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Characteristics of eukaryotic cells

 All eukaryotic cells have a separately enclosed nucleus inside the cell's cytoplasm.
 Mitochondria exists in one form or another inside the eukaryotic cell's nucleus.
 All existing eukaryotic cells contain a cytoskeletal structure or elements.
 They have chromosomes within the nucleus, consisting of a single, linear DNA molecule spiraled around alkaline proteins named histones.
 Cell reproduction in eukaryotic cells occurs via mitosis, a process whereby the chromosomes divide by using components within the cytoskeleton.
 All eukaryotic cells have cell walls.

Characteristics of prokaryotic cells


 Prokaryotes lack an organized nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
 Prokaryotic DNA is found in a central part of the cell called the nucleoid.
 The cell wall of a prokaryote acts as an extra layer of protection, helps maintain cell shape, and prevents dehydration.
 Prokaryotic cell size ranges from 0.1 to 5.0 μm in diameter.
 The small size of prokaryotes allows quick entry and diffusion of ions and molecules to other parts of the cell while also allowing fast removal of waste products out of the cell.
Ribosome diff: The key difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes is that the prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S particles composed of 50S large subunit and 30S small subunit while the eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S particles composed of 60S large sub unit and a 40S small
subunit.

1. Domain Archaea – prokaryotic, no nuclear membrane, distinct biochemistry and RNA markers from bacteriaDomain Bacteria – prokaryotic, consists of prokaryotic cells possessing primarily diacyl glycerol diester lipids in their membranes and
bacterial rRNA, no nuclear membrane, traditionally classified as bacteriaDomain Eukarya – eukaryotes, organisms that contain a membrane-bound nucleus.
Four kingdoms of Eukarya
1. Protista
2. Fungi
3. Animalia
4. Plantae
Endotoxin vs Exotoxin: The key difference between endotoxin and exotoxin is that the endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide that lies within the bacterial cell wall while exotoxin is a protein that secretes to the outside of the bacterial cell.

Modes of transmission: contact transmission, vehicle transmission, mechanical transmission, and biological transmission
Types of operons: repressible and inducible
Conjugation- cell to cell Transduction- virus exchanged dna Transformation- pick up loose dna
 Plague- Yersinia pestis
 Gas Gangrene-Clostridium perfringens
 Colitis- Clostridium difficile
 Most common UTI’s- E.Coli
 Most common isolate from a wound- Staph aureus
 Necrotizing Fasciitis- Staph aureus
 Botulism- Clostridium botulinum
 Rheumatic Fever- Streptococcus pyogenes
 Measles- Measles morbillivirus
 AIDS- HIV
Asexual fungi spores- Conidia, Arthroconidia, Blastoconidia, Chlamydoconidia, and Sporangiospores
Sexual fungi spores- Zygospore, Ascospore, Basidiospore
Definition of a virus- A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

Reverse transcriptase- A reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA from an RNA template
Best vaccine- attenuated vaccine
How does HIV damage the immune system?- HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.[10] HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis
of abortively infected T cells,[11] apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells,[12] direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.[13] When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated
immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.
Viral dependent RNA polymerase- catalyses synthesis of the RNA strand complementary to a given RNA template