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American Amir Aboutaleb

Gear Manufacturers Vice President of


AGMA’s Technical
Association Division

Peer-reviewed technical papers to be featured


at AGMA’s Fall Technical Meeting
The AGMA Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) is the premier techni- present The Link Between Steel Cleanness Measurement and Gear Life
cal forum in the United States to hear and discuss the latest applied Performance. His talk may assist designers, especially because the need
research in the gear industry. This year, we will have 27 presenta- for light weighting and increased power are ever-present in so many
tions in five sessions: Efficiency, Lubrication, Noise, and Vibration; of our end-user markets. Our third special guest will be Raymond
Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control; Application, J. Drago, P.E. of Drive Systems Technology Inc., Mechanical Power
Design, and Rating; Materials and Heat Treatment; and Gear Wear Transmission Consultants. Ray is a well-known presence in the gear
and Failure. We solicited more than 50 peer reviewers from across the industry and has been a prominent instructor for AGMA for many
globe to assist us in evaluating all papers in a thorough double-blind years. He will present Reverse Gear Systems Engineering — Why,
review process. All technical papers are published by AGMA and are When & How — Avoiding Pitfalls … and Litigation! This presenta-
later indexed in Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of tion will be relevant to many in our industry.
peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books, and conference I would like to thank the reviewers, as well as the AGMA
proceedings. FTM attendees will receive PDF copies of all technical Technical Division Executive Committee, chaired by Todd Praneis
papers from the sessions for which they registered. from Cotta Transmission Company, LLC, for all its hard work
Some highlights for this year’s compelling research include a pre- over the last several months in bringing us the high-caliber
sentation by Dr. Franco Concli from the University of Bozen on CFD presentations that have become expected of the AGMA FTM.
Simulation of Power Losses and Lubricant Flows in Gearboxes. His paper I encourage all gear industry engineers and technical experts to
describes the application of computational fluid dynamics simulations attend this event. The format allows for a level of interaction
of power losses and lubricant flows in gearboxes. In addition, we have between presenters and attendees that is unique to the industry. I
Mr. Irebert Delgado, a researcher at NASA, who will present his recent always enjoy the Q&A periods at the end of each session, as they
test results on The Effectiveness of Shrouding on Reducing Meshed are very informative.
Spur Gear Power Loss. Lastly, Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld of the Gleason This year’s Fall Technical Meeting is October 22–24 in Columbus,
Corporation will present Psychoacoustic Methodology for the Noise Ohio, and immediately precedes Gear Expo 2017, both located at
Reduction of Bevel Gearsets. the Greater Columbus Convention Center. FTM attendees also will
In addition to the 24 technical papers being presented, I would like receive admission to the Gear Expo show floor, where they can see
to bring attention to three invited special presentations: Dr. David more than 200 exhibitors, special keynote presentations, and so much
Talbot from The Ohio State University will be presenting Indexing more. I look forward to seeing you in Columbus this October.
Error and Dynamic Factors of Spur Gears, focusing on the relation- A full list of presentations is available in this AGMA section of
ship between dynamic factor, gear quality, and pitch line velocity. Our Gear Solutions, and presenter bios also can be found on the AGMA
second invited speaker is Dr. Peter Glaws from TimkenSteel. He will website at www.agma.org.

Session I
Efficiency, Lubrication, Noise, and Vibration
CFD Simulation of Power Losses Understanding the Dynamic Influences demand of life expectancy on the radial shaft seals
and Lubricant Flows in Gearboxes of Gear Oils and Radial Shaft Seals can be met.
Dr. Franco Concli, University of Bozen (Italy) Joe Walker, Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies and
This paper describes the application of Craig Desrochers, P.E., Klüber Lubrication Gear Tooth Strength Analysis of High
Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of power Approximately 40 percent of long-term gearbox Pressure Angle Cylindrical Gears
losses and lubricant flows in gearboxes based leakages can be traced back to poor interaction Dr. Alfonso Fuentes, Rochester Institute of Technology
on an original global re-meshing technique. This between the Radial Shaft Seal (RSS) and the In this paper, the gear tooth strength of high
enables accurate predictions in relatively short lubricant. This paper highlights the most critical pressure angle gears is studied and compared
simulation times, compatible with the industrial interactions between the industry’s most commonly with that of conventional pressure angle gears. The
design practice. The results of the practical used gear oil formulations with emphasis on synthetic comparison will be performed regarding contact
applications used for the validation also are oils with Nitrile and Fluoroelastomers. Through an pressure, contact and bending stresses, loaded
included and discussed in the paper. ideal combination of base oil and additives, the function of transmission errors, and comparison of

AUGUST  2017 17
errors of alignment and shift of contact pattern when is demonstrated to match or exceed the detection presented design process provides a method to
mounted in similar shafts. effectiveness of traditional Nital Etch. Residual stress examine and simulate characteristics of the excitation
depth distributions measured with X-ray diffraction behavior and durability of a gear pair. This enables the
The Effectiveness of Shrouding and electrochemical layer removal are utilized as a engineer to choose the most robust micro-geometry
on Reducing Meshed Spur Gear Power quantitative verification method. in terms of quality and stability already in the design
Loss — Test Results process.
Irebert Delgado, NASA Areal Evaluation of Involute Gear Flanks
Reducing power losses to rotorcraft gearboxes, due with Three-Dimensional Surface Data Reliability, Lifetime, and Safety Factors
to windage drag and viscous effects on rotating, Yue Peng, University of North Carolina at Charlotte Dr. Stefan Beermann, KISSsoft AG
meshed gear components would allow gains in areas This paper presents the benefits of areal evaluation This paper uses several examples to show the
such as vehicle payload, range, mission type, and of gear flanks, mathematical approaches for areal practical differences in using safety factors versus
fuel consumption. One method used in rotorcraft description of involute surface, deviations and reliabilities. The failure probability of all components
gearbox design attempts to reduce losses is to use modifications, and the characterization of areal data for a specific lifetime is calculated to provide the
close clearance walls to enclose the gears in both the with “3D gear deviation parameters.” Approximation reliability of the whole gearbox as a system of
axial and radial directions. This paper examines using and orthogonal polynomial decomposition methods components. This provides the engineer an easier
meshed spur gears at four shroud configurations and are applied for surface reconstruction and parameter method to compare designs and identify the critical
compares the data to available data. calculation. Both simulated and measured gear data components.
are analyzed, and comparisons with conventional
evaluation results are presented. A Comparison of Current AGMA, ISO,
Session II and API Gear Rating Methods
Manufacturing, Inspection, and Standard Samples for Grinder Burn John M. Rinaldo, Atlas Copco Comptec, LLC (retired)
Quality Control Etch Testing There are many different gear rating methods
Jonathan Crow, Caterpillar Inc. in use today, and they can give substantially
Complete Measurement of Gearbox This paper discusses a unique method for producing different results for any given gear set. This
Components a standard sample of an acid etch system that has paper will make it easy to understand the
Dr. Christof Gorgels, Klingelnberg a consistent amount of thermal damage. Multiple choices and the impact the choices have on
In today’s production environment, a variety of degrees of burn are applied to the sample to ensure gearbox design. The eight standards examined
different measurement devices, such as CMMs, that the etch inspection can detect all levels of are AGMA 2001, AGMA 6011, AGMA 6013, ISO
gear checkers, form testers, and roughness testers, potential burn on the piece parts. The sample can 6336, API 613, API 617, API 672, and API 677.
are used to assess the quality and accuracy of then be reliably used to test an acid etch system and This paper will provide a useful aid to customers
workpieces, many of which require specialized its method to ensure the proper amount of contrast who are unsure of the differences between the
training and environments. This paper describes how for threshold levels of thermal damage. standards.
a Circular CMM (CCMM) can be integrated into a
production environment. The benefits and challenges Psychoacoustic Methodology for the Prediction of Dynamic Factors for Helical
of the use of a CCMM will be discussed. Noise Reduction of Bevel Gearsets Gears in a High-Speed Multi-Body
Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld, Gleason Corporation Gearbox System
The Effect of Asymmetric Cutter Tip Radii A rather exciting conclusion from the psychoacoustic Niranjan Raghuraman, MS and Chad Glinsky, Romax
on Gear Tooth Root Bending Stress research is the proposal of a gear transmission graph, Technology
Dr. Nihat Yildirim, Gaziantep University (Turkey) which is a hybrid that connects different mathematical This paper will analyze the influence of operating
The tooth root fillet is where the maximum bending functions within the one pitch long contact area and speed, torque, system dynamics, and gear micro-
stress concentration region is located during torque the outside of this area. The results show that the geometry on the dynamic factors of a high-speed
transmission via gear pairs. An increase in gear root hybrid transmission function dramatically changes the gearbox. It will show that the dependence of dynamic
fillet radius provides a smooth transition from involute way bevel and hypoid gearsets will be optimized in the factor on torque is significant and must not be
to trochoid, increases root critical section thickness, future for silent operation. ignored, and that the presence of system resonance
and the moment of inertia against bending of tooth. modes increases dynamic factors. The dynamic
A 10-percent to 11-percent reduction in bending factors calculated in this study are compared with the
stress is obtained by using asymmetric cutter tip radii Session III dynamic factor values suggested by ISO and AGMA
coefficients for two sides of the gear tooth profile with Application, Design, and Rating standards.
standard center distance and no tooth interference.
FE-based Method for Design
Magnetic Barkhausen Noise as an of Robust Tooth Flank Modifications SPECIAL PRESENTATION
Alternative to Nital Etch for the Detection for Cylindrical and Planetary Gear Stages Indexing Error and Dynamic Factors
of Grinding Burn on Gears in Consideration of Manufacturing of Spur Gears
James Thomas and Stephen Kendrish, American Stress Tolerances Dr. David Talbot, The Ohio State University
Technologies, Inc. Julian Theling, M.Sc., Laboratory of Machine Tools and According to ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04, dynamic factor
Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is quantitative, Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen, Chair of is directly related to gear quality and pitch line velocity.
repeatable, and non-destructive. Further, the MBN Machine Tools This study uses a dynamic load distribution model
method is easily automated, thus removing operator The authors present a method to evaluate the in order to assess the validity of this relationship and
influence as seen with Nital Etch, as a variable. Using quality and stability of flank modifications regarding investigate its physical source. Predictions of both
a sample set of carburized spur gears ground to manufacturing tolerances during the design process, gear root stress and contact stress dynamic factor are
varying conditions of grinding burn, the MBN method using an FE-based tooth contact analysis. The considered in the study.

American
Gear Manufacturers
18
Association
gearsolutions.com
Session IV Effect of Non-Metallic Inclusions result in an increase of unexpected flank damages
Materials and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Performance such as tooth flank fracture. A computer-aided
in High Strength 4140 Steel calculation of the risk of tooth flank fracture damages
Fatigue Performance and Cleanliness Michael Burnett, TimkenSteel will be presented.
of Carburizing Steels for Gears This paper studies the fatigue performance of three
Lily Kamjou, MSc, Ovako sets of quench and tempered 4140 steel samples, Full Contact Analysis Versus Standard
The cleanliness of steels used for gears is of great representing three distinctly different inclusion Load Capacity Calculation for Cylindrical
importance when looking to improve life of gears populations. The inclusion populations for each of Gears
or increase loads. In this paper, carburizing steels the sample sets were characterized using both an Dr.-Ing. Michael Otto, Gear Research Center (FZG) —
with the same basic chemical composition, but SEM-based image analysis system, primarily for the Technical University of Munich
with a varying cleanliness level, are compared. The micro-inclusions, and a high-resolution UT system In this paper, local tooth contact analysis and
investigation showed a good qualitative correlation for the macro-inclusions. The sample sets also were standard calculation are used to determine the load
between the fatigue performance and the inclusion evaluated using both longitudinal and transverse capacity for the failure modes pitting, tooth root
assessment made by ultrasonic evaluation and SEM. specimens in all the bending fatigue tests. The results breakage, micropitting, and tooth flank breakage.
The results also show that traditional micro-inclusion of these tests will be presented. Analogies and differences between both the local and
rating methods are not sensitive enough to give a the standard approaches are shown. The example
good indication of material performance. Sensitivity Study of Press Quench presented demonstrates a valid possibility to optimize
Process and Concept of Tooling Design the gear design by using local tooth contact analysis
for Reduced Distortion by Modeling while satisfying the requirement of documenting the
SPECIAL PRESENTATION Dr. Zhichao (Charlie) Li, DANTE Solutions Inc. load carrying capacity by standard calculations.
The Link Between Steel Cleanness The press quench process includes parameters such
Measurement and Gear Life Performance as heating rate, austenitization temperature, applied The Influence of a Grinding Notch
Dr. Peter C. Glaws, TimkenSteel load type, load amount, load locations from the tooling, on the Gear Bending Strength Rating
Several current industry material (cleanness) friction between the tooling and the gear, and the Dr. Ulrich Kissling, KISSsoft AG
standards were reviewed and found to have poor quench rate. All these factors can lead to inconsistent To achieve the requested quality, most gears today
correlation to gear fatigue performance. Possible distortion, especially for the radial size of thin-wall gears. are ground. If the gear is premanufactured with a tool
reasons for the lack of correlation are discussed. In this paper, the effects of several critical factors on without protuberance, then at the position where the
Selected advanced cleanness measurement the dimensional inconsistency and tooling design are grinding tool retracts from the flank, a grinding notch
methods and appropriate resulting metrics are analyzed by heat treatment modeling software. in the tooth root area is produced. A review of the
offered as alternatives, providing quantitative data formulas to calculate the effects of the grinding notch
in a format that may be used as tools for gear is necessary. A 3D-FEM analysis that was used to
designers to improve gear reliability and highlight Session V deduce an improved formula will be presented.
potential for light weighting and increased power. Gear Wear and Failure
Gear Failure Analysis and Lessons
Predicting Life on Through Hardened Influences of the Residual Stress Learned Under Unanticipated Loading
Steel Rack and Pinion for Jacking Condition on the Load Carrying Capacity Conditions
Applications in the Offshore Industry of Case Hardened Gears Dr. Anngwo Wang, MOOG Inc. Aircraft Group
Dipl. Ing. (FH) Adrian Nowoisky, Oerlikon Fairfield Dipl.-Ing. Christian Güntner, Gear Research Center (FZG) — Lessons about gear failure can be learned in the
It is well known in the industry that, according to Technical University of Munich development phases under unanticipated design or
AGMA and ISO gear calculation methods, the contact Compressive residual stresses, such as those manufacturing errors or unaccounted loading and
stresses in rack and pinion systems for jack up generated by shot peening, result in an increased operating conditions. This paper will study 10 such
applications exceed the permissible limits by a factor tooth root bending strength. The author’s failure cases. Lessons learned are presented and
of 3 to 6. However, these applications have been in investigations show that shot peening can increase act as reminders not to overlook lightly loaded gears,
service without any failures for more than 20 years. the load carrying capacity of case hardened gears gears with deflection, or mounting problems and
This paper will outline the process of the analytical significantly. Correlations between the residual stress unexpected issues from manufacturing errors.
evaluation of a specific design and validate it with state and the load carrying capacity limits were
systems currently in service. determined. This paper will give an overview of the
main results of different investigations and discuss SPECIAL PRESENTATION
Four Ways Polyketone Polymers Can influences of the residual stress condition on different Reverse Gear System Engineering — Why,
Improve Gear Performance failure modes of case hardened gears. When & How — (Avoiding Pitfalls … and
Tim Morefield, Esprix Technologies Litigation!)
Historically, the most commonly specified resins Calculation of Tooth Flank Fracture Load Raymond J. Drago, P. E., Drive Systems Technology, Inc.
for plastic gears have been acetal (POM), nylon Capacity — Practical Applicability and Mechanical Power Transmission Consultants
(PA 66) and polyester (PBT), with or without Main Influence Parameters Reverse engineering a gear system is a not too
modifiers (PTFE, carbon fiber, glass fiber, silicone, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Hein, Gear Research Center (FZG) — unusual task, thus it is easy to become complacent.
or combinations thereof) to reduce friction and Technical University of Munich Failure to fully follow best practices can result in, in
wear. Polyketone offers engineers four distinct Due to improved material qualities, new surface the worst cases, very expensive, time consuming, and
advantages relative to other materials in meeting finishing methods, and increased heat-treatment reputation damaging litigation. This presentation will
design challenges: 1) superior wear properties, 2) process reliability, flank surface damages, such as rely on the experience of being an expert witness to
better dimensional control/stability, 3) superior creep pitting or micropitting, can increasingly be prevented provide information to aid the reverse engineering of a
rupture performance, and 4) quieter operation. in a reliable manner. At the same time, this may project as completely as possible.

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AUGUST  2017 19
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
Whether you’re looking for technical education, networking opportunities, or a way for your voice to be heard
in the standards process, AGMA has something to offer you. If you would like more information on any of the
following events, visit www.agma.org or send an email to events@agma.org.
Events are open to AGMA members only. Not a member? Send an email to membership@agma.org.
August 29 — Helical Gear Rating Committee — subcommittee 925 — WebEx
AUGUST

August 30 — Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting — WebEx


August 31 — Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting — WebEx

September 6-8 — Bevel Gear System Design — San Diego, California


September 7 — Wormgearing Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 12 — Enclosed Drive for Industrial Applications Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 13 — Powder Metallurgy Committee Meeting — WebEx
SEPTEMBER

September 14 — Lubrication Committee Meeting — WebEx


September 18-22 — Basic Training for Gear Manufacturing — Chicago, Illinois
September 19 — Materials & Metallurgy Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 21 — Accuracy Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 26 — Cutting Tools Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 27 — Sound & Vibration Committee Meeting — WebEx
September 28 — Helical Gear Rating Committee - Subcommittee 925 — WebEx

October 3 — Nomenclature Committee Meeting — WebEx


October 4-5 — Fall Marketing & Forecasting Meeting — Chicago, Illinois
OCTOBER

October 4-6 — Steels for Gear Application — Alexandria, Virginia


October 10 — Plastics Gearing Committee Meeting — WebEx
October 17 — Lubrication Committee Meeting — WebEx
October 19-20 — Aerospace Gearing Committee Meeting — Columbus, Ohio
October 22-24 — Fall Technical Meeting — Columbus, Ohio
October 24-26 — Gear Expo — Columbus, Ohio

AGMA LEADERSHIP

Jim Bregi: Chairman Nitin Chaphalkar: DMG Mori USA


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Doppler Gear Company


Michael Engesser: Reishauer Corporation
John Cross: Treasurer
ASI Technologies Inc. David Long: Chalmers & Kubeck Inc.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS

John E. Grazia: Chairman, BMEC Michael McKernin: Circle Gear and Machine Company
GearTec Inc.
Todd Praneis: Chairman, TDEC Cory Ooyen: Global Gear & Machining, LLC
Cotta Transmission Company, LLC Carl D. Rapp: The Timken Company
Dean Burrows: Chairman Emeritus
Gear Motions Inc. Tania Sabados: Rapid Gear
Andrea Scanavini: Somaschini North America
Matt Croson: President
SENIOR STAFF

Greg Schulte: Bonfiglioli USA


Amir Aboutaleb: Vice President, Technical Division
Jenny Blackford: Vice President, Marketing Brian Schultz: Great Lakes Industry, Inc.
Jill Johnson: Director, Member Services George Thomas: Bison Gear & Engineering Corp.
Casandra D. Blassingame: Director, Education Hastings Wyman: Klingelnberg America, Inc.
General requests: website@agma.org | Membership questions: membership@agma.org | Gear Expo information: gearexpo@agma.org
Technical/Standards information: tech@agma.org | AGMA Foundation: foundation@agma.org

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