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FREEZING TANK

Design Conditions:
Production Rate = 40 TOI per Day
Ice Temperature = -7.5°C = 18.5°Fn
Brine Temperature = -9.44°C = 15°F
Raw Water Temperature = 26°C
Freezing Time = 48 Hrs.
Standard Ice Can Dimension = 11” X 22” X 44”
Weight of Ice per Can = 300 lbs.

Number of Ice Can Require:


Freezing Time
No. of Ice Can:N = Production Rate x Wt.Of ICE BLOCK PER CAN
2,000 lb
(40 TONS OF ICE) ( )(48 hrs)
TON
N= 300 lb x 24 hrs

N = 534 Cans
N (adjusted) = 540 Cans

Volume of the Freezing Tank


Volume of Brine
TOI 40
TR = 0.61 = 0.61 = 65.57 TOR

60ft3
 VBRINE = TOR [1 TOR]

60ft3
VBRINE = 65.57 TOR [1 TOR]

VBRINE = 3934.2 ft 3

Volume of Ice Cans


h
 VIC = [B1 + B2 + 4M] B1 = 11 x 22 = 242 in2
6

B2 = 9 x 20 = 180 in2
B1 + B2 242+180
M= = = 211 in2
2 2
44
VIC = [242 + 180 + 4 (211)]
6

1ft3
VIC = 9284 in3 (123 in3)

VIC = 5.3727 ft 3 x 1610


VIC = 8650.047 ft 3

Total Volume of Freezing Tank


VT = VIC + VBRINE
VT = 8650.047 ft 3 + 3934.2 ft 3
VT = 12584.247 ft 3

Dimensions of the Freezing Tank


30’ x 18’
540 cans
From: L= 2C + (N-1) Ci + Nl + A
Where: C = Clearance between Walls
Ci = Clearance between Cans
N = No. of Cans
l = Length of the Side of the Can
A = Additional Space for Agitator
For L1:
L1= 2(10) + (18-1) (4) + (18) (22) +20
L1= 453 in = 37.75 ft.
For L2:
L2= 2(10) + (30-1) (4) + (30) (11)
L2= 466 in = 38.83 ft.
For H:
VTOTAL= L1L2H
VTOTAL 12584.247 ft3
H= =
L1 L2 37.75 ft. x 38.83 ft.

12 in
H=5 ft ( 1 ft )

H=60 in
Height of Freezing Tank > Height of Ice Can
60 in > 44 in
DESIGN IS OKAY!

Insulations and Material Specifications to be used in the Freezing Tank


Thickness K H
Material
In Mm W/M-K W/M2-K
Steel Plate 0.25 6.35 14.3 -- Side
Cork Board 15 381 0.043 -- Side
Concrete 6 152.4 0.72 -- Side
Wood ; Oak 4 101.6 0.16 -- Top
Still Air -- -- -- 9.37
Brine Solution -- -- -- 300
Steel Plate 0.25 6.35 14.3 -- Bottom
Cork Board 5 127 0.043 -- Bottom
Concrete 5 127 0.72 -- Bottom

 Outside Dimension of the Freezing tank (insulations included)

Length
L = L1 +L (insulations)
L = 453 + 2(0.25 + 15 + 6); in
L = 495.5 in = 41.292 ft. = 12.586 m

Width
W = L2 + L (insulations)
W = 466 + 2(0.25+15+6); in
W = 508.5 in. = 42.375 ft. = 12.916 m

Height
H = H1 + Top Cover + Insulation
H = 60 + 4 + 7 + 6
H = 77 in. = 6.417 ft. = 1.956 m
Plant Capacity (Kw or Tons of Refrigeration)
40 TONS 907.03 kg 1 DAY 1 hr
mH2 O = mice = x x 24 hrs x 3600 s
DAY 1 TON

kg
mH2 O = 0.4199 s

Q p = Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3

For Q1 = mH2 O 𝐶𝑝(t H2 O − t f )


kg kJ
Q1= (0.4199 s )(4.187 kg−°C)(26-0) °C

Q1 = 45.711 kW

For Q2 = (mice )(hfice )


kJ
Q2= (0.4199kg/s)(335 kg)

Q2 = 140.6665 kW

For Q3 =(mH2 O )(Cpice )(t f − t ice )


kg kJ
Q3= (0.4199 s )(2.0935 kg−°C)(0-(-7.5)) °C

Q3 = 6.59 kW

For Qp= Q1 + Q2 + Q3
Qp = 45.711kW + 140.6665 kW + 6.59 kW
Qp = 192.9675 kW
1 TOR
Qp = 192.9675 kW x 3.517 kW
Qp = 54.867 TOR

TOI 40 TOI
≥ TOR ; ≥ Qp
0.61 0.61

For Q1 = Q2 (Considering the width and height)


A ∆t
Q1 = 1 X1 X2 X3 1
+ + + +
ho k1 k2 k3 h1

1.956 (12.916)(33+9.44)
Q1 = 1 6.35x10^−3 381x10^−3 152.4x10^−3 1
+ + + +
9.37 14.3 0.043 0.72 300
Q1 = 116.76 W
Q1 = Q2 = 0.11676 KW

For Q3 = Q4 (Considering the length and height)


A ∆t
Q3 = 1 X1 X2 X3 1
+ + + +
ho k1 k2 k3 h1

1.956 (12.856)(33+9.44)
Q3 = 1 6.35x10^−3 381x10^−3 152.4x10^−3 1
+ + + +
9.37 14.3 0.043 0.72 300

Q3 = 116.22 W
Q3 = Q4 = 0.11622 KW

For Q5 (Considering the top cover portion)


A ∆t
Q5 = 1 X1 1
+ +
ho k1 h1

12.916 (12.856)(33+9.44)
Q5 = 1 101.6x10^−3 1
+ +
9.37 0.16 300

Q5 = 9458.45 𝑊
Q5 = 9.45845 KW

Total Qloss= Qst(from tanks material)


Qst= (0.11676 + 0.11676 + 0.11622 + 0.11622 + 9.45845)
Qst = 9.9244 KW

Brine Agitator Capacity and Power:


Production Rate = 40TOI DAILY
Qp = 54.87 Tons of Brine Agitator
65 gpm
Brine Agitator Capacity = (54.87 TOR)
TOR

Brine Agitator Capacity = 3566.55 gpm


1 hp TONS
Brine Agitator Power = TONS (40 DAY
)
17.5
DAY

Brine Agitator Power = 2.29 hp


 Use 3 Hp Motor for Each Brine Agitator.
Blower Power:
For Low Pressure Air Agitator, Approximately 0.5 cfm of Free Air is supplied at about 2 Psi per
300 lbs. per can.
0.5 cfm ft3
Vair = (540 CANS) = 270
CAN min

lb in2 ft3
(2 2 )(144 2 )(270 )
in ft min
Air Power = ft−lb = 2.36 hp
33,000
hp−min

Assuming Blower Efficiency = 80%


Blower Efficiency = Air Power / BPH
BPH = 2.36 hp. / .80
BPH = 2.95 hp
 Use 3 Hp Driving Motor for Blower of Freezing Tank.
Compressor:
QP , Tons of Refrigeration = 192.9675 kW
Refrigerant = Ammonia
Storage Evaporating Temperature = -6°C
Ice Evaporating Temperature = -10°C
Condenser Temperature = 43°C

From Table 1 Ammonia:


kJ
h1 = hg @ − 10°C = 1450.22 kg

kJ
h3 = hg @ − 6°C = 1455 kg

kJ
h5 = h6 = hf @ 43°C = 405.416 kg

kJ
h7 = h8 = hf @ − 6°C = 172.371 kg

From Chart:
kJ
h2 = 1460 kg

kJ
h4 = 1691 kg

Total Work of Compressor


WCT = m1 (h2 − h1 )
Qp
m1 = h
1 − h8

192.9675 kW
m1 = kJ kJ
1450.22 −172.371
kg kg

kg
m1 = 0.15101 s

kg kJ kJ
WCT = 0.15101 (1460 kg − 1450.22 )
s kg

WCT = 1.47688 kW

1.47688 kW (1hp)
WCT = = 1.98 hp
0.746 kW

Actual Power For Compressor = 1.98 hp


Motor Hp = 1.98 hp
Condenser:
Condenser Temperature = 40°C
Entering Water Temperature = 28°C
Leaving Water Temperature = 33°C
kg
m4 = 1.261 s

Heat Rejected By Condenser; QR


QR = m4 (h4 − h5 )
kg kJ kJ
QR = 1.261 (1691 − 405.416 )
s kg kg

QR = 1621.1214 kW

Mass Flow Rate of Cooling Water; MW


QR = mw Cpw ∆t
kJ
1621.1214 kW = mw (4.187 kg−°C) (33 − 28)°C

kg
mw = 77.44 s

Condenser Liquid Receiver:


Volume of Liquid Receiver; VLR
gal
VLR = (TONS OF REF. )(0.50 TON OF REF.)

gal m3
VLR = (164.617 TOR) (0.50 TON OF REF.)(0.003785 gal)

VLR = 0.3115 m3

Diameter and Length of Liquid Receiver; D AND L


π L
VLR = (4)(D)2 (L) ; ASSUME D = 3.5
π
0.3115 m3 = (4)(D)2 (3.5D)

D= 0.4839 m AND L= 1.6937 m


Evaporator:
Ice Evaporator Temperature = -12°C
Brine Temperature = -9.44°C

Required Surface Area of Evaporator; AIe


QP = UO AIe (Lmtd)
QP
AIe = U
O (Lmtd)

578.957 KW
AIe = Kw
.596 (−9.44+12)
M2

AIe = 379.4548 M 2

HOISTING WINCH/OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANE:


5 Ice Cans / Lift
Weight of Ice + Can = 315 lbs
m
VF , Hoist Velocity = 0.15 S

Height of Lift = 2m
T, Time of Lift = 10 sec

From Design of Machine Elements by Faires


Design Factor, N=7 for Small Hoist
Min. Drum Diameter, DS = 30dR
Wire Ropes, Regular Lay 6x19 IPS
Weight of Rope, WR = 1.6DR
Length of Rope, LR = 5m

Total Load, W
W = 315(5) = 1575 Lbs
Ft
WR = 1.6DR 2 (LR ) = 1.6DR 2 (5m) (3.28 M )= 26.24 DR 2
F=Ma
(WR +W)(A)
FT − WR − W =
G
M
(VF −VO ) (0.15 −0)
S
A= =
T 10s

M Ft
A = 0.015 S2 (3.28 M )
Ft
A = 0.0492 S2

Ft =?
Ft
2 (26.24 DR 2 +2,075 Lbs)(0.0492 2 )
S
FT − 26.24 DR − 1575 Lbs = Ft
32.174 2
S

FT = 26.28 DR 2 + 1577.41

Static Approach
AM (DW )(EW )
FB = DS

Where:
Fb – Equivalent Bending Load

Am – Area of Metal = 0.4 DR 2


Dw – Diameter Of Wire = 0.067 Dr
Ew – Modulus Of Elasticity = 3x107 Psi
Ds – Drum of Sheave Diameter = 30 Dr
(0.4DR 2 )(0.067DR )(3x107 )
FB = 30DR

FB = 26,800DR 2

FU −FB
N= FT

Where:
N = 7 (Design Factor)
Fu – Breaking Strength = 42 Dr2
Ft - Rope Tensile Force
lb
42Dr 2 (2,000 )−26,800Dr 2
ton
7= Ft

Ft = 8,171.43Dr 2

Rope Diameter, DR

26.28 DR 2 + 1577.41 = 8,171.43DR 2

8,145.15DR 2 = 1577.41
1
DR = 0.50 In Or 2 In.

Hoist Power
DS = 30DR = 30(0.5) = 15in.
Π(DS )(NS )
V= 12
Π(15)(NS )
(0.15)(3.28) =
12(60)

NS = 7.517 Rpm
D
Hoist Power = 2π(NS )(FT )( 2S )

FT = 8,171.43(0.5)2 = 2,042.86 Lbs


15 In
2π(7.517 Rpm)(2,042.86 Lbs)( )
2
Hoist Power = Ft−Lbs
33,000 (12in)
Hp−Min

Hoist Power = 1.827 Hp


Therefore, Use 2hp Hoist Motor Power.
COOLING TOWER:
Temperature of Entering Water = 33°C
Temperature of Leaving Water = 28°C
Condition of Entering Air = 26°C, 65% Rh
Condition of Leaving Air = 32°C, 98% Rh
Temperature of Make-Up Water = 27°C
Barometric Pressure = 101.325 kpa

Amount Of Cooling Water, MW


MW = (MW )Condenser
Kg
MW = 77.44 S

Air Properties: Using Psychometric Chart


@ 26°C, 65% Rh
Kj
H3 = 61 Kg ; Hr3 = 0.0136

@ 32°C, 98% Rh
Kj
H4 = 108 ; Hr4 = 0.0297
Kg

Mass of Air, MA
Heat Balance on the Cooling Water,
M1 = M2 = MW And M3 = M 4 = MA

(MW )(CPW )(T1 − T2 ) + (MW5 )(CPW )(T5 ) = (MA )(H4 − H3 )

[(MA )(H4 −H3 )]−[(MW )(CPW )(T1 −T2 )]


M W5 =
(CPW )(T5 )

[(MA )(108−61)]−[(77.44 )(4.187)(33−28)]


M W5 = (4.187)(27+273)

MW5 = 0.0374mA − 1.2907

Mass Balance by Water,


MW5 + MW1 + MA Hr3 = MW2 + MA Hr4

MW5 = MA (Hr4 − Hr3 ) = MA (0.0297 − 0.0136)


MW5 = 0.0161MA

Therefore;
0.0374mA − 1.2907 = 0.0161MA
Kg
MA = 60.5962 Of Water
S

Mass of Make-Up Water, MW


MW5 = 0.0161(60.5962 )
Kg
MW5 = 0.9756 Of Water
S

Volume Flow Rate of Air, VA


@ 26°C, 65% Rh, PSat = 3.363 kpa
PV = Rh(PSat ) = 0.65(3.363kpa) = 2.186 kpa
Pv = mrt
Kg Kj
MA RA TA 60.5962 (0.287085 )(26+273)K
S Kg−K
VA = = Kn
PT −PV (101.325−2.186) 2
m

M3
VA = 52.4666 Of Air
S

28+33 Kg
T= = 30.5°C; DW = 996.283 m3
2
Kg
MW (77.44 )(1 Gal)(60 s)
S
VW = = Kg
DW (996.283 3 )(0.003785 m3 )(1 min)
m

VW = 1232.1625 Gpm

1232.1625 Gpm M2
Cooling Tower Area = Gpm X (3.28)2 Ft2
3 2
Ft

Cooling Tower Area = 38.1768 m2


Using Cooling Tower Length of 5m,
Area 38.1768 m2
Width = Length = = 7.6354 m
5m
Number of Nozzles Required
Using 10 gpm Capacity per Nozzle
VW 1232.1625 Gpm
No. Of Nozzles = Capacity = = 123.2163 Nozzles
10
Nozzle

Say: 124 Nozzles


Nozzle Arrangement
No. of Rows = 4 Rows
No. of Nozzle/Row = 31 Nozzles/Row

FAN:
Wheel Diameter = 60 In. = 5ft.
Static Pressure = 15 In. WATER
Total Head
HTA = HVA
Ρ V2
HTA = W + 2g

m3
Q 52.4666 m
S
Velocity Of Air = A = Π m2
= 28.7475
2
( )(5ft) ( ) S
4 3.282 Ft2

m 2
V2 (28.7475
S
)
= m = 41.3265 m of air
2g 2(9.81 2 )
S

Ft M 1000kg
Ρ (15 In.H2 O)( )( )( )
12 In. 3.28 Ft M3 H2 O
= Kg = 317.58 m
W 1.2 3
M

HTA = 358.91 m of air

Fan Power
Kg N
HTA (MA ) 358.91 M (60.5962 )(9.81 )
S Kg
Fan Power = = W = 213.3536 Kw
FC 1,000
Kw

1 Hp
Fan Power = 213.3536 Kw X 0.746kw

𝐅𝐀𝐍 𝐏𝐎𝐖𝐄𝐑 = 𝟐𝟖𝟓. 𝟗𝟗𝟔𝟖 𝐡𝐩 𝐨𝐫 𝟐𝟖𝟔 𝐡𝐩


DAY TANK:
Suction Pressure = 60kpa
Allowance for Fittings and Friction Loss = 5m

Elevation of Tank
Kn
(60 2 )(1000N)(1kg)
M
Elevation = Kg + 5m
(1000 3 )(1kn)(9.81N)
M

Elevation = 11.12 M

Volume Of Day Tank, VT


Vt= Make − Up Water + Raw Water For Ice Production + Water Consumption Of Employees
For Ice Production:
TONS 2,000 Lb 1kg m3 m3
V1 = 120 X X 2.205 Lb X 1,000kg = 108.8435
Day TON Day

For Make-Up Water:


Kg m3 3,600s 24 Hrs. m3
V2 = 0.9756 X 1,000kg X X = 84.2918 Day
S 1hr 1Day

For Employees Consumption and Other Uses:


m3
V3 = 20 Day

VT = V1 + V2 + V3
m3
VT = (108.8435 + 84.2918 + 20) Day

m3
VT = 213.1353 day

Dimensions of Tank
Use H = 8m
Π
VT = 4 (D)2 (H)
m3 Π
213.1353 Day = 4 (D)2 (8m)

D = 5.8242 m

Thickness of Day Tank’s Cylinder, T


P(D)
t = 2(S
S )(E)−P

Welding Efficiency, E =0.80


Kg 9.81N Kn
P = D(H) = 1000 M3 X8mx X 1000N = 78.48 Kpa
Kg

Su = For Mild Steel


6.8948mpa
Su = 50,000 Psi ( ) = 344.74 Mpa
1 Psi

Fm = 0.92 ; Fs = 0.25
SS = SU (FM )(FS )
SS = 344.74 (0.92)(0.25) = 79.29 Mpa
Kn 1000mm
78.48 2 (5.8242 m)( )
M 1m
t= Kn Kn
2(79.29X103 2 )(0.80)−78.48 2
M M

t =3.6052 mm
USE, t = ½ In.
Refrigerant: Ammonia

43oC

-6oC

-10oC
STANDARD ICE CAN DIMENSION
11”x22”x44”
FREEZING TANKS
FLOOR PLAN

1. Cooling Tower 9. Main Office


2. Day Tank 10. Engineering Office
3. Condenser 11. Thaw Tank
4. Compressor 12. Dump and Refill
5. Liquid Receiver 13. Ice Storage
6. Freezing Tank 14. Control Board
7. Cold Storage 15. Loading Platform
8. Tool Room