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Blood Groups

ABO blood group system was


established by Landsteiner.
In human polysaccharides are produced
on the surface of RBC are act as
antigens.
- - there can be two antigens A or B in
the blood,
- - - resulting in 4 blood groups namely
A, B, AB and O.
O group have no antigens .
A group will have the antigen A.
B group will have the antigen B.
AB group will have the antigen AB
Antigens
Antigens are certain proteins
produced by pathogenic microbes
that cause infectious diseases.

However, any foreign protein and


polysaccharides may also act as
an antigen.
AB

Production of Antigens A and B


are determined by the alleles
IA and IB { I denotes
Isohaemoagglutinin }.
O

There is an another allele IO


(which is recessive) produces the
blood cells with no antigens A and
B such person is having the blood
group as O.
AB

Persons of AB blood group having


A B
both alleles I and I which
produce both poly sachharides
(antigens) A and B.
Occurrence of Antigens, Antibodies

Blood
Antigen Antibody
Groups
A A anti B

B B anti A

AB A and B none

O O anti A and anti B


Antibodies
The plasma cells of the blood are
induced by the antigens to produce
antibodies which neutralise or
destroy the antigens and give
immunity to diseases
The blood of a person having
A group will have the antibody in
the serum known as anti B.
B group will have the antibody in
the serum known as anti A.
AB group have no antibodies in
their serum.
O group have the both antibodies
in the serum known as anti A & anti B
Blood Transfusion Relationships of Human Blood Groups

RECIPIENTS
DONOR
O A B AB
a, b b a nil
O
a, b    
A
b ×  × 
B
a × ×  
AB
nil × × × 
Antigens RBC are indicated by Capital letters, the
antibodies in the plasma by small letters. The sign
× denotes aggultination, 
denotes no aggultination.
Possible genotypes, Compatibility of blood groups

Alleles IA and IB jointly express themselves in the individual.


[ Phenotype ] Blood Possible Blood group of
Group of the Donor
genotypes recipient

A IAIA OR IAIO A and AB

B IBIB OR IBIO B and AB

AB IAIB AB

O IOIO A, B, O, AB

Both alleles IA and IB are dominant to the recessive allele IO


` thank you.