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ISSN-0121 17&9

Vol. 12, No. 3, J uly 1982


rnnlanel Ferraoement Inf rmet:ian Cent:er-

ISSN 0125 -1759


Dr. Jacques Valls Director, IFIC/Library and Regional Documentation Center,
Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand.

Professor A icardo P. Pama Associate Di rector, IFICNic~ President for Development, Asian
Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand.
Mrs. Lilia Robles-Austriaco Senior 'Information Scientist, I FIC, Asian Institute of Technology,
P.O . Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand.
Mr. Caesar Singh Information Scientist , IF IC, Asian I nstitute o f Technology,
P.O. Box 2754, Bang~ok, Thailand.

Mr. D.J. Alexander Alexander and Poore, Consulting Engineers, Auckland, New Zealand.

Dr. G.W. Bigg Division Manager, Duncan Kondra International, A Division of

Dunca n Kondra Engineering Ltd., # 306- 255 West 1st. Street,
N . Vancouver, B . C. V7M 3G8, Canada.

Professor A.A . Cusens Head, 'Department of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds,

Leeds LS2 9JT, England, U . K .

Mr. J. Fyson Fi shery Industry Officer (Vessels), Fish Produc tion and Marketing
Service, UN-FAQ , Rome, Italy.

Mr. M.E. lorns Ferrocement International Co., 15 12 Lakewood Drive , West

Sacramento, CA 95691 , U.S.A.

Professor Pishidi Karasudhi Chairman, Division of Structural Engineer ing and Constructi on,
Asian Institu t e of Techn ology . P.O. Bo x 2754, Bangkok, Th ailand.

Professor S.L. Lee Head, Depa1tm ent of Ci vi l Eng1nee11ng, Un1vers11 y of Singapor e,

K ent R idge.Campus, Singapore 5 .

Professor J.P. Romuald i Direct or, Transportation Research Insti tute, Carnegie·Mellon
University. Pi usburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A .

Professor S.P. Shah Department of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston.

Illinois 606201. U.S.A.

Professor B.R. Wal kus Departmen t of Civil Engineering, Lodz Technical University.
Malachowskiego 80, 90-159 Lodz, Poland.

Dr. G.L. Bowen c/o Mr. Burton , Pomona Road, Kumeu RD1, New Zealand.

Mr. Lawrence Mahan 737 Race Lane. R .F .D. No. 1, Marstons Mills. Mass. 02648, U.S.A.

Mr. Prem Chandra Sharma Scientist, Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERL
Roorkee, U.P .. India.

Mr. B .J. Spradbrow Surveyor, Ship Division, Newbuilding, Department for Hull, Det
Norske Veritas. P.O . Box 300, N- 1322 Hovik, Oslo, Norway.
Volume 12. Number 3, July 1982



Properties in Flexure of Underreinforced Ferrocement Panels in Two· Way 237
by S .P. Prawel, Jr. a11d A. Reinhom


"Ferro Cemento " Structures by the Sio Carlos Group (Brazil) 251
by D .A.O. Martinelli, L. Pelroni, F. Schiel, J. B. Hanai, J.C. Barreirv ,
E.F. Machado. Jr . and M.K. Dt!bs
Cost E\•aJuation of Typical Ferrocement Composites 263
by A . E. NaamaJ1 and G.M. Sabnis
Some Studies on Ferrocement Roofing E lements 273
by P. Desayi, C.S. Viswa11atha and S . Kanappall


Materials and Methods 289
by M.E. !om s
Bibliographic List 295
News and Notes 300
Abstract 325
me Consultants 326
Fenocement Experts 331
Authors' Profile 345
Intemationd M~ting 349
me Publications 353
Advertiiing Rates and Fees for IFIC Services 356

Discussion of the technical materials published m this issue is open until October I. 1982 for publication
in the Journal.
The Editors :ind the Pub lishers are not responsible for any statement made or any opinion ex pressed by
the au,hors in the Journal.
No pa rt of this publication may be reproduced in any form without written pe rmission from the
All correspondences related to manuscript submission, discussions, pcrm1ss1on to reprint, advertising,
subscriptions or change of address should be sent to: The Editor, J ournal of Ferrocement, lFIC/AJT,
P.O . Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand.
The International Ferrocement Infermation Center (IF1C) was found ed in October 1976 at
the Asian I nstitute of Technology under the joint sponsorship of the Institute's Division of
Structural Engineering and Construction and the Library and Regional Documentation Center.
The I FlC was established as a result of the recommendations made in 1972 by the U.S. National
Academy of Sciences's Advisory Committee on Technological Innovation (ACTI). I FJC
receives financial support from the Government of New Zealand and the Internatio11al
Development Research Center (IDRC) of Canada .
Basically, I FIC serves as a clea ring house for informarion on ferrocement and related
materials. In coopera tion with national societies, universities, libraries, information centers.
government agencies, research organizations, engineering and consulting fi rms all over the
world, IFJC attempts to collect information on a ll forms of ferrocement applications either
published or unpublished. This information is identified and sorted before it is repackaged and
dissem inated as widely as possible through IFIC's publica tion and on request through IFIC's
reference and reprographic services.
A quarterly publication, the Journal of Ferrocement, is the main disseminating tool of
IflC. IFIC has also publi hed numerous other books and reports. Enquries about ffi C
publications arc to be addressed to : The Director, lflC/AIT, P .O. Box 2754, Bangkok,
The annual subscription rates in US$ for the Journal of Ferrocement (inclusive of postage
by ·urface mail ) are as fo llows:
Region Status Rate
A.* North America, Eu rope, Australia, Individual 30.00
New Zealand and Japan Institutional 60.00
B. Countries ot her than those listed in fndividual 18.00
Region A. Institutional 36.00
• Rates for Region A subscribers who arc members of the New Zealand Ferro Cement Marine Association
(NZFCMA) are as shown in Region B.

We encourage subscri ption to the Journal of Ferrocemcnt through air mail, in which case
the fo llowing extra charges in USS are to be added to the annual subscription rates as specified
Region Additional charge
Asia USS 6.00
Oceania, Europe and Africa USS 10.00
America US$ 12.00

Besides its information dissemination func tion IFCC has progressively become a focal
point for activities aimed at promoting and transferring ferrocement technology to the rural
areas of developing countries ,
A t raining course held in 1978 at AlT for I ndonesian ferrocement specialists (reported in
the Joumal of Ferrocemenr Vol. 9, No. 4, October 1979) and the feedbacks received has con·
vinced J FTC that th is type of act ivity is one of the most efficient methods of transferring the
technology to where it is most needed. Since then lFIC is attempting to secure resources to
organize training courses and also workshops, seminars and even more ambitiously to establish
a permanent ferrocement training center in Asia. As a result of such efforts interesting pros-
pects exist now for holding training courses for technicians in Indonesia, for organizing a
regional seminar in India and an international symposium and short course in Thailand, and
for the launching of a ferrocement training activity in Malaysia.
In these activities l FIC plays the role of promoter and organizer; acts as a catalyst In
initiating the projects; finding resource persons, host institutions and funding sponsors.
l n taking such initiatives I FIC may seem to diverse from its purely informative objective.
But is it really? Jnfo rmation is only useful if it is properly transferred and leads to practical
results. It is not possible to separ ate information from education, applied research, extension
work; it is only by a thorough mixing of all those activities by their intimate interactions that
an efficient useful transfer of technology can be achieved.
Therefore, I FIC remains faithful to its fundamental "raison d'etre". rt is only giving to
information its real dimension that it is not an isolated activity but rather a component of
a whole complex process which cannot be fragmented.
IFl C would welcome any suggestion from its readers and most importantly any form of
support, especially in identifying possible ou rces of funding.

The Editors
lnunwl of Fcrrocm11?11t : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982 237

Properties in Flexure of Underreinforced Ferrocement

Panels in Two-Way Bendingt
S . P . Prawel , Jr.• and A. Reinhorn*

Pre1•io11s s tudies by the authnrs ha1•e indicated that existing analytical in varying
degrees ll'ht'll compared 10 prototype lesrs of underreinfo rced ferrocemenT shell units. This is
printipally because q( rwo .fac1ors. I) The only i11formatio11 available on material properties are
ft om tests which must be considered to be one dimensio11al and 2) proper/ ies ob1ai11ed from such
rests for re11sio11-comt1ression and for flexure are considerably dijfere111. Since ferrocemenl is
almost ulways u.1·n/ as a plate or in the form of a shell, material data, to be realistic, should be
obtained jrom two dimensional s111dies. In addition. the most ofien used methods of computer
analysis for such shapes do nor l1ave rhe capnbilit)' o/dUfere111 ma1erfa/ properties withi11 The same
elcme11t and ar thr same time nor can theyacco11111 fo r properties which are direclionally dependent.
fl/ response to these needs, s tudies are underway at the State University of New York at Bu.f/'alo
;n bot/1 the tfpfinl!lon 1~/'two dimensional material properties and in the development ofaµpropriatr
computrr so} tu-ore.for ferrocemen t plate and shell analysis. This paper describes this program of and in parrfcular, those asm•cfs rc•lating 10 tlte flexural brd1avior ofplates. The design and
resting of the pla1es is described and tltt> resulting ma1erial properties and cracking behavior
compared with existing dala.

Previous studies by the writers [J] have indicated that the methods of ana lysis that are
usually used to define stresses in shells fail in va rying degrees when compared to prototype tests
or underreinforced ferrocemrnt shell units. This is primarily because most of the information
available relating to material properties was generated by test that must be considered to be
o ne dimensional. Since ferrocement is almost always used as a plate or in the form of a shell,
material data should be obtained from two dimensional studies. In addition, the most often
used methods for computer analysis of such shapes do not usually have the capability of using
different malerial properties within the same element at the sa me time nor can they account for
properties wh.ich are directionally dependent as would be required by an onhotropic material.
Significant program modification is therefore required .


I n response to these problems, a comprehensive program offerrocement materials research
was begun about two years ago at this university. T he work was a necessary next step in the
development or analysis and design procedures for structural elements employing ferrocemen t
as a basic constituent material. The principal goals of this research were to define the basic two
dimensional engir~eering properties of underreinforced ferrocement both with respect to its
working load and to its ultimate capacity and to develop the corresponding computer software.
This paper briefly describes this program and reports on the results of those parts involving the
bending or underreinforced fe1rocement plates.
~nted courtesy of RILEM and lSMES. Published in 1he Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Ferrocement (July 22-24, 198 1, Bergamo. ftaly).
.. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.
238 Journlll of Fcrrou111r11t : Vol. I}, No. 3, July 1982

The overall goal of the parent fer.rocement project was to develop various prccast fcrro-
cement elements and methods of construction that could comply with modern performance
specifications and at the same time, keep costs as low as possible. This in turn was an out-
growth of a much more general combined educational and research project described by Tatsa
and Prawel [2]. Fer.rocement was chosen for use in this earlier work because of its low material
cost s and the ability to use a large number of students and still have each produce meaningful

Based on the results of parts of thjs project (3, 4] and earlier work dealing with ribbed
ferrocement slabs reported by Bljuger and Tatsa [SJ an.d Sand, Tatsa and Bljuger [6], it quickly
became clear that ferrocement had strong potential as the basic material for a precast , com-
posite type of building system. T wo parallel projects were therefore undertaken. The first of
these had to do with the structural system itself and dealt with such things as architecture,
element types needed and corresponding geometric constraints. TJ1e second had to do with
materials and design considerations.

Ferrocement has been described quite broadly by the American Concrete Institute as a
type of thin-walled .reinforced concrete where a hydraul ic cement is reinforced by layers of
continuous and relatively small diameter mesh. In most cases, many layers of mesh are im-
bedded in the mortar. This is the natural result of th.e impact resistance required of a boat.
The material that we are using is not, in the traditional sense, ferrocement since it contains
much less than the usual amount of reinforcement. Our studies [I, 7) and others [8], indicate
that for these applications, at most two layers of mesh are required. We refer to this material as
tmderreinforced ferrocement.

At this point in time, there is clearly a widespread interest in the use of ferrocement in
struc tural applications and this interest is increasing. Evidence of this is contained in the
continually expanding list of projects completed using tlte material. These structures are for
the most part designed using methods that were originally developed for the design of rein-
forced concrete members [9] . There are however, very few reports of structures that were
proof tested to validate the assumptions involved. Jn three recent papers [I ,7, 8] where testing
was done, the carrying capacity of the ferrocement element proved to be considerably greater
than the required roof design load with no evidence of cracking at that level. ln [7] for example,
the element involved was a fiat ribbed slab that was designed using currently accepted practices.
Test.results however indicated factors of safety upwards of 5 and adequate ductility in bending.
As a precast eJement, the ferrocement unit usually finds its application as a part of a larger
structural system into which it must fit. To accomplish this. methods of analysis for the entire
system must be available. Such an analysis could conveniently be accomplished if prior know-
ledge of the deformational and stiffness characteristics of the precast elements were available.
lfsuch were the case, a simple matrix type of procedure could be employed in which the precast
ferrocement part is represented by an equivalent stiffness matrix. The fundamental problem is
therefore to be able to analytically define with good accuracy the deformational response of a
ferrocement structural element of any shape and with any boundary constraints.
Because of the complexity of the problem just described. finite element methods are usually
employed to define deformations. For the material and shapes in question however, it has been
shown (I] that these methods of analysis are not well equipped, in this basic form, to deal with
materials having properties such as those shown by underreinforced ferrocement. These
Journal of Frrrocement : Vol, 11, Nu . 3, July 1981 239

p roperties include directional dependency and different values in tension and in bending. This
behavior is typical of an orthotropic material.
Research dealing with the engineering properties of ferrocement has been going on for
sometime. particularly during the last ten years. A s ummary of much of this work is contained
in re ference [9] and in a report by Batson, Sabnis and Naaman [10] . After s tudying this
material, several general observations can be made. First, a vast majority of the material
data was generated by tests involving only one dimensional response. Only a small amount
of information dea ls with such things as the in-plane shear modulus and Poisson effects.
Secondly, the re is a significant difference in reported values of important quantities such as
the e lastic m odulus E depending upon whether it was produced by tensile test or by a bending
test [I 1, 12). ft should be pointed out that this kind of behavior is not uncommon among
fiber reinforced orthotropic composites (13] . Lastly, much of the available data relates to
ferrocement having a higher volume ratio of reinforcement than is used in underreinforced
fcrrocement o r having an alternate type of me~h .
Considerable insight as to the probable behavior of ferrocement can be obtained by
studying the mechanics of composites materials. Genera lly, composites can be classified into
three broad categories: fibrous, laminated and particulate. Obviously, some composites
u tilize two or more of these systems. Underreinforced ferrocement is fibrous and particulate,
while modern fiber composites contain fibrous layers laminated togethe r . In addition, fiber
reinforced plastics involve a brittle fibe r reinforcing a ductile matrix while ferrocement uses a
ductile fibe r to stre ngthen a brittle matrix. Despite this basic difference, many of t he concepts
developed for the analysis of fiber-reinfo rced plastics can be adapted to underreinforced ferro-
cement, particularly in the uncracked range of response.

A generalized form of Hook's law can be written

... . ...... . ... (J)
where Cilia represents 81 elastic constants. The symmetry of cru and e1c1 along with the exis-
tence of a stra in energy density function U£11 results in a reduction of independent constants to
2 1 for an anisotropic material. Elastic material symmetry further reduces the number of
independent constants. A thin llnear, elastic orthotropic layer in a state of generalized plane
stress is described by four constants .
An orthotropic material is char acterized by three murually perpendicular planes of mate-
rial symmetry and corresponding principal material axis. For the two dimensional fiber rein-
forced composite layer, the p rincipal material axis a re parallel and perpendicular to the fiber
directions and are generally denoted as longitudinal ( /) and transver se ( t) . The elastic con-
stants for the layer ·become Young's Modulus in tJ1e longitudinal ( £ 1) and transverse ( E,) , the
corresponding Po isson's ratios (v11 and v,1) and the shear modulus ( G1,) . The relation £ 1 v 11 ==
E,v1, reduces the number of independent moduli to four. For the special case where E, = E 1, as
would be the case for a square mesh reinforced ferrocement, the properties t hat need to be
defined are E 1, v11 and G1,.
The rule of mixtures is most commonly used to define these constants . Longitudinal
properties ( E1 and v,,J are determined by using the classical Voight model of elements in paral-
lel, while the transverse constants ( £ 1 and v,1) are treated with the Reuss elements in series
approach (14]. This leads to the relations:
240 Journal of Ferrocemenr : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

E, VrEr + VmEm .... .......... (2)

v,, v,v, + vmvrff

G, G'"
G,, =
vmof + v,om

where/ and m refer to the fiber and matrix respectively and V defines the volume fraction
of each part.
It has been found in continuous fiber composites that E1 and v1, determined by the rule of
mixtures correlate well with experimental results [14) and, in fact, are seldom improved upon
by more sophisticated analysis. This agrees with the observations of Huq and Pama [l l]
reported for one dimensional tensile tests. Correlation for the shear modulus however is no-
where near so good [14}.
The constitutive relation for an orthotropicmaterial in a state of plane stress and expressed
in the natural (principal material) axis can be written as :

,- c •• C12 0 E1

o, C12 C12 0 P., .. , .... ... .. t. (3)

0 0 ty,,
T11 2C66 _,
E, E, v11
where ell l - V 11 v11
C12 I - v1, v11
C12 = and c66 = G"
I -v1, v,1

It is evident from this equation that no coupling between the in-plane normal and shearing
deformations occur when the material is loaded in the principal material direction. Coupling
does occur however, when loaded in arbitrary directions. Transformation to an arbitrary axis

results in:

cr.{ e11 C12 c,6 &~

- ::: C12 C22 C26 Cy f., .... .. .... t (4)

'f:tY c,6 C26 2C66 &..,,

c r-1CT
and Tis the transformation matrix for a second-order tensor from the x-y coordinate systems to
the 1-r system. The non zero terms C16 and C26 indicate a coupling between the in-plane
normal and shearin,g deformations. This must be considered when experimentally determining
elastjc moduli [I 5) and strength [ 16). To some degree, this kind of behavior was observed for
ferrocement in references [17, 18].
J1111rnnl of Ferroce11w111 Vfll 11, No. J, /11/1• 198] 241


Prior expt:rimentation [I] has ~trongly indicated that underreinforceu ferrocement behaves
very much like a two dimensional 01thotropic material. In order to verify that this was in fact
the case. :i program of experimentation was developed in wh ich a large number of undcrrein-
forcetl ferrocement beam. plate and bar ~pecimcns were to be fabricated and tested along the
lines med to define the properties of fiber reinforced composites. The required moduli were to
be determined using both axially loaded specimens aml by bending. Behavior over a fu ll range
of loads up to the ultimate load was to be considered for each specimen as well as the full scope
of peninent variables.
The investiga tion described 1n this report is the first pan of the program to be completed
and involves one-way and two-way bending o f ferrocement plates. As indicated by equation
(4) and in references [ 17 and 18}, the engineering properties of ferroce ment are strongly
influenced by both the volume fraction and the geometric arrangement of the reinforcing mesh
within the cement matrix. In order to quantify these effects, a total of34 panels of unJerrein-
for•ced ferrocement each having a thickness of 19.05 mm (0.75 in) were fabricated . These
panels were reinforceJ with two types of galvanized welded rect.angular mesh which was
oriented in four different directions with respect to the principal material directions. Five
alternate distributions of mesh in the principal directions were used. These volume fraction
changes were obtained by omitting certain wires from the mesh in one direction or the other.
A summary of the dimensions and other characteristics of each of the specimens tested in this
series is shown in Table I. As indirnted three series of plates were used, A, B and C.
All of the plate specimens m series A were 546.0 mm by 546.0 mm (21.5 in x 21.5 in)
in siLe and contained two layers of mesh. The wire size was 0.635 mm (0.025 in ) and oriented
in the principal directions. By removing some of the wires in one direction, the effect of a
different volume fraction of reinforcement in each direction on the bending behavior of the
plate could be determined. In each case, two duplicate plates were prepared. One of these was
subjected to a concentrated load at its center while the other ca rried a live load extending
across the plate and located midway between the edges.
The plates in series B were the same size as those in series A and were also prepared in
duplicate. They were also subjected to the same loadings as were the specimens of series A.
Two different types of welded square mesh were used. In tests 6 to 9, the mesh spacing was
6.35 mm x 6.35 mm (0.25 in) and the wire size 0.635 mm (0.025 in). Two meshes 12.7 mm
x 12.7 mm x. 1.067 mm (0.50 x 0.50 x 0.042 in) were used in tests 10 to I 3. The effect of wire
orientation was defined by changing the direction of the mesh with respect to the axis of the
plate as indicated in Table I.
The specimens m1:1k ing up series C were tested in one-way bending and were used primarlly
for comparison with other published studies and certain of the tests in series A and 8. The
rectangular shape of these plates, 546 mm x 273 mm (21.5 in x 10.75 in) could also indicate
any plate aspect ratio effect.
All of the test specimens were designed and built according to recommendations given for
forrocement byNaaman [19}. Sand passing a No. 4sieve was used with type I Portland cement
in a ratio of sand-to-cement of 2.0. The water-cement ratio was 0.40 giving 28 day strengths
defined by standa1d cylinder tests as shown in the last column of Table I. The reinforcement
wns welded, galvanized square mesh having an average yield strength of 398.3 MPa (58 ksi)
Table I. Summary of test specimens.
Reinforcement Mortar
Variables Characteristics
Notation a/b Spacing Reinforce- Volume Specific Overall Strengtll
Type Orientatiot Distribution Strength
(mm) in of meshes menl ratio,p1 fraction, surface weight (//)
(diameter) (angles) (in directions (/y/f.)
(S 0 /Sb) (one layer) (v,) (S,) (MPa) ksi
(mm) in (a~ I ag) (a/b) (MPa) ksi
(mm) in ( %) ( %) (mm2/ mm 3)in2/ inl (kg/ml) lbs/ft'
(I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) {10) ( 11 ) (12)
A0°1 0/90 1: I (6.35 x 6.35) 0.26 x 0.26 1.04 (6.6) (8L6)
0.25 x0.25 1.68 5.10
A0°2 0 .50: I (12.h 6.35) 0.13 x 0.26 0.78 (5.0) (61.2) (44.64)
0.50 x 0.25 1.26 3.82 (398.3/446.4) 6500
Ao•3 (546 x 546) (0.635) 0.33 : I 19.05 x 6.35) 0 .09 x 0.26 0.67 (4.4) (54.4) . 58/65
21.5 x 21.S O.Q25 0.75 x 0.25 1.12 3.44
A0°4 0.25 : l (25.4 x 6.35) O.Q7 x 0.26 0.65 (4.1) (51.0)
J.00 x0.25 1.05 3.18
Ao0 5 0.00: l (oo x 6.35) 0 x 0.26 0.52 (4.3) (40.8)
00 l( 0.25 0.84 2.55
B0°6 0/90 I: I (6.35 x 6.35) 0.26 x 0.26 1.04 (6.6) (81.6) (41.10)
Bl5°7 (546 x 546) (0.635) 15/75 0 .15 x 0.25 J.68 5.10 (398.3/446.4) 5985
B30°8 21.5x21.5 0.025 30/60 58/65
B45°9 45/45
BO" IO 0/90 I: I (12.7 x 12.7) 0.37 x 0.37 1.48 (I I.I) {I 16.2) (384.5/446.4) (39.73)
Bl5°1I (546 l( 546) (1.067) 15/75 0 .50 x 0.50 2 .32 7.25 56/65 5795
B30°12 21.5 x 2 1.S 0.042 30/60
B45°13 45/45
C0°14 0/90 I: I (6.35 x 6.35) 0 .26 x 0 .26 1.04 (6.6) (81.6) (41.10)
Cl5°15 (546 x 273) {0.635) 15/ 75 0.25 x 0.25 1.68 5.10 (398.3/446.4) 5985
C30°16 21.5 x 10.75 O.Q25 30/60 58/65
C45"17 45/45
co 1s
0/90 I: l (12.7 x 12.7) 0.37 x 0.37 1.48 (11.1) (116.2) (39.73)
C l 5° J9 (546 x 273) (1.067) 15/ 75 0.50 x 0.50 2.32 7.25 , 384.5/446.4) 5795
c30•20 21.5 x 10.75 0.042 30/60 56/65
C45°21 45/45

4 75"
Jnumnl of FC'l'fO<'C'111N1/ : Vnl. 12, No. 3, J11ly 1982 243

and un ultimate strength of 446.35 MPa (65 ksi.). In each case. the meshes were placed in two
layers with a cove r of 3.175 mm ( 1/ 8 in.) on each face of the plate .
The plate specimens were testetl at an age of three months with testing continuing over a
period of two weeks. Mortar cylinder tests were conducted during this same period and no
l'hange in mortar strength was notetl over the 28 da y strength.
For testing in one-way bending, the plates were supported along two parallel edges with a
span of 508 mm (20 in .). A uniformly distributed line load was applied through a rigid bar at
th!! center of the span as shown in Fig. la. The plates subjected to two-way bending were
supported at four corners as in Fig. lb. The suprort spaci ng was 508 mm (20 in .) on each side


(a) Fig. I. (b)

0114.! way bending tc~t (I WD) - Jocanons Two way bending test (2 WB) - locations
of deflection gauges I, 2, 3, 4, 5. or strain rosettes points 6, 7.

and a concentrated load was applied through a calibrnted load cell at the center of the plate.
Deformations at each increment of load were measured at th.e points shown as I , 2, 3 and 4 in
Fig. la and lb using dial gages and at the center of the plate, point 5, using an L VDT . This
arrangement permitted a continuous trace of center load versus deformation to be made. SR-4
Type strain rosettes were attached to both sides of the plates at points marked as 6 and 7 in the
figures. After calibratio1t of the instrumentation, load was applied in. increments up to the
complete' failure of the speci men. Cracking of the plate was noted and measured as the test


Tlte recorded trace of applied load vs. the center deflection of the plate was the primary
source of data for the comparative bending studies that a re reported here. In addition. it
provided a convenient way to differentiate between the elastic. cracking a nd yielding ranges of
response. I n a few cases, regardless of the care taken in the preparation of the test specimens
and in the conduct of the test. results showing what appea red to be discrepancies were obtained.
Until these few cases can be rerested , their results are included. They should however be con-
sidered with suspicion.
244 Journal nf Ferroce111e111: Vol . 12, No. 3, July 1981

E ffect of Plate Geometry

As pointed out prevjously, a set of narrow plates (Series C) and set of corresponding
plates having twice the width (Series B) were prepared and tested. Comparison of their
behavior gives an indication of the effect of aspect ratio. T he ratio of the resistance of the
wider to the narrow plate at various deformations in both the elastic and elastic plastic range
plotted versus mesh orientation angle is shown in Fig. 2. The dark line at a ratio Rn/ Re= 2.0

..,_...._ . l'OO" 2.5

-... ··• ·- .O~O"
..r plastic ,,,!"'
2. 0 ~ . 025" z.o ,_
., 1,. ~ctc

·· •-·· .0125"

1.5 - Exprctl!d I. s


0. 5 0. 5 -+----+----+--- -i

Angle It


Fig 2. Resistance ratio for various plates at identicdisplaccments: (a) spacing = 6.35 mm (0.25 in.);
(b) mesh spacing = 12.7 mm (0.50 in.).

is the value that would be expected if there were no effect of plate geometry. I f the Poisson
effect were consideredand the pJates assumed to be isotropic and bent into a cylindrical sh.ape,
the ratio would be less than two by no more than 1 %. T he results shown in Fig. 2 however
indicate a much stronger Poisson effect that varies with both the mesh orientation and size.
Jn t he elastic range, the ratio is seen to increase for all orientation angles and at the ultimate
load approaches 2.0. The points in Fig. 2a for the ultimate load and angles of 30~ and 45° are
suspect. M eshes oriented at 30° and 45° show a stronger t ransverse effect in the elastic range
while in the cracked range the differences were much smaller. Plates reinforced with the
larger mesh showed lateral effects that were much more uniformly spaced with deformation
level than the more lightly reinforced plates which showed a sma ller dispersion of results.

Effect of Parameters on P late Stiffness

The center stiffness, k = R/d where R is the load and d the center deflection, was
determined for each plate from the recorded trace and from digital data taken during the test!'.
lo11mal of Tt!rrouml!nl : Vol. 11, No. J, Jul~ 1982 245

An~ le "
OO 15° JOO 45° 00



! L OO ~~~=*~~
1. 25 1----+----+---<~

1. 00 ~;.;;;..Ml~:F:;f=~
•.. ....
0. 1 s
. 0. 15 1----1--_..,....+-,1'---I
: t--- + . . . . - -.Y--1'--'I

0 .50 '---~-......._-~

(c) "'
:.... o. 50 .___.....____.......__

2000 ~-~-~--.

~ 1500 1---~----+--+--I

..• ..•..
.. 1000 - -+----.. .
1000 >----+->-~----....

"' 7 so .___....__ _..___ _, "' 750 .___ _..___ _..___ _,

0° 15° 30° 45° 0° 15° J0° 45°
Anglo n AnRle 11

(a) (b)

Fig 3. Averaged stiffness of pl11tes (kgf/cm) ~s. mesh orientation

- - series B (I WB); - · - · - series D (2 WB):
-------series C (I \VB); - -t•q:>ccted ratio £""' ;
(a); (c) : mesh spacing = 6.35 mm (0.25 in.J,
(b); (dJ: mesh spacing = 12.7 mm (0.50 in.).
fl kgf/cm = 0. 981 N/mm)

The values shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are averages for several load levels in lhe elaslic range and
are graphed versus orientation in Fig. 3 and transverse reinforcement ratio in Fig. 4.
Variation in Sliffness should be proportional to the elastic modulus as it changes with
direction. For comparison, the ratio of Ea. to £0 for any angle ct from the principa l direction
were calculated using equation 5 which is based on equations given by Paul and Pama (9).

Ea J + V1 (t) 4
(Sin a + Cos .:x)

= (S)
I + Vf (~)
Values defined by equation 5 are plotted in Figs. 3c and 3d as a heavy line. According to this,
changes in Ea/E0 with direction should not exceed about I %. The measured stiffness relative to
the principal direction, kafk 0 , shown in the same figures however, exceed 15 % for an angle of
l 5° and 20 %fo r 30" and 45°. Variation in stiffness with diiection was closest to that indicated
by equation 5 fo r the narrow plates of series C. The good agreement between equation 5
246 Journal of Ferrocemeflf : Vol. 12, No. J, July 1981

Spacing of mesh
•:I 4•1 ]:l 2: 1 1: 1

- - Serie A. -
---- Snle A -
JOOO 21Jl!


,,, 2500
., \
Ill I
c 22SO
... I
2000 I

1000 .___..___ _.__--'______,

/J 0.25 .JJ .so l .O

Trensver~e rtlnforcem~nt
r~t lo

Fig 4. Averaged stiITn~ss vs. trnnsven;c ratio ( I kgf/Cm : 0.981 N/ mm).

and with experimental results reported by Johnston and Mowat [18] can be attributed to the
narrowness of the specimens. The dependence between the resistance of plates bent two ways
and mesh orienlation is typical of orthotropic behavior and investigacions into the details of
the problem are currently underway.
Plate stiffness versus transve rse reinforcement ratio is shown in Fig. 4. There is clearly a
strong dependence be1ween the variables for both one and two way bending. The greatest
stiffness for both cases was noted when there was no transverse reinforcement and steadily
decreased as transverse wires were added. This effect t:ould be due to the biaxial nature of the
stress caused by the transverse wires which would lead to increased deformation. These same
plates however, while showing a decrease in stiffness with increasing transverse reinforcement
showed an increase in both ultimate strength and ductility (Fig. Se).

Yielding, Ductility and Ultimate Resistance

l oads corresponding to first yield and ultimate strength are shown in Fig. 5 for
one-way bending (I WB) and in Fig. 6 for two way bending (2WB). The values for these
loads were taken directly from the trace of load vs. center deflection. As indicated in Figs .
5a and 5b and in Figs. 6a and 6b, the lowest values for both yield strength and ultimate
resistance occurred, in most cases, with the reinf"orcement oriented at 30° from the principal
1011mal of F11rrocl!ll11:111 : Vol. 11, Na . J, Jul)' 1981 247

Anl!le D Anl!le a Spnc f ng o( me~h

Hf/ 15" Jn" 45• 10, 00 15° JOo -: l 4:1 3:1 2 :l l: J


... ,,

E 5. _ _ _ _ ___.._ ____. '·'

"' ...~


5. 1-=±:::--t-~
... .::
~---- L.... - - ~ --- - ...

u ), 0
" 800

o. .___....__ _.__ __. I
o. i
( c ) He~h "pacing , 25" (d) M~"h 8p11cfn~ ,50" I
600------- ..._·-_·-~
600 1--+:...i_..j,,....o.::·-:.._--1-
! ,
,·• v
Lo- .. ,, ;


. -..
, ,•,
, '' /.

·-· '"-•-
....." ---
ti " ',, ,,'

~ 200 ~--+---"'"---l u
c:: 200
.."c 200

! .,
!! !!

"'"' "'"'"
0 '-----'--~---' 0 0 ·- ·
o0 15° )0° 45° 00 150 JOO 4~" .o .2\ .)) • 50 1.0
An11le n Anl!le n Trnn ~ vttrse felnfnrcemPnt rat 111
(11) Huh ~r.ic:tnp; .2S" (h ) Me~ti ~P~~fng • .50" ( .- ) Mci cih •racfn2 .2!> 11

Fig 5. Yield resistance, ultimate- resistance and ductility of plates in one way bending (I WB).
(I kgf = 9,81 N).

ultimate resistance - . ".

yield resistance
series A
·- -·.
seriesB series C
-·-·- -·-·-
direction. A somewhat higher resistance was noted for meshes placed at 45<'. The tow
volume fraction of reinforcement and different geometry could explain the different behavior
noted in reference 18.
The spacing of the wires in the mesh appears to have a greater importance when the
volume of reinforcement is low. While the specimens having the smaller mesh showed a strain
hardening after yielding, the plates reinforced with the larger wire mesh exhibited a degra-
dation in strength for both one and two way bending. The ductilities shown in parts c and d
of Figs. 5 and 6 are defined as the ratio of the ultimate deflection to the yield deflection and a re
seen to be smaller for plates tested in one way bending than those bent in two directions. For
the more heavily reinforced plates, Figs. 5d a nd 6d, ductility is almost uneffected by mesh
orientat ion. Plates having the lighter mesh however, showed an increasing ductility with
increasing mesh angle, F igs. Sc and 6c. The effect was the same for both one way and bidirec-
tiona l bending.
Journal <1,/' Ferrocemcnt : Jin/. 12, No . .1, 111/y 1982

Angl,. a An~le a Spacing of mMh

4• o•
!O 15° )0" 4
- -: l

1: t 1·


5 5 J
,.., I


.u... .--....
u !:
- - ----- ---

a ,,/ \\
(c) Hesh spac tng .25" ( d ) "1ee h ~pacing , 50"
i,, I

600 I

~, ,
~ -- ...
4()0 400


;. 200 '----'----'----'

:: 200 1-::,...;..q.::i~--d,4":.......j
"" 200 /
•'"lt 1-'


~ )._
~ ~
,,"' I

"' ..
"' ..
"' _, ~It

v u u
c c: /

:! ~ i,•

" .!
00 150 )00 ,50
0 .. 0
Angle a
"" • 25 .J) .50 LO
Angle. a Tra nsver~c reinforcement ratto
(~) Mesh spacing . 25" (bl Mesh apocing .50" (P) HP~h •onr i n2 ,25"

F ig 6. Yie ld resista nce, ultimate resistance and ductil ity of plates in two \VCIY bending (2 WB ).
(I kgf = 9.81 N)
se ries A series .8
ultimate res istance
yield resistance
- ···-·---- -·-·-
As was expected, an increase in the transve rse reinforcement ratio led to an increase in the
yield and ultimate resistance of the plates. The increase was most notable for the plates having
the s maller mesh and decreased as the transverse reinforcement rati o approached 1.0. The
effect was stronger in two way bending than one way and the ultimate resista nce substantially
increased by added transverse reinfo rcement. Ductil ity was a maximum for a ratio of0.33 fo1
one-way bending and steadily increased for plates bent in two directions.


The following can be concluded from the resu lls presented:

J. An increase in the transverse reinforcement ratio ha s a stronge r effect than expected causing
a reduction in the stiffness of the plate and an increase in its strength nnd ductility.
2. Plates having meshes oriented at 30°/60° to the principal directions showed the lowest
stiffness and resistance while an orientation of 4 5 ~ corresponded to the highest values for
most of the test series.
Journal uf Tcrrocr111c11t : Vol /J, Nu • .I. July 1982 249

3 The re ults of these tests strengthen the belief that approachc~ current ly used for the analy-
sts of ferrocement in bending should be modified to include the effects of transverse rein-
rorcement, plate geometry and mesh orientation.
4. Such modifications should be based on the assumption of two dimensional orthotropic
plate behavior rather than the assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material.
5. Further studies based on composite theories are necessary to detail the behavior of under-
reinforced ferrocement.


I. TATSA. E.Z., PRAWEL, S.P. and REIN HORN, A., " Longspan Composite Roof Systems
of Ferrocement and Pl-amc Components'', Journal of Ferroccment. Vol. 11. No. I, January
2. TATSA, E.Z. and PRA WEL, S. P. , "Studies in Ferrocemcnt Applications", Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 1980.
3. OMORODION, T., " Ribbed Ferrocement Slabs - Feastbility Study'', Civil Engineering
Project, State University of New Yori.. at Buffalo, April 1980.
4. ANDE.RSON. K., "Mass Production of Ribbed Slabs", M.S. Project Report. Depar{ment
of Civil Engineering, State Uni vers11y of New York at Buffallo, May 1980.
5. BLJUG ER. F. and T ATSA, E.Z., "Skinne<l Elements Made of Ferrocement for Buil·
dings", Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 9, No. l. January 1979.
6. SA RIO, M., T/\TSA, E.Z. and BLJ UGER, F., " Ribbed Slabs Made of Ferrocement" ,
Journal of Fcrrocemenr, Vol. 9, No. 4. October 1979.
7. PRAWEL, S. P., TATSA, E.Z., MOSES, A. and OMORODION, T., "Multistory Con-
struction Using Prccasl Undcrrcinforced Ferrocement Panels", Jou rnal of Ferrocement,
Vol. 11. No. I, January 1981.
8 DASGUPTA , N.C., PARAMASIVAM, P. and LEE. S.L., "A Fcrroccment Hyperbolic
Paraboloid Shell'·, Journal of ft'rrocement. Vol. JO, No. 4, October 1980.
9. PAUL, B.K. and PAMA. R.P., "Ferrocement'·. International Fcrroccment Information
Center, Bangkok, 1978
JO. BATSON. G.B., SABN IS, G.M. and NAAMAN, A.E., ··su rvey of Mechanical Properties
of Fcrrocement as a Structural Material", ACI SP61-12, American Concrete Institute,
11. HUQ. S. and f>AMA. R.P., ''Ferrocemcnt in Tension: Analysis and Design", Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol. 8, No. 3, July 1978.
12. K.ARIM , E.A . and JOSEPH. G.P .. •·investigations on Flexural Behavior of Ferrocement
and its Application to Long-Span Roof, ... Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 8, No. I,
January 1978.
13. WHITNEY, J.M., .. Relationship Between Tensile Strength and Flexure Strength tn Fibrc-
Reinforccd Composites··. Experimenta l Mechanics, Vol. 20, No. 6, June 1980,
14. GARG, S.K .. SVALBONAS, V. and G URTMAN, G ., "Analysts of Structural Composite
Materials'', M. Decker, New York, 1973.
250 Journal of Ferrocemellf: Vol. 11, No. J, July 1981

15. PROSEN, S.P., "Composite Materials Testing", ASTM STP 460, Composite Materials:
Testing and Design, ASTM, 1969.
16. ISHAI, 0. and LAVENGOOD, R.E., "Characterizing Strength of Unidirectional Com-
posites", ASTM STP 460, Composite Materials: Testing and Design, ASTM, 1969.
17. JOHNSTON, C.D. and MAITAR, S.G., " Ferrocement in Tension and Compression",
Journal of the Structural Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 102, No. ST5, May 1976
18. JOHNSTON, C.D. and MOWAT, D.N., " Ferrocement Material Behavior in Flexure",
Journal of the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 100, No.
STlO, October 1974.
19. NAAMAN, A.E., " Performance Criteria for Ferrocement'', Journal of Ferrocement..
Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1979.
Journal of Ferrocemen/: Vol JZ, No. 3, Jul:'/ 1982 251

l#Ferrocemento Structures by The Sao Carlos
Group (Brazil)t
D. A . O. Martinelli*, L. Petroni*, F. Schiel•. J. B. Hanai*, J. C. Barreiro*,
E. F. Machado Jr.• and M . K. Debs.*

The paper briefly presems a set of structures designed following Nervi's '1erro-cemento''
basic idea, with three major adaptations: reducing both rhe cement contenr and the steel propor-
tion and replac1i1g rhe woven wire mesh by welded wire fabric_


The "ferro-cementa" structures designed between 1960 and 1980 by the "authors are
briefly presented. Some of them are presently at a design stage, for expected construction.
Throughout these designs, Nervi's "ferro-cementa" basic idea has been followed. How-
ever, since the first design, two different features were adopted and maintained, namely the
reduction of cement content (to 600-650 kg/ m3) and the reduction of steel proportion (to 250-
300 kg/ m3),

Partly on account of this latter reduction, which brings the steel proportion closer to that
of the mild-steel reinforced concrete usual in Brazil in the 50-60's, the material has often been
designated as "reinforced mortar'' (''argamassa armada"), a designation which, in a way,
stresses the reduction of "ferro" in comparison with Nervi's original "ferro-cemento' '.
Laboratory tests and the satisfactory behaviour of the actual structures, of which several
were built from 1960 to 1965, have shown that both those reductions, while reducing the cost,
have not significantly impaired the mechanical properties and the durability.
The steel content of 250-300 kg/ m3 was initially arrived at usually with two woven wi re
screens for a total thickness of the structural elements of 20-25 mm. the meshes having a 12.7
mm opening for wires of 1.6 mm diameter: the wire screens were of the usual sieve type. Jn
some cases, J.5 mm thickness elements have been emp1oyed, with a single wire screen.
Since 1965, this woven wire has been replaced in some of the structures by welded wire
fabric of 50 x 50 mm2 mesh and 2.6-3.0 mm wire diameter. This new feature, while substan-
tially improving construction ease, has still maintained the good extension behaviour which
distinguishes ferrocement, with the further benefit of the lesser cost of the fabric as compared
to the woven wire screen.
Some structures were cast in place (e.g. the earlier swimming pools), while some other were
composed either simply juxtaposing precast structural elements (e.g. the V-beam roofs) or

t Reprinted courtesy of RJLEM and JSMES. Published in the Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Ferrocemcnt (July 22-24, 1981, Bergamo, Italy).
• EESC·USP, Excola de Engenharia de Silo Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.
252 Journal of Ferroceme111 : Vol. I], No. J, July 1982

combining them with cast-in-place concrete (e.g. the small deck bridges). A fourth solution
consists of ferrocement precast "sheets .. having lateral woven wire mesh fringes as splicing
portions to be completed by cast-in-place mortar (e.g. the swimming pool in Fig. 5). The
splicing cast-in-place band was initially foreseen to be executed with polymeric mortar, bul Che
actual performance of the reinforced mortar splic ing bands has confirmed the adequacy of
this cheaper solution.

In passing, it should be recorded that the idea of generally replacing the cementitious
mortar by polymeric mortar has been considered. But it was discarded, and so must it remain
still for a time, in view of the cost of polymeric resins in Brazil, which would permit tl1is rather
expensive variation only in special cases.


The "argamassa armada" (reinforced mortar) structures designed by the group since 1960
may be subdivided into four main classes :

roofs and floor decks composed by 1-Y- U-T beams and tubular beams:
s hell roofs;
silos, swimming pools, storage tun ks, water towers, a river boat small prototype also having
been tested ;
small deck bridges and culverts.

The first class shows beams of ditferent shapes (J-V-U-T, tubular, Fig. I to 7), ranging
from 6 to 35 m span.

Each beam has been precast as a single monolithic element. although sucessful experiments
have been performed initially casting the two web planes of V-beams on one single plane.
leaving without mortar the bottom of the Y, to be subsequently cast after r otating the two
horizontal web planes to the final V position (Fig. I).

Fig. 1.

!-beams have been easily-moulded following the construction sequence outlined in Fig. 2.
The section of Fig. 2d had 13 Kg/m of woven wire mesh uniformly placed in the section ,
plus 8 mm re-bars in the tension flange.
Jrmmnl of Ferror:emerrt: Vol. 12, No. 1, July 1982 251

Cl) b)



c ) d)


The roofs (Fig. 3) may be composed by side-by-side beams (either wilh cast-in-place
reinforced mortar splicing bands or with asbestos-cement or equivalent caps). For smalle r
spans, the beams may be kept apart, just giving support to ordinary roofing elements (fibro-
cement tiles, Fig. 4).




~ = 12m

Fig. 3.

T-beams made up by a ferrocement 70 mm thick web coupled lo a 30 mm thick ferro-

cement slab have been successfully tested (Fig. 5). For roof applications, the sloping concrete
slab offers a very convenient solution for rain water disposal. The normal ferrccement of the
web has proved to be quite enough to resist the shear st resses. The lateral stability is appro-
priately ensured by the top member.
254 Journal nf Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

i = IO m

Fig. 4.

T he longest beams have been 30 and 35 m Jong.

ln the first case (Fig. 6), for a 1500 m 2 total area industrial hall, the V-beam incorporates a
longitudinally curved compression ferrocement sheet which also permits the flow of rain water.
In the latter (Fig. 7), for the Highway Terminal at Florianopolis, in Southern Brazil, the hexa-
gonal cross-section beams put side-by-side give the complete roofing of 15 100 m2.

0 .60

0 19. <4 0/6
: 19. <4 0/6
19. <4 0/6
t t I f

F ig. 5.
Journal of Ferroceme11t: Vnl. 12, No. 3, July 1982 255

z .~ o

I !10 Q: 35 m

Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

The ferrocement solution replaced the previously designed prestressed concrete beams,
which were also to be precast and erected. Each of these pres tressed beams would have a weight
of 75 tons, while the ferrocement beams weighted only 25 tons each.
This difference in weight led to a considerable saving. Indeed, erection of the derrick alone
would have cost some 3 million cruzeiros (US $ 24,000.00), while the total expense for the
erection for the whole ferrocement roof was budgeted to only 2.2 million cruzeiros (US $
17 ,600.00).

Fig. 8. Precast ferrocement caissons for roofs and floor decks.

256 Totmwl of Ferrocemenl: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

For roofs and floor decks a very convenient solution has proved to be the one in Fig. 8 ·
precast ferrocement caissons with internal moulding given either by cellular extra-lightweight
concrete or by compensated wooden sheets. The smaller precast elements, with 150-200 mm
height, may be used up to spans of 4-6 m. Long-term and impact tests have shown excellent
The first shell roof example was given by precast inverted pyramids over central column
8 x 8 m 2 in plan (Fig. 9), which were used in 1965 to roof approximately 6000 m2 of the Cocoa
National Research Center of ltabuna, Bahia.
The minimum thickness was 25 mm. increasing to 50 mm near the lateral edges and along
the pyramid edges. Two 70 mm thick ferrocement stiffening ribs mutually crossing at the
centre of the pyramid were placed normally to the sides, mainly to reduce the deformation of
the thin panels as well as t o ensure the easy transfer of unsymmetrical loading to the central
These folded plate elemenL~ were the first to be built with welded wire fabric instead of
woven wire mesh.
With minor changes, those inverted pyramid elements were later used as roofing elements
10 x 10 m2 in plan at the campus of the Federa l University of Rio de Janeiro.
Extensive model tests up lo the collapse have shown that they could be used. with minor
adaptations, to roof 17 x 17 ru2 in plan; for these latter dimensions, the central stiffening ribs
should be somewhat heightened. and extended nearer to the edge ribs, to reduce the deflections
at the middle of the sides. A very convenient alternate solution which was also tested would be
prestressing the edge ribs,
Another variant which was tested replaced the stiffening central ribs by a folding of the
faces of the pyramid (Fig. 10); this variant can be extended to roof 23 x 23 m2 in plan, dispensing
with the prestressing of the edge ribs. A prototype of this variant is currently under considera-
tion to be built to roof a cafeteria of the Sao Carlos campus and will then be submitted to a
conservative test.

Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

Jnumol of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. J, July 1982 257



Fig. 11. Hanging roof.

Two hanging prestressed shells, circular in plan, respectively of 40 and 60 m diameter

have been built in the towns of Araraquara, for a church (1965) and Rolandia (1973) for a
sport hall (Fig. 11 ). The she Us are made up of precast concrete elements of 40 mm thickness
which replaced, for various contingent reasons, the ferrocement caissons which are now fore·
seen for future construction of larger roofs.
Analogous caissons will feature the ellyptic paraboloidal precast shells currently at design
stage (Fig. 12) .
Swimming pools up to 1000 m2 in plan have been built using a ferrocement "membrane"
as a covering for the bottom and the lateral sides.

Fig. 12. Ellyptic paraboloidal precast shell.

258 Joumal of Fermcement: Vol. 12, No . 3, July 1982

These ones are excavated with a bilateral profile (upper portion vertical, lower portion
sloping) so as to dispense with the retaining wa ll (Fig. 13 a).


-1..___~ r-

Fig. 13a. Typical swimming pool vertical section. Fig. 13b. Precast ferroccment "sheet".

The earlier pools ( 1962-63) were entirely cast in place, while from 1970 on the "membrane"
has been executed assemblying precast ferrocemenl "sheets" coupled by cast-in-place fringes
(Fig. 13b), as al ready referred.
Ground silos and water tanks have been buiJt following essentially the same guidelines as
for the swimming pools and the roofs.



Fig. 14. Silo.
Joumal of Ferroceme11t: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1981 159

The first group of silos was built a t Andira in 1964, featuring (fig. 14) a cyli ndr ical con-
crete wall of 12 m diameter with a conical cast-in-place ferrocement bottom, analogous to the
swimming pool boltoms; the conical roof was formed assemblyin,g precast ferrocement beams
of variable inverted U cross section. T hose beams thrust the wall top-ring a nd the upper con-
crete ring, designed to permit access to the silo.
T wo ground water tanks, the largest designed until now by the group, were built \1973) at
the town of Araraquara, each to a storage volume of 3000 m3 (Fig. 15).
Plan dimensions are 22.50 x 48 m2, with lateral sides sloping at 45° down to a depth of
3.6 m.


H i ll

J •O
__JO/ lo

R£ 1NrORC£0

Fig. 15. Ground water tanks.

-· -
-· -
\ \\ ' '

I \ \
·- ·-·-·- ·- ·- ·- ·-,,. .-1.
II I i
- I I I I i ; I

I- · - ~.-~ . . ~ ~

Fig . 16. Ground reservoir with precast wall and roofing.

260 Joumal of Ferroce111e11t : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

The tanks are roofed by ferrocement U beams spanning I 0.9 m, resting on external low
walls and on an internal auxiliary reinforced concrete structure.
Currently under construction is another type of ground reservoir (fig. 16), to a total
storage capacity of 2700 m3.
The undulated wall is composed of 48 precast ferrocemcnt cylindrical elements with
vertical generators, coupled by cast-in-place concrete which forms vertical beams.
The precast elements are 35 mm thick, with two 50 x 50 mm2 and 3 mm¢ welded wire
meshes and two secondary chicken wire meshes: the 250 mm width lateral bands of each
undulated element has four welded wire meshes instead of only two.
The cylindrical elements are supported at their ends by circular rings. The bottom ring is
at the same time the foundation , while the top ring supports :the 96 roofing ferrocement beams,
supported on a central circular slab resting on a column.
Two smaller (900 rn3 volume) reservoirs of the same type are presently under construction.
Analogous ferrocement undulated wall elements will be used at the first opportunity for
water towers of the type already built in Araraquara to a volume of 1200 m3 with concrete
cast-in-place undulated walls (Fig. 17).

I: · -
_,.._ ~

Fig. 17. Water tower.

In the framework of a research program intended to set out effective rules for a widespread
application of ferrocement to smaJJ bridges and pedestrian runways, an experimental bridge of
Jnumol nf Ferrocemel/f: Vnl. 11, No. 3, July 1982 261





Fig. 18. Transversal section of the bridge decks with 1I m span.

11 m span and 13.2 m widtll was designed to be built in the next months for Sao carlos Muni-
cipality bridging a small river of the town (Fig. 18). Meanwhile. a full scale model of a typical
precast beam was bu ill, to be tested until next J uly. The ferrocement reinforcement consists of
three 50 x50 mm 2 welded 2.7 mm wire meshes and two chicken wire meshes; the grouped
reinforcement consists of 9.5 mm (3/ 8 in.)</> bars.


Pig. 19. Precast culverts.

Finally, precast elements for culverts were designed and will be tested during next year.
Fig. 19 shows a circular section. Another type is currently at detailin,g stage-, featuring a para-
bolic arch over a plane invert, a solution which reproduces the conventional concrete arch
Journol of Fe~mi:nt: Jlo/. 12, No. J, July 1982 263

Cost Evaluation of Typical Ferrocement

A. E. Naaman• and G.M. Sabnis••

The results ofa cost suri•ey sought in a selected number oj countries ta provide basic cost data
on jerrocement are dcscribl'd. Not 011/y the main cost componems (mesh, mortar and labor),
but ulso the costs of typical ferrocement composites designed fo r a minimum specified /eve I of
performance are reported. Methods for reducing production cost are suggested.

One of the drawbacks noted by potentia l users of ferrocement is the lack of information on
its expected cost. Cost data. when available, are generally related to a specific project in a
particular geographic location. at a particular time and under particular conditions. Examples
can be found in references [I , 2} and can also be derived from various United Nations reports.
The present paper summarizes the results of a cost survey sought in a selected number of
countries to provide some basic cost data on ferrocement, usi ng the yea r 1980 as a base. In
order to establish a common ground for evaluat ion and comparison, not only tile costs of the
component materials (including most commonly used types of mesh reinforcement) but also
the costs of Lypical ferrocemcm composite~ designed for a minimum specified level of perfor-
mance a re reported. The following section~ describe che forma t in which the cost information
was collected, the reason why a performance approach was used, the manner in which the
results can be utilized and conclusions as to how cost reductions can be achieved.


The setup of Tables I and 2 essentially describes the format in which the cost information
was sought. The data shown in these tables arc fo r one region of the United States and repre-
sent retail prices in U.S . dollars in 1980. Similar tables can be developed for other regions or
other countries using their local currencies. In Table I the most commonly used types of rein-
forcement for ferrocement are evaluated. Note that not only the cost per unit area but also the
cost per unit weight is reported for each type of mesh. T he cost per unit weight gives an indica-
1ion of the influence of the production process. Typically the cost per unit weight of ferroce-
ment meshes in the U.S . va ry from about 2 to 7 times that of standard reinforcing bars used in
reinforced concrete.
In order to develop Tables 2a to 2c for ferrocement composites, a performance approach
was followed. This was necessary since in some countries a particular type of mesh may be
substantially more expensive than a slightly different type leading to the same performance.
Typically th is may be che case for woven versus otherwise identical but welded meshes, or vice
t Reprinted courtesy of RILEM and ISMES. Published in the Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Forrocement (July 22-24, 198 1, Bergamo, Ttaly).
• Associate Professor, Department of Materials Engineering, UnivefSity of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Illinois,
U.S.A .
...Professor, H oward University, Washington D.C.• U.S.A.
264 Jo11mal of &rroum1mr: Vol. I 2, No. J, July 1981

Table I. Typical cost of ferrocement reinforcement in the U.S .

(Estimated by M.E. Iorns, California, 1980).

Weight Estimate cost• in U.S.S

Type of reinforcement lb/ ft 2

Squace ~esh; open;ng = 0.5 ;n. (1.2"5 mm)

Gage 19, </> =0.041 tn. (1.04 mm).
A 1 = 1320 x I0-6 in2 (0.85 mm2)
l woven

(kg/ m2)
( 1.18)
Per ft2(m 2)
Per lb (kg)b
(2. 74)
(1.13) (2.91) (2.58)
Square woven galvanized mesh ; opening= 0.25 in.
0.21 0.31 1.48
(6.3 mm): Gage 23; </> = 0.025 in. (0.64 mm)
( 1.03) (3.34) (3.24)
A 1 = 492 x 10-0 in2 (0.32 mm2)
0.125 0.11 0.84
Chicken wire mesh ;
(0.61) ( 1.19) (1.95)
Opening= 0.5 in. ( l2.5 mm); Gage 22:
O. l 0.08 0.77
Opening = 1 in. (25 mm); Gage 20
{0.49) (0 86) ( J. 76)
0.38 0 19 0.50
Expanded metal lath mesh
( 1.86) (2.05) (1.10)
Gage 24; 3.4 lb/ ft2 (1.8 kg/ m2)
Welded Wire fabric;
0.60 0. 17 0.28
·Gage JO;¢ = 0.135 in. (3.43 mm);
(2.93) ( 1.83) (0.62)
Opening =2 x 2 in. (50 x 50 mm)
•Gage 14; </> = 0.08 in. (2.03 mm): 0.42 0.23 0.53
(2.05) (2.48) (1.2 1)
Opening= I x I in. (25 x 25 mm)
·Gage 14; </> =0.08 in. (2.03 mm) 0.305 0. 16 0.305
Opening = 1 x 2 in. (28 x 50 mm) (2.05) (I .72) (0.70)

• Retail prices 1980.

b The cost of reinforcing bars for reinforced concrete is a.bout $0.2/ lb ($0.44/kg).

versa. The performance of ferrocement was mainly specified by a maximum allowable tensile
stress in the composite assumed subjected to uniform tension, and by a maximum allowable
value of crack width. Allowable tenslle stresses after cracking of 400, 500, 800 and 1000 psi
(2.75, 3.45, 5.5 and 6.9 MPa) were considered. Maximum crack widths were estimated using
accepted predictions equations [3]. Other design requirements as described in reference [3]
were generally followed. The allowable tensile stress in the reinforcement was assumed equal
to sixty percent of its specified yield strength and the specified yield strength was assumed equal
to 65 ksi (448 MPa) in all cases. Jn predicting crack widths. the modulus of elasticity of the
non-welded mesh system (within the mortar matrix) was assumed larger than or equa I to 20,000
ksi (138,000 MPa). The modulus of elasticity of welded meshes and welded wire fabrics was
assumed equal to 29,000 ksi (200,000 MPa). Examples of ferrocement composites designed in
Table 2a. Typical costs of ferrocement composites in the U.S.
(Estimated by M. E. Torns, California, 1980).

Composite thickness: t : 0.4 in. ~ 10 mm

Mesh : square; opening= 0.5 in. ( 12.5 mm); Gage 19;
Estimated rnst per ft 2 (m2) of composite
¢ = 0.041 in. (1.04 mm); A 1 1320 x I0- 6 in 2 (0.85 mm1 )
(in U.S. S)
Welded fabric: square; opening= 2 in. (50 mm): Gage 10
</> = 0. 135 in . (3.43 mm) ; A 1 = 0.01433 in2 (9.24 mm2)

Specified Welded
Steel content Mesh
composite Reinforcement Mesh wire Mortar Laborb Total"
Jb/cy; kg/m3 type
performancea fabric

- 1000 psi 1.2 0.08 0.14 J.42

C1a ~ (6.9 MPa) 7 13 1b/cy woven
( 12.92)
- (0.86) (l.5 1) ( 15.29)
4 layers of
mesh 1.08 0.08 0.14 1.30
W 0.00 1 in. 423 kg/ m3 welded -
max ~ (0.025 mm) (11.63) (0.86) ( 1.51) ( 14.00)

2 layers of
cro ~
IOOO psi
mesh woven
0.60 0.1 7 0.08 0.10 0.95
(6.9 MPa) 842 lb/cy {6.46) ( 1.83) (0.86) (1.08) ( 10.23)
+ or
l layer of
W 0.0014 in. 500 kg/ m 3 0.54 0.17 0.08 0. 10 0.89
welded wire
nrax ~ (0.035 mm) welded
(5.81) (J.83) (0.86) ( J .08) (9.58)
fab ric

- 500 psi 0.60 0.08 0.08 0.76

<l'a :::'.
(3.45 MPa) 357 lb/cy woven
(6.46) - (0.86) (0.86) (8 .1 8)
2 layers of
mesh 0.54 0.08 0.08 0.70
W < 0.003 in. 212 kg/m 3 welded -
max - (0.075 mm) (5.8 1) (0.86) (0.86) (7.56)

a (;0 : allowable composite stress in tension ; W m4x = maximum crack width.

b Factory produced with shotcreting. Total cost may increase up to 100~ 0 for on-site construction.
Table 2b. Typical costs of ferrocement composites in the U.S.
(Estimated by M.E. Iorns, California, 1980).

Composite thickness: I = 0.4 in. ( 10 mm)

M esJ1: square: opening = 0.25 in. (6.3 mm);
Gage 23; </> = 0.025 in. (0.64 mm):
Estimated cost per ftl (m 2) of compo~ite
A 1 = 492 x 10- 6 in 2 (0.32 mm?)
(in U.S.$)
Welded fabric: square; opening = 2 in. (50 mm)
Gage 10: ¢ : 0.1 35 in. (3.43 mm);
A 1 = 0.0 1433 in 2 (9.24 mm2)
Specified Welded
Steel content
composite Reinforcement Mesh wire Mortar laborb Totalb
Jb/cy; kg/ m '
pe rfor mancea fabric
- 800 psi
a ~ (5.5 M Pa) 651 lb/ cy
4 layers of 1.24 0.08 0.14 1.45
( 13.35)
- (0.86) (I .51) (15.61)
W 0.001 in. 386 kg/ m l
ma~~ (0.025 mm)
2 layers of
800 psi
era~ mesh
(5.5 MPa) 812 lb/cy
+ 0.62 0. 17 0.08 0. 10 0.97
I layer of (6.67) ( 1.83) (0.86) (0.86) (10.44)
W < 0.001 in.
welded wire
48 1 kg/ ml
nl/L< - (0.025 mm)

00 ~ (2.75 MPa)
400 psi
2 layers of
326 lb/cy
0.62 0.08 0.08 0.78

- (0.86) (0.86) (8.40)
W < 0.0021 in. 193 kg/ml
ma>. - (0.053 mm)

• cr = allowable composite stress in tension;

0 Wmax = maximum crack width.
b Factory produced with shotcreting. Total cost may increase up 100% for on-site construction.
Journal of Ferr()('( 1t1<•111 Vol. /}, NCI. J. 111/\o /9R1 267

Table 2c. Typical costs of ferrocement composites in the U.S.

(EstimateJ by M.E. lorns, California, 1980).

Composite thickness: t 0.4 in. = ~ JO mm

Estimated cost per ft2 (m2) of composite
Expanded metal lath; Gage 24,
(Use local units of currency)
3.4 lb/ ft2, 1.8 kg/m2

Specified Welded
Steel content
composite Reinforcement Mesh wire Mortar Laborb Total b
lb/cy: J..g/m3
performance• fabric

{ 1000 psi 1224 lb/cy 0.75 0.08 0. 14 0.97

cr, ~
6.9 MPa
Four Layers
(726 kg/m3 ) (8.07) - (0.86) (1.51) ( 10.44)

- ""'-
{ 500 psi Two Layers
612 lb/cy 0.36
- 0.08 0.10 0.54
3.45 MPa (363 J..g1mJ) (3.88) (0.86) ( 1.08) (5.81)

• cra ::: allowable composite stress in tcn~ion; IV'"'" = ma,,.imum crnck width.
b F actory produced with shotcrcting. Total cost may increase up to 100 °., for on-sue constwction.

accordance with the above criteria are described in Tables 2a to 2c assuming a thickness of0.4
m. ( 10 mm) throughout. In some instances different reinforcing systems lead ing to the same
performance were used, such as in the case of woven meshes and expanded metal lath. No
particular cost factor was associated with the type of structu re in which fcrrocement will be
used or its shape. Although only uniform tension was assumed in designing the composites
ofTable 2, for all practical purposes an equivalen t elastic allowable tress 50 %larger than that
used for tension can be considered for lkxure.


Cost data arc variable in nature especially when retail prices are considered. Within the
same country, state or city. substantial differences in quoted costs may be encountered for the
same item. Other differences may be due to the elfects of time and geogr:iphic location. In the
United States the effects of time and location can be accounted fo1 using cost indexe such as
those published in Engineering News Record. Although the data gathered in this surve) can be
used and compared in many ways, an attempt is made here to ptO\ ide a brief and useful sum-
mary of the results in the form of two tables.
Table 3 gives a summary of typical costs of various reinforcement<> for fcrrocement in
different countries. Averages were used where more than one survey answer for the same
country was received . Because of the subsidized nature of the steel industry in. Eastern Europe.
it was not possible to provide fair prices for Eastern European countries. Severa I observation~
can be made jn relation to Table 3:
Table 3. Comparat ive costs of ferrocemcnL reinforcement in various counLries (in U.S.S).

Unit cos ts m U.S.S / m2, 1980

Square mesh Square mesh8 Welded
0.5 in. (12.5 mm) 0.25 in. (6.3 mm) Chicken wire mesha Expanded metal wire
Gage 19 Gage 23 0.5 in. (12.5 mm) lath fabric
</> =0.041 in. (1.04 mm) </> = 0.025 in. (0.64 mm) 2 x 2 in.
1.8 kg/ ml 1.3 kg/ m 2 (50 x SO mm)
Welded Woven Welded Woven Gage 19 Gage 22
(6 x 10 mm) (I I x 22 mm) Gage IO

Canada 3.36 - 3.89 - - 1.30 c c 6.03

England 4.8 14b 5.6 16.95b 4.75b - c 6.27b 4.91

fndia 4.34 2.07 - 1.56 1.25 0.79 1.96 1.40 3.36

Jordan 4.67 - - 5.46 - - - - -

Mexico 3.73 - - 4.09 1.58 - 4.29 4.28 3.98

Singapore - 2.4 - - 1.22 0.6 1 - - -

Thailandd 1.5 1.75 - 1.5 1.0 - - - 2.5

USA 2.91 3.23 - 3.34 - 1.19 2.05 c J.83

a When indicated gage was nol available, closest gage was used.
b Special o rder.
c Different grades and openings are available.
d These costs are significantly lower than in neighboring countries but are re ported us received.
Jo11mal of Frrrocenumt: Vnl 12, No. J, Jul)• 1982 269

I. A reinforcement that Js standard in one country may not be readily available. or may be
available only under special order in a different country. This is particularly true for a
woven versus a welded type or steel mesh, or for a given gage or grade of mesh. Conse-
quently. the avai lability of a type of reinforcement is reflected in its reta il price. For in-
l\tance. a woven l>quare mesh (Gage 19 or 20) may cost 50 % of an otherwise identical bvt
welded mesh in India, I 10 ° 0 in the U.S. and 300 % in England.
2. Everything el~e being the same, s teel mesh reinforcement, when available, is generally
cheaper in the Far East than in the West. Prices in the U.S. seem Lo fa ll in between those:
prevailing in the Far East and in Western Europe.
3 Noting that the unit cost of reinforcing bars for reinforced concrete is of the order of
$0.44/ kg. it can be observed from Tables I and 3 that the cost per unit weight of mesh can
be up to 10 times higher than that of reinforcing bars. IL seems therefore essential to
discriminate in selecting a type of mesh reinforcement which would lead to tht:' lea~t
cost composite for the specified performance.
The first column of Table 4 summarizes the cost information related to one type or ferro-
cement composite. The type seleded corresponds to a compositt:' designed for an allowablt:
uniform tensile stre~s of 1000 psi (6.9 MPa). The lowest cost solut ion that satisfied the required
performance criterion was general ly selected. A composite thickness of 0.4 in. ( 10 mm) was
assumed throughout. It can be ob erved that the cost of ferrocement i~ highly dependent on
the geographic location and the production process. While the lowest cost quoted is anributed
to India, an about equal cost can be achieved in the United States using factory produced
fcrrocement with expanded metal reinforcement and the laminating-shotcreting fabrication
method. On the other hand, if welded mesh is used in combination with the hand plastering
technique, the cost ratio for a typica l composite is about 2.3 between the U.S. and India anti
3.3 between England and Jndia. Unless otherwise noted, the costs shown in Table 4 are for
on-site construction assuming a hand plastered ferrocemenl composite.
The last three columns of Table 4 give the cost ranges in percent of total cos!, attributed to
reinforcement, mortar and labor. T he ranges shown correspond to the various composites
described in Tables 2a to 2c, and cover the higher ,to lower performance range. T hey can be
used to estimate the cost of a composite having a different thickness or a dilferenc allowable
stress or both. It can be generally observed that the reinforcement represenls the major cost
factor in ferrocement fallowed generally by labor cost. While labor cost can be reduced through
efficient planning and mechanized production processes, the cost of the reinforcement is less
inftuenced by such procedures. The cost of the steel mesh reinforcement is mostly due to the
cost or production of the mesh system itself. It seems essential that new reinforcing systems
requiring IO\\er production costs be developed for ferrocement. in order for fcrrocement to be
The cost values and ranges given in Table 4 do not reftect difficulties related to the type and
shape of the structure. Cost associated with complex and accurately produced shapes requiring
skilled labor have to be accounted for. A typical example is the case reported for Jordan where
the ~pel·ial nature of the project led to a unit cost about t\\ ice that quoted for England.

The cost llata gathered in Tables 3 and 4 can be used to gross estimate the cost of typical
ferrocemen t structural clements. T he costs given in Table 4 apply to a 0.4 in. ( 10 mm) 1hick
270 Journal of Ferroamr111 · Val 12, No. J, Julv 1982

Table 4. Comparative co~ts and corresponding %costs of typical ferrocemcnt

composites in various countries ( 1980).
Specified perfo rmance"
cr0 ~ IOOO psi Percentage range of total
(6.9 MPa) cost (from higher to lower
performance) atlributed to
w"IO)I'~ 0.001 tn .
(0.025 mm)
1 Reinforcement Mortar Labor
(U.S. S/ m )
0 /
1980 % '}o 0

England 33.4 58 to 46 4 to 6 38 to 48

India 9.9 86 to 82 7 to 9 7 to 9

Jorda n 68" 23 to 26 3 to 4 74 to 72

Mexico 20.9 81 to 72 3 to 6 15 to 22

15 41 to 40 18 to 20 41 to 40
1211 33 25 42

22 to 24.5c 59 to 53 :::::4 37 to 44
30 to 35<1 42 to 35 ::::: 4 54 to 61
U.S.A . 17 to 19.5e 76 to 66 ::::6 18 to 28

15.3' 84 6 10
10.5'· 1 66 15 19
• Using lowest cost available for mesh rei nforcemenr (woven o r welded).
h Special project ; complex shape; skilled labor; no support wo rk .
c Assuming on-site ha nd plastering.
d Assuming on-site shotcreting: small project.
' Assuming on-site shotcrering: large project; continuous production .
' Factory produced with shotcreting.
'Using expanded metal lnth as reinfo rcement.

fe rrocement composite with a specified allowable uni fo rm tensile stress of LOOO psi (6.9 MPa).
As a first approximation, for fl exural elements, the equivalent elastic a llowable fl exural stress
ca n be taken about 50 % higher than the allowable uniform tensile stress. A reduction in a ll ow~
able te nsile stress leads to an equa l reduction in the amount and cost of the reinforcement but
a lesser reduction in the cost of labor. Consequently, a 50 ~~ reduction in allowable tensile
stress say from JOOO psi to 500 psi (6.9 to 3.45 MPa) leads to an about 40% reduction in tota l
Journal of Ferrocemt:nt: Vol. 11, No. J, July 1982 271

cost. On the other hand. doubling the thickness say from 0.4 in. to 0.8 in. (10 mm to 20 mm)
will lead to an about 80 %increase in the tota l cost of the composite.
No attempt was made in this study to investigate methods of reducing the cost of ferro-
cement composites. H owever, the relative importance of the cost of the mesh reinforcement
suggests that attention should be focused in the futu re not only on developing efficient methods
of fabrication for the composite but also particularly on developing new high strength rein-
forcing systems that can be produced cost effectively.

T he following persons have kindly responded to the cost survey which made this study
possible: E.W. Bennett, J. Cast ro, Mr. Cha lat, Mr. Fakhri, M. Gomez-Mejia, M . Jorns, P.
Jennings, C. Johnston, S. L. Lee, R. Pama, M. Ramaiah, G. Singh. Their cooperation is
gratefully acknowledged.

I. PAM A. R .P., LEE, S.L. and Vl ETMEYER, N.D., Editors, "Ferrocement, A Versatile
Construction Material, Jts Increasing Use in Asia", Report of the Workshop on Introduc-
tions of Technologies in Asia, Asian Institute of Technology. Bangkok, Thailand, 1976.
2. IORNS. M.E., ' 'Cost Reduction and Quality Control in Ferrocemenr and Marine Con-
crete", Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 1980, pp. 11-17.
3. NAAMAN, A.E., "Performance Criteria fo r Ferrocement", Journal of Ferrocement
Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1979, pp. 75-92.
Jo1m111f uf Ferruce111c111 Vu(. 11, No. J, July Jt;IJ2 :?7,\

Some Studies on Ferrocement Roofing Elements

P. Desayi,• C.S. V iswanath a - and S. Kan app an ..

R<•.wlrt of an<' \per/mental and semi-analytic.a/ .muly (Jn th<' sfrt•ngth 1.>fferrocem<'nl r0<~(ing
elt!mC'11ts test1 d under symmerric /ll'O point loadi11g are presented. Nine trape:oidal-sllaped ferrn-

N!lllt'lll mofi11g elements wt•re cast and les/t> d. The variables included were span/deptli ratio.
u111011nt of/011git11dinal rei11(orc11m1•nf and the trpe ofmesh wire. Methods ofcomp11ti11g cracking
load. ulrimate flexural strength 011d deflections have been proposed and tin• predicted results
ct1111pared it·ith test r<'sitfts. Load facrurs based"" limiting defli-ction and limiting crack ll'ldt!t
are also examined.
A , "' area of steel reinforcement 1n the M, ultimate res1sttng moment
tension flange pr load with respect to limiting crack
A,~ ,., area of steel reinforcement in the width
compression flange Pd load with respect to limiting deflection
B overall breadth of tht: trnpezoidal P,, cracking load
section P,, ultimate load
8 1 = bottom flange width of the equ ivalent P, ratio of total area of steel reinforce-
section ment in the longitudinal direction to
B1 ~ Lop flange width of the equivalent the gro area of the specimen
sectfon P111 ratio of the area of mesh wires in the
b" = width of rhe web of lhc equi valent longitudinal direction lo the gross
section area of the specimen
d overall depth of the trapezoidal section SMP= steel-mesh-mortar parameter
E., modulus of elasticity of the mesh- t = thickness of ferrocement specimens
mortar mix y, = distance of the extreme tension fihre
J;. = compressive strength of mesh-mortar from the neutral axis
mix x = consta nt
J;., ten cm side cube strength of mortar /I = constant depending on type of loading
f'c = 80 percent of fc and support conditions
/',h modulus of rupture of mesh-mortar (} = inclination
specimen given by equation (3b) y, = load factor with respect to limiting
J,, modulus of rupture of mortar cruck width
/, modulu~ of rupture of mesh-mortar y,1 ,., load factor with respect to limiting
mix, Fig. 6 deflection
/, yield strength of mesh wires 1.1 ~ deflection
f;- = yield trenth of steel bars 1.1, = computed deflection
I, moment of inertia of gross equivalent !J.., = experimental deflection
section !J..1 short-time deflection
L = effective span 1.1, total (immediate t long time) deflec-
M = bending moment tion
M,., : cracking momen t cr, = ultimate strength of steel bars
• Chairman, Civil Engineering Department. l ndian lnstilule of Science, BanglNe, lndia .
,. Research and Development Engineer. Tor-Steel Research Foundation, Bangalore, India .
• • Former M.E . Student, Civil Engineering Depanment. Indian tnst11ute of Science, Bangalore, India.
J74 Jo11rnalf1f Ferrocemi:111 ; Vol . 11, /Vo. J, J11/y 1982

The study presented in th is paper concerns with the application of ferroccme nt to prccast
roofing elements. Noting that the thickness of the element is small (usua lly 15 to 30 mm).
the strength and rigidity required fo r the element lo function as an effective roofing unit is
obtained by giving it a suitable shape such as an undulating trapezoidal type cross-section.
An element of such a secton can be assumed to behave like a beam-element when its length
is large comparcu to the lateral dimension. When the wid th of the element is comparable to
its length then its behaviour would be more like a shell (or fo lded plate) clement. While the
analysis of the5e two types of elements under load will be different, their suitability Lo form the
roof of a given structure depends on the shape of the plan a rea to be cove red and how the
roofing elements are supported. In this study. the investigation is regarding the former type of
elements only. The dime nsionse of the element cross-sections are so chosen that the bahav1our
of the elemen t under load is nearc1 to that of a bea m element.
One oftht: early investigacions on the fl exura l strength offe rrocemcnt i~ due to Collen, [I]
who a lso testecJ trough-sectioned fer rocement beams having a span of 3.25 m to 9.15 m rein-
forced with expanded metal and mild steel bars and the trough having a perimeter of 1.22 m.
Based on these test results, he designed and constructed a roof of a floor mill where tne trough-
elements covered a clear span of 7.82 m. Other studies on the Rexural strength of fe rrocement
are due to Rao and Gowder (2], Desayi and Jacob [3, 4], Logan and Shah (5), Johnstson and
Mowat [6], Suryakumar and Sharma [7], Rajagopalan (8). Balaguru et al [9), Karim and
Joseph [JO] anu Huq and Pama [11]. These studies have been reviewed in detail in reference
[I 2).
ln the present study nine fe rrocement roofing elements have been cast a nd tested . Span/
depth ratio, amount of longitudinal reinforcemen t and the type of mesh used are the variables
included in the investigation. T he specimens have been tested under symm!t ric two point
lolding. Deflections, crack widths a nd ultimate loads have been measu red and attempts made
to develop meth ods fo r predictiong (a) the cracking load, (b) ultimate flexural strength and (c)
deflections. The computed cracking loads, ultimate loads and deflections have been compared
with test result!>.
The materials u:,ed were wire meshes. steel bars of 6.8 mm and 4 mm diameters, ordinary
Portla nd cement and river sand less than 0.5 mm size and hav ing a fineness modulus of 2.8 1.
The strength properties of the three types of meshes and the steel bars used arc as shown in
Table I. The mortar had a cement :sand ratio of 0.5 (by weight) with a water-cement ratio of
0.42 (by weight).
Table I. Strength properties of mesh wires and steel bars.
Modulus of
SI. Proof stress Ultimate stress
Mesh wire/steel bur elasticity
No . (MPa) (MPa)
( MPa)
I 22 gauge wire (0.7054 mm dia) 325.3 393.5 16.09" 10 ~
of 4/22 and 6/ 22 meshes
2 0.234 dia wire of chicken mesh 642.3 855.4 36.49 ~ IOl
3 6.8 mm dia steel bar 398.3 524.9 228.57 )( 103
4 4 mm dia steel bar 68 1.8 703.9 2 15.82 >< tOl
Jouma/ oj Fl'rroceme11t: Vq/, 12, No. 3, July 1982 275

Fig. 1. Details of roof elements Call dimensions in mm) .

T est specimens comprised of trapezoidal sections of three different sizes BI , 82 and

83. Fig. I and T able 2 give the dimensions of the three cross-sections adopted in this
series of testing. Table 3 gives the designations of the nine specimens, L/ Band L/d ratio and
approximate self weight. Table 4 gives the details of mesh and bar reinforcement used and
their percentage a reas.

Table 2. D imensions of specimen cross-section (Pig. l ).

SI. Lt Li L3 I 0 Area
Section No.
No. (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm2)

I Bl 100 212. 230 20 45° 17 480

2 82 100 311. 230 20 45° 21 440

J B3 100 424. 230 20 45° 25 960

The specimens were cast over wooden moulds prepared to size and lined with galvanized
iron sheet. Mild steel rods bent to shape were placed on the mould at predetermined locations
and in between two layers of the meshes and securely tied by binding wire. Mortar was forced
into the meshes by trowels and finished to gela thickness of 20 mm. One trapezoidal e le ment
was cast at a timean.d with each.element, five 100 mm mortar cubes and three I00 mm x 100 mm
x 400 mm prisms were cast to determine the compressive strength and modulus of rupture of
the mortar respectively. T he curing of the specimens under wet gunny bags was started after 24
hours and continued up to the age of 28 days. The specimens were demoulded at 10 day age.
276 Journal of Ferrocemt!llt: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

Table 3. Overall dimensions of test specimens.

Total between
B d L/B L/d Self weight (kg)
SI. Section Specimen per
length load (mm) (mm) Total
No. No. designation metre
(mm) points
L(mm) length

I RI K20-422 3700 3400 750 170 4.530 20 155 41.9


2 B2 K l 5-422 3900 3600 890 240 4.045 15 20 1 51.5

K l 5-622
K l 5-C24

3 83 KI0-422 3500 3200 1050 320 3.050 10 218 62.3

K l0-C24

Note I. 4/ 22 is a woven mesh of 22 gauge wire ; ie., 0.7054 mm wire at 6.35 mm c/c.
2. 6/22 is a woven mesh of 22 gauge wire ; ie., 0.7054 mm wire at 4.23 mm c/c.
3. C24 is a hexagonal chicken mesh of 24 gauge (0.234dia) wire.

Table 4. Details of reinforcements used.

No. of Percentage
SJ. Specimen Percentage area of bars Total steel
6.8 mm of mesh
No. designation area of bar s in the tension percentage
dia bars wires

l K20-422 10 0.622 2.08 0.831 2.702

2 K20-622 10 0.931 2.08 0.831 3.011
3 K20-C24 10 0.129 2.08 0.83 1 2.209
4 K l5-422 13 0.620 2.20 0.848 2.820
5 K IS-622 13 0.930 2.20 0.848 3.130
6 K15-C24 13 0.129 2.20 0.848 2.329
7 K l0-422 16 0.621 2.24 0.841 2.861
8 K I0-622 16 0.928 2.24 0.841 3.168
9 KIO-C24 16 0.129 2.24 0.841 2.369

Note: I. A 11specimens had 2 layers of meshes

2. Percentage area of mesh wires are of those wires running in the span direction of the specimen.
Journal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982 277

Fig. 2. Ferrocement roof element under test.

Fig. 3. Crack Pattern of specimen K 10-622.

The trapezoidal elements were tested under symmetrical two-point loading. Supporting
and loadings units fo r the elements were separately made to suit the profile of each cross-sec-
tion. Loading was done through a hydraulic jack and the load measured by a proving ring.
D efiections, strains, cracking pattern and crackwidths were noted at regular intervals during
loading. The elements were tested to ultimate and it was found that seven failed in fiexure and
two in shear. Figs. 2 and 3 show a trapezoidal element under test and typical crack pattern
on an element respectively. Table 5 gives the results of the tests along with the strength of
companion specimens. Fig. 4 shows the load-defiection plots of the elements of group K20
for illustration.

Table 5. Strengths of mortar and test specimens.

K20-422 K20-622 K20-C24 KIS-422 Kl5-622 K15-C24 K I0-422 KI0-622 Kl0-C24

I. Age at test (days) 57.00 80.00 51.00 99.00 72.00 75.00 107.00 71.00 60.00

2. IOcm mortar cube

strength (MPa) 35.97 35.44 39.12 32.01 38.01 26.49 31.59 39.73 33.l 6

3. Modulus of rupture
of mortar (MPa) 3.51 3.18 3.02 3.12 3.35 2.84 4.26 3.88 3.9 5

4. Cracking load of
test specimens (kg) 852.60 788.80 574.20 772.90 1144.10 494.40 1400.10 2560.20 820. 10

5. U ltimate load of
lest specimen (kg) 3172.80 3201.80 1571.90 4461.90 4577.90 1886.50 6272.50 9520.70 5576. 40

6. Type of failure
of test specimen Flexure Flexure Shear Flexure Flexure Shear Flexure Flexure Flexure
Journal of Ferrocement: Yo/. 12, No. 3, July 1982 279


......,. SPECIMEN l<Z0-1526
lt-il SPECI M EN I< 20 -C24

0 zo 40 150
Centrol deflection I mm )

Fig. 4. Load-deflection plots of specimens of Group K 20.


Cracking Moment
Two different methods have been tried to determine the cracking moment. In Method
I, cracking moment is given by

Mer = fp I,/y, ......... . . ... ( 1)

and the cracking load is given by
Per = M cr/(L/6) .. .. ... ....... (2)
In Method-II, cracking moment is calculated from
Mer = h~ I,/y, .. . .. ... . .. ... (3a)
:?llO Jnumal of Frrrnumr111: Vnl. I], No, I, J11h /QH}

and the cracking load again oht.11ned from equal ion (2). In equation (3a),_f..~ is the modulus or
rupt ure of mesh-mortar mix computed from
.r:" = 0. 1962 [fc' MPa . -- . .. - ..... .. (3b)
1n which/; "' 0.8 },. where /, 1~ the compressive strength of the mesh-mortar mix given by.
P,,, (,]
/, - 0.86 14(,.., [ I ~ 1.095 [,II ••...... . . ... . (Jc)

Equation (3c) 1s based on compression tests conducted on ferrocement specimens. the results
of which have been reported in reference [ 13].
Table 6 summarizes the result of P,.,. obtained and the ratio of computed to ex.perimental
values of the cracking load. On an average both the methods have given satisfactory results
and the coefficient of variation is lower in the case of Method-II.

Table 6. Cracking loads by Methods - I and - 11.

Experimenrn 1 Computed load Ratio of computed to

SI. kg experimental Per
Specimen cracking
load, kg Method-I Method- II Method-I Method-II

I K20-422 852.6 556 612 0.652 0.719

2 K20-622 788.8 503 6 12 0.638 0.778
3 K20-C24 574.2 477 522 0.832 0.918
4 K 15-422 772.9 775 884 1.003 1. 130
5 K 15-622 1144.1 832 950 0.727 0.830
6 K 15-C24 494.4 707 680 1.432 1.376
7 K I0-422 1400.I 1827 1524 1.305 1.090
8 K 10-622 2560.2 1670 1614 0.653 0.640
9 KI O-C24 820.0 1699 1540 2.072 1.878

Average: 1.035 1.039

Coefficicn1 of variation: 0.47 0.376

Ultimate Moment
Two different methods have been used to determine the ultimate moment of resistance J\f11.
of the ferrocement roofing elements.
In Method-I, ultimate moment is determined u!;ing a procedure si milar to that employed
for reinforced concrete sections. The method is based on assu ming that :
i. flexural compressive stress distribution in mortar at ultimate is rectangular with a
height equal to 68 percent of the 100 mm cube strength,
ii. tensile strength of mortar is negligible,
iii. mesh wires are uniformly distributed over tlte entire depth of the section and at
ultimate is stressed to its yield value in tension or compression, and
iv. at ultimate, the mild steel bar reinforcement is stressed to its yield strength in tension
or compression.
Journal of Ferroce111e11t: Vo/. I l. No. J, July 1981

bw = 2 t sec e
b1 = L 3 • 2 t sec e
b 2 " 2 L 1 • 2 t sec e
d :L 2 cose •t

Fig . 5. Cross-sections of the clement and the equivalent section.

The cross-section is converted to an equivalent unsymmetrical I-section of the same height as

shown in F ig. 5 and using the above a ssumption, the ultimate resisting moment and thus the
ultimate load is determined . The results obtained and the comparison with experimental ulti-
mate loads of the seven specimens which failed in flexure are given in T able 7.

Table 7. Ultimate load by Method - I.

Experimenta I Com puled Ratio of computed

Specimen ultimate load ultimate load to experimental
Kg kg p"

1 K20-422 3172.8 2544.1 0.8018

2 K20-622 3201.8 2793.2 0.8724
3 KIS-422 4461 .9 4676.0 1.0480
4 KIS-622 4578.0 SI 17.6 1.1 310
5 KJ0-422 6272.5 6509.1 1.0377
6 KI0-622 9520.7 9776.7 1.0269
7 K IO-C24 5576.4 8102.6 1.4530

Average: 1.0530
Coefficient of variation : O. 1987

In Method-II, the ultimate resisting moment MR is deter mined from


.... . .... .. ... (4b)
M,u = A,c cr, (d- t) .. . . . . ..... .. (4c)

ro A, o, (d-t} whichever is less.

2lU Journal of Ferroreme111: Vol. 12. No. J, July (982

in which/,. is equal to lhe modulus of rupture of mesh-mortar combination; it depends on

mesh-mortar parameter p111 fs /.f•.11 and is obtained from F ig. 6 which is based on earlier
studies and reported in reference [3] and reproduced here for convenience. The results of M1,,,
MsH• MR and P11 obtained by Method-IT are presented in Table 8. From this Table it is seen
that values of Mft, are comparable to and sometimes larger than those of M$11• While in
reinforced concrete members Mru is small compared to M8 11 and is not additive in determining
the ultimate moment, the situation seems to be different in ferrocement members. In the latter,
the presence of mesh wires sustains M111 after the flexura 1cracking of mortar and till the ultimate
is reached and hence the ultimate moment is equal to the sum of M111 and Mw T his is borne
out by the test results in Table 8 where the ratio of computed to experimental ultimate loads
by Method-II is found to have an average value of 0.9896,
From Tables 7 and 8 it is seen that both, Methods-I and-II have given results which are in
satisfactory agreement with test results. Compu·tation by Melhod-11 are comparatively simpler


°'.... 300


::i 2QO
UI 100
~ 00 0-1 0.2 0.3 0.4 o.s
Mesh-mortar parameter Pm fs /fc

o hst res u lts (Authors)

• Test resul t s of Rao and Gow derC1971)

Fig. 6. Variation of modulus of rupture of ferrocemenl with mesh· mortar parameter (reference [3] ).


0.0$ O.tO 0.19 O.IO

st..1-m11h-mortor paromt t• r
...,.:.~ . . W

Fig. 7. Variation of a with the steel-mesh-mortar parameter.

Journal nf Ferroceme11t: Vnl, 12, Nn. J. 111/)' 1982 283

Table 8. Ultimate moment and ultimate load by Method-IL

Computed Ratio of com-

f, Mru M ,u M,
ultimate puted to experi-
No. MPa Nm Nm Nm
load, Kg. mental Pu

I K20-422 8.17 7 189.32 8 683.55 15 872.86 2856 0.9003

2 K20-622 10.47 9 202.42 8 683.55 17 885.96 3218 1.0052
3 KIS-422 9.15 13 413.57 12 735.93 26 149.50 4444 0.9960
4 K15-622 10.1 3 14 850.72 12 735.93 27 586.65 4588 J.0240
5 KJ0-422 9.22 20 712.62 17 367.19 38 089.82 7282 1.1611
6 K 10-622 9.81 22 045.33 17 367.19 39 412.53 7535 0.7915
7 K10-C24 5.89 13 227.14 17 367.19 30 594.34 5849 1.0490

Average: 0.9896
Coefficient of variation: 0.1178

and also the average ratio of computed to experimental Pu by this method has shown a smaller
coefficient of variation and hence it could be preferred for computing ultimate flexural strength
of ferrocement roofing elements. Ultimate strength in shear of two elements which failed in
shear has also been examined based on the available approaches for reinforced concrete as
given in British and American Codes [12] .

In all the seven specimens fai ling in flexure, the experimental Joad vs. vertical deflection
plots indicate three stages viz., (a) before cracking, (b) after cracking and before yielding of the
steel and (c) after yielding of steel (bars and mesh). A bilin.e ar method is proposed to compute
the deflections for stages (a) and (b) as follows:

The deflections are computed from

fJL2 M
A = -e-Je
for M ~ Mer (Sa)

/JL2 Mt:r /JL2 (M - Mc,)

and A = E I + E J for M > Mer ........ , . . . . . (Sb)
c " a. c t:r
Where Ee = 1765.80 ~ f,, MPa andfc is the compressive strength of mesh-mortar mix given by
equation (3c). Also /J is a constant depending on loading conditions and a is a constant de-
pending on the mesh, mortar and steel used in the specimens. Using the experimental values of
deflection in equation (Sb), a-values were determined for the specimens and it was found
that a varies with steel-mesh-mortar parameter SMP given by

SMP = Psfy + Pmfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6)

fcu f,,.,
and the variation is as shown in Fig. 7. A statistically best fitting straight line between a and
SMP gave the relation as,
284 Journal of Ferrocement: Vol. 11, No. J, July 1982

a: = 10.18 SMP = 0.9 ............... . (7)

Using values of a as given by equation (7), deflections have been computed using equations
(Sa) and (Sb) and lhe computed load-deflection plots found to agree satisfactorily with test
results. F ig. 8 shows the comparison of computed vs. experimental plots of specimen KI S-622
fo r illustration. Agreement of deflections was also examined at Puf 1.8S, P,,/2 and Pu/2.5 for all
the seven specimens and this is given in Table 9 from which the agreement between experimental
and computed deflections is seen to be satisfactory at these load levels .

•. ------------- ,,....,. --~

. .CH"(llf •• , _ Nl
- co...-vno

Control derlochon ( IM\)

F ig. 8. Comparison of experimental and computed load-deflection plots of K I5-622.

Table 9. Computed and experimental deflections at three different load levels.

At Puf 1.85 At Puf2.0 At Puf2. 5

Specimen 6c 6t 6 c/6 , 6c t:.. 6 c/6 t llc llt 6 cf6..
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

I K20-422 18.6 13.4 J.388 16.6 13.0 1.277 l l.3 J 1.4 0.991
2 K20-622 12.8 9.9 1.293 11.4 8.9 1.281 8.0 6.6 1.333
J Kl5-422 9.0 12.2 0.738 8.2 11.0 0.746 S.9 8.0 0.738
4 Kl5-622 9. 1 9.0 1.011 8.2 8.2 1.000 5.7 5.6 J.018
s KI0-422 3.7 5.7 0.640 3.3 5.0 0.657 2.3 3.3 0.682
6 Kl0-622 7. 1 6.3 1.127 6.4 5.6 1.143 4.7 3.8 J.237
7 Kl0-C24 5.8 7.2 0.806 5.0 6.4 0.781 3.0 4.6 0.652

Average ....... . l .000 0.983 0.950

Coefficient of variation . , ... . 0.285 0.264 0.285

Load factor 'Yd with respect to limiting deflection is determined from
.............. (8)
where, Pd is the deflection corresponding to a short-time deflection 6, 1 to be computed from
Journal of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. J, July 1982 285

!>., = ll1 + !!.1 (2 - 1.2 ~

A,c) .. . ..... .. . . .. (9a)

in which, Lhe total (immediate + long time) deflection is

/l, = L/250 (9b)
A,c and A, are equal to areas of compression and tension steels respectively and

(2- 1.2 TAse) ~ o.6 (9c)

Table IO. Load-factors with respect to limiting deflection and limiti ng crack width.

SI. Limiting deflection Limiting crack width

No. 1>. 1 (mm) pd (kg) Yd= P,,jPd Pc (kg) Ye= P,./Pc

J K20-422 7.56 2160 1.469 2140 1.483

2 1<20-622 7.56 1440 2.223 1560 2.053
3 K20-C24 7.56 620 2.535 850 J.779
4 K1 5-422 7.06 1640 2.721 2060 2.166
5 Kl5-622 7.06 2180 2.100 3232 1.416
6 K15-C24 7.06 11IO 1.700 958 1.964
7 Kl0-422 5.82 3440 1.823 4080 l.537
8 KI0-622 5.82 4880 l.951 5280 1.803
9 KIO-C24 5.82 2600 2.145 3180 J.754

Table 10 gives the values of 'Yd so determined and its value is seen to lie in the range 1.7 to
2.7. Fig. 9 shows a plot of Yd with L /d ratio and a statistically best fitting line for the data
its equation being,
'Yd = 0.05 d + 1.47 .............. ( 10)

r----- -o
/ /
...0 / ~--A
~ 2
""-.... .............
..., a' /
' ..._;'
o 422 mnh
• 622 muh
6 C24 mosh
- Best Iii lino
I '--~~~--''--~~~~'--~~~__._
5 10 15 20
K :.!. Rot10

Fig. 9. Variation of load factor 'Yd with L/dratio.

286 Joumal of Ft•rr11ccml!11/: Vol. 12. N11. J, July 1982

Load factory, with respect to limiting crack width has been determined from,

(J I)

where Pc is the load a t the maximum crack width {measured during test) of 0.3 mm. Table 10
again gives the values of r., and Fig. JO the variation of Ye with L/d ratio. The average plot
is almost horizontal having an equation of
Ye = 0.0074 d I .66 .......... ... . {12)

and it is seen r r values are in the range 1.4 to 2.1. Also Ye is seen to be smaller than 'Yt1 in most
of the cases.


o 422 mesh
• 622 muh
Jt C24 mos~
- - - Bui Iii lin•

K .1. Ral lo

Fig. 10. Variation of load factor 'Ye with L/d ra ti o.


l. For L/d ratios of 20 and 15, two specimens having chicken mesh failed in shear and the
other four having 4/22 and 6/22 meshes failed in flexure. Obviously the thinner chicken
mesh has offered much less resistance than the other meshes towards the load carrying
capacity of the specimens. Reasonable design of transverse bars is needed to avoid the
shear failure of the specimens.
2. Two different methods have been proposed for the computation of cracking moment.
On an average both the methods have given satisfactory results and the coefficient of
variation is lower for Method-II.
3. Two different methods have been suggestfd for the computation of ultimate resisting
moment of ferrocement roofing elements. Of these two. Method-II is simpler and has
worked out to be better.
Journal of Ferrocement · Vol. 12, No. J, July 1981 181

4. The proposed bilinear method has predicted satisfactorily the short-time deftections of the
ferrocement elements under working loads.
5. Load factors based on limiting deflection are slightly higher than the usual load factor
used on ultimate strength. Load factor based on limiting crackwidth are noticed to be
smaller than those based on limiting deflection in most of the cases. Hence it appears that
for ferrocement roofing elements of the proportion tested in this study, limiting deftection
criterion is the critical one.


The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for
their financial sanctions to this project.


I. COLLEN, l.D.G ., ''Some Experiments in Design and Construction with Ferrocemeot".

Bulletin, The Institution of Civil Engineers of lreland, January 19601 pp. 39-56.
2. RAO, A.K. and GOWDER, C.S.K., "A Study of the Behaviour of Ferrocement in
Flexure", The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4, April 197l, pp. 178-183.
3 DESAYI, P. and ABRA HAM JACOB, K., "Strength of Ferrocement in Tension
and Flexure", Symposium on Modern Trends in Civil Engineering, November 1972, pp.
274-279 .
4. DESAYl P . and ABRA HAM JACOB, K ., " Optimal Undulated Ferrocement
Roofing Elements'', Journal of Structural Engineering, VoJ. 2, No. 4, January 1975, pp.
5. LOGAN, D. and SHAH , S.P., "Moment Capacity and C racking Behaviour of Ferroce-
ment in flexure '', Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Proc. Vol. 70, No. 12,
December 1973, pp. 799-804.
6. JOHNSTON, C.D. and MOWAT, D .N., "Ferrocement Material Behaviour in Flexure" ,
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Proc. Vol. 100, No. ST 10. October 1974,
pp. 2053-2069.
7. SURYAKUMAR , G.V . and SHARMA, P.C., "An lnvestigation of the Ultimate and
First Crack Strengths of Ferrocement in Flexure", The lndian Concrete Journal,
Vol. 50, No. 11, November 1976, pp. 355-340.
8. RAJAGOPALAN, K .. " Analysis of Ferrocement Under Combined Tension and Bend-
ing·', Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 7, No. I, July 1977, pp. 1-8.
9. BALAGU RU .P.N.,et . al, ''Analysis and Behaviour of Ferrocement in Flexure", Journal
of the Structural Division. ASCE. Proc. Vol. 103, ST JO, October 1977, pp. 1937-1951.
IO. KARIM , E.A. and JOSEPH, G.P., "Tnvestigation on Flexunl Behaviour of Ferrocement
and its Applications to l ong Span Roofs", Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 8, No. 1.
January J978, pp. 1-21.
11. HUQ. S. and PAMA, R.P., "Ferrocemcnt in Flexure-Analysis and Design", Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol. 8. No. 3, July 1978, pp. 143-167.
288 Journal of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. J, July 1982

12. DESAYl P. and VISWANATHA, C.S., "Strength and Behaviour of Ferrocement

Roofing Elements", Research Report No. 4, DST Scheme, " Studies on Ferrocement
and Other Precast Concrete Products for Housing" , DST-FC-RR4, Dept. of Civil
Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, April 1980.
13. DESA YI P. and ABRAHAM JACOB, K., "Ferrocement- Its Strength and Behaviour
in Compression", Presented at the National Seminar on Materials and Technology
(Institution of Engineers, India), Madras, February 1973.
Jo11r11ul of Fcrroumr111 · l n/ J1. No. J. Jul.v /9Hl 2RIJ

1PTIIP~ l!®ill ill1lliill1fI]jl]Jffi

This Section provides illustrated information and details of construc1ion 10 help user to construct
ferocement structures quickly, easily and economically.

Materials and Methods

E. l orn s•

Assuming that you have tlecided to undertake a ferrocement project and are collecting
the background information mentioned in the April issue of this Journal, you \Viii soon find
that tnere is wide disagreement among 1hc experts as to which materials and methods to use.
For this reason, you will need some guidelines to evaluate the variou:, recommendation .

Portland cement is manufactu red worldwide to meet similar government standards, so one
brand is much like any other of the same type. Common cement is called Type I. Type 11 is
moderately resistant to the su lfates in sea water, and Type Y is best in that respect but not
worth a premium price. A ricn mix of Type I or 11 will be adequate for most boat hulls.
Additional protection, if needed, can be obtained wi1h various coatings. Type I 11 is a rapid
hardening cement for applications requiring a high early strength . Type IV is a low heat of
hydration cement for massive structures.
Your choice of materials will depend on availability, cost, and the service condit ions to
which the ferrocement is to be exposed. Service conditions may be broadly classified as passive.
such as tanks. silos and building components which remain in one place, or active, such as
boats and barges which move from place to place and can be involved in collisions. In passive
structures, weight is seldom a critical factor, so you may use any type of reinforcement which
will control cracking under the loads to be expected.
In boats, weight , watertightness, and impact resistance are the controlling factors. Impact
resistance is determined by the amount, tensile strength, distnbution, and su rface a re.a of the
reinforcing. Chicken wire was used fo r the early boats because better alternatives were not
available or were too expensive, but it is no longer recommended for bout hulls although it
may be quite cost effective for passive applications. A good hull design should not be rejected
because the architect specified bird netting. since a stronger mesh can always be substituted .
Unless you wish to experiment with the lamina ting techniques discussed in reference [I)
which permit use of the perforated or expanded metals described in reference [2]. you will
• Ferrocement Consultant, I S12 Lakewood Drive, West Sacramento, catifornin 95691, U.S.A.
Former President of Fibersteel Corporation, builders or ferrocement boats, barges, and concrete marinas.
His present company, Ferroccment Laminates, licenses others to use Fibersteel 1echnology.
290 Journal of Ferroceme11t: Vol. 12, No. J, Jufy 1982

need to choose between welded or woven wire mesh. Either can be used, but welded mesh and
ga lvanized woven mesh must be crimped or cut into strips to fit doubly curved surfaces.
Galvanizing (zinc coating) is. unnecessary for corrosion cont rol and the zinc can react
with adjacent uncoated steel to form hydrogen bubbles unless the mesh is passivated by
weatheri ng or the addition of about 300 parts per million of chromium trioxide to the mortar.
Both welding and galvanizing anneal can weaken steel wire, thus precluding high tensile
applications, but the strength is adequate for all ferrocement except in highly
stressed panels with which the amateur would seldom become involved.
The optimum mesh has openings from 6 mm (; inch) to 13 mm (-!inch) and is made
with wires ranging in gauge from 16 (.0625 inch or J .6 mm) to 20 (.0348 inch or .9 mm). You
should get price and weight information on all available mesh in or near those size ranges.
Select the mesh which gives you the most steel content for the money, but keep in mind that a
woven mesh whose intersecting wires can slip where they cross will be much easier to form
around compound curves. As a general rule, welded mesh with larger wire and wider openings
will cost less per kilo than woven mesh. It may be more economical in both labor and material
to use fewer layers of a heavier mesh such as the widely available 25 mm by 25 mm (1 inch by
I inch) 14 gauge (.08 inch, 2 mm) welded wire fabric for the ferrocement core and cover it with a
finer mesh near the surface for better crack control.
lt is now recognized that rods are a very inefficient use of the reinforcing steel. They are
not loaded to take advantage of their strength, regions of unreinforced mortar occupy the
space between rods, which adds to weight but not to strength, and they act as stress concen-
trators which promote crackfog under strain. Tests have demonstrated a substantial increase
in strength-to-weight ratio by the use of mesh only. but all-mesh building systems require that
the rod framework be replaced with some other means of support. The open mould construc-
tion method, described later, eliminates the need for rods if tne mesh strips are sufficiently
stiff to span the open spaces without sagging.
On the other hand, rods are much cheaper than an equal weight of mesh, so it is more
economical to use rods in the thicker sections of high impact areas such as the keel, stem, deck
edge, and transom. When rods are used in the thinner parts of the hull, they should be no
larger than necessary, should run in two directions at right angles, and be covered on both
sides with two or more layers of heavy gauge mesh. Some of the earlier bull designs called only
for longitudinal rods, but service experience shows the need for transverse rods to help arrest
the spread of impact damage.
The watertight construction required in a tank wall or boat hull is obtained by keeping
the water-to-cement ratio in the mortar below 0.4 by weight which means no more than 20
kilos of water for each 50 kilo bag of cement, and the use of a very fluid mortar to insure com-
plete saturation of the mesh cage. The amount, gradation and type of sand is important for
crack control and economy in conventional concrete but of secondary importance in ferroce-
ment where the overriding consideration is to prevent voids. Disregard arbitrary instructions
as to how much sand is to be used, and adjust the amount to obtain the best penetration while
keeping the water/cement ratio always below 0.4. There is no limit on reducing the amount of
sand used for the mortar inside the mesh layers, but the mortar covering the outside may need
a high sand content to prevent shrink.age cracks. No unreinforced mortar layer should exceed
3 mm in thickness.
lo11rnal "/ Fem>ceme111: V()I. 11. /.{(). J, J11ly 1981

Sand must be free of organic matter and fairly free of silt or clay. All particles larger than
about o ne millimeter should be screened out to aid in penetration. If the sand is damp, dry a
sample, note the percentage weight loss and cut back the amount of mixing water accordingly.
On a flat platform or in a tumbler type mixer, dry mix the cement with a little smaller
amount of sand, then add the water and more sand as needed to reach the desired consistency.
lf a paddle type mixer or a watertight tray is available, the water can be added first. then the
cement, to form a slurry to which the sand is added gradually until the desired workability
is obtained.
Workability requirements change with the various stages in the application of the mortar.
The first stage is to flood the mesh armature with a very fluid mortar to be sure all the interior
mesh wires are coated and all the tiny crevices where wires touch are filled. Apply this mortar
with a spray, brush or gloved hands if it is too thin to trowel conveniently. Collect the excess
which runs out for immediate reuse or save it to stiffen the second stage mortar. Despite what
some books say, excess mortar collected from a clean surface can be remixed or revibrated
for up to several hours with no loss of final strength.
If t he armature is rigid enough to hold its shape during application of the stiffer second
stage mortar, wor k may proceed immediately while the first stage mortar is still soft, otherwise
wait for a day or t wo until the fi rst stage has developed enough strength to resist the pressure.
Disregard the myth that mortar must be applied in one continuous operation. Hundreds of
successful boats have been built by the "two shot'' or similar systems.
Several admixtures are in common use by commercial builders, so you may wonder if you
need them for your ferrocement project.
Air entraining agents help structural grade concrete resist freezing and thawing but are
seldom needed or used in ferrocement.
High range water reducing agents called "super plasticizers" would permit you to add
more sand to the mortar yet keep the same degree of workability, but unless your project is very
large and your sand very cheap, they may not be worth the trouble and expense.
Various types of waterproofing compounds are heavily advertised, but none are needed to
keep water from passing through even the thinnest ferrocement section if the water content of
the mortar is carefully monitored to keep it below 40 % of the cement weight.
Pozzolans such as fly ash have been shown to add durability, and sulfate resista1we to
concrete and, if they are not acidic, may be used in any amount to replace sand in ferrocement
mortar. In commercial practice, pozzolans can also replace up to 15 % of t he cement without
loss of ultimate strength. If a well-tested pozzolan is cheap and readily available, you may
consider using it.


Almost all boats can be built more efficiently in the inverted position, including the deck
which is precast first and becomes the platform on which to build the hu11. Larger boats can be
launched in the inverted position with deck openings closed and turned upright while afloat.
This is much simpler and Jess hazardous than any method of righting out of water.
292 Joumal of Ferrocc11111nt: Vol. 12, No. ), July 1981

Several new hull building sys le ms were described in reference [I], but the well established
open mould method would probably be faster and present the fewest problems for the first
time builder. Three novices built a 12 meter (40 foot) hull in one week in 1968 by this method
except that a professional plasterer was hired for a few hours to trowel the finish coat.
In the open mould method, longitudinal batlens spaced several centimeters apart are
fastened to wood station frames prepared from lofted lines as in conventional boatbuilding.
Permanent bulkheads and frames may be precast and positioned inside the hull before the
longitudinal battens are in place. but cannot be bonded to the hull until the battens are removed.
The battens are covered with thin plastic film to facilitate their removal for inspection and
back plastering after the mortar has hardened. An all-mesh or rod and mesh armature is
stapled or lightly nailed to the battens and impregnated with mortar (Fig. I). If the mortar
creates bulges and collects in the plastic between battens, push it back or slit the film and
scrape off the excess mortar before it gets too hard.

Fig. I. The various stages in the application of plastic film, me~h. and mortar in
the open mould building method done here in stages for experimental
purposes. Most builders would staple all the mesh in place before
applying mortar.

Proper curing is just as essential to strength development as keeping the water/cement

ratio below 0.4. All the water needed is already in the mortar so it is only necessary to prevent
it from escaping by keeping the building enclosure at 100 % humidity with a fogging device,
shrouding the hull with an airtight plastic film, covering the hull with sacking and keeping
it wet, installing an overhead sprinkler system, or adding an acrylic latex (water emulsion)
to the finish mortar both inside and outside the hull.
Jour11al of frrrocement: Vol. 12, Nu. 3, July 1982 293

An acrylic latex formulated for use with portland cement has many uses. It toughens and
adds some flexibility to mortar, so helps prevent cracking. It can bond new mortar to old and
replace the more costly and toxic epoxies sold for that purpose. II may be mixed wirh neat
cement to form a corrosion inhibiting coating for steel or a fairing compound fo r skimming
over surface defects, filling voids and general repair work. It is self curing so eliminates the
need to keep patches wet for a week or more.
One acrylic latex is marketed worldwide under many different brand names using a basic
ingredient made by the Rohm & Haas Company under their trade names Rhoplex or Primal
and their code numbers E330 or MC76. Communicate with your regional Rohm & Haas
representative to find out which retail brands in your area contain these products.
The construction. methods outlined here will permit you to build a structurally sound huJJ
with a minimum of effort, but obtaining a yacht quality finish appearance can involve consi-
derable skill and effort. Instructions for this may be found in books and a rticles on yacht
b uilding and repair.
A new buildi ng system for the amateur which uses precast, prefinished ferrocement planks
in a lapstrake or carve! pattern is under development and will be the ubjcct of future articles.

I. CORNS, M.E. "Some Improved Methods for Building Ferrocement Boats·· Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol. H>, No. 3, J uly 1980 pp. 197-202.
2. IOR NS. M.E. and WATSON, L. L. "Ferrocement Boats Reinforced with Expanded
Metal" Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 7, No. 3, July 1977 pp. 9-19.
) ()11r1t0/ of Ferroceme111: Viii. J 2, No. 3, July /982 295

This list includes a partial bibliography on ferrocement and related topics. The AlT
Library and Regional Documentation Center has these articles and books. Reprints and
reproductions where copyright laws permit, are available at a nominal cost (see page 356).
Please quote the serial number of the list at the time of request. Earlier parts of the biblio-
graphy have been published in the past issues of the Journal and are also available in the first
volume of .. Ferrocement and its Applications-a Bibliography'' which contains 736 references
compiled from the list. Copies of this I FIC publication can be ordered at a cost of USS2.00 per
copy (surface postage included). For air mail postage add an additional amount of US S 2.00.


FRCJ089. BARB, S, and HANSON, 0 ., " I nvestigation of Fiber Reinforced Breakwater
Armor Units'', Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI Special Publication, SP-44, 1974.
pp. 415-434.
FRCI090. BUCKLEY, E.L and EVERARD, N.J .. "Prediction of the Modulus of Rupture
of Fiber Reinforced Portland Cement Mortar and Concrete". Fiber Reinforced
Concrete, ACI Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 163-176.
FRCI091. BURNETT, E.F.P., CONSTABLE. T. and COVER, P., "Centrifugated Wire
Fiber Reinforced Concrete". Fiber Reinforced Concrete, A Cl Special Publication,
SP-44, 1974, pp. 455-4 76.
FRCI092. C H EN. W. F. and CARSON. J .L., " Bearing Capacity of Fiber Reinforced Con-
crete'·, Fjber Reinforced Concrete, ACl Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp-
FRCI093. DAVE, N .J ., O' LEARY, D.C. and SAUDERS, J., "Structural Use of fibrous -
Cement in Composite Concrete Construction", Fiber Reinforced Concrete, AC[
Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. SI 1-532.
FRCI094. '' Fibre-Cement Composites'', Report of Expert Working Group Meeting (Octo-
20-24, l969), United Nations, New York, U.S.A., 1970, 45 pp.
FRC1095. GUNSEKARAN, M. and ICHIKAWA, Y., "The Strength and Behaviour of
Steel Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Made with Regulated Set Cement
and Sintered Fly Ash Aggregates", Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI Special
Publication , SP-44, 1974. pp. 113-126.
FRCI096. HANNANT, D.J. and ZONSVELD, J.J ., " Polyolefin Fibrous Networks in
Cement Matrices for Low-Cost Sheeting", Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society, London, A 294 ( 1980). pp. 183-189.
296 Journal of Ferroceme111 : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

FRCI 097. H ENRY, R .L.. "An fnvestigation of Large Diameter Fiber R einforced Concrete
Pipe". Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACl Special Publication. SP-44, 1974. pp.
FRCJ098. JAMROlY. Z. and SLIW INSK (. .J .. "Properties of Steel F ibre Reinforced
Concrete I mprcgnated with Methyl Mcthacrylate", International Journal of
Cement Composites. Vol. I. No. 3. October 1979. pp. 117-124.
FRCI099. JOH NSTON, C.O .. "Steel Fiber Reinforced Mortar and Concrete-A Review of
Mechanical Properties'', Fiber Reinforced Concrete, AC l Special Publication.
SP-44, 1974, pp. 127-142.
FRCl 100. JOH NSTO t'1, C.O. and COL EMAN, R.A., ''Strength and Deformation of steel
Fiber Reinforced Mortar in Uniaxial Tension", Fi ber Reinforced Concrete.
ACl Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 177-194.
FRCI JOI. KA DEN. R.A ., " Pumping Fibrous Concrete for Spillway Test", Fiber Reinfor-
ced Concrete, ACI Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 497-5l0.
T .. "Studies and Applications of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete", Kajima
Institute of Construction Technology, Tokyo, Japan, October 1979.
FRCI 103. KEER, J.G ., '' Behaviour of Cracked Fibre Composites Under Limited Cyclic
Loading", International Journal of Cement Composites, Vol. 3, No. 3. August
1981, pp. 179-186.
FRCI 104. KRENCH EL. H .. "Fiber Reinforced Brittle Matrix Materials", Fiber Reinforced
Concrete, ACl Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 45-78.
F RCl 105. KUKREJA , C.B., KAUSHI K, S.K., KANCH L M.B. and JAI N, O.P., '' Effect
of Steel Fibres on Compressive Strength and Compressive Strain of Concrete".
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (Tndia), Vol. 62, Part Cl2, September J981,
pp. 103-108.
FRCl 106. LUKE, C.E .. WATERHOUSE, B.L. and WOOLDR IDGE, J.F.. "Steel Fiber
Reinforced Concrete Optimization and Applications", F iber Reinforced Con-
crete, ACI Special Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 393-414.
F RCI 107. M AR SH, H. N., J r. and CLARKE. L L.. "Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement
Base Materials''. Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI Special Publication, SP-44,
1974, pp. 247-264.
FRCI 108. MAJUMD A R, A.J.• ' 'Glass Fibre Reinforcement of Inorganic Building Mate-
rials", UNI DO, lD/ WG.44/ 2, 1969, 36. pp.
F RCI 109. MAJ UMDAR, A.J. and TALL ENTIRE, A.G., "Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement
Base Materials", Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACC Special Publication, SP-44.
1974, pp. 351-362.
FRCI llO. NAAMAN, A.E., MOAVENZADEH, F. and MCGARRY, F.J., "Probabilistic
Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete", Journal of the Engineering Mechanics
D ivision, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. EM2, April 1974, pp. 397-413.
Ju11mol of frrrol'cmem · Vol. 12, Nn. 3. Juli 198} 297

FRCI 111. NAAMAN. A.E. and SHAH. S.P., '"Pull-Out Mecha nis m in Steel Fiber-
Rcinforced Concrete'" , Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 102, No.
ST8, August 1976, pp. 1537- 1548.
FRCI 112. O'LEARY, D .C., DAV E, N.J . and SAUNDERS, J., 'Steel Fibers in Partially
Prestressed Concrete Beams", Fiber Reinforced Concrete. ACJ Special
Publication, SP-44, 1974, pp. 477-496.
FRCI 113. PAMA , R.P., BOVOR NSOMBAT. P. and N lMITYONGS KUL, P., " Mecha-
nical and Phys ical Propert ies of Wood-Wool Slabs", Ma tc riaux et Constr uctions.
Vol. 9, o . 54. 1976 pp. 383-394.
FRCl 114. PAMA, R.P .. COOK, D.J. and ORANRATNACHA I, A., .. Mechanical and
Physical Properties of Coir-Fibre Boa rds", Proceeding of the Symposium o n
New Horizons in Conmuc1ion Materials, 1976 pp. 39 1-403.
FRCI 115. PAUL, B. K., POLlVKA. M. and MEHTA. P. K., " Properties of Fiber Rei n -
forced Shrinkage-Compensa ting Concrete"'. Journal of the American Concrete
Institute, Proceedings Vol. 78, No. 6, ovember-Deccmber 1981, pp. 488-492 .
FRCI 116. RAJAGOPALAN. K. and PARAMESWARAN , V.S .. "A Study on the Mecha-
n ics of Fibre Debonding in Concrete with Micro-Reinforcement" . Materiaux et
Constructions. Vol. 8, No. 46, 1975 pp. 305-314.
FRCI 11 7. REHSJ , S.S., KHALID. M. and GARG, S.K., "Steel Fibre Reinforced Ce ment
Flat Sheets'', the Indian Co nc rete Journal, Vol. 53, No. 9, September 1979, pp.
F RCI 118. SUBRA H MANYAM, 8 .V. and ABDULKARIM , E .. " Ferrocement Techno-
logy, a Critical Evaluation. ., International Journal of Cement Composites. Vol. I,
No. 3, Octobe r 1979, pp. 125- 140.
FRCI J 19. VISA LVANICH , K . and NAAMAN. A. E .• " Fracture Methods in Cement
C om posites", Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Divi ion, ASCE Vol. 107.
o. EM6. Proc. Paper 16746, December 1981. pp. 11 55-11 71.
FRCI 120. WAGNER. H.D., FJ SC H ER, S., ROMAN, I. and MAROM, G., " The EITcct of
Fibre Content on the Simultaneous Determination of Young's and Shear M oduli
of Undirectional Composites". Composites, Vol. 12, No. 4, October 1981, 257-
259 .
FRCI 121. WILLIAMSON, G . R., " The Effect of Steel F ibers on the Compressive Stre ngth
of Co ncre te", Fibre Reinforced Concrete. ACI Special Public~tion SP-44, 1974,
pp. 195-208.
F RCI 122. ZOLLO, R. F. and CAM PB ELL, R .B., "Extrusion of Glass Fiber Reinforced
Concre te", J ournal of the American Concrete Jnstitutc. November 1977, pp.
FRC I J 23. ZOLLO. R.F.. ''Extrusion of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete", Journal of the
American Concrete Institute, December 1975, pp. 675-677.
FRC I 124. ZOL LO, R .F., "Fiber Reinforced Concrete Extrusion'', Journal of the Structural
Di vi ion, American Society of Civil Engineers. December 1975, pp. 257 3-2583.
298 Joumal of FcrruUml!fll. Vol. 12, No. J, July 191J2

Mf 125. BAYER. E., " Ferrocement : Ferrocement im Bootsbau ; He rstellen von Ferro·
cement'' , Beton-Yerlag, Germany (in Ger ma n). 1979, 12 pp.
Ml 126. "'Ferrocemcnt Boats", Concrete Report , Portla nd Cement Association, U.S.A.,
1969, 12 pp.
Ml 127. G R EENFIELD. P., " The First Ferro Boat Book", Ho llis & Carter, London.
England, 1978, 192 pp.
Ml 128. LEE, L.H., ··i mpact Strength of Ferrocement Boat Hulls Protected by T imber
Rails", M. Eng. Thesis, No. ST-81-9, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok,
T hailand, 198 1, 44 pp.
M l 129. MOH AM ED NAKEEB, M.I. . "A Ra tiona l Design of Ferrocement Fishing
T rawlers", M. Eng. TheStS, No. ST-8 1-10, Asian Institute of Technology,
Bangkok, Thaila nd, 1981, 89 pp.
Mll 30. MONFORT, P., "A Revolution in Ferro Construction-A 1i Introduction and
Handling Manual for a New Composite Boat Building Materia l", Aladdin Pro·
ducts Inc., 1975, 63 pp.
M 1131. " R ules and Regula tions for Small Passenge r Vessels (under 100 Gross T o ns) ...
Sub-chapter T, CG323, United States Coast Guard, 1969, 107 pp.
Ml1 32. WALKUS, B.R. and MACKIEWICZ. A., ·'Application of Fcrrocemenl Shells
in Mar ine Structures", Symposium on Industria lized and Shell Structures, IASS,
Kieke, P oland , 1973, pp. 385-398.


MR I 133. BALAGURU, P. , NAAMAN. A.E. and SHAH, S.P .... Ferrocement in Bending.
Pa rt lI : Fatigue Analysis" Report No. 77-1, Depa rtment of Materials Engi-
neering. University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, Illinois 60680, U.S.A.,
165 pp.
MRI 134. PAMA, R .P ., DURR ANI, A.J . a nd LEE, S.L., " A Study o f Bamboo a s Rein-
forcement for Concrete Pavements", Proceeding First Conference of the Road
Engineer ing Association of Asia and Australia, Bangkok, Thailand, 1976. pp.
MRI 135. RAJASEKARAN. S., RAJ U, G . and PALA N IC HAMY. K .. " Behaviour of
Ferrocement Specimens in Bending and C ompression•·. Journal of Structural
Engineering. Vol. 2 No. 4, January 1975, pp. l45-IS4.
MRI 136. WALKUS, R ., .. State of Cracking and Elongation of Ferrocement Undc:r Axial
T ensile Load (l )". Buletinul Jnstitutului Politehn1c Din JASI , Serie Noua, T omul,
XVl (XVll) 3·4, 1968, 20 pp.
MRI 137. WALKUS, B.R ., ' 'State of Cracking and Elongation of Ferrocemen t Under
Axial Tensile Load (11)'' , BulctinuJ l nstitutului Po lite hnic Din IAS I, Serie Noua,
Tomul, XVI (XX) 3-4, 1970, 16 pp.
Jo11r11t1! of rt'rior1711r11t. Vol. fl, N11 . .I, Juli /98}

MO I I 38. BAJZA . A. , .. Properties of Cement Pastes and Mortars Cured under Different
Experimental Conditions", Cement and Concrete Research , Vol. 12. No. I,
January 1982. pp. 39-50.
MOI 139. C HI TTENDEN. A.E. and FLAWS. L.J .• "'The Use of Rice Husks as Aggregate
in Lighl\\eighr Concrete... Tropical Science. Vol. YI. No. 4, pp. 187-199.
MOl 140. COOK, D.J. and PAMA , R.P., ''Rice Husk. Ash as a Pozzolanic Ma terial",
Proceedings of the Symposium on Nev. Horitons in Construction Materials.
pp. 431-442.
MOl 141. GUTT, W., .. Manufacture of Cement from l ndu~trial By-Products", Chemistry
and Industry No. 7, 13 February 1971, pp. 189-197.
MOI 142. " Rice Husk Ash Cement", Proceedings of the Workshop on Production of
Cement-Like Materials from Agro-Wastes. Regional Centre f'or Technology
T ransfer, India, J979, 192 pp.
MOl 143. ZONSYELD, J.J .. " Polypropylene Cement to Replace Asbestos Cement", 9th
International Congres of the Precast Concrete Industry, 'BIBM 78', 9-13 October
1978, Vienna, pp. 1-120-127.


PR1144. KAPSE, G.W. and RANf, B., "Corrosion and Protection of Steel Reinforcement
in Concrete", The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 54, No. 8, August 1980. pp.

Tll45. BOURNE. R.C., "Mult1homc: An Innovative Concrete Dwelling System".
USA. undated, 10 pp.
Tl 146. ··construction Norms: ln,tructions for the Design of Reinforced Cement Con-
structions.. , State Committee for Con<.Lruction of the Council of Ministers of the
USSR (a translation from Ru:,~ia n), 76 pp.
Tl 147. HALLOWAY, R.. '' Ferrocement Housing Units in Dominica". Appropriate
Technology, Vol. 5, No. 3, November 1978, pp. 9-12.
TIJ48. MATH EWS, M.S., ··Fcrrocement, Its Definition. Development, Behaviour and
Uses. A Literature Survey". A Report, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian
Institute of Technology, Madras. 1977. 90 pp.
Tll49. PAMA. R.P.. lMITYONGSKUL, P. and COOK, D.J .. Editors. "Materials of
Construction for Developing Countries. Vols. l and 11", Proceeding of the Inter-
national Conference on Materials of Construction for Development Countries,
Bangkok, Thailand , August 1978. 1040 pp.
cation and Operation or a Ferrocemcnt Biogas Holder". Journal of the Institution
of Engineers (India), Vol. 62, Part Cl2, September 1981, pp. 123-127.
Tl I 51. WA LK US, B.R., KAMINSKA, M. and SZTEJ KOWSK I, E.. ''Mechanized
Method of Manufacture or Prefabricated Shells", Symposium on Industrialized
Spatial and Shell Structures, fASS, Kieke. Poland. 1973. pp. 399-410.
JOO Joumal of Ferroceme111 : Vol. 12, No. 3. July 1982

IFJC NEWS been classified into developed and developing

countries giving subscriber a priviledge dis-
IFIC Service Fees count of 5 %. I n addition, a 50 % priviledge
discount to all IFIC publications has been
IFJC services now include prints of given to AIT Alumni.
photograph to answer the demand from
subscribers. I FIC a lso has modified fees to The fees for J FlC services shown are
meet better the needs of the users. Fees has effective August 1982.


Reprographic Service Fees:

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Joumaf of Fl'rrocemt•111: V<1/. 12, No. J, July IWJ2 JUI

lFIC S LIDES AND PUBLICATI01'S technology. Also shown are some prefabri-
ca ted ferrocemcnt housing.
T he Slides Presentation Series
This series has been produced to accelerate Ferrocement Application : S tate- of-the-Arr
the transfer of ferrocement technology to
developing countries. The slide sets listed This vo lume is a compilations of the statc-
and described are designed for use in schools, of-the-art reviews published in the Journal of
colleges, training centers and will be equally Ferroccment. This is a valuable source
useful for organizations involved in rural volume that summgrizes published informa-
development. Each set contains thirty tion before January 1982. This volume con-
colored slides with a description of each tains the fo llowi ng:
slide on an accompanying booklet. • Srate-of-the-Art Review on Ferrocement
Grain Storage Bins,
Series No. I - Construction of' Ferroce11w111 by P.C. Sharma , R.P. Pama, J. Valls and
Warer Tank V.S. Gopalaratnam .
This set presents che materjals and tools • A Review of Marine Applications of
of cons truction, the step-by-step description Ferrocement in Asia.
of the construction of a ferrocement water by V.S. Gopalaratnam , R,P. Pama and
tank, test for leaV.age and the method to J . Valls.
repair. • Ferrocement- An Innovative Technology
for Housing,
Series No. 2 - An lt11roduc1io11 10 Ferroccmcnt by L. Robles-Austriaco. R. P. Pama and
J . Valls.
The development offerrocement technology
over the years is a major breakthrough in - Ferrocement for the Water Decade,
construction especially for rural development. by L. Robles-Austriaco, R. P. Pama and
This collection 1s a concise introduction to J . Valls.
ferrocement technology. The first fourteen • Ferrocement Applications fo r Ru rnl
slides present the typic&I ferrocement secu on. Development in Asian Pacific Countries.
tools, materials, fabrication, mixing, plaster- by P.C. Sharma . R.P. Pama. J. Valls and
ing, cu ring and repair. Background informa- L. Robles-Austriaco.
tion are included where appropriate. The
nexl sixteen slides show the applications of Ferrocement Abstracts
ferrocement to housing, marine, agriculture A II info rmation collected by J FIC are
and rural development. The set ends by entered into a computerized data base using
introducing l Fl C. its objectives, activities the !SIS Sys tem . Author and keyword
and services. indexes enable quick and easy retrieval of tht:
Series No. 3 - Ferrocemen1 : A Technology for
I FlC can now provide computerized search
services for specific information request on
This collection aims to show that ferroce- particular aspects offerrocement techno logy .
ment has a great deal to offer housing and is Information provided are : title. author,
capable of conside rable variety of treatment. abstracts and keywords. The service charge
Emphasis is placed on the applica tions of per request is USS2.00 and the cost per page
ferrocement to low-cost housing where including surface mail is US$0. I 5 for develop-
economics play a major role in the choice of ing countries and USS0.20 for developed
Journal of FerrO<'e111e111 : Vol. 12, No . 3, July 1982

countriei.. Air mail postage can be arranged 2, 1982. Dr. Jacques Valls, IFIC Director
and a charge will be made to cover this. showed them I FIC activities and discussed
with them the potentials of ferrocement
To purchase slide sets a nc.l publications or to
especially for developing countries. He
obtain further information on them, please
pointed out that ferrocement, invented by
write to:
Mr. J oseph Louis Lambot in 1848, is a
French invention.
The Direclor
IFI C/ AIT M r. Martin E. Iorns, editorial board
G. P.O. Box 2754 member of the Journal of Ferrocement and
Bangkok 1050 I building system consultants of Ferrocement
Thailand Laminates, was a recent visitor of IFIC. Mr.
lorns whose main interest is boatbuilding
lFIC NEWS finds the research on impact resistance of
ferrocement hulls of the Division of Struc-
Visitors to IFI C
tural Engineering and Construction, Asian
H.E. Mr. Chevenement, M ini!>ler of Re- Jnstitute of T echnology (AIT) very interes-
search and Technology and Mr. de Warmi ting. He had discussions with Dr. Pisidhi
Director of Cabinet of the Government of Karasudhi and Dr. Pichai Nimityongskul
France accompanied by H.E. Mr. Jean of A lT on the subject. According to Mr.
Soulier, the French Ambassador to Thailand. Iorns, his current research interest is on
Mr. Limon and Mr. Bertin visited IFIC April horizontal floating slip-form moulding of

Fig. I. Fig. 2 .

Fig. 3. Dr. Shearer, Minister or Science and Tech- Fig.4. The guests looking at the display of publica-
nology of New Zealand (left) with Dr. tions of the Regional Documentation Center.
Jacques Valls, IFIC, Director in IFlC office.
Joumalo/Ferrocement : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982 303

ferrocement pontoons and use of strap and AFRICA

high tensile wire in conjunction with core
Small Scale Fisheries D evelopment
meterials. Fig. I shows Mr. Iorns inspecting
the ferrocement canoe constructed 1978 and Jn many developing countries, rural fishert
since then filled up with water and Fig. 2 men need opportunities to explore the vas-
shows him inspecting the ferrocement hemi- fishable grounds to increase their income.
spherical dome used as incinerator. Help is needed to identify areas where pro-
gress can be made with small scale fi shery
H.E. Dr. Shearer, Minister of Science and
development and indigenious boatbuilding.
Technology of New Zealand, H.E. Mr. R.L.
Jermyn, New Zealand Ambassador to Thai- In Africa , a number of international aid
land and Mr. Wallace, Secretary to Dr. organization have commissioned the Mac-
Shearer were IFIC visitors last March 25, Alister Elliot and Partners Ltd. to design
1982. (Figs. 3-4) The New Zealand Govern- complete development programmes including
ment has been IFIC sponsor since J976 and resource studies, boatbuilding, fish proces-
Dr. Shearer was impressed of IFIC's achieve- sing, distribution, marketing and community
ments. fishing cooperatives.

Typical activities in a small scale fisheries development project.

304 Journal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

Typical activities in a ferrocement boatyard.

Two - 12.8 ferrocement vessels for Guinea Bissau.

A feasibili ty study on the indigeneous con- BANGLADESH

struction of fishing craft were undertaken for
Egypt, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Resin/ Natural Fibre Composites
Kenya, Malawi, Sao Tome, Senegal, Zaire The Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation
and Zambia. Ferrocement was identified as has developed a process for combining natu-
the most suitable material. Fcrrocement ral fibres, such as jute, with resins (thalic
boatyards have been successfully established anhydride and malic anhydride and propylene
in Kenya and Malawi. The boatyards are glycol) to produce a composite highly suitable
now self-supporting under the management of for use in construction of schools, clinics.
local staff trained by the consultants. houses and warehouses. The resin/ natural
In Gambia , development potential for fibre composites can withstand cyclones,
aquaculture in all sections of the country has heavy monsoon a nd the effects of prolonged
been undertaken and implementation has exposure to the tropical sun.
been recommended. Studies have also been
The fibrous material is spun as a large drum
undertaken for India, Libya and Oman.
and then passed through a resin bath. Within
( Information sent by Mr. R.G. MacAlister, a few hours the product is dry and taken off
Managing Director MacA /ister Elliott & the drum which is then ready for reuse. This
Partners Ltd.) . process is ready for commercialization and a
Journal ofFurocm1e111: Vol. 12, No. J, July 1981 305

transfer of thLs technology to Tanzania is and rice husk in the proportion of I : I by

being considered. weighr or l : 2 by volume. The required
amount of water is added to the dry mix for
( Sourre: "Technologies f rom Developing
making balls or cakes by hand. These balls/
Countries", Development and Transfer of
cakes are put in the open for drying before
Terhnology Series No. 7, United Nations
burning. They are then fired in the oven on a
Industrial Development Organization, 1980).
jalli (grating) base of a clamp or in a trench.
R ice husk not only acts as integral fuel but
also provides in situ silica for the lime pro-
Ferrocement Bus Stop S helter duced during firing . The fi1ed material is
ground in a ball-mill to achieve sufficient
The Christian Action for Development in
fineness .
the Caribbean (CA TC) has been using ferro-
cemcnt in the construction of water tanks in A direct utilization and useful means of
the Caribbean. CATC is now planning to disposing the waste sludge from sugar fac-
promote the use: of fe rrocement in the con- tories and paper mills has also been deve-
struction of bus stop shelters in Barbados loped. The proc.!ss involves intergrinding of
(below). waste lime sludge with Portland cement and
the required quantity of gypsum. A small
amount of an ai.r-entraining agent may also
be added, if required, for any spet:ial use.
T he lime-sludge-based calcium carbonate
sludges possess good workability and water
retention properties. No large-scale plant and
machinery are required except a ball-mill and
a set of sieves. The capita l investment for a
6,000 tons per year plant is estimated at Rs.
160,000 (USS 17 ,817). The process has been
licensed to three parties for commercial pro-

( Information from Mr. S. Conrad Mason, The building elements developed from coir
CA.TC co-ordinator). waste or wood wool are wood wool boards
and corrugated roofing sheets. Wood wool
JN DIA board is a material made from wood fibre
(wood wool) and cement. Wood wool is
Cement and Building Materials
saturated with cement sl urry and compressed
The Central Building R esearch Lnstitute, in the form of a board. The board is of
Roorkee has undertaken a number of process medium density, i.e. 300 to 500 kg/ m3 and
to produce cement and building materials. open texture. ft is used primarily as thermal
A very simple process for the manufacture of and acoustic insulation though it can be used
cement binder from waste lime sludge and as a structural panel because of its good
rice husk has been developed and can be bending properties, inherent resistance to
adapted in a small-scale industry. It is esti- fire and to termite attack. For a production
mated that total capital investment for a of 75,000 boards per year (2,000 mm x 500
production of 5 tons per day amounts to mm x 25 mm) in a three-shift operation (300
Rs. 120,000 (US$13,363). The binder is working days per year) a field capital of
produced by mixing dry waste lime sludge Rs. 182,000 (US$20.267) and a working
306 /011mnl of Ferroceme111: Vol. 11, Nn. 3, July 1981

capual of Rs. 70,000 (US~7.795) is required. In the dol neL method, large bag nets are
The process hus been licensed to seven parties. staked to the seabed. Their catches consist
The corrugated roofing sheet from coir mainly of Bombay duck. They are set in the
waste or wood wool requires 30 %less cement north of Konkan.
than tile asbestos cement sheets. The sheets The trawlers. ranging from J I to 15 metres
are light and sturdy and can be transported long, stern trawl for shrimp and also have
over rough roads without breaking. The considerable by-catch. All the boats are
sheets have good thermal insulation proper- presently being built or teak with "jungle
ties, are waterproof and fire-resistant and are wood" frames. But supplies of teak are
50 % cheaper than asbestos cement sheets. becoming scarce and the quality is declining.
The total capital investment for a production also, the price is rising even faster than infla-
or 45 sheets per day (1500 mm x 900 mm) tion.
smounts to Rs. I l0,000 (USS 12,249) and the The Development Corporation asked the
process has been licensed to five parties. Inter mediate T echnology Development group
The Cndian Institute of T echnology, Kan- in Britain for assistance in the evaluation of
pur, has also developed a process for tile appropriate alternative building materials.
manufacture of Ashmoh, a cement from rice This organisation's Industrial Services Divi-
husk ash and lime. The rice husk ash (90 % sion commissioned MacAlister Elliott &
silica) is mixed with dry staked lime and Partners to carry out the study.
ground in a ball-mill to achieved a fine pow- Gowan MacAlister visited Bombay in
der which can be used as cement. It is esti- September and October with fisheries econo-
mated that the 500 tons per year capacity mist, Dr. Rowena Lawson. They studied all.
plant under construction would cost Rs. potential boatbuilding methods and materials
I00,000 (USS I I, I 36). including GRP and ferrocement and also
( Source: "Tec/111ologies from Developing examined the social and economic implica-
Cou11tries (JI)··, De1•elopment and Transfer of tions of introducing new technologies.
Technology Series No. 7, United Nations One aspect that became apparent during
Industrial Development Organizatio11, 1980). the study was the impact on the fishery of
increasing fuel costs. MacAlister Elliott's
Konkan Seeks Ne\\ Material for Boats recommendacions on alternative materials
Concerned about diminishing stocks of tim- are, therefore, also likely to include proposals
ber in lndia, the Development Corporation of for improved hull shapes, optimum horse
Konkan has been investigating alternative power selection and the development of
boatbuilding materials for small mecl"tanised auxiliary sail.
boats. It has called in the British firm Mac- ( R eprinted from Fishing News International,
Alister Elliott & Partners Ltd. to look into March 1982. News item sent by Mr. J.D.M.
boat-building on the Konkan coast. Elliott, Director, MacA/ister Elliott &
There are some 3000 smaU mechanised Partners Ltd.).
boats along this coast which stretches 250
miles north and south of Bombay. Fishing New Concrete
methods arc traditionally giU netting and dol The International Seminar and Exhibition
netting and more recently, trawling. on M odernisation of Concrete Construction
The gill netters catch a variety of fish, the at Madras (India) 21-27 January 1982 was
most important being pomfret which finds attended by 500 delegates from 15 countries.
good inland and export markets. Ferrocement and fibre reinforced concrete
Journal of Ferroument: Vol. 12, No. 3. July 1982 307

were the main topics for the session on new KENYA

concrete. Keynote speakers of this session
were Dr. S. P. Shah, Dr. Ramakrishna and Plastered Basket Water Storage Tank
Dr. R.N. Swamy. The photographs show the
The 'Ghala' tank idea originated from
delegates in the I FIC exhibit.
Thailand where UN ICEF discovered rural
( Reported by Mr. P.C. Sharma, India Corres- people carrying water in baskets covered with
pondent of the Journal of Ferrocement} . an impermeable layer of tree resin. This
concept was enlarged to meet the needs in
Kenya, where more long-term water storage is
required, by modifying a traditional Ghala or
granary basket shape (F ig. 1) and plastering
it, inside and out, with a 2 : l sand/cement
mixture. (Fig. 2-4)

9Q cm


Or. S.P. Shah, editorial board member of the Jour- 100 cm

nal of Ferrocement and Mr. P.C. Sharma, India
correspondent of the Journal of Ferrocement at the
lFlC stall.

Fig. I. Ohala basket constructed without a base.

Delegates at the lFIC stall . Fig. 2. The finished tank.

Two lavers ot mortar 1.25 cm e1eh

Fig. 3. Construction of the foundation and posi-

Another view of the lFlC stall. tioning of the basket.
.loumnl nf Fcrroremrnl : Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

Lid l>andla
to determine the positive effect!I of this action.

I Spou1 tor collecung wa1er

However, it should be noted that tanks con-
structed early in 1978, which h.ave never been
covered, are still in perfectly sound condi tion.

It is difficult to cost the tanks because

basket work and cement p rices vary radically
fro m country to country. Still, the tanks
,....--- - - - Alrlnlet invariably cost less than commercial metal
tanks and , if properly constructed , should
last at least ten years.

The Gha lu tank is ideal for smal l commu-

..__---Water mlet nity projects where perha ps only ten tanks
are produced each month. UNICEF has
Fig. 4 . Detai l of rhe litl 11n<l con~truction or the lid. successfully adapted the Ghala tanks to other
countries in the region including Burundi
where over 100 tanks have been constructed
The Ghala tank provides a very satisfactory
and R wandi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Lesotho
framework onto \vhich cement can be easily
and Zambia. T o make very large tanks, the
plastered, and the basket construction rein-
design can be further reinforced by simply
forces against tension stresses . A II materials banding the basket with wire or mesh. Sever al
necessary for construction c~n be acquired tanks of up to 2000 gallons have been sucess-
from within the community with the excep- fully constructed in this manne r.
t ion of cement, which is usually available at a
reasonable cost. The basket is fairly light- ( Excerpt from "From Kenya - How to Make
weight, depending on its size. a nd can be Plastered Basket Tanks for Storing Water"
transported by foot or cart. Appropriate Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, March
The tanks were first introduced in a self- 1982).
help pilot project location called Karai out-
side Nairobi in 1978. After t raining local
masons in the methods of building, the parti-
cipants of the project embarked on a con-
Bamboo Reinforcing
struction p rogramme which is still ongoing.
To date, over 300 ta nks have been built in Ever heard of bamboocrete ? The Novem-
Karai, and a large number of privately-con- ber 1981 l RC Newsletter reports that a WHO
tracted tanks are under construction in satel- engineer, J .A. Hazbun, project manager of
lite locations nearby. Several other areas in the rural water supply and sanitation project
Ken ya have also sta rted to construct tanks, in the Solomon Islands, has found that bam-
with good success, but these have not been boo reinforced water tanks show as high
quantified. tensile strength as those of ferrocement.

It has been observed that the baskets will H azbun produced a "How to do it' ' ma-
deteriorate if a llowed to weather. Thus, it is nual which outlines the technology. Tank
advocated that the outside of the tank be panels are precast in moulds and are light
plastered with a thin layer of cemen t in order enough to be transported an,d manhandled to
to protect the basket, a lthough it is too early the site for assembly.
Jn11rnal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982 309

According to this Report, Hazbun says comprehensive and gives information down
that bamboocrete tanks are cheaper and 10 hours, weeks and months involved. It
longer lasting than galvanised steel tanks. and provides reliable performance information
are easier and cheaper 10 construct than relating to the various chemical solutions and
chicken-wire reinforced or galvanised sheet confirms suitability or other-wise of the coat-
tanks. "This technologically appropriate ing when subjec1ed 10 the condi1ions listed.
building material has the additional advan-
As this high bake phenolic coating is used
tages of being relatively light, cheaper to
as tank. lining for solvents , acids, hot water
transport. easier to handle."
and food products and as protective coatings
for ducts, machinery parts, filter press plates,
( Reprimed from Cil il Engineering, January
rayon machine parts, fans, oil well and off-
l9lJ2) .
shore tubular products, it will be appreciated
that because of the producfs demonstrable
UNITED KiNGDOM resistance to severely corrosive liquids and
solutions. the table will be of value to engi-
Advanced metal protection coaling neers in many diverse industries.
A new highly advanced protective coaling Copies of the 3066 corrosion resistance
for metal surfaces has just been introduced by table are available from Roger Heywood,
DG Protective Coatings, called an Ultra Director, Loyne (Manchester) Limited, Globe
High Build Micaceous Iron Oxide coati ng Lane Works, Dukinfield, Cheshire.
which enables the equivalent of three coats of
conventional MIO to be applied in one opera· ( Reprinted from The Dock & Harbour Autlw-
tion, thus showing large savings on labour riry Vol. lXJJ No. 731October1981) .
and down tjme costs.
Combining the outstanding corrosion re- Ferrocement Barge and Pontoon Hulls since
sistance of micaceous iron oxide in a highly 1950
weather resistant vinyl medium, Monolac
T he Sunderland and Polytechnic, Depart-
UHB is used on any metal structure when an
ment of Physical Sciences has undertaken.
exceptionally long lasting coating is required.
wi1h K.E. Harrington and R. Harrison, as
Information: D G Protective Coatings, 12
researchers, a survey of operational expe-
Banbury Road, Ellington. Stratford-11pon-
rience achieved with prcstressed concrete/
A v<>11, UK.
ferrocement barges and pontoon hulls since
( Reprinted from the Dock & Harbour Au-
thoril)' Vol. LXll No. 132 November 1981). Tile complete survey is divided into lllree
Corrosion resistance table from Loyne
I. Free FloaLing Hulls i.e. barges and
Loyne (Manchester) Limited have pro- ponloons used for cargo transportation
duced a 21 page corrosion resistance table and hulls t hat are not permanentely
which provides results of wide ranging immer- moored at one location.
s ion tests carried out on their US produced
2. Permanently Moored Floating Hulls
anti-corrosive phenolic P03066.
i.e. lloaling process plants. mooring and
The tests covered a very large number of roll-on roll-otf cargo terminals, lloating
chemicals, solvents, alcohols, petroleum pro- docks, floating barges, marine pon-
dut"ts and fatty acids and the table is extremely toons, etc.
310 Joimml u/ Ferroct>mi:111 : Vol. 11, Nu. J. July 1982

3. Ballasted Concrete Pontoon and Barges The authors realised that these lists an:
i.e. pontoon hulls which are towed to an not complete and would be very grateful
inshore o r offshore location a nd bal- Lo receive any further irlformation on the
lasted down so that the pontoon is hulls listed and on any hulls that they are not
sitting on the sea bed . aware of and which should be added to these
The details of the hulls listed have been
obtained since 1950 and thus those hulls Anyone interested irtcopies of the complete
built du ring the second world war are not survey can obtained these from :
included in the list. H ulls below 10 m in
R. Harrison
length have not been recorded.
Department of Physics Sciences
Table I shows the result from this survey Sunderland Polytechnic
for hulls constructed of ferrocement, fibrous Tower, Ryhope Road
ferrocement and pres t ressed ferrocement Sunderland SR2 7EE
only. Tyne & Wear, United Kingdom

Guide to Format
GRC Relined Sewer
An empty space m a column means that A successful answer to the problem of old,
the detail in question could not be established. worn-out sewers has been provided by Fair-
clough in Newmarket. They have relined a
deformed Victorian surface-water sewer
Type: B-barge; F.D -floating dock; with 10 mm-thick panels of glass r einforced
P - pontoon cement, and enabled the Highway Authorjty
to lift an imposed weight limit of 3 tonnes.
Service: S - sheltered waters i.e. harbour,
rivers, etc ; The 130-year-old sewer below All Saints
0 - off-shore; O/ S off-shore and Road, a narrow street in Newmarket, suf-
sheltered waters, hulls that are fered a major collapse in I 978, when a 3-tonne
used mainly in sheltered waters weight limit was imposed on the road. Later
but are designed to withstand inspections revealed progressive deterioration
ocean towing to another work- of the structure, giving cause for concern
site. about the safety of the sewer despite the 3-
tonnc limit.
Classification: A.B - American Bureau of
Shipping Now Fairclough Civil Engineering, Tunnel-
G.L - Germanischer Lloyd, ling Division, have relined about 660 m of the
B.V-Bureau Veritas; sewer. After weight tests on a trial section
showed that the relining method was entirely
L. R - Lloyds Register of
satisfactory the road has now been returned
Shipping; N.K- N ip-
to normal use.
pon K aiji Kyokai
Capacity : For floating docks the capacity A survey after the sewer collapse revealed
given is the lifting capacity original bricks that were very powdery with
little surface strength. The sewer was de-
M a terial : F - Ferrocement; FF-Fibrous for med for much of its length, and there was
Ferrocement ; no more than 600 mm of cover between the
PSF - Pres tressed Ferrocemen t tunnel and the road surface above.
s Designer Builder Owner M3teri3l
Number Length
of of Purpose Remarks
Service L B D {),. "'
Hulls Service
F.D . Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Floating
1964 19.5 9.76 1.22 West Sacramento West Sacramento West Sacramento F l dry dock
s 109.5 California USA California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Houseboat
1964 19.5 7.32 1.22 West Sacramento West Sacramento West Sacramento F 1 hull liner
s 82.3 California USA California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Casting
1965 2 1.95 2.13 0.61 West Sacramento West Sacramento West Sacramento F 2 pontoons
s 27.0 California USA California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1965 18.29 3.66 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 1 float
s 19.22 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1965 18.29 3.0l 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 2 floats
s 17.8 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1965 18.29 1.83 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 26 floats
s 14.42
California USA California USA

p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Houseboat

1965 15.24 6.01 l.22 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 4 floats
s 53.4 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. H ydrofoiJ
1965 15.24 3.66 1.22 West Sacramento West Sacramento F I landing
s 32.04 California USA California USA pontoon
P ermanently Moored Hulls ...
Type Capacity -~
<;; Number Length
(m) u
Date tc: Designer Builder Owner Material of af Purpose Remarks
Service L B D t:J,.
cu H ulls Service
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Houseboat
1965 15.24 5.18 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F I hull
s 22.25 California USA California USA liner
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Fuel dock
1966 13.7 13.7 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 1
s 66. 13 California USA California USA

F.D. Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Floating

1966 26.2 15.2 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento West Sacramento F I dock
s 22.25 California USA Ca lifornia USA California USA . pontoon
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Ma rina
1966 12.8 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramen10 F I float
s 10.15 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1966 12.8 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 2 float
0.9 1
s 6.76 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1966 12.2 1.22 0.9 1 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 2 fl oat
s 6.4 Cal ifornia USA Cali fornia USA
p Fibres teel Co. Fibresteel Co. Mari na
1966 11.58 0.9 1 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 4 float
0.9 1
s 6.1 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1966 10.98 0.91 West Sacrame nto West Sacramento F 4 float
s 0.9 1
5.8 California USA California USA -
Permanently Moored Hulls
Dimen sions 0
Type Capacity ~ Number Length
(m) (.)
Date Cd
Designer Builder Owner Material of of Purpose Remarks
Service L B D A "'
Hulls Service
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1966 10.98 1.83 0.9 1 West Sacramento West Sacramento F 5 float
s California USA California USA
p F ibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Marina
1966 10.37 0.91 West Sasramento West Sacramento F 13 float
s 5.52 California USA California USA
p Fibresteel Co. Fibresteel Co. Standard Oil Fuel dock
1967 18.29 9.14 0.91 West Sacramento West Sacramento Compa ny Ltd F 1
s 72.27 CaJifornia USA Cali fornia USA
p Fibresteel Co. E-V Associates H ouseboat
1969 I0.98 4.9 1.22 West Sacramento M iami F hull
s California USA Florida USA
used to
support a
p Wind Boats Wind Boats Norfolk
lt2. 1 2~ 2.68 1.78 Wroxham Wroxham Naturalist F 2
s England England Trust
at Broad-
lands Centre
Morris Guralnick Fibresteel Co. Standard O il
p Associaces Inc West Sacramento Company Ltd F I 11
197( 24.35 7.32 1.22
Sa n F rancisco California USA
s California
P ermanently Moored Hulls
Dimens ions .2
Type Capacity tu N umber Lenglh
(m) (.)
Da te c.c:: Designer Builder Owner Materia l of of Purpose Rema rks
Ser vice L B E .:~ Hulls Service
E.J. Pe rry Ferro Craft Pty Va rious
p Alexandr ia Ltd, Alexandria Owner
197 1 12.0 3.0 F
N.S.W. N .S.W.
s Australia Au tra lia
Kyung Dong Mooring
p Shipbuilding and F I pontoon
Engineering Co.
s Korea
F fuel
s China platforms
float tern
p floats
F 3 deck
s Weymouth
Mass USA
p Floating
35.0 F piers
Permanently Moored Hulls
Dimensions 0
T ype Capacity Number Length
(m) B
D ate <i:: Designer Builder Owne r Material of of Purpose Remarks
Service L B D L
H ulls Ser vice
P.T. Kodja
p Alexander a nd Po rt Autho rit y
Ta njung Priok Float ing
1979 67 17 24 Poore, Auck la nd Jam bi P.F.F. 2
Jakarta wha rves
s 840 New Zealand
Indo nesia

P.T. Kodja
p Alexander a nd
Tanj ung Priok C ro ssing
1980 40 12 1.5 Poore, Auckland P.F.F. 2
Jaka rta wharves
s New Zealand
Indo nesia

p Ferro Boat Ferro Boat

1981 12.2 3.05 0.91 Builders, Owings Builders, Owings F 10
ponto ons
s Maryland USA Maryland USA

Fibresteel Co.
F.D. Floating
1981 30.48 14.36 1.82 West Sacramento F
s - California USA
Free Floating Hulls

Capaci ty
(m) ~ Number Length
Date ~ Designer Builder Owner M aterial of of Purpose Remarks
Service L B D 6. "'
Hulls Service
p Sokol. Crane Operating on
1964 24.0 10.4 2.2 F J
Shipyard pontoon lover reaches
U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. U.S.S. R. ofVolga river
Fibersteel Co. Fibe rsteel Cruising
West Co., West house boat
1966 10.06 4.0 0.69 Sacramento Sacramento F I hull
s 2.94 California California
U.S.A . U.S.A .
·- · --
F ibersteel Co. E-V
West Associates.
B 92
1968 8.291 7.62 l.22 Sacramento, Miami F l
50 U.S.A. Flo r ida

p Wind boats Wind boats House boat Pontoons

969/ 12.8/ 4.0/ 1.1 Wroxham, Wroxham, Various pontoons in have been
PSF 40 12 yrs.
s 1970 10.4 3.6 6.0/ 10.0 Norfolk, Norfolk, Owners U.K. and towed to
England England France new location .....
- ·"'
Construction Experimen- Barge used to
Material tal barge carry bagged
B 320 Marketing cement and
1970 32.0 6.6 3.0 F I
Co. Ltd., steel cargos
Thailand T hailand Thailand
Free Floating Hulls
D imensions .5?
Capacity ~ Number Length
(m) <.>
Da te ct::
Designer Builder Owne r M ateria l of of Purpose Remarks
Ser vice L B D l:i. Hu lls Service
E.J. Pe rry Ferrocraft
Alexandria P ty,
1971 12.0 6.0 N.S.W. Alexandr ia F
Australia N.S.W.
Aust ralia
E.J. Perry Fe rrocra ft
Alexandria P ly.
1971 11.0 4 .0 N .S.W. Alexandria F
A ustralia N .S. P.
Austra lia
D .G . Sey- Ferrocon Ferrocon Deck loaded Ferrocon
mour, Nava l Industries, l nd ustries barge fo r went into
Arcbj tects Interna- In terna- charter ing liq uidation
B 1971 - 2000
55.5 14.6 3.4 A BS San F rancisco tional, t ional PSF I Nil purposes barge h ull
0 1972
U.S.A. No1th Van- broken up
!Vanconver, couver
Canada Canada
K yung D ong Kyung Dong Oil tank
Ship b uilding ~ hip - ba rge
& Eng'g !Building &
B 600 a nd Ko rean Engineering
1974 18.0 6.8 2.7 F 1
0 rnstitute of ~o. Ltd.,
Science & IK.orea '
!Kor ea
Free Floating H ulls
Dimensions .~
Type Capacity c;; Numbe r Length
(m) CJ
Date :5 Designe r Builder Owne r Material of of Pu rpose Rema rk
Service L B D /::, Vl
<:! Hulls Service
M oar & Ferrocement Dry cargo Ba rges self
Associates N .Z. Ltd. barges tpropelled
B andG. and Various
1975 12. 2 4.4 10.0 F 10
s Breekveldt. Ferrocemcnt Owners
Auckla nd, Ltd ., Pa pua.
New Zeala nd New Gunea
Alexa nde r P.T. K o dja Tender Barge self
a nd Poore, Tanj ung transport p ro pelled
B 25 Various
1975 12.0 4.0 l.15 Auckla nd. Priok
Owne rs
PFF 45 fo r ships
O .S. New Zea la nd Jaka rta . unable to
Indonesia enter port
- -
E. Gifford & Juba Prototype Ba rge self
Ferroceme nt Boatyard barge fo r propelled
Ma rine Juba, use in
B 11
1975 12.5 4. 1 Ser vices, Suda n F I the Nile
s J 9.5 Burnha m On river in -
Crouch, Sudan
Ferrocement Juba Various Barges
M a rine Boatya rd owner s used for
Services, Juba, includjng various
B 22 F 15
1975 13.8 2. l Burnham Sudan Sudan purposes on
s 34 On Crouch, Gove rn- the Nile River
England, ment in Sudan
Free Floating Hulls

Dimensions .g
Type Capacity ~ INumber Length
(m) u
D ate tC
Designer Builder Owner Materia l5 of of Pua pose Remarks
Ser vice L B D D. en
H ulls Servic:
R iver Estates Co. Pa lm oil
B 4 10 Alexander and
Tamanggong Sandakan tank
1975 37. 15 8.53 2.7 Poore, Auckland P.F.F. I 6
Sa bah Sa bah barge
s New Zealand
Malaysia Malaysia

B 55 Alexander and Barges

16.77 5.49 2.44 Poore, Auckland P.F. F . 13 self
s New Zealand propelled

C orrie Ready Corrie Ready

B 150 Alexander and
Mix Concrete M ix Concrete Aggregate
1978 24.4 9.2 2.06 Poore, Auckland P. F. F. I 3
Lower H utt Lower Hutt dredgi ng
s New Zealand
New Zealand New Zealand
Free Floating Hulls

Dimen sions
(m) ~ Numbe r Length
Date <t:: Designe r Builder Owner M aterial of of Purpose Remarks
Service L B D A Hulls Service
B Alexande r and Sandakan Water
1980 27.44 8.54 3.05 Poore, Auck land Sa bah P .F.F. I barge
s New Zeala nd M alaysia
B 550 Alexander a nd R iver Estates Co . Palm o il
1980 Poore, Auckland Sandakan P.F.F. I tank
s New Zealand Sabah Malaysia barge
p Sanders Lane C. Gibbons Ltd Nelson Harbour
Pile drivi ng
1980 15. 10 8.85 1.5 and Page N elson Nelson Board P .F.F. I
s New Zealand New Zealand Nelso n
B Alexander and Shell Oil Harbour
1980 13.72 5.49 1.83 Poore, Auckland Kula Lumpa P .F.F. 1 fuel service
s New Zealand Malaysia barge

B Alexander and Shell Oil Ha rbour

1980 21 .95 7.93 2.44 Poore, Auckland Sanderkan P.F.F. 1 fuel se rvice
s New Zealand Sabah Malaysia barge
B 1200 Alexande r a nd P.T. Kodja Pertamina
1981 56.0 16.0 3.0 Poo re , Auckland Ta njung Priok (State O il Co.) P .F.F. 1
0 N ew Zea land Ja karta Indo nesia Jakarta Indonesia ....
B Fibersteel Co.
1981 2 1.34 7.32 West Sacramento F
California USA India India
Petro leum
s China China China
Jour11al of Ferrocemel/f: Yo/. J2, No. 3, July 1982 J:?I

The relining work involved bolting together wind loading impact resistant and toad bear-
sections of glass reinforced cement (GRC) ing capacity and for use in earthquake areas.
panels, to form a new tunnel within the oJd, The system uses walls with a fabricated
brick-lined tunnel. T he space between the welded steel frame, sheeted on either side with
GRC lining and the brickwork was filled with fibro-cement or other cladding materials.
grout. Injected rigid polyurethane forms an insula-
ting core.Standard wall heights are2400 mm
The Ely Sewage Division arranged for
and 2700 mm but other heights can be built.
weight tests to be carried out on a 7.2 m trial
Panels with a thickness of 50 mm are fully
section by Water Research Centre engineers.
load bearing and have a thermal insulation
Varying loads were simulated up to 30 tonnes,
value the equivalent of 420 mm of cement
at which point the deflection in the new lining
block walling. AJI plumbing and electrical
was only 1.25 mm. At 4 tonnes it was a scar-
conduits are integrated within the wall panels.
cely discernible 0.042 mm.
External walls are bolted together and fixed
The tests proved that the new lining and to the floor through a galvanised steel base
grout had greatJy increased both the structu- skirt installed as part of the concrete slab.
ral strength and stability of the old sewer. Internal waits are mechanically fastened to
The system also improved the sewer·~ flow galvanised steel connection posts and fixed to
characteristics by providing a much smoother the floor through galvanised steel floor fixing
bore, which compensated for the decrease in components. All internal wall surfaces are
internal dimensions. flush jointed on completion.

( Reprinted from Civil Engineering, November (Reprinted f rom the Asian Building & Con·
1981). st ruction, January 1982}.

Modular building Polypropylene Cement to Replace Asbestos

Developed by System Built Pty Ltd., the
Hardie System is suitable for most buildings A composite comprising of layers of con-
including shops, homes, schools, churches, tinuous, opened but essentially aUigned net-
fire and ambulance stations, public halls, works of fibrillated polypropylene film in a
libraries, clinics and squash courts. It is cement matrix was developed by Hannant
particularly suitable for remote areas where and Zonsveld of the University of Surrey,
skilled labour is at a premium. The system Guildford, Great Britain. This composite is
bas been tested and approved for cyclonic known commercially as N ETCEM/ KA LOIN .
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the cheapest
polymers on the market and fibres made from
it are readily available in a great variety of
shapes and sizes at prices which are lower
than those comparable synthetics like nylon
or acrylic fibres.
The first applications of fibrillated PP
films in concrete were developed by Shell
with chapped twines of 40- 70 mm length,
mixed onto concrete to a concentration of
around 0.5 % by volume. The material be-
322 Journal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

Table l. Properties of PP cement sheets compared with asbestos cement

(PP content 7 % by volume).

Asbestos cement sheets

PP fully
Properties semi
cement cladding BS spec.
compressed compressed

Density (kg/ I) 2 > 1.2 > 1.6 > 1.7 690

Flexural strength 20 >13.7 4476
(MoR in MN/ m2) >16 >22.5 690
Tensile strength 10 to 25 17/25 Manufrs'
(MN/ m2) data
E in elas1ic range 20 25
(GN/ m2)

Table 2. Possible service loads based on B.S. 5247 Part 14, 1975.

Approximate stresses in
uncracked sheet cracked sheet
Loading requirements maximum tensile stress in
stress in bending polypropylene
in composite film

type applied load (MN m- 2) (MN m- 2)

roofs, slope 10-30° 0.75 kN/ m2 2.4 17.9
0.9 kN on 300 mm 3.7t 27.6t
square 7.4t
flat roofs up to I0° 1.5 kN/m2 4.8 35.8
slope, with access 1.8 kN on 300 mm 7.4t 55. lt
square 14.St J I0.3t
wind 2.5 kN/ m2 7.9 58.8
self weight 0.15 kN/ m2 0.5 3.5
t Assumed that load is carried by I m width; section modulus = 75 x 103 mm3.
~ Assumed that load is carried by 0.5 m width; section modulus = 37.5 x 103 mm3.

came known as "Caricrete" in U.K. and was volume. The sheet has excellent impact
successfully introduced by a manufacturer of resistance.
piling elements since 1969.
Table 2 shows the service stresses in the
The new sheet developed has properties corrugated sheeting. The typical physical
comparable to asbestos cement (Table I) parameters for the symmetrically corrugated
provided the fibre content is about 5 to 8 %by sheet are:
Jo11111al of F11rroce111ent: Vol. 12, No, 3, July 1982 323

Corrugation height 54 mm, The capital required for a plant with a

nominal thickness 6 mm capacity of 250 panels per day amounts to
section modulus 75 x JQ3 mml/ m USS56,000. Cost of roofing panel will be
span (simply I .38 m USS0.15 per ft2 (including the depreciation of
supported) investment over 5 years). Chemical costs are
sheet width lm estimated on prices in developing countries.
polYPropylene film 5.5 %parallel to corru-
(Source: "Technologies from Developing
volume (total 8 rJ gation
Countries ( JI)", Development and Transfer nf
2.5 % perpend iculm to
Tec/1110/ogy Series No. 7, United Nations
industrial Development Organization, 1980).
fl trenglh of poly- 400 MN/ m 2
propyJene film
Ferrocement Collector Plate De,·elopment in
(E'l:cerpts from: ZONSVELD, J.J. "Poly- SERC
propylene Ceme111 lo R eplace Asbestos Ce- The solar projects being undertaken in the
ment'', Proceedings of the 9th 111tematio11ul Solar Energy Research Center (SERC) are:
Congress of the Precast Concrete !ndustry, cont inued development of the patented
1978 and HA NNANT, D..I. am/ ZONSVELD, Solarsen flat-plate collectors ; experiment
J.J. ''Polyoleji11 Fibrous Networks in Cement with various new flat-plate collectors, in-
Matrices/or Loh ·Ccw Shl'ering'', Pllilosophi· cluding types which the collector plate is
cal Transactions of the Royal Sucie1y, Landon, made of stucco and ferrocement formu-
A294 (1980). Papers :;e111 by Mr. E.A. Mesrilz, lations which could also act as the roof
Visiting Professor, Energy Technology Dfri· or siding of a building as well as stand-alone
sion, Asian l11stit11te oj Technology, Bangkok, collectors: test various types of solar mate-
Thailand). rials, such as low-iron glass mirrors to deter·
mine their wcatherability of the desert climate
U.S.A. and other solar hardware to determine their
practicability and cost-effectiveness; testing
Corrugated Roofing Paneb from Agrkultuntl of pre-cooler on the SERC heatpump and to
Re. [dues build a i.mall domestic solar thermal power
Tne process of conversion of fibrous agri- · plant.
cultural resjdues, such as bagasse from sugar T he goal of the Center is to be as energy/
cane, into a corrugated fibre roofing panel food/shelter independent as possible and to
has been developed by the University of help teach others to do the same with their
Washington, College of Forest Resources, own homes.
Seattle. The process consists of five sets of
opertions: hammermilling and air separa- The Center is under the management of
tion of fines and pith; soaking, beating and Mr. William B. Edmondson, Utilities Engi-
screening for further pith removal ; addition neering Officer, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret).
of chemical additives and oriented mat for-
(Co11densedfrom Solar Energy Digest, Vol. 12,
mation; mat pressing; post treatment such as
No. 2, February 1982).
trimming; asphalt coating or vacuum impreg-
nation with preservatives and painting with
Superplasticizers for Concrete Fluidity
aluminized asphalt coating. The construction
material produced by sheets has stiffness and CiviJ engineers working in the field are
load-carrying properties comparable to cor- concerned with how quickly concrete hardens.
rugated galvanized iron sheets. They need to maintain the fluidity of concrete
324 Journal of Ferroceme111 : Vol. 12, No. J, J11l1 1982

in order to cast it into the various shapes tion between the cement and water, to moni-
needed for construction. Superplasticizers tor the heat of these reactions, and learn
is a kind of additive mixture which increases more about the morphology of the reaction
the fluidity of concrete as well as improves products with the use of an electron micros-
its strength by reducing the amount of water cope. If they are successful, they will have
needed to keep the concrete fluid . data which will benefit both cement manu-
facturers who need to know more about how
Cement and water are the two main com-
to best use the superplasticizers and the
ponents of concrete. Conventional plasti-
con tractor and civil engineers out on the job.
cizers are added in very small quantities to
the water, which is then added to the solids,
( Reprinted from Journal of the Institution oj
to provide only a modest increase in work-
Engineers, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 1981) .
ability. When superplasticizers were intro-
duced, they seemed an ideal improvement
Waterproof and Decorative Coatings
because they bind the cement and water while
allowing the concrete to flow almost as easily Waler seepage th.rough basements, cellars,
as- water, which greatly reduces the labour swimming pools and reservoirs, it is claimed,
needed to produce concrete in forms. But can be stopped with Thoroseal, a heavy-duty
unlike conventional plasticizers they cannot waterproof compound. This cement base,
be put in with the wate r, they must be put in aggregate type of coating decorates as well as
after the concrete is mixed. Moreover, the waterproofs. Thoroseal has high strength,
superplasticizers cause the concrete to loose great durability and "breathes", thus preven-
fluidity in as little as one-half hour, which is ting any build-up of water vapour.
almost too short a time for use in the field.
Suitable for use on concrete, brick, block
The researchers of the University of Illinois and masonry. the material is si mply brush-
are looking at the physico-chemical effects applied and can be used on damp surfaces.
of superplasticizers on s lump loss. In the 1t is available in 25 kg drums and bags and
next phase, they hope to identify any new p.reparation is simple - add clean water and
compounds produced during the early reac- where necessary a bonding agent.
Journal of Ferroceme11t: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982 325




KEYWORDS: D uctility, Ferrocement, Flexure, Stiffness, Strength, Ultimate Resis-

tance, Underreinforced, Yielding.

ABSTRACT : Previous studies by the authors have indicated that existing analytical
methods fail in varying degrees when compared to prototype tests of underreinforced
ferrocement shell units. This is principally because of two factors . I) The only in-
formation available on material properties are from tests which must be considered
to be one dimensional and 2) properties obtained from such tests for tension-com-
pression and for flexure are considerably different. Since ferrocemcnt is almost always
used as a plate or in the form of a shell, material data, to be realistic, should be obtained
from two dimensional studies. Jn addition, the most often used methods of computer
analysis for such shapes do not have the capability of different material properties
within the same element and at the same time nor can they account for properties
which are directionally dependent. ln response to these needs, studies are underway
at the State University of New York at Buffalo in both the definition of two dimen-
sional material properties and in the development of appropriate computer software
for ferrocement plate and shell analysis. This paper describes this program of research
and in particular. those aspects relating to the fl exural behavior of plates. The design
and testing of the plates is described and the resulting material properties and cracking
behavior compared with existing data.

REFERENCE: PRAWEL, S. P. JR. and R El NHORN, A .. " Properties in Flexure of

Underreinforced Ferrocement Panels in T wo-Way Bend ing" Journal pf Ferrocement,
Vol. 12, No. 3, Paper JFP 38, July 1982, pp. 237-250.
326 Journal of Ferrocement: Vol. 11, No. J, July 1981

IFJC Consultants a re individuals who are willing to entertain referral letters from IFIC
on their field of expertise.


Mr. Vittorio Barberio N.V. BeKaert, 8 8550 Zwevegem

Via Ombrone 12 Belgium
00198 R oma
Italy D r. Prakash Desayi
Professor of Civil Engineering
Dr. B.S. Basavarajafah lndian Institute of Science
Professor and Head Bangalore 560012
Dept. of Civil Engineering India
Karnataka Regional Engineering College
Surathkul, P.O . Srinivasnagar 574 157 Mr. Anshori DjausaJ
India OTC - ITP., P.O. Box 276
Mr. Shjv S hanker Bhargara Indonesia
90 - A/8 Baghambari Gaddi
Allahabad, U.P. Or. Ripley D. Fox
India La R oquette
34190 St. Bauzille de Potois
Dr. F. Bljuger France
Bui 1ding Research Station
Technion City M r. M ichael Edward Freddie
Haifa 32000 The R oyal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
Israel The School of Architecture
Institute of Building Science
Dr . J .F. de Bock Koagens Nytorv I
P.O. Box 50154 DK I050 Copenhagen K
Porirua Denmark
New Zealand
Dr. J an Grabowski
Mr. V. D ebeuckelaere Stupecka 7m35
Product Manager, 02-309 Warszawa
Building Products Poland
Joumal ef Ferroceme111: Vol. 11, No. J, July 1982 327

Dr. Jaiio Bento Hanai Mr. Ron Yan Kerk voorden

Av. das Azaleas, 456 Water Supply EngineeI
13560 Sao Carlos - SP DHV Consulting Engineers
Brazil Rural Water Supply Projects
West Java (Indonesia)
Mr. Kazi Ata-ul Haque P .O. Box 59, Bandung
Housing & Building Research Institute Indonesia
Darus - Salam - Mirpur
Dacca, Baagladesh Mr. Muhammad Mlsbabuddin Khan
H ousing & Building Research Institute
Darus - Salam, Mirpur
Prof. S.C. Jain
D acca, Bangladesh
Institute of Engineering and Rural D evelop-
Mr. Yuki Kobayashi
6-38-L Shinkawa, Mitaka
Allahabad, Jndia
T okyo 181, Japan

D r. Colin Deane Johnston Ms. Kersting Kohler

Professor of Civil Engineering Architect/ Designer
University of Calgary John Ericssonsgatan 4
Calgary, Alberta 11 2 22 Stockho lm
Canada T2N 1N4 Sweden

Dr. Nilyardi Kahar Mr. Michael Henry Leach

Research Scientist and Assistant Director for Partner - East African Practice of Consulting
Scientific Affairs Engineers
Lembaga Fisika Nasional-LIP£ MBEGA M ELVIN Consulting Engineers
JI. Cisita - Kompleks UPI P.O. Box 425. Anisha
Bandung, Indonesia T anzania, East Africa

Dr. Worsak Kanok-Nukuk hai Mr. Hui-Xiang Li

Associate Professor R esearch Institute of Cement Products
Division of Structural Engineering and Con- Soochow, C hina
Mr. Cipriano Londono
Asian Institute of T echnology
A.A . 52814, M edellin
P.O . Box 2754
Colombia, South America
Bangkok, Thailand
Or. Andrzej MacKiewic7.
Dr. S urendra Kumar Kaushik BonifratersKa 10 B/ 54
Civil Engineering Department 00213 Warzawa
University of Roorkee Poland
R oorkee 2776 72
Jndia Dr. John Lindsay Meek
Reader, Civil Engineering Department
Dr. Makoto Kawakami U n iversity of QueensJand
1-1 Tegatagakuen-ch o Brisbane, Queensland
Akita-Shi, 010 Japan Australia
328 Joumal of Ferrocemenr: Vol. 12, No . J, July 1982

Dr. Adam Michel Dr. K. Ravindran

9 rue La Perouse F ishing Craft Ma terials
75784 Paris Cedex 16 Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
France Cochin 682029
Dr. Antoin e E. Naaman
Professor, Materials Engineering Department
University of Jllinojs at Chicago Circle Mr. S uddhisakdi Samprejprasong
P .O . Box 4348, Chicago Illinois 60680 T hailand lnstituc.e of Scientific and Techno-
U.S.A. logical Resea rch (T ISTR)
196 Phahonyothin Road
Mr. C harles Nakau Bangkok, Thailand
Research Engineer
Appropriate T echnology Develo pment In- Dr. Michal Sandowicz
stit ute Ferrocemenl Research Laboratory
P.O . Box 793, Lae
Wars Kiego 25, 02-645
Morobe Province
Warsaw, Poland
Papua New Guinea
Dr. Pichai NimityongskuJ Mr. Raj Dass S hrestha
A ssociate Professor Associate Resea rch Officer
D ivision of Structural Engineering and Con- Research Centre for Applied Science and
struction T echnology (RECAST)
Asian Institute of Technology Tribhuvan University
P.O. Box 2754 K irlipur, Nepal
Ba ngkok, Tha iland
Dr. Yoshihiko Ohama Mr. Hari Siswoyo Aji
Associate Professor R ural Water Supply West Java
College of Engineering Project OTA 33/ E-7
Nihon University T romol P os 59
K oriyama, Fukushima Bandung, Indonesia
Ja pan
Dr. P . Paramasivam
Mr. Jean Paul S terck
Associate Professor P roject Manager , D ivision New Produc t
D epartment of Civil Engineering 14, Ru itersolreef
N a tional University of Singapore B-8550 Zwevegern
Kent Ridge Belgium
Singapore 651 I
Mr. Narong S ukapaddoadhi
Mr. P ieck
Thailand Institute of Scientific and T echno-
Bre uKelen, Orttswarande 22
logical Research (TISTR)
3621 XP
196 Phahonyothin R oad
H olland
Ba ngkok, T hailand
Mr. Caspar L.P.M. Pompe
R ural Water Supply W est Java Mr. A.K.M. Syeed-ul-Haque
Project OTA 33/ E-7 H ousing & Building Resear ch Institute
Tromo I Pos 59 Darus-Salam, Mirpu r
Bandung, Indonesia Dacca, Bang ladesh
Journal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, Nu. 3, July 1982 329

Mr. Fausto C. Tarran Dr. Bernard Ryszard

P.O. Box 20901 Matachowskiego 80
0100 Sao Paulo 90-159 Lodz
S.P. Brazil
Mr. David James Wells
Mr. Jack T homas P.O. Box 410
11 Addison St., Moonee Ponds Jayapura, lrian Jaya
Victoria 3039 Indonesia
Australia Mr. Winarto
Mr. Hiroshi Tokuda Yayasan Dian Desa Appropriate Technology
1-1, Tegatagakuen-cho Groups
Akita-sbi 010 P.O. Box 19, Bulaksumar
Japan Yogyakarta, Indones ia

Dr. Ronold F. Zollo

Mr. H .V. Venkata Krishna Department of Civil Engineering
Karnataka Regional Engineering College University of Miami
Surath.kal (D.K .) Srinivasager 574 I 57 Coral Gables, Florida 33124
Karnataka, India U.S.A.


Mr. Douglas Alexander Mr. John. R. Gusler

Principal, Alexander and Poore Consulting Principal, John R. Gusler & Associates
Engineers 6893 S Sectionline Rd .
2 Whitaker Place Delaware, Ohio 43015
Auckland 7, New Zealand U.S.A.
Dr. Garry Lee Bowen Mr. Martin E. Iorns
c/o Burton, Pomona Road
1512 Lakewood Drive
Kumeu Rd. 1,
West Sacramento
New Zealand
CA 95691, U.S.A.
Mr. Peter E. Ellen
Director Mr. Robert Gowan MacAlister
Peter Ellen and Associates Ltd. Managing Director
17/F H ong Kong, Macau Bldg. M acAlister Elliott & Partners Ltd.
156-7 Connaught Rd. 56 H igh Street
Hong Kong Lymington, Hants S04 9GB
Mr. John Forbes Fyson
Fisheries Technology Service Mr. Gerald James Neuburger
Fishery Industries Division P.O. Box 240
FAO, Via delle Terme di Ca racalla Santo, Vanuatu
Rome, I taly Southwest P acific
330 Journal of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

Mr. John Michael Pemberton Onerahi, Whangarei

36 Adler Hill New Zealand
Grove, Leeds 12 PT
Mr. Graeme John Tilly
United Kingdom
32 Hayes Terrace
Mr. Everard Ralph Sayer Mosman Park
P.O. Box 3082 WA 6012 Australia


Mr. Denis Backhouse Chowk, Lucknow 226003

Griffith University Nathan 4111 India
Queensland , Australia
Mr. Patrick Jennings Jr.
Mr. V.G. Gokhale NC. Consulting Engineers
Chief Executive Officer 192-198 Vauxhall
Bombay Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Bridge Road
CASTONE - Precast Concrete Division London SWIV lDX
129 Mahatma Gandhi Road England
Bombay 400 023
India Mr. S.W. Norton
P.O. Box 168
Mr. John R. Gusler Halfway House 1685
Principal, John R. Gusler & Associates South Africa
6893 S Sectionline Rd.
Delaware, Ohio 43015 Mr. Jens O vergaard
U.S.A. EAO, United Nations, Human Settlements
Economic and Social Commission for Asian
Mr. Ashok Kumar J ain and the Pacific (ESCAP)
314/69 Mirza Mandi Bangkok 2, Thailand
Jo1mml of Ferrocement: Vol . U. No. J, 111/y 1982 331

This is a partial list offerrocement experts in the current survey conducted by IFl C on the
current status of ferrocement scientists, designers, builders of ferrocement structures and
manufacturers offerroccment materials. The aim is to provide comm\Jnicat ion and collabora-
tion within the field. Entries were received from January 1, 1982 to March 30, 1982.

Guide to Format
A. Scientists/ Designers-Nine catego ries of information constitute each bibliographical
entry for each individual. Each category of information is designated by a number and
within each category the following format has been employed:
(I) sex ; year of birth ; country of birth ; nationality; marital status ; m ailing address,
(2) degree, institution ; field or discipline,
(3) curre nt position, organization; (duration) previous position only related to ferro-
cement, organization,
(4) total number of papers published I;five latest papers on ferrocement and related
(5) title of current research project, (date of completion)
(6) name of language followed by A B C or D or all
A means "ability to deliver lectures and speeches"
B means "ability to converse with ease ..
C means "ability to conduct a very small group or one-to-one conversation"
0 means "ability to use written materials for research in his own field" ,
(7) IFJC Consultant ; l FIC Resource Speaker,
(8) awards,
(9) structures completed; professional experience.
B. Builders / Consultants / Manufacturers- Seven categories of information constitute each
entry for each organization. Each category of information is designated by a number
and within each category the following format has been employed:
(I) address; telephone number ; telex number ; cable address ; contact person.
(2) classi.Jlcation of organization ; year of establishment ; geographical coverage; location
of production plants in operation,
(3) scope of activities,
(4) description of structures/product,
(5) mechanical properties ; advantages; construction method: production system; number
of st ructures; location; date of completion; unit cost,
(6) patent a nd license situation.
332 Journal of Fer10ctme111: Vol. 12, N<1 . .J, July 1982


BARBE RIO, Vittorio

tl) M ; 1923; Italy ; Jtalian; - ; Via Dmbrane 12, 00198 Roma, Italy or Via L.Di Breme 94,
00137. R oma Italy
(2) Dott. , log., Naples University; R einforced Concrete Expert, Milan Polytechnic; F<!rro-
cement, Reinforced Concrete, Cfri/ Engineering, Hydraulics
(3) Consulting Engineer
(4) (I IJ "The Ferrocement: Normal and Hybrid Composite Material" Bollettino No. S,
October 1981
·•comparison of the Flexural Behaviour of Thin Ferrocement and Fibre-Reinforced
Concrete Slabs'' (co-author) Proceedings of the I nternational Symposium on Ferro-
cement, Italy, 198 1
"The Technology of Ferroccment" First Jnternational Meeting on Composite Mate-
rials; PLAST 80, Italy, 1980
"On Several Recent Ferrocement Constructions in Italy: Design and Construction
Criteria" Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ferrocement, Italy, 1981
" Light-Weight Ferrocement Yacht - Criteria , Construction and Service Experience··
Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 10, No. 3, July 1980
(5) Flexural behaviouI of hybrid ferrocernent: Flexural behavioUI of hybrid ferrocement
laminates (Sandwich); Flexural behaviour of fibrous ferrocement laminates, June 1982
(6) Italian ABCD; English CD; Spanish C D ; French D
(7) JFIC Consultant, I FJC Resource Speaker

BHARGARA, S hiv Shanker

(l) M ; 1937: India; Indian ; m ; 90-A/8 Baghambari Gaddi, Allahabad, U.P. India
(2) A.M.I.E. Civil, Institution of Engineers (India); M.E. (Structures), M.L.N. Regional
Engineering College, Allahabad ; Civil Engineering
(3) Assistant Professor, I n-charge, Civil Engineering Wing, I nstitute of Engineering & Rural
Technology, AJlahabad; (1978 to present), Principal investigator, Sponsored Project on
Applicat ions of Ferrocement Technology for Building-Components and Water Retaining
Structures; ( 1981-1982) Principal Investigator, Sponsored Project on Applications of
Ferrocement Technology for Rural Use and Low-cost Housing
(5) Applications of Ferrocement Technology for Rural Use viz. overhead water tanks.
roofing units, door shutters, community toiJet blocks, water channels and drains
(6) English ABCD; Hindi ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker


(1) M; 1929; USSR ; Israeli; m ; Building Research Station, Technion City, Haifa 32000,
Juur11al of Ferrocemc111: Vu/. 11, No. J, July 1982 333

(2) M.Sc, Civ. Eng. Inst., Moscow, USSR ; Ph.D., Cent. Inst. Eng. Str. (ZNIISK) Moscow,
USSR ; Senior Scientist, Ministry of Higher Education, Moscow, USSR ; Concrete Engi-
neering Structures
(3) Research Engineer, Building Research Station, Technion Haifa: (J 967-1974) Head Struc-
tural D epartment, Scientific Research and Project Institute for Typical and Experimental
Design ; Moscow, USSR: ( 1963-1967) Senior Scientist, Laboratory of Strength Pane l and
Masonry Structures, Central Scie ntific Research Institute for Engineering Structures
(ZNIISK), Moscow, USSR
(4) [98) "Safety and Serviceability of Thin-Section Concrete Structures" ACJ Journal, No. 4,
·'Agricultura l BuiJdings of Ribbed Ferrocement Elements" Journal of Ferroccment.
Vol. 12, No. I. 1982
"Ribbed Ferrocemenl Elements" Proceeding of the fnternational Symposium on
Ferrocement, Italy, 198 1
' ' Ribbed Slabs Made of Ferrocement" (co-author) Advances in Concrete Slab Techno-
logy. edited by R .K. Dhir and J.G.L. Munday, Oxford and New York, USA, 1980
"Skinned Elements Made of Ferrocement for Buildings" Journal of Ferrocement, Vol.
9, No. 1, January 1979
(5) Load - Bearing Concrete Casing Participating in Work of Structure (June 1982); Israeli
Technical Specifications for Design of Ferrocement Structures (in Hebrew, December,
(6) Hebrew ABCD : Russian ABCD: English CD; French D
(7) IFIC Consultant: I FIC Resource Speaker

DESAYI, Prakash

(1) M; 1936; India ; Indian ; m ; Professor of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 540012, India
(2) B.E (Hons), Sri VenKalenwarc University; M . Tech, JIT Kharagpur, India ; Ph.D .. HT
K.haragpur, India : Cfri/ Engineering, Structures
(3) Professor Civil Engineering, I ndian Institute of Science. Bangalore, India
(4) [I 10] "Ferrocement Precast Elements Used for Roof of a Tenement" (co-author)
Submitted to the Journal of Ferrocement
''Some Studies on Ferrocement Roofing Elements" (co-author) Submitted lo the
Journal of Ferrocemenl
"Tests in Ferrocement Channel Units" Proceedings of the Tnternational Symposium
on Ferrocement, Italy, 1981
"Light-Weight Ferrocement Wall Elements" (co-author) Journal of Ferrocement,
Vol. 7, No. I , July 1977
"Ferrocement Load Bearing Wall Elements" (co-author) Journal of Structural
Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 102, No. St. 9, Proc. Paper 12420,
September 1976
334 Journal ofFt'rroctmt11f: Vol. 12, No. J, J11/I 1982

(S) Ferrocement - Its Applicat ions to Housing ( Continuing study on various aspect );
Reinforced Concrete Slabs
(6) English ABCD : Telugu B
(7) IFIC Consultant ; JFIC Resource Speaker

FYSON, John Forbes

( 1) M ; 1931 ; New Zealand : New Zealander; m; Fisher ies Technology Service, Fishery lndus-
stries Division. FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy
(2) B.Sc., Victoria University, New Zealand; Science
(3) Fisheries Industry Officer (Vessels), UN/FAO; (1970-72) FAO Adviser (Ferrocement
Boats); (1970) FAO Naval Architect Consultant; (1965-1969) FAO Boat Building Superin-
(4) (18] "Ferrocement Construction for Fishing Vessels" UN/ FAO Arthur J . Heighway
" FAO Investigates Ferrocement Fishing Craft-Laboratory Analysis, Construction
Methods, Service Experience" FAO Seminar on the Design and Construction of Ferro-
cement Fishing Vessels, Wellington, New Zealand, October 9-13, 1972
"Building a Sawn Frame Fishing Boat" FAO Fisher ies Technical Paper No. 96,
FTIV/T96, UN/ FAO, R ome, 1970
"Construction of a I 6-metre Fe rrocement Fishing Boat" F AO Fisheries Technical
Paper 95, Rome, J970
"F errocement Fishing Vessels Designed by FAO" (co-author) FAO Seminar on the
Design and Construction of Ferrocement Fishing Vessels. New Zealand, October 1972
(5) The use of sail power in fishing vessels (1982); Handbook of Ferrocement Construction for
Fishing Vessels (1982)
(6) English ABCD ; F rench ABCD ; Italian BCD; Spanish CD: Thai C
(7) IFIC Consultant ; IFIC Resource Speaker

HA UGUM, Kristoffer

(1) M : 1936; Norway ; Norwegian ; s: FAO, P.O. Box 30563, Lusaka, Zambia
(2) M.Sc. Agri. Engineer ing, Agriculture University of Norwa y; Agricultural Engineering
(3) Farm Building Engineer - Project Manage r, FAO ; ( 1964-1968) Extension Officer, Farm
Buildings, Norway ; (1968-1973) Lecturer Farm Buildings, Ember Institute of Agric.,
Kenya; (1980) Consultant FAO, Kenya, Tanzania
(4) (S]
(6) Rural Structures
(7) English BD ; German CD ; Norwegian ABO ; Swedish BO ; Danish BD

JAIN, Ashok Kumar

( I) M ; 1948; India; Indian ; m ; 314/ 69, Mirza Mandi, Chowk, Lucknow-226003, India
(2) B. Tech. and M . Tech ., Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India ; Structural Engi-
Jo11r11al of Fcrroument: Viii. 12, No. 3, July 1982 335

(3) Principal, M/ S Ashok & Associates

(4) (8] "Ferrocement Septic Tanks'' Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1982
"Ferrocement Folded Plate Roofing for Industrial Sheds" Indian Concrete Journal,
Vol. 55, No. 6, June 1981
" Fe rrocement Septic Tank" Indian Planner&Builder, Vol. l , No. 7, September 1981
" Ferrocement - A Versatile Technology" Builder's Friend, October, 1981
"Ferrocement Water Tanks" Builder's Friend, March, 1977
(5) Ferr ocement folded plate industrial roofing over 14m span (June 1982); Ferr ocement
chimney 20 m high (May 1982); Ferrocement vault 18 m x 100 m ( December 1982);
Ferrocement silo 250 MT capacity
(6) Hindi ABO ; English ABO
(7) IFlC Consultant : IFIC Resource Speaker


(1) M ; 1925; India ; Jndian ; m; Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology, Allahabad,
(2) A.M .l. E., Institution of Engineers, India ; Civil Engineering
(3) Professor, Institute of Engineer ing and Rural Technology, Allahabad, India
(4) (11
(5) Ferrocement folded plate construction (December J982); Ferrocement pressure vessel
(December 1982); D oor frames (October 1982); Groundwater tanks ( October 1982)
(6) Hindi ABCD ; English ABCD
(7) fFIC Consultant; lFTC Resource Speaker

JENNINGS, Patrick. J.

( I) M ; 1947; United Kingdom; British: m ; NCL Consulting Engineers, 192-198 Vauxhall

Bridge R oad, London SWlV lDX
(2) B.Sc., Portsmouth, England; Civil E11gi11eeri11g
(3) Senior Engineer, NC. Consulting Engineers
(4) [5] "Ferrocement D omes in Amman Jordan" JASS Symposium, Oulu Finland, 1980
" D omes on Amman Mosque" Concrete, October 1980 (Reprinted in the Journal of
Fe rrocement, Vol. 11 , No. 4, October 198 1)
"Ferrocement, a construction mater ial" Concrete, April 1981
(6) English ABCD ; French CD
(7) IFIC Consultant ; IFIC Resource Speaker
(8) Concrete Society Travelling Schola rship 1980: Study tour of United States on ferro-

JOHNSTON, Colin Deane

(1) M ; 1940; North Ireland ; British and Canadian ; m ; Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N IN4
336 Joumal of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. J, 111/y 1982

(2) Bachelors, Queen's University; Ph.D., Queen's University ; Civil Engineering

(3) Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary
(4) [25] "Ferroceroeot; Material, Behavior and F lexure" (co-author) Proceed logs of the
American Society of CivH Engineers, Structural Division Vol. 100, No. ST-1 0 , October
1974, pp. 2053-2069

"Ferrocement: Behavior in Tension and Compression" (co-author) Proceedings of

the American Society of Civil Engineers, Structural Division, Vol. 102, No. ST-5, May
1976, pp. 875-889

"State-of-the-Art Report on Ferrocement, Chapter 5" American Concrete I nstitute

Committee 549
(6) English ABCD
(7) I FIC Consultant; IFIC R esource Speaker


(1) M ; 1948; Thailand ; Thai; s; Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok
I 0501, Thailand
(2) BSCE, Chulalongkorn University. Thailand ; M.Eng., Asian Institute of Technology.
Thailand ; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, USA; Structural Engineering
(3) Associate Professor, Asian Institute of Technology
(4) [21] "Analysis and Design of Ferrocement Conical Rice Bin" (co-author) Research
Report No. 33, Asian Institute of Technology, ThaiJand, June 1973
"A Ferrocement Digeslor: Biogas and Biomass Production" (co-author) Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol. 12, No. I, January 1982
(5) Cable-suspended roof with ferrocement panel, ( 1983)
(6) Eng.lish ABCD ; Thai ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker


(1) M ; 1946; Japan ; Japanese ; m ; 1-1 , Tegata gakuen-cho, Akita-shi, OJO J'apan
(2) M.Eng., Hokkaido University; Dr. Eng., Hokkaido University ; Civil Engineering
(3) Associate Professor, Akita University
(4) [27] "Some Properties of Ultra Light Weight Ferroresin" (co-author) Journal of Ferro-
cement, Vol. 11 , No. I , 1981
"Study on Ultra Lightweight Ferroresin" (co-author) Proceedlngs of the Interna-
tional Symposium on Ferrocement, Italy, J uly 1981
(5) Durability of ferroresln ( 1985 ); Durability of polymer concrete exposed to acid hot
s pring ( 1990); Ultimate design of RC member subjected to biaxial loading (1983);
Stress analysjs of composite members such as laminated plate or surface coated materials
(6) Japanese ABCD ; English ABCD
(7) l FIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker
Journal of Ferroceme111 : Vol. 12, No. J . July 1982 337


ti) M ; 1943: Japan ; Japanese ; m ; 6-38-1 Shirnkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181, Japan Ship Structure
Division, Ship Research Institute
(2) B.Sc., Science University of Tokyo
(3) Senior Technical Officer, Ship Structure Division, Ship Research Institute, Ministry of
(4) [I] "Flexural Strength of Ferrocement" Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of
Japan, Vol. I SO, December 1981
(5) Strength of Ship's ferrocement materials ; particularly tensile strength and flexural fatigue
strength (I 984)
t6) Japanese ABCD; English D
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker

LO NDO NO, Cipriano

( 1) M ; 1956 ; Colombia ; Colombian; m: A.A. 52816, Medellin, Colombia, S.A .

(2) B. Civil Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, MedelJin
(3) Engineer. Technical Department, Colo mbia I nstitute of Cement Producers
{4) [3) "Floating Habitat in Fer rocement" Thesis, BS.CE., Universidad Nacional de Colom-
"The Ferrocement, Adequate Technology for D eveloping Countries", lCPC, Bulletin
N o. 39-40
(5) Physical Properties of Ferrocement, Research
(6) Spanish ABCD ; English D
(7) lFlC Consultant


( l) M ; 1938; The Netherlands ; Dutch; Technological University Eindhoven, D epartment of

Architechture, Group Structures, Postbos 513-5600 MB Eind.hoven, The Netherlands
(2) M.Sc., Techn. University of Delft
(3) Reader. Techn. Univ. of Eindhoven; Member, R l LEM Committee 48 on Ferrocement
(4) [5] ''The Behaviour of a Rectangular Hollow Ferrocement Beam, Theoretical and
(5) The behaviour of a rectangular hollow ferrocement beam with W section and 5 m span
(September 1982)
(6) English AB ; German AB ; Dutch AB ; French CD

MACALISTER, Robert Gowan

(I) M ; 1939: United Kingdom; British ; m; c/o MacAlister Elliott& Partners Ltd., 56 High
Street, Lymington, Hants, S04 9GB, England
(2) B.Schl Mech. Eng., MRINA ; A.T.C. (Bat.); MRINA ; Naval A.rchitecture
(3) Managing Director, MacAlister Elliott &Partners Ltd.; (1971-1977) Managing Director,
MacAlister Carvall Ltd.
338 Journal of Ferrocemenr: Vol. 11, No. 3, July 198:!

(4) [8] "The Introduction of Ferrocement Fishing Boats to Lake Malawi" J ournal of Ferro-
cement, Vol. 10. No. 3, July 1980 (Reprinted in Fishing News International)
"Ferrocemcnt and the D evelopment of Sma ll Boats" Journal of Ferrocement, Vol.
10, No. 1, January 1980
(S) Ferrocement sailing fishing vessels, Koronga, Malawi, ( 1982 ) ; Ferrocemeot mechanised
trawlers, India ( 1983) ; Development of traditional markers in ferrocement, Egypt ( 1982)
(6) English ABCD ; French CD
(7) IFrC Consultant ; I FIC Resource Speaker


(I) M; 1928; France; French; m; 9 rue La Perouse, 75 784 Paris Cedex 16, France
(2) Ingenieur, Ecole Centrale de Paris ; Docteu r Ingenieur, Faculte des Sciences Paris
(3) Directeur de la Reglementation, Union Technique lnterprofessionnelle des Federations,
ationales du Batiment et des Travaux Publics (UTI-BTP) ; Head of Service, Syndicat
National du Belon Ar me et des Techniques Tndustrialisees (SNBATl); Chercheur, lnstitute
de Rech.erche Appliquee du Beton Arme (IRA BA) St. Remy Les Chevreuse
(4) (18) "Aspects du Beton" UTI-BTP
(5) Behavio1tr of concrete tanks ; Concrete finishes: Concrete casting ; Foundations
(6) French ABCD, Spanish ABCD, English C B, ltalian BC
(7) IFIC Consultant ; fFlC Resource Speaker

NEUBURGER, Gerald James

(1) M ; 1943: USA ; American; m ; P.O. Box 240, Santo, Vanuatu, Southwest Pacific
(2) BA, California State University, Sacramento, USA; MA. University of Southern California;
Public Administration
(3) G eneral Manager - Shipyard, Shipping Services Vanuatu Ltd.; (1973-1981) Ferrocement
Boatbuilder, Fibersteel, West Sacramento, CA, USA
(6) English A BC D : Spanish C; Bislama C
(7) IFlC Consultant; I FIC R esource Speaker


(J) M; 1931; South Africa ; South African; m; P.O. Box 168, Halfway House, 1685, South
(2) Pr. Eng.
(3) Director, Por tland Cement Institute
(4) [30] "Self-Help Houses" Jo1trnal of Ferrocem ent, Vol. 8, No. 2. April I 978
"Combining Traditional Skills with Modern Technology to Produce Low-cost
Housing" Paper No. 26. Appropr iate Technology in Civil Engineering, Institute of
Civil Engineers London, 1980
(5) Use of ferrocement in sewage disposal
(6) English ABCD
( 7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resollrce Speaker
Joumal of Ferroceme111: Vol. 12, No. J, Jui)J 1982 339

PEMBE RTON, John Michael

(1) M ; 1941; United Kingdom ; British; m; 36 Alder Hill Grove, Leeds 7 2PT
(2) Master Mariner ; Courses in Business Administration and Management
(3) General contracting and building of swjmming pools; "Guni te" constructions
(5) Two patents pending relative to ferrocement
(6) English ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant
(8) Fibersteel ferroccment laminating licensee for U.K. and E.E.C.


(1) M ; 1934; Netherlands ; Dutch; m ; Breukelen, Orttswarande 22, 3621 XP, Holland
(2) B.Sc., College of Advanced Tcehnology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Structural Engi-
(3) Structural D esign Engineer. Public H ealth and Environmental Engineer ing D epartment,
DHV Consulting Engineers, Holland ; Structura l Design Engineer, Van D e Broek en
Bakema Architects, Holland
(4) f4] ' 'Building Water Storage Tanks of Ferrocement. A Simple Method of Construction"
VRAAGBAAK, DD , No. 2, June 1981
(5) Ferrocement irrigation water storage tanks
(6) D utch ABCD ; English D ; French D ; German D
(1) IFIC Consultant ; IFlC Resource Speaker


(1) M ; 1940 ; Thailand ; Thai ; m ; Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research
(TISTR), 196 Phahonyothin Road, Bangkok, Thailand
(2) A .A ., Wesley College, USA ; B.Sc., West Virginia Institute of Technology. USA: MS.CE.,
California State University, USA : Cil>i/ Engineering
(3) Acting Head, Building Materials Laboratory, TISTR; (1977-1 980) Chief, Building System
D ivision, TISTR
(4) [7] " Investigation of the Effect of Aggregate on the Physical Properties of Ferrocement"
Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand, R esearch Programme No. 2 1,
R esearch Report No. 21/ 14, R ep ort No. 1, 1973
"Investigation of the Construction Technique of Ferrocement Vessels" (co-author)
Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand Research Programme No. 21,
Research Project No. 21 /15, Report No. 11 1971
"Investigation of the Effect of Distribution and Amount of Reinforcement on the
Physical Properties ofFerrocement" (co-author) Applied Scientific Research Corpora-
t ion of Thailand, Research Project No. 2 1/ 14, Report No. 2, 1971
(5) Ferrocement for prefabricated building components, (D ecember 1981)
(6) Thai ABCD; English ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker
340 Joumal of Ferrocement: Vol. 11, No. ), July 1982

SA YER, Ever ard Ralph

(J ) M; 1929; New Zealand ; New Zea lander; m; P.O. Box 3082, Onerahi, Whangarei, New
(2) Form III (Technical) ; Ferrocement builder and designer, Plasterer-Designer
(3) Working Manager, Boat Construction, E.R. Sayer Ltd., Boatbuilders&Designers ; (1952-
1962) E.R. Sayer Ltd. Plastering Contractors
(5) Ferrocement dome roof dwelling
(6) English ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker


(I) M ; 1953; lndonesia ; fadonesian ; s; OTA-33/J-7, Rural Water Supply of West Java, Jin,
Sederhana 7, P.O. Box 59, Bandung, I ndonesia
(2) B.Sc., Academy of Health Controller ; Sanitation Technology
(3) Head ofTraining&Organization Section OTA 33/J -7, Rural Water Supply of West Java,
Indonesia; (1975-1981) Chief of Hygiene & Sanitation Section, Department of Health
in R egency of Indramayu, West Java
(4) [2] " FerrocementApplications in the WestJava Rural Water Supply Project" Journal
of Ferrocement, Vol. 12, No. I, January 1982
(6) Indonesian ABCD, English CD
(7) lFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker

TARRAN, Fausto, C.

( I) M; 1934; Brazil; Brazilian ; m; P.O. Box 20901. 0100 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
(2) BS, University of Parana, Civil Engineering
(3) Research Engineer, H ead Physical Models Department, lnstituto de Pesquisas Tecno-
logicas (TechnologicaJ Research Institute)
(4) [14]
(5) Ferrocement barge and fi shing boats: Design and materials research (I 983)
(6) Portuguese ABCD; Spanish ABCD; French BC; Italian C ; English C
(7) I FIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker

TILLY, Graeme John

(I) M; 1935; Austra)ja; Australian ; divorced; 32 Hayes Terrace, Mosman Park, WA 6012
(2) CMDR, RAN ( Rtd) ; Qualified with Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, Greenwich,
England ; Member MRlNA, MIEAUST, MS NAME ; Consulting Engineer
(3) Managing Director, Graeme Tilly PTY. Ltd; President, Amateur Boat Builders Associa-
tion; Manager, GT Consultants: (1973-197S) President, Ferrocement Boat Builders; (1971-
1972) Vice-President, Ferrocement Boat Builders; Consultant, Delta Corporation, CA L-
S IL, Durabilt Homes
(5) Steelfibre reinforced concrete sandwich building panels, trade name " Brickwall"
(6) German D ; French D; English ABCD
(7) IFIC Consultant; IFIC Resource Speaker
Jo11rnul of Fe"~ment: Vol. 12, No. J, Ju/,v 1982 341

TOKUDA, Hiroshi

(l) M : 1932 ; Japan; Japanese; m ; 1-1 , Tegata gakuen-cho, Akita-sbi, 010 Japan
(2) M .Eng. Hokkaido University: Dr.Eng., Hokkaido University ; Civil Engineering
(3) Professor, Chairman of the Depart ment of Civil Engineering, Akita University
(4) [65) "Some Properties of Ultra Light Weight Ferroresin" (co-author) Journal of Ferro-
ccment, Vol. 11 , No. l , 1981
' 'Study on Ultralight Weight Ferroresin" (co-author) Proceedings of the Interna-
tional Symposium on Ferrocement, Italy, I981
"Application of Superplast icizer to Reduce Drying Shrinkage and Thermal Cracking
of Concrete'' ACI SP-68, 1981
(5) Thermal stress and properties of fc rrocement (1985); Segregation of concrete and ferro-
cement (1985)
(6) English ABCD; Japanese ABCD ; French CD
(7) IFIC Consultant ; I FrC Resource Speaker



( I) Via Ombrone, 12-00198 Rome, Italy; 06-850133 ; - - ; - -; Arch. Rodolfo CirimbiUa

(2) Limited liability company; 1970; Italy, Africa, South and Central America
(3) Organize the construction job, provide design, supervise construction up to final phase to
produce a turnkey project
(4) Prefabricated cells and cupolas in ferrocement
(5) Advantages: lightness and ease of construction
Construction method: partial or total prefabrication or on-site
Production system; Simple or hybrid laminates and sandwiches in ferrocement using
construction processes developed
(6) Completed seven cupolas and two seacrafts


(1) c/o G. T illy, 32 Hayes Terrace, Mosman Pa rk, WA6012, Australia; 383-1 741; - - ; - - ;
(2) Limited liability corporation; 1978 ; Australia
(3) a) Construction of " Brickwall'' Wall Panels - panels of two layers of fib rous concrete
each side of an insulating core
b) Construction of precast transportable concrete floor slabs
(4) Brickwall Panels and Transportable concrete ftoor slabs
(5) Advantages: Can withstand cyclonic wind loads and floor and roof loads up to two
storeys ; Attractive external appearance; High insulation ; Maintenance free:
Construction method: Precast in a factory; Transported to site; Erected by crane
Production system: Vibrating plates and post tensioned
342 Joumol of Ferrocem1mt: Vol. 12, No. 3. J11fy 1981

Projects Executed: a) Brickwall Projects Amenities Building S 35,000 (1978): Mosman

Park, Home or tlle Year Winner S 60.000 (1981); Holiday Home,
(1980); Kalgoorlie Aborigines Hostel, $200,000(1980); Kalgoorlie
S 30,000, (1981); Amenities Building S 30,000 (1980); Offices in
Busselton a nd Karatha
b) 90 in West Australia from 1980 to 1982
(6) a) BrickwaU - patent granted to Graeme Tilly for Australia
b) Patent Pending for D urabuilt


(1) P.O. Box 3082 Onerahi, Whangarei, New Zealand; 842 Parua Bay; --; 842 Parua Bay;
E.R. Sayer, Managing Director
(2) Limited Jjability company; 1952; South Pacific
(3) All phases offerrocement boat building from design to sail away; Design and construction
of any ferrocement structures
(4) All types of modern yacht and power boats construct ion method developed cxclusiwly by
the firm
(5) Number of structures: 80 to JOO boats


(1) Via delle Termc di Caracalla, Rome, Italy ; 5797 ; 6 10181 FAO ; FOODAGRI, ROMB
(2) United Na tions; - -; Worldwide
(3) Technical Assistance to D eveloping countries, among which fi shing vessel design and
(4) Ferroccment fishing vessels
(5) Construction method: Pipe frame; span frame and ser ies construction over moulds
Projects executed in Thailand. Uganda, Madagascar, Fiji, Egypt, Tunisia


(1) 56 H igh Street, Lymington, Hants, S04 9AH, England ; Lym. (0590) 75973 ; 476 74 MAT-
COMG ; - - ; RG MacAlister-Managing D irector, S.J. Akester-Director, J.D.M. EILiott
- Director, W.P. Appleyard - Chairman
(2) Limited liability company; I 977; Worldwide
(3) (a) Consultant for small scale fishery development, appropriate boat building, artisanal
sail development, ferrocement boa ts from 5-20 m, naval architecture, boat yard design
and layout, project management and training
(b) Supply kits comprising a complete set of frames and keel, to ever ything needed to
finish a hull, including pla ns and instructions
(c) Supply FERROMIX, a specially designed mortar for ferrocement boats
Mechanical properties: Water/ cement ratio of 0.35 gives 28 day c rushing strength of at
least 63MN/m2 (9 1000 lb/ m2, 640 kg/cm2)
Joumal rif Ferrocemt>111 · Vol 12, No. J, July 1982 343

Advantages: High quality mortar, consistenL qualities from batch to batch, easy mixing,
less wastage, fewer cement-mixing, Jess man-power, unopened bags can be
s Lored in dry conditions for at leasL 6 months
Cost: £ 76 per tonne
b) Ferrocement Vessels
Projects completed: Feasibility studies for small scale fishery for Libya, Malawi, Guinea
Bissau, Senegal, Oman, Cape Verde, Egypt, India, Sao Tome, Gambia, Ghana :
Ferrocement Boatbu ilding Program (feasibility studies, boat design, boat production,
boatyard design and layout. project management and training) for Malawi and
Kenya. T he boatyards are now self supporting and has strong order book
Ferrocement Vessels constructed: England - twenty 4.9 m, five 7.3 m, five 8.5 m,
two 9 m, one 10 m, one 12 m; Guinea Bissau -
four 9 m piroques, two 12.8 m transport vessel.
one 7.6 m transport vessel: Salcombe - 7.6 m
passenger launch for Island Cruising Club; 40
vessels between 4.5 m to 9.8 m; skinned two 10 m
harbour launches and one 12 m tug: modular
skate park units


( I) 314/ 69 Mirza Mandi, Chowk, Lucknow, 226003, India ; 82847; - - ; - - ; Ashok Kumar
Jain, principal
(2) Private company; 1980; Northern I ndia; Balagans Lucknow and Cantonment Varanasi
(3) Specializes in Industrial roofings, storage tanks, and septic tanks
(5) Construction method: Structural Engineering R esearch Center SER C (Roorkee) Process
Structures constructed : 100 water tanks 100 J to 1500 l; IO water tanks up to 5000 1; 3
chemical storage tanks; septic tanks for 5 users and 10 users ; 3
workshop sheds 200 m2 to 900 m 2 ; 300 m2 factory shed; One
10000 l overhead water tank
(6) Licensee of the SERC process of cylindrical tank through NRDC.


{I ) 192-198 Vauxhall Bridge R oad, London, SWIV !DX; 0 1834 5781; 917502; - - ; AJ
Legatt-Director, G.M . Pinfold-Director. PJ Jennings-Senior Engineer
(2) Private company; 1947; worldwide
(3) Consulting civil/structural engineering
(4) Ferrocement domes in A roman up to 16 m span. Design and supervision of construction.
Scheme designs of floating structures, roofing elements , etc.


(I) P.O . Box 240, Santo, Vanuatu. Southwest Pacific; 558: - - : - - : Mr. G.J . Neuburger,
General Manager
344 Jrwrnnl of Ferroceme111: Vol . 12, No, 3, 111/)I 198 2

(2) Private Company; 1981; Vanuatu

(3) D esign and Construct dry docks,fl.oating concrete structures, tilt-up construction, ferro-
cement boats
(4) 12 m inter-island vessels ; barge to order
(5) Advantages: low-cost; limited skills
Construction method: female mold
Production system: molds and patterns
Projects executed: Ferrocement drydock 45 m x 15 m US$ 90,000
(6) Licensee of Fibersteel International. 1512 Lakewood Drive, West Sacramento, CA 95691 ,


(J) Portland Park, Old Pretoria/Johannesburg R oad, Halfway House, P.O. Box 168, Half way
House 1685 South Africa: (0 11 )805-2137 : - - : - -: Mr. S.W. Norto n, Director
(2) Private company ; I 937: South Africa
(3) Advisory consulting, Applied resea rch and development, Education & Training

THEO H. VALLE - Plastering - Tiling - .Ferrocement Contractor

(1) 40 H arbour Drive, Tauranga, New Zealand ; 69-203 ; - - ; - - ; Mr. Theo H . Valle.
(2) Private company; 1955: New Zealand
(3) Solid plastering, Tiling contractor
(4) Plastered one ferrocement boat
Repaired the keel of another


(1) P.O. Box 202, Truk , Caroline lslands TI96942; 456, 628 : - - ; - - ; Selestin Sebastian,
(2) Limited Liability Company, self-management; J972: Federated States of Micronesia
(3) Construct ferrocement fishing boats and water tanks
(4) Ferrocement fishing boa ts
(5) Construction method: Hartley method (rod and mesh), manual , upright
Number of structures: Nine boats from 28 feet to 60 feet
Joumal of Ftrroetmtnt: Vol. 11, No. J , July 1981 34S

rnrnruirn®rn ~ 0

Joao Carlos BARREIRO Prakash DESA Yl

Mr. Barreiro is a lecturer Dr. D esayi is professor

on strength of materials and chairman of the De-
for the undergraduate partment of Civil Engi-
courses and of mathemati- neering at the Indian In-
cal methods in engineering stitute of Science, Banga-
lore. He has been engaged
mechanics for the graduate
in teaching and research for 25 years. His
courses of the Engineering School of Sao
fields of interest are structural engineering,
Carlos, University of Sao Paulo. He obtained concrete structures and ferrocernent. Dr.
his Civil Engineer degree from the Engi- Desayi has authored and co-authored about
neering School of Sao Carlos in 1966. 110 papers and reports.

Joao Bento de HANA I

Mounir Khalil £1 DEBS

Dr. Hanai is assistant
professor and coordinator
Mr. Debs is assistant of the Laboratory for !
professor at the Engineer- Construction Systems at
the Federal U mvers1ty. of 4 l
ing School of Sao Carlos,
Universiy of Sao Paulo. Sao Carlos. He obtained 7
His main interests are from the University of Sao Paulo, his Doctor
of Civil Engineering in 1982, Master of
concrete bridges and re-
Science in 1977 and Civi l Engineer in 1972.
search. He obtained his Master of Science in
He has served as assistant professor at the
1976 from the University of Sfo Paulo and
Engineering School of Sao Carlos, and
Civil Engineer in 1972 from the Engineering researcher and head of the Laboratory of
School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Structures, Engineering School of Sao Carlos.
Paulo. After a few years of practice as University of Silo Paulo. His main interests
structural designer, he joined the Engineering are on prestressed concrete, concrete bridges
School of Sao Carlos in 1980. and research.
Journal of Ftrroceme111: Vol. 11, No. 3, J11ly 1981


After obtaining a Ba- Dr. Martinelli is a pro-

chelor of Science degree at fessor in the Structural
Engineering Department
the University of Wash-.
of the Engineering School
ington (Seattle) and gra-
of the Sao Carlos Campus,
duate study at the Univer-
University of Sao Paulo.
sity of Southern California.....__ ....
He obtained his Doctor of Engineering from
in the field of fndustrial Engin<:ering, Mr. the University of Sao Paulo in 1961 and
lorns began his professional career as re- Civil Engineer from the Polytechnic School,
searcher on traffic safety at the State of University of Sao Paulo in 1951. He was
California. D uring World War II, while assistant professor at the Polytechnic School
serving as an officer in the U.S. Navy he of Sao Paulo before joining the Engineering
became acquainted with concrete ships used School of the Sao Carlos, University of Sao
as supply vessels which led to his interest Paulo as assistant professor, then associate
on ferrocement boats. professor and professor . Dr. Martinelli has
been a structural design consultant to gov-
In 1946, he participated in the first commer- ernment agencies and private companies.
cial production of fiberglass boats, and then Among his designs are the ltalper hydro-
developed suitable methods applicable to electric plant, Silo Paulo first subway line,
ferrocement-the laminating techniques in a the 32,000 m 2 Sao Cristovao hanging roof
cavity mould already known for fiberglass. and two prestrcssed concrete shell hanging
First in association with L.L. Watson, he roofs of the Montevideo type. He has been
went into commercial production of marina actively involved in the organization of
floats and barges and in 1963 built the first structural laboratories. His main interests
commercial ferrocement boat in North are bridge and shells.
America (still in service). Later Mr. lorns
formed the Ferrocement Laminates Company
to conduct further research on the technology Antoine E. NAAMAN
and transfer the technology outside California.

Mr. Iorns has written a number of papers Dr. Naaman is associate

on ferrocement for various publications and professor of structural
was a member of the National Academy of design at the University
of lllinois at Chicago
Sciences ad Hoc Panel which prepared the
Circle, Chicago, Illinois.
widely distributed book "Ferrocement: Ap-
He received his Ph. D .
plications in Developing Countries". He is
degree from the Massachusetts Institute of
also a member of the American Concrete Technology in 1972. His research activities
Institute, the Marine Technology Society, a n include the study and development of new
affiliate member of the Society of Small concrete materials, prestressed concrete,
Craft Designers, a nd of the Society of Naval structural design and optim ization and
Architects and M arine Engineers panel on construction engineering He is current
"Ferrocement and Concrete Marine Struc- chairman of ACl Committee 549 on Ferro-
tures". cement.
Juornal of Ferroccme111: Vol. ll, No. J, July 1981 347


Dr. Petroni is professor Dr. Reinhorn received

his first degree in 1968 and
and head of the Construc-
his Ph. D. in Civil Engi-
tion, Architecture and
neering from Technion -
Planning Department of
Israel Institute of Techno-
the Sao Carlos Engineering logy in 1978. In addition-
School, University of Sao to being a lecturer at the same institution,
Paulo. He obtained his Civil Engineer degree he has designed and supervised the con-
from MacKenzie University in 1942 and his struction of several reinforced concrete and
Dr.Eng. from the University of Sao Paulo steel structures in I srael. His research is in
in 1970. His main interests are engineering the area of structural a naly5is with special
materials and construction techLtology in- emphasis on dynamic behavior under
cluding ferrocement technology. earthquake excitation and has published
several papers in this area. Dr. Reinhorn is
currently a visiting assistant professor at
the State University of New York at Buffalo
and doing research in the behavior of ferro-
cement materials and structural elements.


Gajanan M. SABN IS
Dr. Prawel received both
hfa B.C.E.and M.S. degrees
from the Georgia fnstitute Dr. Sabnis is a professor
of Technology, Atlanta, of Civil Engineering at
Georgia, His Ph.D.inCivil J Howard University and
Engineering is from T he also president of the Struc~
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, tural Research Investiga-
Canada. He bas been a member of the Civil tions & Design Engineers
Engineering Department, State University of (STRID E) Inc., a Washington, O .C. based
New York at Buffalo since 1958, teaching specialized engineering firm. Dr. Sabnis has
structural design, numerical methods and been active in the fields related to reinforced.
computer analysis of structures. D r. Prawel prestressed and ferrocement forms of
concrete for 15 years. He has published
also taught in the Architec ture School of the
extensively in these fields and in addition to
same institution for the last six years. His
over 50 articles, he is the author/editor of
research interests include studies of various several books. He is a member of several
conflicting design philosophies, nonlinear technical committees and has travelled
i;.omputer methods in structural analysis and extensively in several countries for seminars,
design and most recently the development lectures, consultations and conferences. He
of ferrocement as a modern construction is a fell ow of AC!, ASCE and Institution of
material. Engineers of India.
348 Jo11mal of Ferroceme11t: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

C.S. VISWANATHA Foundation in India. He has a number of

research papers to his credit published in
national and international Journals in the
field of concrete technology and concrete
Dr. Viswanatha ob-
structures. He is a consultant to several
tained his B.E. degree in
organisations in the field of concrete.
Civil Engineering from
University of Mysore
(India) in 1960 and his
M.E. and Ph.D. degree
from Indian Institute of Science subsequently.
He served as faculty member in the Civil Mr. Kanappan obtained his B.E. (Hons.)
Engineering Department of the Indian degree in Civil Engineering from the Univer-
Institute of Science from 1963 to J980. sity of Madras in 1977 and his M.E. degree
Currently he is working as research and with distinction in 1979 from the Indian
development engineer at Torsteel Research Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
Journal of Ferroceme111: Vol. I 2, No. 3, 1111.f 1982 349

8th World Conference on Earthquake Engi- 7th International Conference on Experimental
neering, San Francisco, California, U.S.A., Stress Analysis, I srael Institute of Technology,
July 21-28, 1984. Haifa, I srael, August 23-27, 1982.
According to the Earthquake Engineering The International Conference is sponsored
Research Institute, conference topics will by the Israel Institute of Technology and
include geoscience, civil and structura l engi- I srael's National Council for Research and
neering, planning, and regulatory, social, and Development in cooperation with the Society
economic factors. T he last such world meet- for Experimental Stress Analysis. The main
ing was held in 1980 in Istanbul, Turkey. themes of the conference are experimental
stress analysis for composite materials, engi-.
Details on the submission of abstracts and
neering education and experimental stress
other information may be obtained from:
a nalysis, experimental stress analysis in bio-
engineering and experimental stress analysis
2620 Telegraph Ave.
under extreme temperature conditions.
Berkeley, CA 94704
U.S.A. For information contact:
Society for Experimental Stress Analysis
Joternational Conference on the Use of Fly
21 Bridge Square
Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and other M ineral By-
P.O . Box 277
P roducts in Concrete, Montebello, Quebec,
Saugatuck Station, Westport
Canada, July 31-August S, 1982.
Conn. 06880, U.S.A .
The Conference will be sponsored by ACr or
and the Canada Centre for Mineral and A.A. Betser
Energy Technology, Ottawa, Canada. The Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering
purpose of the conference is to bring together Tech.nion/ Israel Institute of Technology
representatives from industry, universities Haifa, rsrael 32000
and government agencies to present the latest
7th Conference on Our World in Concrete
information on these materials and to discuss
Structures, S ingapore, August 26-27, 1982
a reas of needed research .
The conference will feature CONCRETE
For further information, write to:
BRIDGES as a theme and Professor A.R.
Mr. V. Mohan Malho tra Cusens. head of the Department of Civil
CANMET Engineering at the University of Leeds will
405 Rochester St. deliver the key-note address on 'Concrete
Ottawa, Ontario Bridges - Things of Beauty or Environ-
Canada, KIA OGI mental Intrusion?'
350 Journal of Femx:ement: Vol. 11, No. 3, July 1981

Topics will include concrete for ms t o International Symposium on Concrete Roads,

quality control, philosophy of testing, pres- London, September 13-16, 1982.
tressed concrete to durabiUty of reinforced
The Symposium is being or ganized by the
concrete structures, the needs for technological
Concrete Society, PIAR C (Permanent Inter-
advancement through new design methods,
national Association of Road Congresses)
new processes, new materials and new tech-
and CEM BUREAU in conjunction with
niques in the fast growing and developing
various British national o rganizations.
contries of ASEAN.
T he Symposium will cover design, construc-
For further information, write to: tion materials and economics and include
visits to significant projects under construc-
Miss Peggy Teo, Conference Secretary tion.
2301, Jalan Sulta n Centre
Further information may be obtained
Ja la n Sultan
from :
Singapore 0719
Ms. Anthea Wright
The Concrete Society
1982 Symposium oo Maintenance, Repair and Terminal House, Grosvenor Gardens
Rehabilitatfon of Bridges, Wa bington, D.C. Lonson SWIW OAS
U.S.A., September 9-10 1982. Great Britain

Sponsor ed by the I nter national Association Symposium on Ferrocement: Research, Design

for Bridge and Structural Engineer ing and and AppHcations , Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.,
the U.S. Group, IABSE in cooperation with September 19-24, 1982.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Ameri- ACI Committee 549 is soliciting papers for
can Concrete Institute, Prestressed Concrete a symposium on Ferrocement: Research,
Institute and Structural Stability Research Design and Applications. which will be held
Council, the symposium is intended for during the American Concrete Institute's
engineers, contractors, researchers, adminis- Annua l Convent ion, September 12-24, 1982
trators and owners and all those concerned in Detroit. Michigan.
"ith or interested in the maintenance, repair Papers are invited on the use of bot h metal-
and rehabilitation of bridge and other struc- lic and non-metallic reinforcement. The
tures. intent of the symposium is to:
1. Present the latest resear ch results a nd
For further information contact : developments on fe rrocement.
2. D iscuss design procedures, recommen-
I ABSE Secretariat dations and standards of good practice
ETH -H onggerberg and
CH-8093 Zurich 3. Describe various applications, prefera-
Switzerland bly lar ger scale, with particular emphasis
or on reviewing improved and/or innova-
t ive me thods of production .
F.H . Sterbenz. Secretary-Treasurer
IABSE, U.S. Group Publication of accepted papers will be
1345 Avenue of the Amer icas encouraged through ACI publication chan-
New Yo rk, N .Y. 101 05 nels for the ACf Journal, Concrete Interna-
U .S.A. tional, or, if deemed a ppropria te, a specia l
Joumol of Ferrocemel/f: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 198 2 351

ACI publication of the symposium proceed- Business Center for Academic

ings. Societies Japan
Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo l J 3
For further information, please contact:
Dr. Antoine E. Naaman
Chairman ACI 549 International Symposium on Bonds Between
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle Cement Pastes and O ther Materials, Toulouse
Department of Materials Engineering (lnstitut National des Sciences Appliquees),
Box 4348 November 3-5, 1982.
Chicago, Illinois 60680
U.S.A. The principal themes include : a) Forma-
tion and bonds-structure-influence of chemi-
Symposium on Fibre-Reinforced Concr ete, cal and physical structures of binders, water ,
D etroit, Michigan, U.S.A., September 19-24, additives, admixtures and other mater ials
1982. (aggregates, reinforcements, fi bers); influence
of curing conditions; b) Bond-development,
AGL Committee 544 is organizing an Inter- infiuence of the ti me and environments;
national Symposium on the topic during the c) Relationships between the bond-structure
ACI Fall Convention. and the mechanisms of deformation and
The Symposium will consist of two half- crack-development; d) experimental methods
duy sessions which will be devoted to a gene- of study.
ral updating of current fibre-reinforced con- T he official language will be French and
crete (FRC) technology with special emphasis English. The number of participants would
on the design of products, construction lech- be limited to 150. Send enquiiies to:
niques, testing, long-term per formance, and
new applications for F RC . After 20 years of Monsieu J. Grandet
continuing growth in its use, informatfon on Department de Genie Civil, l.N.S.A.
the wide experience gained would be very 156, Avenue de Rangueil
appropriate and useful. 31077 Toulouse Cedex
Abstracts or complete manscripts should
be sent to:
I nternational Conference in Forming Economi-
George C. H off cal Concrete Buildings, Lincolnshire, Illinois,
Symposium Chairman U.S.A., November 8-10, 1982.
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experi-
ment Station Papers on the following topics are solicited
P.O. Box 631 for presentation at the conference. The list is
Vicksburg, M ississippi 39 180 not necessarily all inclusive; all submitted
U.S.A . papers the scope of the conference will
be considered by the P rogram Committee.
4th International Conference on Composite Optimum buildings layout for available
Materials : I CCM -IV, Tokyo, Japan, O ctober forming systems.
25-28, 1982. • Floor deflections due to early form
Contact: Professor T . H ayashi removal.
General Chairman of ICCM -IY • Form removal and reshoring schedules.
c/o Japan Society for Composite • Form selection constraints / equipment
Mateiials selection.
352 Joumal of Ferrocement: Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1982

• Review of forming systems such as: Symposium on Harvest and Post Harvest
flying, gang, and tunnel forms. Technology of Fish, Cochin, India, November
• F ormwork tolerances. 1982.
• R elative economics of forming systems. The objective of the symposium is to bring
• Winter protection. together experts and research workers in
• Vertical slipforming. various aspects of fishery technology like
• Architectural precast concrete forms for fishing crafts, gear, instrumentation, pro-
cast-in-place concrete. cessing, packaging, inspection and quality
control, marketing, education, etc. for the
• Innovations in forming systems (inflated
purpose of discussing their findings for the
forms, etc.)
common benefit. The symposium is planned
• Formwork safety (fire protection, etc.). to be held synchronising with the Silver
J ubilee Celebrations of the Central Institute
Offers of papers should be submitted, along of Fisheries Technology.
with 200-to 300-word synopses, to:
For further information, write to:
William C. Panarese Convener
Program Commjttee Chairman "Symposium on Harvest and Post Harvest
P ortland Cement Association Technology of Fish"
5420 Old Orchard R oad Society of Fisheries Technologists (Inrua)
Skokie, lllinois 60077 Matsyapuri P.O. , Cochin-682029
U.S.A. India
B.K. Paul and R.P. Pama P.C. Sharma and V.S. Copa/aratnam
This publication discusses every aspect of ferroce- To accelerate transfer of ferrocement technology
ment technology: historical background, co nstituent to developing countries. IF IC has published the
materials, construction procedures. mechanical pro- following four Booklets in the Do it yourself series:
perties and potential applications. The nexicover
edition includes over 75 literature references on the Ferrocement Grain S tonge Bin Booklet No. I
subject. 149 pp ., 74 illus.
Ferrocement Water Tank - Booklet No. 2
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tion of each utility structures are well discussed.
The report recommends seven potential applications Construction drawings and co nstruction guidelines to
.of ferrocement and related materials found particularly ensure better workmanship and finished structures are
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teer groups and government officers involved with rural sample calculations.
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This pamphlet introduces ferrocement as a highly
Edited by R.P. Pama, Seng·Lip lee and versatile form of reinforced concrete used for construc-
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Thh report is the product of the workshop "louo- Bengali, Burmese. Chinese, English, French, Hindi,
~uction of Technologies in Asia-Ferrocement, A Case Indonesian, Nepalese, Pilipino, Singhalese, Spanish,
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This volume is the compilation of the State-of·the·Art Reviews published in the Journal of Ferrooement.
A valuable source volume that summarizes published information before January 1982.

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