16.

Raymond B Cattell The Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale was developed with the intention of being a standardized assessment of mental ability for children aged 2-30 months. Underlying the test is a view of intelligence as being maturationally and genetically controlled. The Cattell proposes to focus on mental development and not on motor development, to be standardized, be objective in scoring, appeal to young children, and provide numerical rather than simply descriptive assessments of mental ability. 17. John B. Watson Watson helped define the study of behavior, anticipated Skinner's emphasis on operant conditioning, and emphasized the importance of learning and environmental influences in human development. Watson argued that psychology had failed in its quest to become a natural science, largely due to a focus on consciousness and other unseen phenomena. Rather than study these unverifiable ideas, Watson urged the careful scientific study of observable behavior. His view of behaviorism was a reaction to introspection, where each researcher served as his or her own research subject, and the study of consciousness by Freud and others, which Watson believed to be highly subjective and unscientific. 18. Kurt Lewin Lewin·s contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization development."Lewin is renown for his field theory. The field theory is the proposition that human behavior is the function of both the person and the environment. It can be expressed in symbolic terms. This means that one's behavior is related to both one's personal characteristics and to the social situation in which one finds oneself. Lewin is best known for his work in the field of organization behavior and the study of group dynamics. His research discovered that learning is best facilitated when there is a conflict between immediate concrete experience and detached analysis within the individual. His cycle of action, reflection, generalization, and testing is characteristic of experiential learning. 19. Donald O Hobb Hebbian theory describes a basic mechanism for synaptic plasticity where in an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from the presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic cell. When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that As efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased. 20. George A. Miller George A. Miller provided two theoretical ideas that are fundamental to the information processing framework and cognitive psychology. The first concept is `chunking' and the capacity of short term memory. Miller presented the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information where a chunk is any meaningful unit. A chunk could refer to digits, words, chess positions, or people's faces. The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory. Miller's second great contribution was the concept of information processing, using a computer model of human learning. The human mind takes in information, performs operations on it to change its form and content, stores and locates it and generates responses to it, all functions which are similar to the way digital computers input and process.

Hull Hull believed that human behavior is a result of the constant interaction between the organism and its environment. Dreams serve to compensate for any neglected parts of the personality. Kagan's research agenda has involved identifying and examining characteristics that appear to influence individuals' development. This is what gives rise to paranormal phenomena. including birth order. timid. and magical systems which occur in many cultures and time periods. Very complex archetypes are found in all mythological and religious systems. He found that infants are born with a temperamental disposition to be either inhibited or uninhibited. and outgoing. It contains what the individual has acquired in his or her life. attitudes. while uninhibited children are bold. mythological. and cautious. Inhibited children are shy. These are innate predispositions to experience and symbolize certain situations in a distinct way. Near the end of his life Jung added that the deepest layers of the unconscious function independently of the laws of space. being valued by one's parents. the change or adaptation that the organism needs to make in order to survive within it's environment.21. and even material success that extend well into later life-depending on the ways in which they interact with the individual's environment. What is particularly telling about these temperamental characteristics is that they are more than mere personality quirks or curiosities. While the extrovert is outgoing and socially oriented. time and causality. Yet there is a component that is not observable. when a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the need. Jerome Kagen Jerome Kagan is one of the key pioneers of developmental psychology. Jung Jung believed that symbol creation was a key in understanding human nature. He wanted to investigate the similarity of symbols that are located in different religious. Pavlov . These experiences form archetypes. which can be measured in the brain and observed in the way they react to unfamiliar situations and persons. is the best possible expression for something essentially unknown. To account for these similar symbols occurring across different cultures and time periods he suggested the existence of two layers of the unconscious psyche. The introvert is quiet. the probability increases that in future similar situations the same stimulus will create the same prior response. The second layer is the collective unconscious which contains the memory traces common to all humankind. 22. For Jung a person that had a healthy personality can realize these opposite tendencies within himself/herself and can express each. Hull's learning theory focuses mainly on the principle of reinforcement. finding a mate. The first of the two layers was the personal unconscious. they can have influences on behavior. having children. but has been forgotten or repressed. identification with an influential family member. Carl L. 23. Reinforcement can be defined in terms of reduction of a primary need. 24. withdrawn and interested in ideas rather than people. as defined by Jung. The environment provides the stimuli and the organism responds. and one's personal history of success or failure. Clark L. There are many archetypes such as having parents. social. Symbol. Ivan P. all of which is observable. and confronting death. While temperament is the most important characteristic. The introvert and the extrovert are the main components of personality according to Jung. he and his colleagues have isolated several others.

but instead.P. he demonstrated that the strength of the heartbeat was controlled by nerves leaving the cardiac plexus. J. and affection) have major relevance for general and child psychology. motivation.Pavlov is most famous for developing the concept of the conditioned reflex. Bruner suggested that intellectual ability developed in stages through step-by-step changes in how the mind is used. Harlow was an American Psychologist who provided a new understanding of human behavior and development through studies of social behavior of monkeys. Farlow Harry F. it can be used to alter behavior (smoking cessation. Jerome S.Ernest Hilgard distinguished himself through his studies of the role of hypnosis in human behavior and response. situation-behavior relations that form contextualized. His approach looked to environmental and experiential factors. Harlow's famous wire/cloth "mother" monkey studies demonstrated that the need for affection created a stronger bond between mother and infant than did physical needs (food). the consistencies that characterize the individual would be found. Jerome Bruner developed a theory of cognitive growth. Hypnotism. Harry F.but it is the field of education that his influence has been especially felt. . he was able to isolate the stomach from salivary and pancreatic secretions and thereby study the gastrointestinal secretions in a normal animal over its life span. He later turned his attention to thestudy of the secretory activity of digestion. Walter Mischel Mischel's work proposed that by including the situation as it is perceived by the person and by analyzing behavior in its situational context. Harlow wanted to prove to the psychology community that primate research could contribute to the understanding of important clinical issues without having to be molecular in nature. Ernest R. psychologically meaningful ´personality signaturesµ 26. He argued that these individual differences would not be expressed in consistent cross-situational behavior. Having devised with the German physiologist Rudolph Heidenhain an operation to prepare what is now often called a Pavlov pouch. His earlier research had been concerned with cardiac physiology and the regulation of blood pressure. Hilgard He was an american psychologist who conducted pioneering work in hypnotism.Harlow's research developed an abundant supply of primate learning tests and tasks that became standards in the field. In his classic experiment he trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a bell by conditioning the dog to associate the sound of the bell with the sight of food. His theory hinged on the universal need for contact. 25. he suggested that consistency would be found in distinctive but stable patterns of if-then. Bruner He was one of the key figures in the so called 'cognitive revolution' . often regarded as nothing more than a stage trick by pseudo-psychics. is in fact an important psychological tool. His research contributions (in the areas of learning. Carefully dissecting the fine cardiac nerves. 29. This research led him to formulate the laws of the conditioned reflex. Guilford 28. 27. In general.

is an exploration of the degree to which languages are limited by the nature of human thought. 31.Preconventional Morality: Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment.the biases and prejudices that poison everything from race relations to academic disciplines where those with vested interests in them perpetuate erroneous theories. and more recently. and the excessive reliance on laboratory work. and to relieve pain. His research on depression and pessimism transformed into new ideas about optimism. Hilgard.Individualism and Exchange. The book. Stage 4 .Interpersonal Relationships. He argued for a more collaborative method of public policy that involved various stakeholders and that used experimentation and data as a guide for decision making. rather than real-life situations. the degree to which the structure of specific languages influences the thinking of those who speak each language. Campbell He had as a major focus throughout his career the study of false knowledge -. Lawrence Kohlberg Developed stages of moral development: Level 1. Seligman American psychologist and writer. Much of Hilgard's research and writing on the topic was done with his wife. in which he began to express a dissatisfaction with the linear programming model of cognitive psychology at that time. 30. which has been continuously in print." 33. Roger Brown He is known for his studies of how a child learns language and how words designate things. Conventional Morality: Stage 3 . faulting it for being "ecologically invalid. 32. Level 3. this began a new and notable route for the field of psychology. Seligman began research on the theory of learned helplessness³a learned pessimistic attitude³which led him to significant breakthroughs in the treatment and prevention of depression. and the converse. Donald T. and anthropology.Universal Principles. Stage 6 .Maintaining Social Order. for his contributions to leadership in the field of Positive Psychology. UlricNeisser He wrote Cognition and Reality.P. Josephine R. 34. . Level 2. He continued research and began to redefine how the mental illness of depression was viewed by psychology and psychiatry. as well as the author of influential textbooks on social and introductory psychology. The implications of his insights are still being worked out in such disparate fields as linguistics. The vision of this was laid out in an essay The Experimenting Society.Postconventional Morality: Stage 5 .Social Contract and Individual Rights. He wrote his monumental Words and Things. cognitive psychology.Campbell also had a vision for how public policy could be improved through use of experimentation. Stage 2 . He is well known for his work on the idea of "learned helplessness".for example). Martin E. In his later writings he became critical of the methodology of much cognitive psychology.

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to a stimulus brings about an attitude change in relation to the stimulus.One important contribution was the demonstration of the mere exposure effect. 38. but he is by far the best known in this regard." One of the best-known single papers co-authored with Victor Harris in 1967 tested this theory and led to the development of the fundamental attribution error. This revolution is in the concept of "decision-making" in organization and under uncertainty. Jones Jones' work is centered on the attribution process. Herbert A. Noam Chomsky Chomsky's research and influence on linguistics changed and modernized the discipline. Chomsky argues that language acquisition is an innate structure. neuroscientists. of the human brain. both in its interpretive sense and its production. For many years there has been a battle between linguistics as to whether laAnguage acquisition is innate or learned. or function. R. Zajonc was also well known for demonstrating how social facilitation (how the presence of others increases or decreases performance) works in humans and other animals. . Jones noted. and clinicians. 36. with an emphasis on the relationship between affect. His official faculty description notes that he focused on processes involved in social behavior. 37. which indicated that social facilitation is not entirely the result of higher cognitive processes.35. or emotion. notably in cockroaches. Although known that there are structures of the brain that control the interpretation and production of speech. it was not clear as to how humans acquired language ability. 39. co-developing his theory of correspondent inferences with Keith Davis.B Zajonc American social psychologist who was known for his decades of work on a wide range of social and cognitive processes. "I have a candidate for the most robust and repeatable finding in social psychology: the tendency to see behavior as caused by a stable personal disposition of the actor when it can be just as easily explained as a natural response to more than adequate situational pressures. Edward E. which he claims is far away from the "rational man" often assumed in mainstream microeconomics. One of his most influential contributions to modern psychology was to differentiate episodic memory from other kinds of learning and memory systems in the brain. This is where Noam Chomsky made his contribution. His pioneering research on human memory has influenced generations of psychological scientists. Simon There are many that claim that Herbert A. Simon has precipitated something like a revolution in microeconomics. He is certainly not the first one to come up with this critique. and cognition. EndelTulving He is a world-renowned experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist.

and additional points on the enlarged Surface resulting from extension of interlist stimulus similarity from identical. or antonymous) combined factorially with one of the same five conditions of interlist response similarity. similar. . Charles E. unrelated.40. ASubjects learned a final common list after learning one of twenty-five different first lists having one of five categories of interlist stimulus similarity (identical. Osgood The purpose of the experiment was to determine transfer effects for Osgood's Surface as presently defined. and unrelated to include opposed and antonymous. similar. opposed.

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