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Confinement Effectiveness of FRP in Retrofitting Circular

Concrete Columns under Simulated Seismic Load


Dong-Sheng Gu1; Gang Wu2; Zhi-Shen Wu3; and Yu-Fei Wu4

Abstract: The results of a research program that evaluated the confinement effectiveness of the type and the amount of fiber-reinforced
polymer 共FRP兲 used to retrofit circular concrete columns are presented. A total of 17 circular concrete columns were tested under
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combined lateral cyclic displacement excursions and constant axial load. It is demonstrated that a high axial load level has a detrimental
effect and that a large aspect ratio has a positive effect on drift capacity. Compared with the performance of columns that are monotoni-
cally loaded until failure, three cycles of every displacement excursion significantly affect drift capacity. The energy dissipation capacity
is controlled by FRP jacket confinement stiffness, especially under a high axial load level. The fracture strain of FRP material has no
significant impact on the drift capacity of retrofitted circular concrete columns as long as the same confining pressure is provided, which
differs from the common opinion that a larger FRP fracture strain is advantageous in seismic retrofitting. The amount of confining FRP
greatly affects the length of the plastic hinge region and the drift capacity of FRP-retrofitted columns. A further increase in confinement
after a critical value causes a reduction in the deformation capacity of the columns.
DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲CC.1943-5614.0000105
CE Database subject headings: Fiber reinforced polymer; Concrete columns; Seismic effects; Rehabilitation; Ductility; Cracking.
Author keywords: Fiber-reinforced polymer; Column; Seismic retrofitting; Ductility; Fracture strain.

Introduction havior of FRP-confined concrete specimens under concentric load


conditions has been studied extensively. In contrast, relatively
The damage caused by recent earthquakes shows that many ex- limited data have been reported on FRP-confined columns under
isting reinforced concrete structures built before the modern de- simulated seismic load 共Sheikh and Li 2007; Wu et al. 2006b兲.
sign code may be insufficiently constructed to survive a severe The influences of the type and the amount of confining FRP on
earthquake. During severe earthquakes, column hinging cannot be the behaviors of confined columns under concentric load are well
avoided in many structures, particularly for bridge columns. Con- characterized; however, the deformation capacity and energy dis-
crete columns designed and constructed without adequate con- sipation capacity of FRP-retrofitted columns under simulated seis-
finement reinforcement in potential plastic hinge regions are mic load are still not very clear. For example, it is commonly
particularly vulnerable. Therefore, retrofitting concrete columns is
believed that FRPs with larger fracture strain will be advanta-
of paramount importance in the rehabilitation of existing struc-
geous in seismic retrofitting 共Binici 2008; Elsanadedy and Haroun
tures 共Wu et al. 2006b兲.
2005; Seible and Priestley 1997兲; however, seismic experimental
In recent years, fiber-reinforced polymer 共FRP兲 jacketing has
become popular to retrofit existing deficient columns. Many ex- results of square concrete columns retrofitted with carbon-fiber-
perimental studies have demonstrated that FRP confinement can reinforced polymers 共CFRP兲 and GFRP demonstrated that the ef-
significantly increase column energy absorption and ductility fectiveness of FRP in enhancing column ductility is closely
共Lam and Teng 2003; De Lorenzis and Tepfers 2003; Wu et al. related to its ultimate tensile strength, and FRP fracture strain has
2006a兲. An extensive review of the literature shows that the be- almost no influence on the curvature capacity of the sections
共Sheikh and Li 2007兲. Whether FRPs with larger fracture strain
1
College of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan Univ., will be advantageous in retrofitting circular concrete columns is
Wuxi 214122, China; and Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed not clear from available test results. Moreover, the energy dissi-
Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ., Nan- pation capacity of FRP-retrofitted square concrete columns under
jing 210096, China.
2
seismic load has been well studied 共Colomb et al. 2008兲, but the
Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of parameters that are most significant and define the capacity of
the Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ., Nanjing 210096, China 共cor-
responding author兲. E-mail: g.wu@seu.edu.cn
retrofitted circular concrete columns require further study.
3
Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of The main objective of this study was to evaluate the confine-
the Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ., Nanjing 210096, China. ment effectiveness of the type and the amount of FRP used to
4
Dept. of Building and Construction, City Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong retrofit circular concrete columns. The test results of a compre-
Kong. hensive experimental investigation conducted to investigate the
Note. This manuscript was submitted on August 13, 2009; approved seismic performance of FRP-retrofitted circular concrete columns
on January 25, 2010; published online on February 3, 2010. Discussion
are reported. The objectives of this program are: 共1兲 to clarify the
period open until March 1, 2011; separate discussions must be submitted
for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Composites for effects of axial load level and aspect ratio; 共2兲 to study the effects
Construction, Vol. 14, No. 5, October 1, 2010. ©ASCE, ISSN 1090- of the lateral load path; and 共3兲 to evaluate the effects of the type
0268/2010/5-531–540/$25.00. and the amount of confining FRP.

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


Experimental Program

Specimen Details
A total of 17 specimens were tested. All specimens were tested
under lateral cyclic load reversals while simultaneously being
subjected to constant axial load throughout the test. The specimen
represented the part of a bridge column or a building column from
the section of the maximum moment to the point of contraflexure.
The test specimens were divided into two groups according to
their diameters. The diameter, D, of the first group was 300 mm,
and the diameter of the second group was 360 mm.
The first group included nine specimens. One specimen was
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tested under the “as-built” condition, while the others were tested
after being retrofitted with FRP jacketing. The height of the speci-
mens H, measured from the top of the footing to the application
point of the horizontal force, was 850 mm 关Fig. 1共a兲兴. The aspect
ratio H / D was 2.8. The specimens were reinforced with 12 de-
formed 19-mm diameter bars, and the yield stress was 400 MPa.
The longitudinal steel bars were evenly distributed in a circle with
a constant clear cover of 20 mm. Hoops 共diameter= 6.5 mm,
yield stress= 350 MPa兲 spaced at 160 mm were used as trans-
verse reinforcement. The equivalent cylinder strength f ⬘c was 28.0
MPa, which was calculated by f ⬘c = 0.8f ⬘cu, where f ⬘cu was the 28-
day mean compressive strength of 10 cubes 共150⫻ 150
⫻ 150 mm兲 cast along with the specimens. The axial load was
100 kN, and the axial load ratio n = P / 共Ag f ⬘c 兲 was 0.05, where
Ag = gross area of the column.
The second group included eight specimens. The height H, of
four of the specimens was 1,100 mm 关Fig. 1共b兲兴, and that of the
other four specimens was 800 mm, resulting in aspect ratios of
3.1 and 2.2, respectively. Two specimens were tested under the
as-built condition. The columns were reinforced with 12 de-
formed 25-mm diameter bars, and the yield stress was 382 MPa.
The clear cover was 25 mm. Hoops 共diameter= 6.5 mm, yield
stress= 320 MPa兲 spaced at 150 mm were used as transverse re-
inforcement. The region of 100 mm from the stub face was
strengthened with additional deformed 25-mm diameter bars, and
the 10-mm ties were placed at a spacing of 30 mm within this
region to minimize the chances of failure at the section adjacent
to the stub face. The equivalent concrete cylinder strength was
Fig. 1. Details of specimen 共unit: mm兲
34.9 MPa. All material mechanical properties were tested using
the same standard as the first group. The axial load was 1,200 kN,
and the axial load ratio was 0.36. In this test program, the axial with the mixed epoxy, and a coat of epoxy was applied to the
load was applied via steel strands running through the center of prepared surfaces of the columns, which were smoothed using
the column, so a plastic pipe with a diameter of 32 and 80 mm sandpaper. The saturated fabrics were then wrapped around the
was installed at the center of first group and second group col- column such that the fiber was oriented in the circumferential
umns, respectively 共Fig. 1兲. direction. The thickness of the epoxy was not strictly controlled,
and any air bubbles were squeezed out using a roller brush. The
FRP Application fiber was wrapped along the whole length of the columns, and the
overlap length in the circumferential direction was 150 mm.
Two types of fabrics were used in this test series: CFRP and The type of fabric and the number of layers used for each
Dyneema FRP 共DFRP兲. DFRP has a large fracture strain and a specimen, which are shown in Table 2, were designed to study a
low elastic modulus compared with those of CFRP. A flat coupon
test was conducted to determine the mechanical properties of
FPR. Two strain gauges were set at midlength on the two sides of Table 1. Material Properties of Fibers
the test coupon. At least three flat coupons of each type of FRP Ultimate Ultimate Young’s
were tested, and the average results are shown in Table 1. The Thickness strength strain modulus
thickness of CFRP used to the first group specimens and the sec- FRP 共mm兲 共MPa兲 共%兲 共GPa兲
ond group specimens was 0.111 and 0.167 mm, respectively. The
CFRP-a 0.111 4,232 1.84 230
stress-train relationship of composite material shows linear-elastic
CFRP-b 0.167 3,945 1.52 260
behavior up to rupture. The epoxy consisted of two components,
DFRP 0.258 1,832 3.05 60
A and B, in a volume ratio of 3:1. The FRP sheets were saturated

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Table 2. Details of Test Specimens
D L f c⬘ El
Specimen 共mm兲 共mm兲 共MPa兲 n FRP treatment Test mode 共GPa兲 ␭f
J0 300 850 28.0 0.05 — Test 1 — —
J1 300 850 28.0 0.05 1 layer DFRP Test 1 0.103 0.113
J2 300 850 28.0 0.05 1 layer CFRP-a Test 1 0.169 0.111
J3 300 850 28.0 0.05 1 layer CFRP-a Test 2 0.169 0.111
J4 300 850 28.0 0.05 2 layers DFRP Test 2 0.206 0.225
J5 300 850 28.0 0.05 2 layers CFRP-a Test 2 0.337 0.222
J6 300 850 28.0 0.05 1 layer CFRP-a + 1 layer DFRP Test 2 0.272 0.223
J7 300 850 28.0 0.05 0.5 layer CFRP-a + 1 layer DFRP Test 2 0.188 0.168
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J8 300 850 28.0 0.05 1 layer CFRP-a + 2 layers DFRP Test 2 0.375 0.336
CH0 360 1,100 34.9 0.36 — Test 1 — —
CH1 360 1,100 34.9 0.36 0.5 layer CFRP-b + 1 layer DFRP Test 1 0.207 0.127
CH2 360 1,100 34.9 0.36 2.5 layers DFRP Test 1 0.215 0.188
CH3 360 1,100 34.9 0.36 1.5 layers CFRP-b Test 1 0.362 0.157
CL0 360 800 34.9 0.36 — Test 1 — —
CL1 360 800 34.9 0.36 4 layers DFRP Test 1 0.344 0.300
CL2 360 800 34.9 0.36 2.5 layers CFRP-b Test 1 0.603 0.261
CL3 360 800 34.9 0.36 3.5 layers CFRP-b Test 1 0.844 0.366

range of parameters and their effects on column behavior. When The displacement control sequence consisted of three cycles each
0.5 layer of fabric was used, 20-mm wide CFRP bands were of 1␦, 2␦, 3␦, and so on, until the specimen was unable to main-
wrapped at a clear spacing of 20 mm; for DFRP, one-half of the tain the applied lateral load. In order to study the effect of load
fiber was drawn out from the sheet, and then the remnant fiber history on the seismic performance of an FRP-wrapped column,
was wrapped around the column. The effect of CFRP and DFRP some specimens wrapped with FRP were tested with a different
hybrid fiber was also studied in this program. When hybrid FRP
lateral load history. The lateral loading sequence of these speci-
was used, CFRP was wrapped first, and then the DFRP was
mens was controlled by the displacement increment. Two cycles
wrapped outside. It was reported that the most extensively dam-
aged region always shifted about 150 mm away from the column- of the displacement corresponding to the drift ratios of 1/800,
footing interface due to the additional confining effect of the 1/400, 1/200, 1/100, 1/50, 1/25, and 1/20 were conducted. Then,
footing 共Ozbakkaloglu and Saatcioglu 2006; Sheikh and Yau the specimens were monotonically pushed to failure. The first
2002兲. Thus, in order to ensure that the section adjacent to the load sequence is termed “Test 1,” and the second load sequence is
footing will not damage for all the columns, three layers of addi- termed “Test 2” in Table 2.
tional 100-mm wide CFRP bands were wrapped at the end of The strain gauge locations are shown in Fig. 3. Strain gauges
every column. It was assumed that this does not affect the lateral were bonded to each side of the FRP surface to record the FRP
displacement capacity of the columns. strain. Two strain gauges were bonded on the longitudinal rein-
forcement. The column lateral displacement was measured by one
Testing and Instrumentation LVDT at the height of the horizontal actuator.
The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. The first group of specimens
was tested at the University Ibaraki of Japan, and the second
group of specimens was tested at the Southeast University of
China. The axial load was applied via high-strength steel strands
running through the center of the column and anchored to a plate
underneath the test specimen. This applied axial load method has
been reported previously 共Belarbi et al. 2008兲. The tension force
applied by the jack can be controlled with a calibrated pressure
gauge. The numerical analysis of the confined section shows that
the hole will be located in the tension zone after the section
yields. Thus, it can be assumed that the hole will have no obvious
influence on the performance of the specimens. The stub base was
anchored onto ground with four large diameter steel bars to en-
sure a firm support at the base 共Fig. 2兲.
The lateral force was applied by an MTS actuator. All speci-
mens were subjected to inelastic cyclic loading while carrying a
constant axial load throughout the test. The lateral loading se-
quence was controlled by lateral force or displacement incre-
ments. In the load control phase, the load increment was 20 kN.
In the displacement control phase, the increment ␦ was defined as
1.5 times the displacement when the first longitudinal bars yield. Fig. 2. Test setup

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


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Fig. 3. Locations of strain gauges

Test Observations and Results

Test Observations
The three as-built columns had very little lateral reinforcement
and were designed to suffer shear failures. Since they have similar Fig. 4. Views of specimen failures
failure mechanisms, Specimen J0 was selected as a representative
sample. It was observed that the first horizontal flexural crack
occurred at the tension side when the lateral displacement reached about 50 mm. The opening of the first crack was significant,
a drift ratio, ⌬ / H, of about 0.3%, which is defined by the lateral whereas the other horizontal flexural cracks openings did not ap-
displacement divided by the column length. Then, fine inclined pear to increase much as the lateral displacement excursion in-
cracks appeared. The tensile reinforcement yielded before the lat- creased. About 10-mm thick strips of fiber first ruptured where the
eral resistance reached the peak. When the second cycle with first horizontal crack developed when the lateral displacement
2.8% drift was imposed on column, diagonal cracks suddenly reached about 6.8% drift. This local fiber rupture did not signifi-
opened up and extended almost from corner to corner, which cantly influence the column lateral load-carrying capacity. When
resulted in the lateral load-carrying capacity dropping from the the third cycle of 9.2% drift was imposed on the column, more
maximum load. The column could no longer support the axial fiber ruptured, while the concrete was crushed and the longitude
load. The lateral reinforcement fractured when the column failed. reinforcement buckled. The column could no longer support the
The behavior was similar to that of Specimen CL0, and it sud- axial load and lateral load, and the test was terminated. The most
denly lost its load-carrying capacity when it was pushed to the extensive damage was concentrated within a segment 100–400
first cycle of 1.5% drift. The failure mode of Specimen CH0 was mm from the column-footing interface, which coincides with the
somewhat different from those of Specimen J0 and CL0. It lost its location of the initial fiber rupture. The plastic hinge shift from
load-carrying capacity before the displacement control mode was the column-footing interface was attributed to the confining effect
conducted. The lateral resistance continued to increase before of the footing and the additional three CFRP bands. Similar ob-
failure occurred. Fig. 4共a兲 shows a typical column at the end of servations were previously reported 共Ozbakkaloglu and Saatcio-
testing, which illustrates the failure mode and the steep crack glu 2006; Sheikh and Yau 2002兲.
inclination. The columns, which were monotonically pushed to failure
The shear failure that occurred in the as-built columns was after the lateral displacement reached 5% drift, showed similar
entirely prevented by composite wrapping for the retrofitted col- behavior. Thus, Specimen J3 is chosen as a representative sample.
umns. The composite wrapping was able to provide additional Specimen J3 and Specimen J2 had identical test parameters and
shear capacity, and wrapping at the potential plastic hinge region were both retrofitted with one layer of CFRP. Specimen J3 ini-
allowed the specimens to undergo large inelastic displacement. tially behaved very similarly to Specimen J2 共up to 5% drift兲.
The failure modes for all specimens were dominated by flexural Then, Specimen J3 was monotonically loaded in the push direc-
effects. Each of the retrofitted columns exhibited similar behav- tion. The lateral resistance continuously increased as the lateral
iors under revised cyclic loading, so Specimen J2 was selected as displacement increased. The local fiber rupture occurred at 7.2%
a representative sample. There were no visual signs of damage to drift. At this time, the column lateral resistance dropped about 14
the column until the lateral drift reached about 2.0%, when an kN, and could still increase as the lateral displacement increased.
obvious horizontal crack was found. The position of the first When the lateral drift reached about 10.8%, an explosive rupture
crack was about 100 mm above the column-footing interface. As occurred in the CFRP, which resulted in a significant reduction of
the applied lateral displacement increased, horizontal flexural lateral load; subsequently, the test was stopped. Fig. 4 shows dif-
cracks developed evenly above the first crack and were spaced by ferent specimen failures.

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


Test Results
The hysteresis loops of these specimens are shown in Fig. 5. As
can be seen from the hysteresis loops, the strength and stiffness
degradation of as-built columns was particularly severe, and the
deformation capacity was very limited. For the retrofitted col-
umns the displacement ductility was significantly increased; how-
ever, the increase in load-carrying capacity was relatively low
compared with the increase in ductility.
A summary of the test results for all test specimens is pre-
sented in Table 3. The maximum lateral load, Fmax, was defined as
the average of the maximum lateral loads in the push and pull
directions. The column was considered to have failed when one of
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the following two limit conditions was reached: 共1兲 the lateral
load at either the positive or negative peak of the last cycle was
reduced to 0.85 Fmax and 共2兲 the column could not sustain an axial
load and lateral load due to FRP rupture. The ultimate displace-
ment, ⌬u, was defined as the maximum usable drift, beyond
which the column failed. It was found that only ⌬u of Specimen
CH2 was controlled by Condition 共1兲 because of the strength
degradation in the pull direction. The yield displacement was de-
termined according to Fig. 6, using the following equation 共El-
wood and Eberhard 2009兲:

Fi
⌬y = ⌬⬘ 共1兲
Fy y
where Fy = first yield force obtained using standard sectional
analysis procedures at the first point where the longitudinal rein-
forcement yields in tension or the extreme concrete reaches a
maximum compressive strain of 0.002, whichever came first; Fi
= calculated ideal flexural capacity based on the extreme concrete
compressive strain of 0.004 共Elwood and Eberhard 2009兲; and
⌬⬘y = average of the measured displacements corresponding to Fy
in the push and pull loading directions, which was obtained from
the experimental force-displacement relationship. It was found
that the confinement form FRP does not obviously affect the yield
state of the columns 共Binici 2008兲, so the ⌬y of the columns with
the same axial load ratio and aspect ratio can be averaged to
eliminate the difference existing in test results which came from
material property scatter. The determined ⌬y, the ultimate drift
ratio 共␪u = ⌬u / H兲 and displacement ductility 共⌬u / ⌬y兲 of every col-
umn are presented in Table 3.

Analysis of Test Results

When evaluating the behavior of FRP-confined concrete, two pa-


rameters are often used: 共1兲 the confinement ratio ␭ f , a ratio of
confinement pressure over the unconfined concrete strength, de-
fined as ␭ f = f l / f ⬘c = 2E f t f ␧ f / 共Df ⬘c 兲 and 共2兲 the confinement stiffness
El, a measure of the stiffness of the confining FRP, defined as
El = 2E f t f / D 共De Lorenzis and Tepfers 2003兲, where f l = lateral
confining pressure exerted by FRP; E f = modulus of the FPR; t f
= FRP jacketing thickness; and ␧ f = rupture strain of FRP. The cal-
culated ␭ f and El of every column are listed in Table 2.

Fig. 5. Column response curves


Effect of Axial Load Level
It has been widely recognized that high axial loads have detri-
mental effects on the deformation capacity of columns under seis- CH3 are 2.8 and 3.1, respectively. These two specimens were
mic load condition. The test results of specimens under different both retrofitted with CFRP. The axial load ratios of Specimens J2
axial load ratios can be used to study the effect of axial load on and CH3 were 0.05 and 0.36, respectively. Thus, the responses of
FRP-retrofitted columns. The aspect ratios of Specimens J2 and these two specimens are compared to evaluate the effects of axial

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


Table 3. Summary of the Test Results
⌬⬘y 共+兲 ⌬⬘y 共⫺兲 ⌬y Fmax ⌬u Drift ratio, ␪u
Specimen 共mm兲 共mm兲 共mm兲 共kN兲 共mm兲 ⌬u / ⌬ y 共%兲
J0 6.4 6.3 9.8 155.2 23.4 2.4 2.8
J1 6.9 3.7 9.8 179.2 72.3 7.4 8.5
J2 5.8 5.0 9.8 195.3 73.1 7.5 8.6
J3 5.7 5.1 9.8 199.4 91.5 9.3 10.8
J4 4.8 4.7 9.8 254.6 134.3 13.7 15.8
J5 5.3 4.8 9.8 238.2 119.0 12.1 14.0
J6 5.2 5.3 9.8 229.0 133.0 13.6 15.6
J7 5.2 4.9 9.8 213.6 115.7 11.8 13.6
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J8 5.2 4.9 9.8 260.2 106.3 11.8 12.5


CH0 5.1 5.0 7.3 260.0 8.7 1.2 0.8
CH1 4.4 4.2 7.3 411.3 55.0 7.5 5.0
CH2 6.2 5.2 7.3 420.4 99.0 13.6 9.0
CH3 5.7 5.1 7.3 451.5 88.0 12.1 8.0
CL0 2.5 2.3 3.5 424.3 8.2 2.3 1.0
CL1 2.7 2.6 3.5 565.5 54.0 15.4 6.8
CL2 2.4 2.5 3.5 634.4 48.0 13.6 6.0
CL3 2.4 2.6 3.5 664.8 48.0 13.7 6.0

load level. In order to achieve the same drift capacity, the amount displacement than that of Specimen J2. The same observation was
of confining CFRP of Specimen CH3 was increased, and the con- found in reinforced concrete columns 共Bae and Bayrak 2008b兲.
finement ratios of Specimens J2 and CH3 were 0.111 and 0.157,
respectively 共Table 2兲. The ultimate drift ratios of Specimens J2
and CH3 were 8.6 and 8.0%, respectively. The test results indi- Effect of Aspect Ratio
cated that, although Specimen J2 had a significantly lower con- The effect of aspect ratio can be investigated by comparing the
finement ratio, the ultimate drift ratio of Specimen J2 was larger
behavior of Specimen CH2 with that of CL1 and the behavior of
than that of Specimen CH3. Considering that Specimen J2 had a
CH3 with that of CL2. The former specimens had larger aspect
smaller aspect ratio than that of Specimen CH3, it is expected that
ratios than that of the latter ones in each set of specimens. Al-
the ultimate drift ratio of Specimen J2 should be even larger if
though the DFRP used in Specimen CH2 had 2.5 layers, which is
they have the same aspect ratio. This is because an increase in the
less than that used in CL1 共four layers兲, the ultimate drift ratio of
aspect ratio will cause an increase in its drift capacity 共Kowalsky
Specimen CH2 was larger than that of CL1. The ultimate drift
2000兲. This indicates the adverse effect of the high axial load
ratios were 9.0 and 6.8%, respectively. The same trend can be
level to the column drift capacity. More confining FRP is required
found in Specimens CH3 and CL2. The CFRP used in Specimens
for columns resisting a high axial load than for those subjected to
CH3 and CL2 had 1.5 layers and 2.5 layers, respectively, and the
a lower axial load to obtain similar drift capacity. The drift capac-
ultimate drift ratios were 8.0 and 6.0%, respectively. Therefore in
ity of Specimen CH3 is less than that of Specimen J2; however,
these two sets of specimens, the specimens with less amount of
the displacement ductility of Specimen CH3 is larger than that of
FRP had a larger drift capacity because of their larger aspect
Specimen J2. The displacement ductility factors of Specimens
ratios. Thus, it is evident that an increase in aspect ratio results in
CH3 and J2 are 12.1 and 7.5, respectively 共Table 3兲. This is be-
an increased ultimate drift ratio. This agrees well with the con-
cause the high axial load of Specimen CH3 resulted in lower yield
clusion that the drift ratio increases as the aspect ratio increases in
reinforcement concrete columns 共Kowalsky 2000兲.

Effect of Load Path


The hysteresis loops of the specimens, which were monotonically
pushed to failure after the lateral displacement reached 5% drift,
are displayed in Fig. 5共d兲. It can be found from the figure that the
initial stiffness, stiffness degradation, and unloading stiffness of
these specimens were generally similar before the lateral dis-
placement reached 5% drift. When they were monotonically
loaded in the push direction after the lateral displacement reached
5% drift, the type and the amount of FRP used significantly in-
fluenced the ultimate displacement and maximum lateral load.
The behavior of Specimens J2 and J3 can be compared to inves-
tigate the influence of different lateral load paths. Specimens J2
and J3 were identical in all respects except that the lateral load
paths were different. The test observation showed that the crack
Fig. 6. Definition of ductility patterns, stiffness degradation, and failure modes of these two

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


ness, and the FRP jacket with larger confinement stiffness will
result in larger energy dissipation capacity at the same lateral
displacement excursion.
The effect of confinement stiffness to energy dissipation may
be explained as: under high axial load level, the bond between the
concrete and the reinforcement at the plastic hinge region was
damaged when the lateral displacement reached about 4% drift;
and this damage was unfavorable for energy dissipation. The FRP
jacket with larger confinement stiffness could mitigate this local
damage, and hence is beneficial to energy dissipation. This can
also be observed from the hystereses loops. The hystereses loops
of the columns with larger confinement stiffness indicated typical
well-rounded curves under a high axial load level, but a certain
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extent of pinching existed in the hystereses loops of the columns


with lower confinement stiffness. The behavior of Specimens
Fig. 7. Energy dissipation of cyclically loaded columns CH2 and CL1 as presented in Fig. 5 are an example of pinching
existed in the hystereses loops. This result clearly demonstrates
that greater confinement stiffness is useful for energy dissipation
when columns sustain a high axial load level. Furthermore, the
specimens were similar. The ultimate drift ratios of Specimens J2 energy dissipation will be faster when the amount of confining
and J3 are 8.6 and 10.8%, respectively. The maximum lateral FRP increases, which can be seen from the results of Specimens
loads, Fmax, of Specimens J2 and J3 are 195.3 and 199.4 kN, CL2 and CL3 presented in Fig. 7.
respectively. It can be seen that, compared with a monotonically It is worth noting that the energy dissipation capacity dis-
load in the push direction, three cycles of every displacement cussed here is the energy dissipation at a certain lateral displace-
excursion had no obvious influence on lateral maximum load but ment excursion, not the cumulative energy dissipation when a
significant influenced the ultimate drift capacity. Column defor- column fails. The latter is also related to the deformation capacity
mation capacity can be impaired by a large number of lateral load of a column. The influence of the type and the amount of FRP on
reversals. More tests are needed to study the cumulative damage the column deformation capacity will be discussed in the follow-
in FRP-retrofitted columns subjected to a series of simulated ing section.
earthquake excitations.
Effect of the Fracture Strain of FRP
Energy Dissipation The effectiveness of CFRP and DFRP in drift capacity enhance-
The energy dissipation versus the lateral displacement for all the ment of deficient columns can be evaluated by comparing the
cyclic response curves of retrofitted specimens is given in Fig. 7. behavior of three sets of Specimens: J1/J2, CH2/CH3, and CL1/
The energy dissipated per cycle is given by the area enclosed by CL2. The columns in every set of specimens were identical in
a load-displacement loop. The energy dissipation of the first cycle every aspect except for the type of confining FRP. The confine-
of every displacement excursion is introduced here. From the fig- ment ratio of Specimens J1 and J2 was identical, and the axial
ure, we can see the energy dissipation significantly increased load ratio was 0.05. From the hysteresis loops presented in Fig. 5,
when the lateral displacement reached about 1% drift. This dem- we can see that they behaved in a very similar manner. The ulti-
onstrates that plastic deformation occurred at this level of lateral mate drift ratio of these two specimens was almost identical, al-
displacement. The type of FRP was generally believed to have though the CFRP fracture is obviously less than that of the DFRP.
significant influence on the energy dissipation capacity of FRP- The last two sets of specimens 共CH2/CH3 and CL1/CL2兲 were
retrofitted columns. From Fig. 7, this influence is related to the tested under a high axial load 共n = 0.36兲. This time, the confine-
axial load level. When the axial load level is low, this influence is ment ratio of DFRP-retrofitted columns was a little larger than
insignificant, which can be seen from energy dissipation of Speci- that of the CFRP-retrofitted columns. In order to compare the
mens J1 and J2. These two specimens were retrofitted with dif- deformation capacity directly, the normalized ultimate drift, ␨, is
ferent types of FRPs, yet they had almost the same energy introduced here, which can be defined as
dissipation as the lateral displacement increased. When the axial ␥
load level increased, the FRP influence became significant, which ␨= 共2兲
␭f
can be seen from the energy dissipation of two sets of specimens
under a high axial load level: Specimens CH2 and CH3 and where ␥ = ratio of the ultimate drift ratio ␪u of a retrofitted column
Specimens CL1 and CL2. The specimens in each set were iden- to that of the corresponding unretrofitted column. ␨ reflects the
tical in all respects except for the FRP used. Before the lateral effectiveness of different types of FRPs in enhancing column drift
displacement reached approximately 4% drift, the energy dissipa- capacity. The ␨ of Specimens CH2/CH3 and CL1/CL2 are calcu-
tion of specimens in each set were similar. As the displacement lated to be 59.8/63.7 and 22.7/23.0, respectively. The ␨ of Speci-
increased further, the energy dissipation of Specimen CH3 was mens J1/J2 is also calculated to be 26.9/27.8. The values are very
larger than that of CH2, and that of CL2 was larger than that of close to each other in every set, which means the confinement
CL1 at the same lateral displacement. From Table 2, we can see effectiveness of FRP in enhancing column drift capacity under
Specimens CH3 and CL2 had greater confinement stiffness, El, simulated seismic load is closely related to the confinement ratio,
but a lower confinement ratio, ␭ f than that of the counterpart in and the FRP fracture strain has no significant influence. This con-
each set. Thus, it can be concluded that the energy dissipation of clusion can further be confirmed by the test results of hybrid
FRP-retrofitted columns is controlled by FRP confinement stiff- FRP-retrofitted columns with that of columns retrofitted with a

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


single type of FRP. Specimen J6 was retrofitted with one layer of
CFRP and one layer of DFRP, whose confinement ratio was al-
most identical to that of Specimens J4 and J5, which were retro-
fitted with two layers of DFRP and CFRP, respectively.
Specimens J6 and J4 had almost the same ultimate drift ratio,
which demonstrates that hybrid FRP will have the same retrofitted
effectiveness as a single type of FRP when the confinement ratio
is identical. The ultimate drift ratio of J5 is a little less than that of
Specimens J6 and J4 共Table 3兲. This may be due to the scatter of
material properties.
It is commonly believed that under a concentric load the type
of FRP with larger fracture strain will have greater efficiency in
confining concrete. The test results have demonstrated that the
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ultimate strain of FRP-confined concrete will be influenced by


FRP fracture strain when different types of FRPs are used. The
larger FRP fracture strain will result in a greater ultimate strain of
confined concrete when the confinement ratio remains constant
共Lam and Teng 2003; De Lorenzis and Tepfers 2003; Wu et al.
2006a兲. Based on this observation, the type of FRP with larger
fracture strain is commonly believed to have better efficiency in
retrofitted columns under seismic load 共Binici 2008; Elsanadedy
and Haroun 2005; Seible and Priestley 1997兲. However, the test
results of this experiment are contradictory to this conclusion.
From the literature review, it can be found that the previous test
results conducted on square concrete columns under simulated
seismic load have demonstrated that the efficiency of FRP in en-
hancing column ductility directly relates to the FRP confinement
ratio, and the fracture strain of FRP has very limited influence
共Sheikh and Li 2007兲. This opinion was based on the test results
of square concrete columns with different axial load levels 共Ia-
cobucci 2001; Memon 2002兲. The test results of the measured
section curvature and ultimate drift ratio of the retrofitted square
concrete columns reported previously 共Iacobucci 2001; Memon Fig. 8. Test results of square concrete columns 共Iacobucci 2001;
2002兲 are displayed in Fig. 8. We find that the type of FRP and the Memon 2002兲
FRP fracture strain had no obvious influence on the column de-
formation capacity as long as the confinement ratio remains con-
stant. Thus, it can be concluded that the fracture strain of FRP has mately linearly increased with the lateral displacement, and DFRP
no obvious impact on the drift capacity of retrofitted columns as developed higher strain compared to CFRP. Thus, the ratio of
long as the confinement ratio remains constant. DFRP strain to CFRP strain remained approximately constant at
If we carefully study the deformation capacity of steel con- every displacement excursion. To Specimens J1 and J2, the ratio
fined concrete columns, similar conclusion can also be drawn. of DFRP strain to CFRP strain at the same displacement excur-
When high grade of steel is used to confine columns, although the sion is about 1.5:1, which is very close to the inverse value of the
stress-strain relationship of concrete under concentric load is dif- ratio of confinement stiffness for the two specimens 共1:1.6兲. To
ferent to that of concrete confined by normal steel 共Razvi and Specimens CL1 and CL2, the ratio of DFRP strain to CFRP strain
Saatcioglu 1999兲, the drift capacity of columns under simulated is about 1.7:1, and the ratio of confinement stiffness for the two
seismic load is very similar to that of columns confined by normal specimens is 1:1.8. Because the confining pressure is the product
steel, provided that the two columns having the same ␭s 共Razvi of the confinement stiffness and FRP strain, our results indicate
and Saatcioglu 1994; Saatcioglu and Baingo 1999兲, where ␭s is that the confining pressure applied by FRP at the same displace-
defined as ␭s = ␳s f yl / f ⬘c , ␳s = volumetric ratio of confining rein- ment excursion remains approximately unchanged when different
forcement and f yl = yield stress of confining reinforcement. The types of FRPs are used. This means that the drift capacity of
parameter ␭s is similar to the confinement ratio of FRP, both FRP-retrofitted columns was controlled by the confining pressure
expressing the ratio of confining pressure to the strength of un- of the FRP jacket when the FRP ruptured, and the fracture strain
confined concrete. of FRP had no obvious influence. The difference in the effect of
The foregoing conclusion can be further verified by the strain FRP fracture strain under seismic load is probably caused by the
data of two sets of Specimens 共J1/J2 and CL1/CL2兲 measured in uneven distribution of FRP strain under lateral load, which is
the test, as shown in Fig. 9. The strain gauges, whose readings are different from the uniform distribution of FRP strain under axial
reported, were located 150 mm above the column-footing inter- load 共Binici and Mosalam 2007兲.
face, where most of the damage was concentrated when the col-
umns failed. Only the strain data at the first cycle of every
Effect of the Amount of Confining FRP
displacement excursion are displayed. The strain data of Speci-
men J2 could not be measured after the lateral displacement The relationship between the ultimate drift ratio and confinement
reached 52 mm. This was attributed to the local fiber rupture ratio of all retrofitted columns is displayed in Fig. 10. The dash
around the strain gauge. It can be seen that the strain approxi- lines in the figure are the trend lines from polynomial regression.

538 / JOURNAL OF COMPOSITES FOR CONSTRUCTION © ASCE / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2010

J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


Fig. 11. Influence of the amount of FRP on damaged region length
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as the amount of confining FRP increases. For example, an addi-


tional layer of CFRP used in Specimen J8 共compared to Specimen
J4兲 decreased the ultimate drift ratio from 15.8 to 12.5%.
It is found from the test observations that the amount of con-
fining FRP can influence the length of the damaged region. The
behavior of the failure zone of Specimens CH3, CL2, and CL3 is
illustrated in Fig. 11. Specimens CL2 and CL3 were identical in
every respect except for the amount of confining FRP: an addi-
tional layer of FRP was used in Specimen CL3. As can be seen in
the figure, the length of the damaged region of Specimen CL3 is
significantly less than that of Specimen CL2. This observation has
been reported previously: larger amounts of confining FRP will
result in a smaller damaged region 共Iacobucci 2001; Ozbakkalo-
glu and Saatcioglu 2006兲. This decrease of the length of the dam-
aged region resulted in more serious local damage, such as
rupture of the local FRP and crushed concrete, which could im-
pair the deformation capacity of columns. The figure also shows
that the length of the damaged region of Specimen CH3 was
obviously larger than that of Specimen CL2. This is reasonable
Fig. 9. FRP strain at a section height of 150 mm because Specimen CH3 had a greater aspect ratio and less con-
fining FRP than Specimen CL2.
This figure clearly reveals how the ultimate drift ratio responds to The significant influence of the amount of confining FRP on
increases in the amount of confining FRP. When the amount of the length of the damaged region demonstrates that the plastic
confining FRP is low, an increase in the amount of confining FRP hinge length of FRP-retrofitted columns should be influenced by
can result in a significant increase in the ultimate drift ratio; for the amount of confining FRP, because the length of the damaged
example, this is demonstrated by the response of the CH series region is closely related to the plastic hinge length 共Bae and
specimens and J series specimens when the confinement ratio was Bayrak 2008a兲. Thus, the plastic hinge length is not a constant,
below 0.25. When the amount of confining FRP continued to but a function of the confinement ratio. The mechanism of the
increase, the drift capacity became insensitive to further changes. phenomena is that the FRP wrapping increases the frictional bond
For example, one more layer of CFRP used in Specimen CL3 between the concrete and the longitudinal bars. In two adjacent
than Specimen CL2 resulted in no improvement in the ultimate cross sections near the base, even a small increase in the bond
drift ratio 共Table 3兲. Furthermore, the drift capacity may decrease stress produces a significant reduction in the strain of the longi-
tudinal bar at the upper cross section after the longitudinal bar
yields because a large change in strain is required to produce a
small change in stress after the bar yields. Clearly, greater con-
finement causes a significantly larger difference in the strain of
the longitudinal bar between the base and the upper section.
When the strain variation is large, the difference in curvature
between adjacent sections is also large. As a result, the base cur-
vature is applicable to a smaller length for columns with a larger
confinement ratio, indicating a smaller plastic hinge length. More-
over, the plastic hinge length greatly influences the drift capacity
of columns. Thus, although the sectional curvature capacity can
always improve as the amount of confining FRP increases, the
drift capacity of retrofitted columns may be improved or impaired
with this increase, as presented in Fig. 10. This is a result of the
fact that the section curvature and plastic hinge length combine to
influence the columns drift capacity. This finding is interesting
and important for a better understanding of the plastic hinge
Fig. 10. Confinement ratio-drift ratio relationships length of RC columns.

JOURNAL OF COMPOSITES FOR CONSTRUCTION © ASCE / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2010 / 539

J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540


From Fig. 8共b兲, we can see the drift capacity of retrofitted References
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Acknowledgments
Sheikh, S. A., and Li, Y. M. 共2007兲. “Design of FRP confinement for
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The writers would like to acknowledge financial support from the Sheikh, S. A., and Yau, G. 共2002兲. “Seismic behavior of concrete col-
National Basic Research Program of China 共973 Program兲 共Grant umns confined with steel and fiber-reinforced polymers.” ACI Struct.
No. 2007CB714200兲, the National Natural Science Foundation of J., 99共1兲, 72–81.
China 共Grant Nos. 50608015 and 50908102兲, and National Key Wu, G., Lù, Z. T., and Wu, Z. S. 共2006a兲. “Strength and ductility of
Technology R&D Program of China in the 11th Five-Year Period concrete cylinders confined with FRP composites.” Constr. Build.
共Grant No. 2006BAJ03B07兲. Supplementary support was pro- Mater., 20共3兲, 134–148.
Wu, Y. F., Liu, T., and Oehlers, D. J. 共2006b兲. “Fundamental principles
vided by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special
that govern retrofitting of reinforced concrete columns by steel and
Administrative Region, China 共Project No. CityU 122106兲, and FRP jacketing.” Adv. Struct. Eng., 9共4兲, 507–533.
the research fund of key laboratory of concrete and prestressed Wu, Y. F., and Wang, L. M. 共2009兲. “Unified strength model for square
concrete structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast Univ., and circular concrete columns confined by external jacket.” J. Struct.
China. Eng., 135共3兲, 253–261.

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J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(5): 531-540