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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO GMAW
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is a welding process that has been
commercially available for around 60 years. The basic operation of the GMAW
process occurs when an electrical arc is established and maintained between a
base material and a continuously feed wire electrode.

Fig 1.1 Metal Inert Gas Welding

The molten weld pool is shielding from the atmospheric conditions by an


envelope of shielding gas that is flowed continuously around both the wire filler
metal feeding in the weld pool and the weld pool itself.

The heat of the electrical arc serves to locally melt the base metal as well as
melt the wire filler metal that is being fed into the weld. There are two entities
at play in the GMAW process:

1. Burn Rate: This refers to the rate, inches/minute (in/min) or meters/minute


(m/min), at which the wire filler metal is melted or consumed by the thermal

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energy of the welding arc. The primary variables that control the thermal energy
of the arc are the welding current, welding voltage, and shielding gas
composition.
2. Feed Rate: This simply refers to the rate, again in in/min or m/min, that the
wire filler metal is feed into the weld.

Fig. 1.2 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

For a stable welding arc, the burn rate and feed rate need to equal each other.
For instance, if the burn rate is higher than the feed rate, the wire filler metal
would melt back to the contact tip and cause issues. With the exception of short
circuit metal transfer, if the feed rate is higher than the burn rate, the wire filler
metal would feed into the molten weld pool, again, causing issues.

The GMAW process commonly uses a constant voltage power source (GMAW-
CV) that allows for a relatively constant welding voltage output over a range of

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welding currents. For GMAW-CV the welder selects the wire feed speed (WFS)
on the wire feeder unit and an appropriate voltage on the welding power supply.

1.2 VARIABLES OF THE GMAW PROCESS

There are two main variables of the GMAW process that affect both the
penetration profile into the base material and weld bead profile above the base
material for a given weld:

1. Welding Current.

2. Welding Voltage.

The information below observes the very basic effects that the welding current
and welding voltage variables have on the weld penetration profile in the base
material and the weld bead profile that lies above the base material. The base
material used in for the following welds is cold rolled 1018 bar stock and the
shielding gas is 90% Argon – 10% CO2.

1.2.1 Welding Current

Variable of welding current primarily controls the amount of weld metal that is
deposited during welding. As discussed earlier, the process variables of WFS
and current are directly related so as one increase so does the other and vice
versa. Welds 1-5 demonstrate this relationship, Figure 1 & 2. Holding all other
variable constant, the WFS were incrementally increased from Weld 1 through
Weld 5 which consequently increased the welding current. Remember, the
welder sets the WFS not the current level on a GMAW-CV power supply, so
the primary way of adjusting current is by adjusting the WFS. Table 1 show the
welding data from these welds.

The welding current also affects the weld penetration profile. Holding all other
variables constant, as the welding current increases the further the weld will

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penetrate into the base material. This increase in weld penetration is seen in
Welds 1-5, Figure 1. The driving force behind the fingerlike penetration in
Welds 3-5 is that the metal transfer mode in the welding arc was spray metal
transfer mode. This metal transfer mode typically transitions from globular to
spray mode transfer above approximately 190 amps of welding current for
certain metal and shielding gas combinations.

1.2.2 Welding Voltage

Welding voltage primarily controls the arc length which is the distance between
the molten weld pool and the wire filler metal at the point of melting within the
arc. As the voltage is increased, the weld bead will flatten out more and have an
increasing width-to-depth ratio. Welds 7-11 in Figure 4 show this widening of
the weld beads as the voltage is increased. Table 2 shows the weld data for these
welds

Fig. 1.3 Electrode Extension and Arc Length Diagram

As the electrode extension decrease so also does the resistance to the welding
current flowing through that portion of the wire. The current was indeed
increased and enough so to change the transfer mode from globular to spray
which is evidenced by the increase in fingerlike penetration. This phenomenon

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will be further explained in the next blog that will look at the effect of the
variables of contact to work distance (CTWD).

1.3 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

Aluminium / Aluminum alloys have strong corrosion resistance. They are


sensitive to high temperatures ranging between 200 and 250°C (392 and 482°F),
and might lose some of their strength. However, the strength of the Aluminium /
Aluminum alloys can be increased at sub-zero temperatures, making them ideal
low-temperature alloys. Aluminium / Aluminum 5086 alloy is a non-heat
treatable alloy with good corrosion resistance, especially to salt water

1.4 FILLER WIRE ER4043


Aluminum welding wire ER4043 is a general-purpose type aluminum
welding wire. It contains silicon additives, which result in improved fluidity
(wetting action) of the weld pool and also produces a weld less sensitive to
cracking. Its bright weld finish makes it a popular choice of welders. It can be
used to weld various grades of aluminum. 0.030-Inch wire diameter ER4043 1-
Pound spool

1.5 LIQUID PENETRATE TEST


DPI is based upon capillary action, where surface tension fluid low
penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be
applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing. After adequate
penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed and a
developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw so at
an invisible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed
under ultraviolet or white light, depending on the type of dye used.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

A.Raveendra, Dr.B.V.R.Ravi kumar., “Effect of pulsed current on


welding characteristics of EN 19 alloy steel using gas tungsten arc welding
(2013)’’ in the alloy steel EN19 more porous found in higher thickness
weldments with pulsed welding that the non-pulsed current weldments, because
the molten metal remain in solidification phase for longer duration in non-
pulsed then the gas are escaped and minimized the porous in weldments. In this
experimental work selection of process parameters for pulsed and non-pulsed
current GTAW of SS304 metal were presented. Weldments were tested for their
characteristics, more hardness found in the HAZ zone of the all weldments.
Higher tensile strength values are found in the non-pulsed current weldments.
The higher hardness values may be due to grain refinement in the zone of weld
metal and Heat Affected Zones. Further, experiments can be conducted using
pulsed current, non-pulsed current TIG welding up on the different thick plates
and welding characteristics can be studied.

D. W. Becker and C. M. Adams, jr et al., “The role of pulsed GTA


welding variables in solidification and grain refinement’’. Low frequency
pulsed-current gas tungsten arc welding afforded minimal control over the
solidification structure observed in the titanium alloy, Ti-11Mo-7Zr-4.5Sn. No
change in tensile properties in Titanium alloy Ti-11Mo-7Zr-4.5Sn.There is no
change in tensile properties in titanium alloy noted for the range of process
parameters investigated. In fusion zone grain size in Titanium alloy pulsed-
current welds was not observed to change significantly from that obtained in
constant-current welds. Then reduction of grain size in mild steel was shown to
be possible by proper selection of pulsed-current welding parameters. The

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practicality of the welding procedure was severely restricted due to a narrow
process parameter operating envelope which restricted the travel speed to less.
A. A. Omar and C. D. Lundin et al., “Pulsed plasma – pulsed GTA Arc:
A study of the process variable (1980)” To properly characterize the pulsed arc
welding process, the behavior of the specific welding power supply system
should be accounted for. Pulsing the welding arc for both PAW and the GTAW
process does enhance the weld bead penetration and the process melting
efficiency when optimum welding conditions are used. In general, the average
current is the controlling pulse welding parameter that influences the degree of
melting efficiency for both the PAW and GTAW processes. There is an
optimum background current setting, which, when used in the pulsed plasma arc
welding process, leads to an enhanced weld penetration and melting efficiency
coupled with a tangible reduction in energy consumption. It was found that the
background current is optimized when it is chosen to produce and maintain a
molten pool at all times. This, however, was not experienced in the TAW
process pulsed at comparable welding conditions. An optimum welding
condition for the GTAW process with given average current appears to be a
long pulse duration of a high pulse time ratio (tp/tB) coupled with a low
background current. No reduction in the energy consumption of the pulsed
plasma arc welding was experienced when compared to that of the constraint
current mode of welding of the same average current value. No marked
advantage is observed when the high frequency GTA pulsing operation is
utilized. The audible noise generated by the arc during high frequency
excursions in current could be harmful to the operator and in any instance is
objectionable to individuals working in the area immediately adjacent to the
welding operation. Superimposed high frequency on low frequency pulse mode
of welding showed no improvement in the resulting metallurgical structure and
geometrical Configuration of the weld bead. Compared to the GTA welds of the
same welding conditions, the plasma welds had greater penetration. For the

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pulsed PAW process, the narrowest HAZ was found to be at a pulse frequency
of 1 Hz for high peak currents and short pulse duration. In general, for both the
pulsed PAW and the pulsed GTAW processes, the lower the pulse frequency,
the narrower the HAZ and the wider the fused zone. At higher pulse
frequencies, however, the HAZ becomes wider but the fusion zone becomes
narrower, an indication of decreased melting efficiency. Grain size control may
be related to grain rotation in the partially melted HAZ of the base metal and
previously solidified pulses. This effect would be enhanced in those alloys with
wide liquidus-solidus ranges and shallow temperature radiant.

Indira rani M, R. N. Marpu TE AL., “ Effect of pulsed current TIG


welding parameters on mechanical properties of J-joint Strength of
Aa635(2012)”. On conducting tensile test to specimens it can be concluded that
the tensile strength and 0.2% yield strength of the weldments of aluminum is
closer to the base metal. And the failure location of weldments occurred at Heat
Affected Zone (HAZ) and from this we can say that weldments have better weld
joint strength. No defects are seen in the weldments and it can be concluded that
weld is done at correct angle of torch and all the parameters used are in
optimum level AA6351 produced maximum ultimate tensile strength
177.35MPA maximum yield strength 114.98MPA with pulsed current welding
frequency of 3Hz. Maximum % elongation 12.8 was obtained with pulsed
current welding frequency of 7Hz. So, AA6351 should be welded with pulsed
current welding process to get good results. By applying pulse welding a better
depth of penetration and fusion of filler material with parent metal is obtained
and by this it improves strength and ductility of weldments. The performance of
pulsed current GTAW is better than non -pulsed current welding further work
can be extended on fractography of tensile specimen in pulsed and non-pulsed
welding. Further study can also be made on different thickness of the material at
different currents and the various properties can be compared.

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K.H. Tseng, C.P. C et al., The effect of pulsed GTA welding on residual
stress of stainless steel weldment (2002)”. In pulsed GTA welding, the greater
pulse frequency can enhance the concentration on energy density on the heat
source. Therefore, the residual stress of an authentic stainless weldment can be
reduced. A larger spacing can induced less heat input; therefore the residual
stress of the weldment can be reduced. Greater amplitude ratio can reduced the
temperature difference between the fusion zone and the unaffected base metal in
the weldment and therefore the welding residual stress can be reduced.

I.S. Kim A, J.S. Son, H.J. Kim, B.A. Chin et al., “Development of a
mathematical model to study on variation of shielding gas in GTA welding
(2006)” The experimental and a numerical research to find an interrelationship
between alternate supply of shielding gas and weld quality in a GTA welding
process has been carried out to check out the welding characteristics according
to the variation of alternate supply of shielding gas. A two-dimensional axi
symmetric heat and fluid mathematical models for a welding arc and weld pool
was developed to verify the effect of alternate supply of shielding gas. The
computed results showed that the range of molten metal at the top of weld pool
for supply of He shielding gas became wider than that for supply of Ar
shielding gas. However, the arc pressure of supply of Ar shielding gas was
higher than that of the shielding gas about three times. The comparison between
the calculated and measured results has been performed in order to verify the
developed mathematical models the calculated bead width and bead penetration
are in good agreement with the experimental results with about 5% relative
error. These results showed that the developed computational models are very
adequate to predict in the weld pool and bead geometry. It is also concluded that
the effect of alternate supply of shielding gas should be useful to apply for a
narrow -gap welding process.

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P. Sreeraj, T. Kannan, S. Maji et al., “Genetic algorithm for optimization
of welding variables for percentage of dilution and application of an for
prediction of weld bead geometry in GMAW process (2006)”. A five level five
factor full factorial design matrix based on central composite rotatable design
technique was used for the mathematical development of model to predict clad
bead geometry of austenitic stainless steel deposited by GMAW. ANN tool
available in MATLAB 7 software was efficiently employed for prediction of
clad bead geometry. In cladding by a welding process clad bead geometry is
very important for economising the material. This study effectively used ANN
to predict models and GA model to optimize weld bead geometry. In this study
two models artificial neural network and GA system for prediction and
optimization of bead geometry in GMAW welding process. Based on the above
study, it can be observed that the developed model can be used to predict clad
bead geometry within the applied limits of processes parameters. This method
of predicting process parameters can be used to get minimum percentage of
dilution. In this study, ANN and GA were used for achieving optimal clad bead
dimensions. In the case of any cladding process bead geometry plays an
important role in determining the properties of the surface exposed to hostile
environments and reducing cost of manufacturing. In this approach the
objective function aimed for predicting weld bead geometry within the
constrained limits.

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CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

3.1 DEFECTS IN WELDEMENT WITH GTAW


Gas tungsten arc welding is a more abundantly used welding technique to
join the metals, since in the [1] viewed journal paper noticed that the weldments
were AL 5052 were made into two several thicknesses like 1mm and 2mm. they
varying the pulsed and frequencies like 2Hz, 4Hz and 6Hz, after making the
welding these material were employed like Liquid penetrate test and
radiography test. From these test the paper says that porosity were increased
with increase in thickness, these defect may affect the entire strength of the
metal.

Fig 3.1 Porosity

Here a new approach of technique Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and
same test were done to these materials at variable in thickness 2mm by varying
the frequency in 2Hz, 4Hz and6Hz. From these experiments we are going to
show that aluminium is a good suited metal for replacing the Gas Metal Arc
Welding (GMAW).

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CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY
4.1 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Fig. 4.1 Methodology

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4.1.1 Preparation of welding
The work pieces were made of 5052 aluminium alloy of various
thicknesses 2mm. The test specimens were machined to the required size and
welded with pulsed and non-pulsed current GMAW process. Filler wire
material of ER4043 was used during the welding, which reduced the weld
cracks and produced the good strength and ductility than other filler metals.

Time

Current

Fig. 4.2 Parameters used for pulsed GTAW: peak current Ip, base current
Ib, peak time tp and base time tb.

These filler metals melt at a temperature lower than that of the base
metal, for this reason it yields during cooling, since it remains more plastic than
the base metal and relieves the contraction stresses.

Fig 4.3 Edge preparation of weld specimens

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The weld quality was strongly characterized by weld bead geometry
because the weld pool geometry plays animportant role in determining
mechanical properties of weld. The heat affected zone influenced with
theincrement of heat input due to increased welding current. The width of heat
affected zone increases due to low heat input. The weld bead geometry of weld
repaired aluminium alloy was similar as cast aluminium alloy in appearance but
different in micro-structure. The relation between welding parameters and weld
bead geometry was investigated in gas metal arc welding process which
resultsas greatest effect of welding current on weld bead geometry.If welding
speed decreases beyond an optimum value, depth of penetration decreases due
to the pressure of electric arc on weld pool. Heat input parameter influence the
cooling rate, weld bead size and mechanical properties of weld. Less depth of
penetration was obtained for low gun angle because of less pre-heating of base
metal.

4.1.2 GMAW welding


The chemical composition and mechanical properties of work material
and filler wire as shown in. The aluminium alloy work pieces were chemically
cleaned in hot Sodium Hydroxide for 10 minutes followed by dipping in Nitric
Acid solution for about 15 minutes and then washed in water. Lincoln Electrical
square wave MIG 256 XT GMAW machine with AC was used for welding of
5052 aluminium alloy test specimen’s .The choice of tungsten electrode
depends upon the type of welding current selected for the application. E4043
electrode are best suited for AC wherein they keep hemispherical shape and
thoriated tungsten electrodes (EWTh-2) should be ground to taper are suitable
for DCSP welding are used for this purpose.

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Fig. 4.4 Lincoln Electrical square power MIG 256 XT GMAW machine
4.1.3 Testing process
This welding process was conducted with 3.0 mm diameter 2% Blue
Demon - E4043 electrode for 5052 aluminium The welding parameters used for
this welding process both in pulsed current and non-pulsed current for two
different thicknesses of the above material are given in. The edge preparation of
the tested 5052 aluminium alloy specimens are shown in after welding process
is over, the radiography, liquid penetrant test were carried out on the
weldments, according to the ASTM standards, Parameters used for pulsed
GTAW: peak current.

Fig. 4.5 Demon - E4043 electrode


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A Mastertig AC/DC MIG 256 XT GMAW machine with AC & DCSP
was used for welding of 5052 aluminium alloy and AL5052.The choice of
tungsten electrode depends upon the type of welding current selected for the
application.
Aluminum E4043 Electrode are best suited for AC wherein they keep
hemispherical shape and thoriated tungsten electrodes (EWTh-2) should be
ground to taper are suitable for DCSP welding are used for this purpose. This
welding process was conducted with 2.5 mm diameter 2% Zirconated tungsten
electro de for 5083 aluminium alloy and2.5 mm diameter 2% Thoriated
tungsten electrode for EN19.After welding process is over, the radiograph,
liquid penetrant test and mechanical tests are carried out on the weldments,
according to the ASTM standards, Section VIII, Division 2 for radiography and
ASTM E-1417 for liquid penetrant tests were done on the weldments.

Fig. 4.6 Demon - E4043 Electrode Packing

Pulsed welds showed fine grain structure due to thermal disturbances and
decrease in heat input. In general, hardness is lower in HAZ region compared to

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the weld metal and base metal regions, irrespective of welding technique which
is characterized by the coarse dendrite grains and lack of the strengthenedphase.
Hardness was higher compared to the continuous welds and this could be due to
refinement of grain structure.

Table 4.1 Chemical Compositions of work material 5052 Aluminum alloy

Chemical Composition % wt

Material

Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Zn Ti Cr Al

5052
Aluminium 0.19 0.28 0.01 0.026 2.75 0.02 0.02 0.18 balance
Alloy

Table 4.2 Mechanical properties of 5052 Aluminium alloy

Material UTS(MPa) 0.2% Y.S(MPa) % Elongation

5052
Aluminium 260 170 11
Alloy

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Table 4.3 Chemical Compositions of filler wire

Chemical Composition % wt

Material

Cu Si Mn Mg Fe Cr Ti Al

ER4043 0.17 4.5-6.0 0.24 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 Balance

Table 4.4 Welding parameters for non-pulsed current welding of


5052 Aluminium alloy

ARC
Material
Weld Filler Wire I V Travel
Thickness Current
Layer dia (mm) (amp) (volts) Speed
(mm)
(cm/mi)

1 ROOT 2.1 AC 89 16 6

2 ROOT 2.9 AC 123 20 5

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Table 4.5 Welding parameters for pulsed current welding of
5052Aluminium alloy

ARC
Material Filler Pulse
Weld Ip Ib V Travel
Thickness, Wire /Sec Current
Layer (amp) (amp) (volts) Speed
(mm) dia(mm) (Hz)
(cm/min)

2 Root 3 2 AC 145 75 20 6.0

2 Root 3 4 AC 138 77 20 6.0

2 Root 3 6 AC 150 74 20 6.0

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4.2 RADIOGRAPHY TEST

Fig. 4.7 Radiography test

Radiography is used in a very wide range of applications including


medicine engineering forensics, security, etc. In NDT, radiography is the one of
the most important and widely used methods, however, one of its major
advantages is the health risk associated with the radiation. In general, RT is
method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short
wavelength electromagnetic radiation (High energy photons) to penetrate
various materials the intensity of the radiation that penetrates and passes
through the materials is the either captured by a radiation sensitive films (Film
radiography) or by a planner array of radiation sensitive sensor (Real time
radiography) Film radiography is the oldest approach, it still the most widely
used in NDT.

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In radiographic testing, the part to be inspected is placed between the
radiation source and a piece of radiation sensitive film. The radiation source can
either be an x-ray machine or a radio activity sources (Ir-192, co-60, or in rare
cases Cs-137). The part will stop some of the radiation where thicker and denser
areas will stop more of the radiation. The radiation that passes through the part
will expose the film and forms a shadow graph of the part. The film darkness
(Density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the
test object were darker areas indicate more exposure ( Higher radiation
intensity) and lighter areas indicate less exposure ( lower radiation intensity).
This variation in the image darkness can be used to determine thickness or
composition of material and would also reveal the presence of any flaws or
discontinuities inside the material.

4.2.1 Inspection of welds

The beam of radiation must be directed to the middle of the section under
examination and must be normal to the material surface at that point, except in
special techniques where known defects are best revealed by a different
alignment of the beam. The length of weld under examination for each exposure
shall be such that the thickness of the material at the diagnostic extremities,
measured in the direction of the incident beam, does not exceed the actual
thickness at that point by more than 6%. Then the is to be inspected is placed
between the source of radiation and the detecting device, usually the film in a
light tight holder or cassette, and the radiation is allowed to penetrate the part
for the required length of time to be adequately recorded.

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Table 4.6 Radiography test parameters of 5052Aluminium

Voltage KV 65/95

Current (mA) 3.0

Time (min) 2.0


ExposureParameters
Film Used MX-125

SFD (min) 1.0

Penetrameter 10-16-DINAI

Developer Time (min) 5.0

Stop Bath Time (min) 1.0


Processing
Parameter Fixer Time (min) 10.0

Sensitivity 2%

The result is a two-dimensional projection of the part onto the film,


producing a latent image of varying densities according to the amount
of radiation reaching each area. It is known as a radio graph, as distinct from a
photograph produced by light. Because film is cumulative in its response (the
exposure increasing as it absorbs more radiation), relatively weak radiation can
be detected by prolonging the exposure until the film can record an image that

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will be visible after development. The radiograph is examined as a negative,
without printing as a positive as in photography. This is because, due to that in
the printing, there is some of the detail is always lost and had no useful purpose
is served.
Before commencing a radio graphic examination, it is always advisable to
examine the component with one's own eyes, to eliminate any possible external
defects. If the surface of a weld is too irregular, it may be desirable to grind it to
obtain a smooth finish,

4.3 LIQUID PENETRATE TEST

4.3.1. Pre-cleaning:

The test surface is cleaned to remove any dirt, paint, oil, grease or any
loose scale that could either keep penetrant out of a defect, or cause irrelevant or
false indications. Cleaning methods may include solvents, alkaline cleaning
steps, vapour degreasing, or media blasting. The end goal of this step is a clean
surface where any defects present are open to the surface, dry, and free of
contamination. Note that if media blasting is used, it may "work over" small
discontinuities in the part and an etching bath are recommended as a post-
blasting treatment.

4.3.2. Application of Penetrant:


The penetrant is then applied to the surface of the item being tested. The
penetrant is allowed "dwell time" to soak into any flaws (generally 5 to 30
minutes). The dwell time mainly depends upon the penetrant being used,
material being tested and the size of flaws sought. As expected, smaller flaws
require a longer penetration time. Due to their incompatible nature one must be
careful not to apply solvent-based penetrant to a surface which is to be
inspected with a water-washable penetrant.

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4.3.3. Excess Penetrant Removal:

The excess penetrant is then removed from the surface. The removal
method is controlled by the type of penetrant which used. Then they Water-
washable, solvent-removable, lipophilic postemulsifiable, or hydrophilic post-
emulsifiable are the common choices. Emulsifiers represent the highest
sensitivity level, and chemically interact with the oily penetrant to make it
removable with a water spray. When using solvent remover and lint-free cloth it
is important to not spray the solvent on the test surface directly, because this can
remove the penetrant from the flaws. If excess penetrant is not properly
removed, once the developer is applied, it may leave a background in the
developed area that can mask indications or defects. In addition, this may also
produce false indications severely hindering your ability to do a proper
inspection.

4.3.4. Application of Development:


After excess penetrant has been removed a white developer is applied to
the sample. Several developer types are available, including: non-aqueous wet
developer, dry powder, water suspend able, and water soluble. Choice of
developer is governed by penetrant compatibility (one can't use water-soluble or
suspend able developer with water-washable penetrant), and by inspection
conditions. When using non-aqueous wet developer (NAWD) or dry powder,
the sample must be dried prior to application, while soluble and suspend able
developers are applied with the part still wet from the previous step. NAWD is
commercially available in aerosol spray cans, and also in may
employ acetone, isopropyl alcohol, or a propellant that is a combination of the
two. Developer should form a semi-transparent; even coating on the surface.
The developer draws penetrant from defects out onto the surface to form a
visible indication, commonly known as bleed-out. Any areas that bleed-out can

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indicate the location, orientation and possible types of defects on the surface.
Interpreting the results and characterizing defects from the indications found
may require some training and/or experience [the indication size is not the
actual size of the defect]

4.3.5. Inspection:
The inspector will use visible light with adequate intensity (100 foot-
candles or 1100 lux is typical) for visible dye penetrant. Ultraviolet (UV-A)
radiation of adequate intensity (1,000 micro-watts per centimetre squared is
common), along with low ambient light levels (less than 2 foot-candles) for
fluorescent penetrant examinations. Inspection of the test surface should take
place after 10 to 30 minute development time, depends of product kind. This
time delay allows the blotting action to occur. The inspector may observe the
sample for indication formation when using visible dye.

4.3.6. Post Cleaning:

The test surface is often cleaned after inspection and recording of defects,
especially if post-inspection coating processes are scheduled.

1. Section of material with a surface-breaking crack that is not visible to the


naked eye.
2. Penetrant is applied to the surface.
3. Excess penetrant is removed.
4. Developer is applied, rendering the crack visible.

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Fig. 4.8 Liquid penetrate test

Table 4.7 Liquid Penetrant Test parameters of 5052 Aluminium alloy

DP DIT MAGNA FLUX

Penetrant Used SKL-SP

Cleaner Used SKC-1

Developer Used SKD-S2

Dwell Time (at room temp) 10 min

Viewing Media Normal Light

Sensitivity 30 microns

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Fig. 4.9 Fixture

Fig. 4.10 Root of the Welding

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CHAPTER 5

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

5.1 RADIOGRAPHIC TEST

5.1.1 RT for 1mm thickness at 2HZ

Fig 5.1 RT image of test plate 01

This image shows about details of radiographic test which is taken under
the procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC IX in the view
of pores and other thing that effect the weldments. The plate total area is 6
S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm. The plate is welded both
side by the pulsed current at value of 2HZ for the thickness of about 1 mm. The
detail of the test report is given below

Result:

Location : A-B SFD : 400mm

Source : Ir-192 Findings : NSD

Thickness : 1mm Remarks : Acceptable

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5.1.2 RT for 1mm thickness at 4HZ

Fig 5.2 RT image of test plate 02

This image shows about details of radiographic test which is taken under
the procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC IX in the view
of pores and other thing that effect the weldments. The plate total area is 6
S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm. The plate is welded both
side by the pulsed current at value of 4HZ for the thickness of about 1 mm. The
detail of the test report is given below

Result:

Location : A-B SFD : 400mm

Source : Ir-192 Findings : NSD

Thickness : 1mm Remarks : Acceptable

29
5.1.3 RT for 1mm thickness at 6HZ

Fig 5.3 RT image of test plate 03

This image shows about details of radiographic test which is taken under
the procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC IX in the view
of pores and other thing that effect the weldments. The plate total area is 6
S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm. The plate is welded both
side by the pulsed current at value of 6HZ for the thickness of about 1 mm. The
detail of the test report is given below

Result:

Location : A-B SFD : 400mm

Source : Ir-192 Findings : NSD

Thickness : 1mm Remarks : Acceptable

30
5.2 LIQUID PENETRATES TEST:

5.2.1 PT for 1mm thickness at 2HZ

This image shows about details of liquid penetrate test which is taken under the
procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC V and ASME SEC
VIII in the view of pores and other thing that effect the weldments. The plate
total area is 6 S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm. The detail of
the test report is given below

Fig 5.7 PT image of test plate 01

The plate is welded both side by the pulsed current at value of 2H Z for the
thickness of about 1 mm.

Result:

Stage of test: As welded Development time: 10Min

Procedure : ASME SEC V Temperature : Room temperature

Remarks : Acceptable Dwell time : 10 Min

Method : Solvent removal method

31
5.2.2 PT for 1mm thickness at 4HZ

This image shows about details of liquid penetrate test which is taken
under the procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC V and
ASME SEC VIII in the view of pores and other thing that effect the weldments.
The plate total area is 6 S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm. The
detail of the test report is given below

Fig 5.8 PT image of test plate 02

The plate is welded both side by the pulsed current at value of 4H Z for the
thickness of about 1mm.

Result:

Stage of test : As welded Development time : 10Min

Procedure : ASME SEC V Temperature : Room temperature

Remarks : Acceptable Dwell time : 10 Min

Method : Solvent removal method

32
5.2.3 PT for 1mm thickness at 6HZ

This image shows about details of liquid penetrate test which is taken
under the procedure reference and acceptance standard by ASME SEC V and
ASME SEC VIII in the view of pores and other thing that effect the weldments.
The plate total area is 6 S.q.inches and welded area is about 2.1 x 2.7 mm.. The
detail of the test report is given below

Fig 5.9 PT image of test plate 03

The plate is welded both side by the pulsed current at value of 6HZ for the
thickness of about 1 mm

Result:

Stage of test: As welded Development time : 10Min

Procedure : ASME SEC V Temperature : Room temperature

Remarks : Acceptable Dwell time : 10 Min

Method : Solvent removal method

33
5.3 RESULT COMPARISION

5.3.1 GTAW AL5052 vs. GMAW AL 5052 (RT Test)

Table 5.1 GTAW AL52052 vs. GMAW AL 5052(RT Test)

GTAW GMAW

Remarks

Remarks
S.NO

Material thickness

Material thickness
Observation

Observation
Frequency

Frequency
(mm)

(mm)
(HZ)

(HZ)

No
1 Three
2 2 2 2 pore &
Pores
slag
Accepted

Accepted

2 Three No
2 4 2 4
Pores Pore

3 Four No
2 6 2 6
Pores pore

34
1
NUMBER OF PORES

0
2 4 6
PULSE /SEC (Hz)

GTAW - GMAW

Fig 5.14 RT - Pulse vs pores (2mm thickness)

35
5.3.2 GTAW AL5052VS GMAW AL 5052 (PT Test)

Table 5.2 GTAW AL 5052 vs GMAW AL 5052 (PT Test)

GTAW GMAW

Remarks

Remarks
S.NO

Material thickness

Material thickness
Observation

Observation
Frequency

Frequency
(mm)

(mm)
(HZ)

(HZ)

No No
1 2 2 2 2
defects defects
Accepted

Accepted

No No
2 2 4 2 4
defects defects

No No
3 2 6 2 6
defects defects

36
1
NUMBER OF PORES

0
2 4 6
PULSE /SEC (Hz)

GTAW - GMAW

Fig 5.16 PT - Pulse vs pores (2mm thickness)

37
5.4 Effect of Thickness

 The effect of thickness and welding parameters are given in table 5.1 &
5.2 during radiography test, less porosity was observed in 2 mm thick
weldments welded at welding speed of 6cm/min at all frequencies of 2, 4,
and 6.
 Specimen 2 mm thickness weldments produced one pore of maximum
size 0.5mm observed in the weldments welded at a frequency of 2 HZ.
 Slag was observed at two pulses 4 HZ& 6 HZ i.e..
 The results shows that fewer pores were observed in higher thickness
weldments with pulsed current welding and also some pores present
because of molten metal remaining in solidification phase for the longer
duration and the gases escaped minimized the pores in the weldments.
 Even though the pore sizes are within the acceptable limits, the observed
pores can be minimized by proper supply of purging and shielding gases.

5.5 Effect of Frequency


 Effect of frequency on the porosity during radiography is observed in the
table 5.3.1
 The porosity is measured in the present study at three frequencies 2H Z,
4HZ and 6HZ.
 Three porosity was observed in 1mm thick weldments welded at pulsed
current and at all frequencies.
 One pore was observed at 2HZ in 2mm thick welded plates.
 Slags at 4HZ and at 6HZ frequency were found in 2mm thick weldments.
 The results show that porous size decrease with the increase of frequency.
 This negative may be due to more vibrations in weld torch and improper
cleaning and supply of gases.

38
 The present aluminium alloy 5086 contains porosity within the acceptable
limits.
 No cracks were observed (Table No 5.1 & 5.2)

5.6 ADVANTAGE
 Leads to produce less porosity in welding
 Melting point is low compare to EN19
 Metal used is less compare to EN19
 Less material used is leads to increase in economy
 5000 series Aluminium alloy best for welding and produce the best result
 Aluminium and its alloy is widely used one in major fields

5.7 APPLICATION
 It is used in primary for structural application in sheet metals
 It is used in primary for structural application in plate metals

39
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK
6.1 CONCLUSION
In this project work the replacing of material place a major role, the
difficulty between these materials are varying the thickness and employing for
Non-destructive testing to show their properties after making weld on the
weldments. The complete study shows the defects in EN19 while it undergone
welding operation the porosity increases with increase in thickness. Basically
aluminum is low in weight, so it is quite easier to match with the EN19 in
weight percentage. So the new approach makes the new weld plate aluminium
alloy 5052 to increase in thickness and non-destructive testing were employed
to these materials to show its properties at different thickness and frequencies.

Aluminium alloy 5052 having thickness 2mm thickness are welded at


three different frequencies such as (2HZ, 4HZ&6HZ). It undergone two tests
such as radiography, liquid penetrate test. In this Aluminium alloy 5052, it is
observed that porosity decreased in the weldments with increase in thickness
and pulsed frequency in Radiography test. No defect was observed on the non-
pulsed current and pulsed current weldments during the liquid penetrate test.

40
6.2 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK
In this project work the mechanical properties and chemical properties of
aluminium alloy 5052, Chemical Compositions of filler wire, Welding
parameters for pulsed current welding of 5052 Aluminium alloy are explored.
The aluminium pieces are welded in the required way, also the required test are
taken and shown as the process are accepted.
Effect of pulsed current on these weldments (non-pulsed current, pulsed
current) can be studied further, by conducting

 Hardness test,
 Tensile strength test
 Microstructure tests.

41
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