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Lab Report: 01

Lab Report on: Synthesis of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin

Course Name: Polymer Science and Engineering Sessional
Course Code: CEP 354.

Submission Date
Submitted By
Sourav Sutradhar
Reg No: 2016332005
Dept: Chemical Engineering And Polymer Science,Sust

Submitted To
Myisha Choudhory
Dr. Mohammed Mastabur Rahman
Introduction: Phenol-Formaldehyde resin is a highly crosslinked thermosetting
material that is produced by the poly-condensation of phenol and formaldehyde in
the presence of either acidic or basic catalyst. An acid catalyst is usually used in
preparing novolac type of resin. The two processes in general use are the one-step
process producing resole resins (which is the formation of a phenol resin) that are
either liquid or brittle, soluble, fusible solids, and the two – step process, using an
excess of phenol to produce novolac, resin that have no reactive methylol groups
and must be mixed with an aldehyde to undergo further reaction. Resole resin
thermoset on heating, are used for adhesives. Novolac require a further source of
formaldehyde in the form of hexamethylene tetramine to produce molding
powders.The P-F resin has various applications. It can be used in resin form as a
bonding agent. Subsequently, the liquid resin can be dried and ground into molding
powder, which is usually used in molding electrical fittings. Buttons, television and
computer housing and the other household articles for the purpose of the paper,
emphasis will be on the preparation, processing and characterization of P-F resin and
molding powder.

Theory: These thermosetting resins are obtained by reacting phenol C6H5OH and
phormaldehyde CH2O.
Formaldehyde forms −CH2− bridges between two phenol molecules, producing
chains. Linear chains are obtained when the reaction ratio is 1:1. Phenol, however,
may also react with a third formaldehyde molecule. Whenever this happens, a branch
is formed in the chain.

 Phenol

 Formalin (40% w/v)

 Ammonia (sp.g 0.880)

 Bolt head flask (1 L)

 Reflux condenser

 Heating mantle

1. Phenol (10g), formalin (12 ml) and ammonia (1 ml) are mixed together in a
bolt head flask.

2. Mixture is then warmed carefully under the reflux condenser using a heating
mantle until reaction commences. 80˚ temperature is maintained.

3. Heating mantle is turned off as soon as bubbles start rising indicating that the
reaction has generated heat. Heat of the reaction brings the mixture to boil.

4. If reaction becomes violent, the mixture is cold in a water bath.

5. When the reaction slows down, heating is resumed to bring the mixture to
continuous boil and this process is repeated until the mixture clouds and
separates to two layers.

6. The mixture is then collected and allowed to cool down for the resin to settle
down and form a proper layer.

Substance Physical State Colour Odor

Phenol Crystal Colourless Pungent
Ammonia Liquid Colourless Pungent
Formalin Liquid Colourless Sweet
Phenol- Liquid yellowish Pungent
Formaldehyde Orange
Initially there was no color. But first heating upto 145-160 degree Celsius, we
started to get some brown color. Sometimes Rising temperature and lowering
temperature maintaining average 150-160 degree celsius we got our desired color
and cooling for 1 hr, we got layer.
Discussion: The obtained phenol formaldehyde resin might not have been
accurate due to some errors. Water flow rate was not uniform. We got some
operating errors in our experiment. The thermometer reading was not relaiable.
But, finally we got our resin and layer.