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TO SLEEP, NO DOUBT TO DREAM

By: Christina Chouman


4th hour 5/7/19
EUGENE ASERINSKY AND NATHANIEL KLEITMAN
•  In 1953 Aserinsky was working under direction of Kleitman in a sleep study laboratory.
•  Aserinsky had graduated from the University of Chicago while still studying patterns of
sleep
•  Aserinsky was the first to observe the rapid eye movement (REM) now known to occur
during dreaming.
•  He mainly worked on observing children sleep then realized he should focus on adults.
•  Kleitman’s educational background is quite similar to that of Eugene of that they had both
graduated from the University of Chicago, Kleitman had graduated with PhD.
PSYCHOLOGISTS: EUGENE ASERINSKY &
NATHANIEL KLEITMAN
•  Started with Eugene observing infants.
•  He then noticed while the infants were sleeping there were periodic
occurrences of active eye movements.
•  His theory was that these periods of active eye movements might be
associated with dreaming. However the infants couldn’t tell him.
•  Then Eugene and his coauthor Nathaniel employed 20 normal adults to be
served as subjects.
EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES
•  Sensitive electronic measuring devices were connected by electrodes to the muscle
around the eyes of these subjects
•  Subjects then were allowed to fall asleep normally. Subjects sleep was monitored, along
with eye movement when asleep
•  During the night the subjects were awakened and interrogated on what had happened
while asleep and if any dreaming had occurred at the time of rest
•  When eye movement had occurred it was noted by the scientist as well as which patients
had no eye movement occur when the patients are asleep
RESULTS
•  The results reveled that all the subjects combined there were 27 awakenings during
periods of sleep accompanied by rapid eye movement.
•  20 reported detailed visual dreams
•  The other seven reported “ the feeling of having dreamed” but couldn't’t recall the dream
•  During periods of NO eye movement, there were 23 awakenings; in 19 of these
instances, the subjects did NOT report any dreaming
•  The researchers had concluded that while you are sleeping within the first stage of four
REM is occurring
•  As well, the REM period of sleep happens around 90 minutes after the subject/person has
fallen asleep
POSSIBLE ERRORS W/IN STUDY
•  One of the main errors that could have happened is a huge human error in what the
people had told the scientist of what they remember from the dream.
•  The devices that had measured the movement of the eyes could have been impacted by
movement of the body such as twist and turns while asleep or twitching of the eyes not
occurring because of REM sleep
•  Actions the subjects had done previously or their health history could have greatly
impacted the sleep of the patient and the results given
ASERINSKYS IMPACT ON SOCIETY
•  Because of Aserinskys discovery grew a huge body of research methods and
physiological recording devices have become more sophisticated
•  Due to the discovery of REM sleep a lot of studies have been focused within the impact it
has had on daily life and on people daily.
•  Conclusive research studies conclude that REM sleep greatly impacts learning and
memory within the brain. Ex- Learning how to drive a car, riding a bike etc.
•  It has been concluded that REM sleep helps achieve very vivid and impactful dream when
asleep
EXTRA FACTS: REM SLEEP
•  A common association developed between the body and REM sleep is paralysis of the
body during sleep
•  A correlation between a lack of sleep, especially REM sleep, and neurodegenerative
diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s is increased due to an increased rate of
toxins building up within the brain.
•  During REM sleep the brain is still as active as whenever the body is awake, as well the
brain is impacted by mind altering drugs such as alcohol.
ANALYSIS
REM SLEEP
•  REM is a kind of sleep that occurs at
intervals during the night and is
characterized by rapid eye
movements, more dreaming and bodily
movement, and faster pulse and
breathing.
•  REM phase is also known as
paradoxical sleep and sometimes
desynchronized sleep.