the chloride ion in the solution.
mMgCl2= 25.8 grams
MWMgCl2=95.21 g/mol
Vsoln= 250.0 mL
𝒏𝑴𝒈𝑪𝒍𝟐 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟖 𝒈 × = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟕𝟏𝟎 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝟗𝟓. 𝟐𝟏 𝒈
𝟎. 𝟐𝟕𝟏𝟎 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝟐𝟓𝟎. 𝟎 𝒎𝑳 ×
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒎𝑳
𝑴 = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟖𝟒
𝑴 = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟖𝟒𝑴 𝑴𝒈𝑪𝒍𝟐
𝑴𝑪𝒍 = 𝟐. 𝟏𝟔𝟖 𝑴 𝑪𝒍
 Molality (m)
- The molal concentration of a solution of a chemical species is the number of moles of
the solute species that is contained in one kg of the solvent.
𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 (𝒎𝒐𝒍) 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝒎= =
𝒌𝒈 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒌𝒈
- Example: Calculate the molality of an aqueous solution that is 10.0 % by weight ethanol
(C2H5OH, MW = 46.058)
w/w = 10%
MW= 46.058 g/mol
𝐧𝑪𝟐 𝑯𝟓 𝐎𝐇 = 𝟏𝟎 𝐠 𝐱
𝟒𝟔. 𝟎𝟓𝟖 𝒈
𝐧𝑪𝟐 𝑯𝟓 𝐎𝐇 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟏𝟕𝟏 𝐦𝐨𝐥

𝟎. 𝟐𝟏𝟕𝟏 𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝟏 𝒌𝒈
𝟗𝟎𝒈 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒈
𝒎 = 𝟐. 𝟎𝟒 𝒎
 Percentage (%)
- Weight % and Volume % do not depend on the units used (the numerator and
denominator must be expressed in the same units)
- Weight % is temperature independent
- To avoid uncertainty, always specify the type of percent composition being used.

- Example: The label on a 0.750-L bottle of Italian chianti indicates “11.5% alcohol by
volume.” How many liters of alcohol does the wine contain?
v/v = 11.5%
vsoln= 0.750 mL
𝒗 𝑽𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆
= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝒗 𝑽𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝟏𝟏. 𝟓% = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝟎. 𝟕𝟓𝟎 𝒎𝑳
𝑽𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟖𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝑳

- Example: What is the mass percentage of H2O2 in a solution with 1.67 g of H2O2 in a
55.5 g sample?
W H2O2 =1.67 g
Wsample=55.5 g
𝒘 𝑾𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆
= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝒘 𝑾𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝒘 𝟏. 𝟔𝟕𝒈
= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝒘 𝟓𝟓. 𝟓 𝒈
= 𝟑. 𝟎𝟏%
 Parts per thousands (ppth), parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb)
- Often used for very dilute concentrations.
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆 𝒈 𝒈
𝒑𝒑𝒕𝒉 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟑 = ,
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒈 𝑳
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆 𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈
𝒑𝒑𝒎 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟔 = ,
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒈 𝑳
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒚𝒕𝒆 𝝁𝒈 𝝁𝒈
𝒑𝒑𝒃 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟗 = ,
𝒘𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒈 𝑳
- Example: Find the concentration of calcium (in ppm) in a 3.50-g pill that contains 40.5
mg of Ca.
𝑤𝑝𝑖𝑙𝑙 = 3.50 𝑔
𝑤𝐶𝑎 = 40.5 𝑚g
𝟒𝟎. 𝟓 𝒎𝒈
𝒑𝒑𝒎 =
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈
𝟑. 𝟓𝟎𝒈 × × 𝟏𝟎𝟔 = ,
𝟏𝒈 𝒌𝒈 𝑳
𝒑𝒑𝒎 = 𝟏𝟏, 𝟓𝟕𝟏. 𝟒𝟐𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝒑𝒑𝒎
Water Quality
- Water quality is commonly defined by its physical, chemical, biological and aesthetic
(appearance and smell) characteristics. A healthy environment is one in which the water
quality supports a rich and varied community of organisms and protects public health.
- The presence of contaminants and the characteristics of water are used to indicate the quality of
- These water quality indicators can be categorized as:
 Biological: Algae and bacteria
 Physical: temperature, turbidity, and clarity, color, salinity suspended solids, dissolved
 Chemical: pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, nutrients (including
nitrogen and phosphorus), organic and inorganic compounds (including toxicants)
 Aesthetic: odors, taints, color, floating matter.
 Radioactive: alpha, beta and gamma radiation emitters.
Water Quality Indicators
 Water hardness
- Hard water is water containing high amounts of mineral ions. The most common ions
found in hard water are the metal cations calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), though
iron, aluminum, and manganese may also be found in certain areas. These mineral ions
can precipitate out and cause problems in water conducting or storing vessels like pipes.
- General Guidelines for classification of water
Degree of Hardness mg/L of CaCo3
Soft water 0-60
Moderately hard water 61-120
Hard water 121-180
Very hard water >180
 pH
The pH of water determines if water is alkaline, acidic or neutral. Alkaline water is
drunk for health purposes. Neutral pH water is neither alkaline nor acidic. Pure water has
a neutral pH of 7, but pure water isn’t found in nature, and drinking it is bad for your
Alkaline pH water: pH>7 Drink for good health and healing
Acidic pH water: pH<7 Use as hair rinse, it makes hair
manageable and shiny
A natural astringent so it can help your
skin look young and healthy
Strong acidic water is used for sanitation
Neutral pH water: pH=7 Safe to drink
Pure water: pH=7 Never drink pure water; it can actually
steal nutrients from your body!

pH of Natural Water
 Coastal dune streams (pH<5)- Coastal sand dunes form a natural barrier against
wind and waves, protecting inland areas from damage due to storms. They also
provide habitat for plants and animals, including rare and endangered species.
 Fresh water (6.5<pH<8.5)
 Seawater (pH=8)
 Estuary (pH=8.5)- An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish
water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free
connection to the open sea.
 Phospates (PO43-)
- Natural unpolluted water contains less than 0.1 mg/L of all the PO4 (higher
concentrations are caused by human pollution). An increase in phosphates and other
nutrients that increase the rate of plant growth eventually results in dead plant matter
building up in water.
 Increasing phosphate concentration in water increases turbidity
 Increasing phosphate reduces pH making water more acidic
 Increasing phosphate reduces DO content
Total Phospate Effects on aquatic plant growth
0.025-0.1 mg/L Adequate stimulation of plant
0.1 mg/L Maximum acceptable limit to
prevent accelerated eutrophication
>0.1 mg/L Accelerated growth and consequent
 Nitrites and Nitrates (NO2- , NO3- )
- Nitrites can react directly with hemoglobin in human blood which causes the blood cells
not to be able to carry oxygen to your cells. This causes a problem known as “blue baby
disease” in infants.
- Nitrates are found in fertilizers and help plants to grow. When it rains, nitrates wash or
runoff. When they find a water source to run into, it results in plants growing out of
control and reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen.
- Nitrates (NO3-) are the major polluters of ground water and also of many effluent and
influent waters. Can lead to: eutrophication of natural water systems (overproduction of
- Sources of Nitrates
 Agricultural Sources
 Nitrogen-based fertilizers
 Natural/atmospheric
 Sewage/septic waste
 Animal manure
 Ammonium (NH4+)
- The presence of ammonium in water shows that the water was in contact with rotting
organic materials, fecals, food wastes, etc. Ammonia is toxic to fish and other aquatic
organisms, even in very low amounts. The danger that ammonia presents for fish is
dependent upon the temperature of the water, the pH, and dissolved oxygen levels. The
higher the pH, the warmer the temperature, and the lower the DO, the more toxic the
ammonia is to fish.
 Dissolved Oxygen
- DO is the measurement of oxygen dissolved in water and available for fish and other
aquatic life.
- Indicates health of an aquatic system.
- Can range from 0-18 ppm.
- Most natural water systems require 5-6 ppm to support a diverse population.

Potential causes of Low Dissolved Oxygen

 Natural
 Increased sunlight or other climate factors
 Increased nutrient availability
 Changes in ocean properties
 Changes in river input (e.g.: drought)
 Changes in weather conditions
 Artificial
 Human loading of nutrients or organic material
 Changes in river input (eg: diversion)
 Turbidity
- Turbidity is defined as how much light can be absorbed by a water sample. In other
words, how cloudy is the water? The ability of light to pass through the water depends
upon how much suspended materials are present in the water. Turbidity may be caused
by such things as large amounts of silt, microorganisms, plant fibers, sawdust, wood
ashes, chemicals or coal dust.
- Public health standards state that drinking water turbidity should not exceed 0.5 NTUs
- NTU- Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
Causes of High Turbidity
 In open waters, phytoplankton
 Closer to shore, particulates resuspended bottom sediments (wind)
 Organic detritus from stream and/or wastewater discharges.
 Dredging operations
 Floods
 Too many bottom-feeding fish (such as carp)
Effects of High Turbidity

 Modify light penetration

 Increase sedimentation rate
 Settling clay particles can suffocate newly hatched larvae
 Fine particulate material also can damage sensitive gill structures
 Decrease organism resistance to disease
 Prevent proper egg and larval development
 Reduced photosynthesis can lead to lower daytime release of oxygen

Water Pollution
- Water pollution occurs when harmful substances are released into the water in large
quantities which cause damage to people, wildlife, or habitat or indirectly into water
bodies without proper treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Contaminants of Water
Inorganic water pollutants include:
1. Acidity- caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants)
2. Ammonia - from food processing waste
3. Chemical waste as industrial by-products
4. Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphates--which are found in storm water
run-off from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use
5. Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff) and acid mine
6. Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or
land clearing sites.
Consequences of Water Pollution
- Eutrophication is characterized by excessive plant and algal growth due to the
increased availability of one or more limiting growth factors needed for photosynthesis
such as sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrient fertilizers.
- Bioaccumulation- increase in concentration of a pollutant in an organism
- Biomagnification (Bioconcentration)- Toxic substances become increasingly
concentrated within living organisms as they move up each of the food chain