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DRAFT OF THESIS

Researcher : Nurul Hikmah


Reg. Number : 40300114087
Department : English and Literature Department
Faculty : Adab and Humanities Faculty
Title : ILLUCITIONARY BASED ON SEARLE’S SPEECH ACT
CLASSIFICATION IN THE NOVEL ROGUE LAWYER.

A. Introduction

1. Study of Background

Language is a tool or system of symbols designed for purpose of

communication and interaction with each other (Lyons, 2002). In addition,

People use language to transmit and express their ideas, emotions or desire

either in oral or written forms, language is not only used as communication

media but also usually involved in other fields such as language as arts. It can

be found in advertisement and entertainment which appear in society such as

music, novel, film or movie.

Language an important part in our life. It is main device to convey

message, communicate ideas opinions and thought. In our life there are

moments we need to understand language quite correctly. To express their

feeling or communicate their idea, they do not only produce utterance

containing grammatical structures and words, they are also performs action

via those utterances. Action performed via utterances are generally called

speech act (Yule, 1996:47). Moreover, Yule define speech act in English, are

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commonly given more specific labels, such as apology, complaint,

compliment, invitation, promise, or request. From that explanation, it can be

understood that language is not only used to inform or to describe things, t is

often used to “do things” or to perform act.

Understanding the basis of pragmatics helps us to better understand the

speech act theory and makes our overall communication that much stronger

and has relationship with speech act. Speech act theory takes a close look at

what we say, how we say it and what it really means. pragmatics is a broad

approach to discourse that deals with the widely vast concepts of meaning,

context and communication. Due to the wide scope of pragmatics, experts

have failed to reach an agreement on the best definition of this approach. In

language, pragmatics and discourse are closely connected. Discourse is the

method, either written or verbal, by which an idea is communicated in an

orderly, understandable fashion. pragmatics studies the factors that govern our

choice of language in social interaction and the effect of our choices on others.

Pragmatic factors always affect our selection of sounds, grammatical

constructions, and vocabularies in producing the meaning we intend to

communicate (Crystal, 1987: 62-5). Hence, pragmatics relates to the study of

meaning of words used by people in concrete social situations, that is, with

words in context.

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Talk about of speech is certainly not separated from speakers and

speakers, but also from the context of narrative, knowledge of the status of the

parties involved in the narrative, and the implied intent of the narrative, this is

included in the pragmatic study. Pragmatics is the study of aspect of language

that requires reference to the users of the language then led to a very natural,

pragmatics is the field of linguistic which points out speech utterance.

(Levinson, 983:3).

Literature can be said as a reflection of the complexity of human life.

By knowing the complexity of human life, we will be able to understand the

characteristic of human life. That is why we get so many useful benefits in

knowing literature. A novel with its entire characteristic can be very enjoyable

means of studying speech acts. This is mainly because mostly we can find

conversation between the characters in the novel. a writer does not merely

‘flow’ his idea that develops the story of the novel through the sentences

description. Nevertheless, often the writer builds the story through the

conversation of the characters. Almost all novelists of course use the

conversation to advance the story.

Observing language used in communication can be conducted both

spoken and written. In spoken, we can notice the language use is daily

communication to each other. While in written, we can observe it in literary

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work since it is means of human communication that is to share thoughts,

feelings, wishes and attitudes. “Literary work what so-called literature,

according to Francis Connolly as quoted by (Koesnosoebroto, 1988:3), is

divided into two, those are literature of imagination and literature of

knowledge. The literature of imagination i.e.: drama, poem, novel, short story,

etc., whereas the literature of knowledge i.e.: technical books, textbooks,

biography, etc.”

Therefore, it is interesting to study speech act because we can know

how actually the utterances reflected into actions. It is also an interesting

research to analyze the speech act used in literary work like in Rogue Lawyer.

(2015), a very popular novel by John Grisham. There we can find many direct

utterances dealing with speech act, in various classifications. Based on the

explanation above, the study about speech acts in novel is still needed to

contribute pragmatics study and communication involves linguistic acts. So,

the writer wants to investigate what actions are performed through language

for communication among people. According to (Searle, 977:16) “the reason

for concentrating on the study of speech acts is because all linguistic

communication involves linguistic acts. Speech act is the study dealing with

meaning so in order to make a good communication between the speaker and

the addressee we have to be carefully in catching the meaning.

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( Searle ,1977:16)

The speech act has relation in holy Qur’an, as shown in the Surah

Yunus verse 38 follows:

‫ُون ه‬
ِ‫ٱَّلل‬ ِ ‫طعۡ تُم ِمن د‬ ُ ‫ور ٖة ِم ۡث ِلِۦه َو ۡٱد‬
ۡ ‫عواْ َم ِن‬
َ َ ‫ٱست‬ َ ‫س‬ُ ِ‫أ َ ۡم يَقُولُونَ ۡٱفت َ َر ٰى ُۖهُ قُ ۡل فَ ۡأتُواْ ب‬
َ ٰ ‫ِإن ُكنت ُ ۡم‬
٣٨ َ‫ص ِد ِقين‬
Translation:

Or say they: He hath invented it? Say: Then bring a surah like unto it, and call

(for help) on all ye can besides Allah, if ye are truthful.

If the verse above approached by Austin’s theory of speech act, so the

locution act will be the formal structure form which in order form (make it and

call upon). While the illocution act is ta’jiz (debilitate), which Allah affirms

that the disbelievers or anyone else will not be able to produce a surah whose

qualities will same as the Qur'an. While the act of perlocution is in the form of

influence so that they revoke the allegations that the Qur'an was made by

Muhammad. Then, the implication is they believe that the Qur'an as His words

which revealed to Muhammad and do not made by Muhammad.

The use of speech acts that have exited from their original function

structurally as in the above example, had another purpose which can be

understood in the presence of a context. Here the speaker only uses the

structural construction of a speech as the mode only, but the intent and

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purpose can vary. Because not all of them written is the true meaning then this

includes an important part to understand a literary work, like novel.

2. Problem Statement

Novel contains speech act which express how the interaction happens

among the characters. Therefore, in this research question as follow:

a. How is illucitionary act based on Searle’s speech acts used in the novel

Rogue Lawyer?

3. Objective of Research

a. To describe the use of illucitionary act based on Searle’s speech act in the

novel Rogue Lawyer

4. Significance of the Research

Research significance explains the benefit of this research. In this case,

the researcher will discuss the significance of the research theoritically and

practically.

a. Practically

The study will improve the communicative competence of the English

users and the study will improve the understanding of the readers about

novel Rogue Lawyer.

b. Theoretically

This writing may contribute in the field of linguistics, especially

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pragmatics Theoretically for The study will become an evidence to support

the theory of speech act by many linguists.

5. Scope of the Research

In this study the writer observes the illocutionary acts in the novel

Rogue Lawyer by John Grisham. To limit this study, the writer observes it

based on Searle’s speech act classification, because Searle gave more detail

speech act classification. The limitation here is used to make the result of the

study be more specific.

B. Review of Related Literature

1. Previous Findings

The study of the speech act: has been conducted by many linguists.

They have done researches on many aspects of communication. To support

and compare this research, the writer provides reviews on several researches

about speech act especially about locutionary.

First, the paper is written by Widiatmoko (2017), entitled “Analysis of

presidential inaugural addresses using searle’s taxonomy of speech acts” This

study analyzes the performance of Searle‟ speech acts in presidential

inaugural addresses. each inaugural address possessed distinctive

characteristics influenced by sociopolitical, economic, and historical situation

of the countries In addition, some commonalities in relation to the

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performance of Searle‟s speech act taxonomy were also observed. As stated

previously, this study analyzed performance of speech acts of the corpus data

from the presidential inaugural addresses using Searle‟s taxonomy. Five

inaugural addresses were chosen based on the availability of the script and

possibly the streaming audio or video of the inaugural addresses in the internet

as not every country publishes them.

Another related research is an analysis of directive speech acts in the

movie “the sleeping and beauty”.by Amelyya (2009) aimed to know what the

happened of the child after watching this film and the effect of the child abase

reflected of the mayor character’s psychological development.

The last reference is directive Illucitioanry Act of Luther Character In

The Novel “Skipping Chritsmas” Translated Into “Absen Natal” by

Nindyasari (2013). The writer analyzes Luther Krank because he is the main

character in the novel “Skipping Christmas”. An Analysis This study is aimed

at analyzing the translation of illocutionary act of the main character and the

type of illocutionary act found in the main character. The result of this analysis

shows that there are 6 types of directive illocutionary act found. There are

asking, commanding, ordering, suggesting, requesting and forbidding. Based

on the data, there are 24 directive illocutionary acts utterances found in this

novel. The type which has the most occurrences is asking. From the

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translation patterns of directive illocutionary acts, there are suggesting to

suggesting. All directive illocutionary act are having the same structure and

meaning from source language to target language. The translator has no

difficulties in translating especially Luther character utterances.

Based on the reviews above, it can be seen that this research has

similarity with those of the previous researchers, in terms of the topic of

analysis. However, this research is different from the data and the focus,

previous finding, the first by Widiatmoko (2017), entitled “Analysis of

presidential inaugural addresses using searle’s taxonomy of speech acts” This

study analyzes the performance of Searle‟ speech acts in presidential

inaugural addresses. each inaugural address possessed distinctive

characteristics influenced by sociopolitical, economic, and historical situation

of the countries and the last Amelyya (2009) research is an analysis of

directive speech acts in the movie “the sleeping and beauty” to know what the

happened of the child after watching this film and the effect of the child abase

reflected of the mayor character’s psychological. And also Nindyasari (2013)

An analysis directive Illucitioanry Act of Luther Character In The Novel

“Skipping Chritsmas” Translated Into “Absen Natal”. The writer analyzes

Luther Krank because he is the main character in the novel “Skipping

Christmas”. An Analysis This study is aimed at analyzing the translation of

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illocutionary act of the main character and the type of illocutionary act found

in the main character. The result of this analysis shows that there are 6 types of

directive illocutionary act found. There are asking, commanding, ordering,

suggesting, requesting and forbidding. Based on the data, there are 24

directive while in this researches the writer to describe the speech acts used in

the novel by John Grisham entitled Rogue Lawyer using the classification and

theory according to Searle.

2. Patient Ideas

To make the title easily understood by the readers, the writer would

like to give the definition and explanation of the terms used, they are as

follows:

a. Pragmatics

In studying about language, we will meet with two branches of

language science, semantics and pragmatics. Both of that sciences concern

at language but in different side. Semantics refers to the construction of

meaning language, while pragmatics refers to meaning construction in

specific interactional context. “language consists of grammar, vocabulary,

and pragmatics.” He then defines “pragmatics as a set of strategies and

principles for achieving success in communication by the case of

grammar.” (Leech, 1983:76) Therefore in this case, pragmatics is

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interested in the process of producing language and in its procedures, not

just in the end – product, language. as whatever the outcome of our

preliminary quest for a definition, the language uses seem to be at the

center of attention in pragmatics.

Many kinds of linguistics to way communication. one of them is

pragmatics. Pragmatics is study about speaker meaning. In other word, at

pragmatics study about the meaning of the context between the speaker

and hearer. While, according to (Mey, 1993 :6) in pragmatics we studies

not only about language but also learns about the external meaning of the

sentence or utterance. It was involved such an interpretation for what

people mean in the right context and how that context impact what is said.

In this studies we also need to explore what listener implication that

speaker utterance (Yule, 1996: 3). From those statements, the writer tried

to study about pragmatics intensively for this paper. pragmatics, is

concerned with the way of speaker using language in context which cannot

be predicted from purely linguistic knowledge, particularly semantics,

which deals with the internal structure of the language (Griffiths, 2006:

153).

From the definition above, the researcher can conclude that

pragmatics is the study of utterance meaning. It concentrates on aspects of

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meaning that cannot be predicted by linguistic form knowledge alone and

takes into account the knowledge about the physical and social world. It is

focus on the meaning of speaker’s.

b. Novel

Novel is one of the largest of literary forms, the average novel

running to some 300 pages (Little, 1970:101). Novel usually does present

in detail the development of a character, or a large complex social

situation, or a relationship involving many characters, or a complicated

event covering many years, or a complex relationship among a few

characters (Stanton, 1965:44).

A novel is a literary work that is built by means of language. This

implies that basically literary works are a series of speech events.

Generally, a literary work or a novel is developed in two forms; by

narrating the story, or through the dialogues or conversation. These two

forms can be used in turn because they support each other to build the

story becomes alive and not monotonous. “the readers are interested in

literary works because they want to learn about another country, to appear

well educated, to pass the examination and to make themselves better

people”. (Rees, 1973:13)

Novel not only as entertainment but now novel also became a

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source of education. We can learn and got education from novel because

of many messages that implied and founded there.

c. Speech Act

The second related review of the study is speech act. The writer

takes the theory of speech act from several writers such as Searle, Austin,

Kiefr and Bierwisch as the sources of her study.

Speech act theory (SAT) is one of the core issue of modern

pragmatics, as stated particularly by Austin (1962) and then expanded by

Searle (1969). It is one of pragmatics basic ingredients arranging by words

and corresponding to sentences and some ways to avoid kinds of

misunderstanding in communication (Schiffrin, 2001: 49). In

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/speechact it is stated “that the study of speech

acts forms part of the discipline of pragmatics, which forms part of

linguistics.” Moreover, to communicate is to express a certain attitude, and

act defined as the units at the lowest rank of discourse (Coulthard 1977:8).

As an act of communication, a speech act succeeds if the audience

identities, in accordance with the speaker’s intention, the attitude being

expressed. “The first thing one should notice is that speech acts are actions

happening".

Speech act was first developed by Austin (1962) to explain an

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utterance with a natural language to get a feedback (Flor and Juan, 2010).

Austin (1962: 94) states that speech acts is a theory in which to say

something is to do something. it means that when someone says

something, he or she is not only saying something but also uses it to do

things or perform act. In simple word, speech act is the actions performed

via utterances. Speech act is a phrase that consists of two words, speech

and act. Speech act is utterances that can be classified into three aspects

i.e. locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act but also

Speech act is usually used for making statements, giving commands,

asking questions, or making promises.

From several definitions about speech act above, it is cleary

explained that speech act is the main part of our daily communication. And

the simplest unit of human communication is the performance of certain

kinds of act, such as making statement, asking question, giving orders,

describing or explaining something from the speaker to the hearer. The

actions in those utterances can be identified into three components of

speech act, they are; locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary act

which will be explained further.

According to (Parker, 1986:14) speech act as every utterance of

speech constitutes some sort of act. “The first thing one should notice is

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that speech acts are actions happening in the world, that is, they bring

about a change in the existing state of affairs” (Mey 1993:111). We can

make requests, ask questions, give orders, make promises, give thanks,

offer, apologies, and so on. A major task for the theory of speech acts is to

account for how speakers can succeed in what they do despite the various

ways which linguistic meaning under determines use.

d. Locutionary, Illocutionary and Perlocutionary Acts

Utterances perform three kinds of act. Austin (1955:109) identifies

three distinct levels of action beyond the act of utterance. He classifies the

three levels of act began with the effect those words have on an audience.

They are called locutionary act, illocutionary, and perlocutionary act.

“Locutionary act is the aspect of language which has been the traditional

concern of linguistics” (Stubbs 1983:152). The locutionary act is the act of

saying something: producing a series of sounds which means something.

On other word, locutionary act is the act simply uttering a sentence from a

language; it is a description of what the speaker says. It is the act of using

a referring expressions and a predicating expression. It is the acts of saying

something in which each word in the sentences is uttered exactly the same

as its meaning in the ordinary.

Austin (1955:407) states that “the content of locutionary act (what

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is said) is not always determined by what is meant by the sentences being

uttered.” In order to make the understanding about locutionary act, observe

the following example. Suppose, for example, that a bartender utters the

words, “The bar will be closed in five minutes’, reported by means of

direct quotation. He is thereby performing the locutionary act of saying

that the bar (i.e., the one he is tending) will be closed in five minutes (from

the utterance), and what is said is reported by indirect quotation (notice

that what the bartender is saying, the content of his locutionary act, is not

fully determined by the words he is using, for they do not specify the bar

in question or the time of the utterance). When the bartender does not utter

it to a definite hearer, the utterance has no sense. However, the utterance is

absolutely right because everyone can get the meaning easily. “What is

usually meant by saying that we do something when we make an utterance

is that we accomplish some specific social acts, such as making a promise,

a request giving advice, etc, usually called speech acts, or more

specifically, illocutionary acts” (Van Dijk 1977: 195). The last act is the

perlocutionary act produces some effect on the hearer of what the speaker

says. Therefore, perlocutionary act is hearer’s behavioral response to the

meaning of utterance. It can be a physical or verbal response, perhaps

merely a mental or emotional response of some kind.

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After knowing the definition of each speech act components about

the study of illocutionary speech act which deals with the utterances itself.

The writer takes Searle’s theory of illocutionary act classifications for her

study.

e. Classification of Illocutionary Speech Acts

1) Representative

Representative is kinds of speech acts that state or express what the

speaker believes to be the case or not (Searle in Yule, 1996: 53). It

shows the truth condition of the meaning of the utterance. The example

of this type are agree, deny, affirm, allege, announce, believe, boast,

complain, conclude, forecast, inform, insist, predict, report, state, and

suggest. The following is the example: The sun rises in the east. That

utterance shows a fact and general truth that the sun really rises in the

east. This is an absolute fact which is trusted by everyone.

2) Directive

Directive is speech act that speakers use to get someone else to do

something (Searle in Yule, 1996: 54). It is a condition when the

speaker requests the hearer to carry out some actions or to bring out

some states or affairs. Directive illocutionary act used by the speaker

to get someone else to do something. This directive can make the

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hearer under an obligation. Verbs denoting members of this type are

advise, ask, beg, bid, command, demand, forbid, order, recommend,

and request. The following is the example of directive: Don’t be too

noisy! That utterance contains a prohibition which can make the hearer

silent. This is usually done when someone/the speaker feels annoyed

with the crowded made by the hearer or people around.

3) Commissive Commissive is kind of speech acts that speakers use to

commit themselves to do some in the future (Searle in Yule, 1996: 54).

Commissive express what the speaker’s intends. Including in this type

is offer, promise, swear, threat, and volunteer. Below the example: I

promise to give you some money. The utterance above shows a promise

of the speaker to the addressee/hearer. It shows what the speaker has to

do in the future.

4) Expressive, Expressive is speech acts that stated what the speaker feels

(Searle in Yule,1996: 53). It expresses the psychological states and can

be statements of pleasure, pain, likes, dislikes, joy or sorrow. They can

be caused by something the speaker does or the hearer does, but they

are about the speaker’s experience. Apologize, appreciate, blame,

commiserate, congratulate, mock, pardon, praise, thank, and welcome

are the example of expressive. The example of it is below: I am sorry

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to hear that. the sentence above is an utterance that shows the empathy

of the speaker to the condition of the hearer at that time. The speaker

tries to feel what the hearer feel. Therefore, the hearer will at least lose

a bit of their tension.

5) Declarative

Declarative is kind of illocutionary acts that can changes world by the

utterance which is produced. As Searle in Yule (1996:53) states that

declarative is kinds of speech acts that change the world via their

utterance. The word „change‟ which is intended here refers to any

situation. It can be the changing of the status of a person or, the

ownership of something. The verbs which belong to declaration are;

adjourn, appoint, baptize, christen, declare, communicate, name,

resign, sentence, and veto. Below is an example of declaration: I

declare you husband and wife. The utterance above changes the status

of those two people. The man becomes a husband and has right and

responsibility to the woman. The woman also, she becomes a wife and

has right and responsibility to the man.

3. Synopsis in the novel

Sebastian Rudd is a street lawyer, but not your typical street lawyer.

His office is a black customized bulletproof van, complete with Wi-Fi, a bar, a

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small fridge, and fine leather chairs. He has no firm, no partners, and only one

employee: his heavily armed driver, who used to be his client, and who also

happens to be his bodyguard, law clerk, confidant, and golf caddie. Sebastian

drinks small-batch bourbon and carries a gun. His beautiful ex-wife is a

lawyer too, and she left him for another woman while still they were married.

He only gets to see his son for 36 hours per month and his ex-wife wants to

stop all visits.

He defends people other lawyers won't go near: a drug-addled, tattooed

kid rumored to be in a satanic cult who is accused of murdering two girls; a

vicious crime lord on death row who escaped before his eyes; a homeowner

arrested for shooting at a SWAT team that mistakenly invaded his house, and

killed his wife and dogs; a Mixed martial arts fighter who killed a referee after

losing a fight. In between these adventures, he's contacted by a serial

kidnapper and killer who's involved in human trafficking and knows the

whereabouts of the assistant chief of police's missing daughter.

C. Method of The Research

1. Research Design

The writer will use descriptive qualitative method in this research.

Descriptive research is thus a type of research that is primarily concern by

describing the nature or conditions and degree in detail of present situation

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(Landman, 1988:59). In addition, this research also will use qualitative

approach in which the data that will be analyzed in this research are speech.

Qualitative method means that all data that are analyzed are in the form of

sentences and words, not in the form of number (Wilkinson, 2000:7).

2. Data source

The data of this research will take from the novel Rogue Lawyer by

John Grisham. This novel was published on October 20th 2015 by double day.

The English version of this novel consists of 113 chapter 344 pages while in

Indonesia version also consists of 113 chapter 512 pages. In this research, the

researcher choose to analyze from Chapter 1 to Chapter 4 only from utterances

that are used by Sebastian Rudd as the main character.

The data were in form of words, phrase, and sentences taken from the

novel. They were also in form of description and identification of utterances in

the conversation among the characters that used five kinds of speech acts

based on Searle’s speech act classification. By analyzing the characters’

utterances in the novel, the writer tried to find the use of speech acts in the

novel.

3. Technique of Data Collection

In this stage, the researcher look for the utterance that includes the

kinds illucitionary act in the Rogue Lawyer novel.

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4. Technique of Data Analysis

The writer will use method for this research is documentation.

According to Guba and Lincoln (Moleong, 2009:216), document is all of

written substance or film. according to Suharsini (2010:274) a documentation

method is find the data that related by using book, transcript, newspaper,

magazine, ancient inscription, notes of a meeting, agenda, etc. This method

used because it can be made to examine and interpreting something (Moleong,

2009:217). In this research, the writer used Speech act theory based on John

Searle in data analysis approach by following steps:

a. Reading the novel carefully, he first step the writer did in collecting the

data was reading the novel in several times in order to understand the

content. She read carefully chapter by chapter as the object of the study.

b. Identifying the data, after reading the novel several times, the writer made

some notes on the pages that might contain the required data (utterances,

sentences, and lines containing Searle’s speech act classification). The

notes were in the form of underlining or bracketing the sentences or

utterances in the novel.

c. Classifying, after the writer got all the data from the novel, she then

classified the data from chapter 1 to chapter 4 into each types of

ilocutionary. Because of this novel consists of 6 chapters, in this part, she

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classified the data based on Searle’s speech act classification, there were

namely representative, directive, commisive, expressive, and declarations

speech act. Therefore, in this research the writer only focused on analysis

the utterances that uttered by main character and focuses only on 4

chapters.

d. The result of concluding, then the last step, the writer draw the conclusion

based on the result of the analysis.

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Anonym. 2015. Rogue Lawyer Novel. Retrieved from www.wikipedia.org at


March, 3th 2018.

Anonym. 2014. John Ray Grisham Jr. Retrieved from www.wikipedia.org at


March, 3th 2018.

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