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Chapter 6 Review

1. What are the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell? What compounds require these nutrients?
Carbon
1. Structural backbone of organic molecules
2. Chemoheterotrophs use organic molecules as energy
3. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide.
Nitrogen
4. Component of proteins, DNA, and ATP
5. Most bacteria decompose protein material for the nitrogen source
6. Some bacteria use NH4+ or NO3- from organic material
7. A few bacteria use N2 in nitrogen fixation
Sulfur
8. Used in amino acids, thiamine, and biotin
9. Most bacteria decompose protein for the sulfur source
10. Some bacteria use SO4-2 or H2S
Phosphorus
11. Used in DNA, RNA, and ATP
12. Found in membranes
13. PO43 is a source of phosphorus
Trace Elements
14. Inorganic elements required in small amounts
15. Usually as enzyme cofactors
16. Include iron, copper, molybdenum, and zinc
Organic Growth Factors
17. Organic compounds obtained from the environment
18. Vitamins, amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines

2. What is the difference between organic and inorganic nitrogen sources?

Inorganic sources come from inorganic molecules, while organic sources are organic molecules.

3. What is the difference between organic and inorganic carbon sources?

Inorganic carbon comes from inorganic molecules, organic carbon comes from organic molecules.

4. List and define the four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.

Photoautotroph
Chemoautotroph
Photoheterotroph
Chemoheterotroph

5. How do microbes absorb their nutrients?

By diffusion across the cell wall and membrane.


6. How do bacterial cells respond to hypertonic solutions? Hypotonic solution?

Hypertonic solutions cause cells to shrivel, hypotonic solutions can cause it to swell up or burst.

7. List and define the terms that are used to express a microbe’s optional growth temperature.

• Psychrotrophs
• Grow between 0C and 20 to 30C
• Cause food spoilage
• Thermophiles
• Optimum growth temperature of 50 to 60C
• Found in hot springs and organic compost
• Hyperthermophiles
• Optimum growth temperature >80C

8. Summarize the ways that microbes function in the presence of oxygen.

Obligate aerobes—require oxygen

Facultative anaerobes—grow via fermentation or anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not available

Anaerobes—unable to use oxygen and most are harmed by it

Aerotolerant anaerobes—tolerate but cannot use oxygen

Microaerophiles—require oxygen concentration lower than air

9. Identify the physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.

Temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure.

10. What are the characteristics of biofilms?

Microbial communities

Form slime or hydrogels that adhere to surfaces

Bacteria communicate cell-to-cell via quorum sensing

Bacteria secrete an inducer (signaling chemical) to attract other bacterial cells

Share nutrients

Shelter bacteria from harmful environmental factors


11. Diagram and label the steps in binary fission.
12. Diagram and label a bacterial growth curve and describe what is happening in each part.

13. You need to determine the number of bacteria that can be produced in a bacterial culture. The lag time for this
bacterial culture is 20 minutes. The generation time is 30 minutes. If you begin with 100 cells, how many
bacterial cells will be present at the end of 2 hours and 20 minutes?

1600 cells

14. In which stage in the life cycle of a bacterial growth curve are the bacteria most vulnerable to chemical
disinfectants? Why?
The logarithmic phase, as this is the the period of the greatest growth.