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Why Go Underground ?

ITA - AITES Why Go Underground ? 1


For hundred of thousands of years,
our natural domain has been
mainly a two-dimensional space

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Nature, and not mankind, is at the origin
of the first underground works

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Cave dwellings were an important landmark in
the use of underground space by mankind
(France)

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Since the dawn of human endeavor,
numerous reasons have encouraged
mankind to use and develop
underground space

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The Malpas Tunnel on the Canal du Midi
(France - late 17th Century)

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The Saint Gothard Tunnel
(Switzerland - Late 19th Century)

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Powerhouse of the Serra da Mesa
hydroelectric power plant (Brazil)
Intake Canal Pressure
Tunnels

Intake
Tunnels
Surge
Chamber
Powerhouse
Cavern

Tailrace
Tunnel

Tailrace Canal

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Fundamental characteristics of
underground space
• Underground medium is a space that can provide the setting for
activities or infrastructures that are difficult, impossible,
environmentally undesirable or less profitable to install above ground.
• Underground space offers a natural protection to whatever is placed
underground
• The containment created by undergound structures protects the
surface environment from the risks / disturbances inherents in
certain types of activities
• Underground space is opaque : an underground structure is only
visible at the point(s) where it connects to the surface.

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Reasons for going underground

• Land use and location reasons


• Isolation considerations
• Environmental protection
• Topographic reasons
• Social benefits

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Reasons for going
underground

(1) Land use and location reasons

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Blaak Station
(Rotterdam -
The Netherlands)

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Underground
expansion of the
Swedish Royal Library
(Stockholm - Sweden)

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Le Grand Louvre (Paris - France)

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Tokyo Subway - Iidabashi Station
(Tokyo - Japan)

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La Defense Urban Hub
(Paris - France)

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Reasons for going
underground

(2) Isolation considerations

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The Santa Claus Village
Unique Christmas theme park on the Arctic Circle in
Finnish Lapland

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Underground hospital in a potash salt
mine for allergy treatment
(Ural - Russia)

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Underground swimming pool (Finland)

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Gjovik Olympic Mountain Hall
(Norway)

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Above-ground structures are more sensitive to
earthquake than underground ones
Kobe Earthquake (Japan - 1995)

Severe damage to the Kobe City Hall No damage to the underground shopping
mall located below

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Underground crude oil storage facility
Kuji Plant (Japan)

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Underground storage facilities
Kansas City (USA)

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Underground Church in Rock
(Helsinki, Finland)

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University of Minnesota (USA)

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Yucca Mountain Site characterization project
(Nevada - USA)

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Reasons for going
underground

(3) Environmental protection

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Car park at the square Estienne
d ’Orves in Marseilles (France)
Situation «before» and «after» the construction of
the underground car park

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Thanks to the use of subsurface, a car park
could be located in the very proximity of the
Sydney Opera House (Australia)

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Variety of the underground
infrastructure in a city

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A motorway tunnel forming a green bridge,
providing a free range for people, animals, and
even vegetation (Finland)

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The Green Heart Tunnel
(The Netherlands)

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Reasons for going
underground

(4) Topographic reasons

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The Gothard Base Tunnel
(Switzerland)

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Mont Russelin Tunnel
on National Highway A16
(Switzerland)

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High speed railway tunnel
(Germany)

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Trans Tokyo Bay Highway
(Japan)

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The Noord Tunnel
Amsterdam
(The Netherlands)

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Expanded use of underground space

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The new Antwerp Central Station on the
Paris-Amsterdam high speed rail link
(Antwerpen - Belgium)

1900

2006

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Reasons for going
underground

(5) Social benefits

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« Tunnels play a vital
environmental role by
conveying clean water to
and by
conveying wastewater out
from urban areas »
******
The Lesotho
Highlands Water
Project

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Waste water treatment plant in Helsinki
(Finland)

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« Tunnels provide
safe, environmentally
sound, fast, and
unobtrusive urban
mass transit systems »
******
Paris Metro
Line 14 - «Meteor»
(France)

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« City traffic tunnels clear
vehicles from surface streets,
traffic noise is reduced, air
becomes less polluted and
the surface street areas may
partially be used for other
purposes »
******
The Central Artery
in Boston (USA)

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The A86 West Underground Link-up
(Paris Region - France)

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« Underground car parks
in city centres leave room
for recreation areas and
playground above
ground »
******
Underground car park
below a schoolyard
(Stockholm - Sweden)

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The Paris Town Hall underground car park
(France)

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« Multipurpose utility tunnels
are less vulnerable to external
conditions than surface
installations and will cause
only insignificant disturbance
above ground when installed
equipments are repaired or
maintained »
******
Utilidor
(Paris - France)

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Assessment of the
underground structures

(1) Taking into account life-cycle


costs

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Washington Metro Tunnel Costs 1969 - 1994
Prices for mining & lining ~20' Dia. Tunnels
10000
9000
Tunnel Cost per Lineal Foot
(Converted to 1995 dollars)

8000
7000
6000
5000
4000 Earth
3000 Rock
2000 Mixed or varying
1000
0 Regression
Linear ()
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96
Year

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Cost comparison between hydrocarbon
storage in rock caverns and in steel tanks

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Assessment of the
underground structures

(2) Taking into the indirect benefits


of the underground structures

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Risk analysis
in underground works

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Three-Centered Station Shield
Metro of Tokyo ( Japan)

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ITA-AITES Working Groups
WG 2 Research WG 14
Mechanized tunnelling
WG 3 Contractual practicesin WG 15
Environment
underground construction WG 16
Quality
WG 5 Health and safety WG 17
Long tunnels at great
WG 6 Maintenance and repair of depth
underground structures WG 18 Training
WG 11 Immersed and floating WG 19 Conventional tunnelling
tunnels WG 20 Urban problems -
WG 12 Shotcrete use in Underground solutions
tunnelling

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http://www.ita-aites.org

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