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The structure of a functional document can be analysed from three different points of view: the presentation of information content, the development of argument, and the grammatical and stylistic cohesion of the text. To be effective, a document must be well structured in all three ways. This paper explores the relationships between the three types of structure, and suggests ways in which the writer can make the three types mutually reinforce each other. The resulting documentation will rate highly in ease of retrieval, ease of comprehension, and ease of use.
What is Structure?
A structure is a construct, or combination of components, formed according to consistent and observable principles. Structure - the property possessed by structures - is principled, or systematic, organisation. The idea of a combination of components is fundamental to language. We combine words into phrases, phrases into clauses, clauses into sentences, sentences into paragraphs, paragraphs into chapters, chapters into books. Structure, then, implies that we start with smaller bits and end up with bigger bits (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Structure in Language Principles — and the rules of grammar are just a rigorous form of principle — determine how these combinations are made. A random collection of words, like "rhubarb manual decided", has no governing principle and is therefore not structured. Principles must be consistent (within reasonable limits): we must be able to distinguish between the effects of principle and those of chance. Principles must be observable (and observably consistent): we must be able to see them at work, rather than merely predicting their effects. For our purposes, concerned as we are with functional texts, structure can be found at three different levels. We can find principles at work in the way sentences combine to form text, in the way information items combine to represent reality, and in the way propositions combine to form an explanation or argument. We can’t completely isolate these three aspects, because they do not correspond to completely separate features of language; in particular, the reader has to deal with all three concurrently. We can, though, isolate and examine the underlying principles.
Aspects of Structure
It makes sense to look at language-based structure in terms of semantics, or information content (meaning); rhetoric, or argument; and cohesion, or textual unity. We’ll look at each in some detail.
The fundamental semantic structure can be usefully described as topic/comment, though the particular tradition I work in prefers the terminology theme/rheme for sentence structure. In fact, the two are not identical; but they are close enough for our purposes, and I shall use both pairs of terms interchangeably. In a simple declarative sentence, the theme corresponds to the subject, and the rheme to the predicate. In a conventional paragraph, the theme corresponds to the topic sentence, and the rheme to the remainder. The theme or topic is what comes first: it is "what we are talking about". The rheme or comment follows: it is "what we are saying about the theme or topic".
It is a general principle of clear writing that we should introduce new material by associating it with old material. We put old (or given) information in the theme, and make our new information the rheme. Once we have introduced that new information, it becomes old, so we can then use it (or something derived from it) in theme position to introduce further new material. Like this: (1) The power switch is located at the top right-hand comer of the front panel. (2) It is marked with two symbols: 0 and 1. (3a) Push the switch towards 1 to turn power on. Push it towards 0 to turn power off. (3b) To turn power on, push the switch towards 1. To turn power off, push the switch towards 0. It is interesting to see how the thematic links are developed differently in 3a and 3b, as illustrated in Figure 2. These examples show clearly how "new" information, once presented, becomes "old" — and thus available for reuse. These examples also show how the "new" slot can be used to reprocess old information, presenting it in a new light. You might care to decide whether you prefer 3a or 3b; the nature of the thematic links might then help to account for your choice.
Figure 2: Variations in thematic linkage
The Outline as a Semantic Structure
The effect of thematic links within a paragraph is that the theme of every sentence in the paragraph should be (directly or indirectly) derived from the topic sentence (see Figure 3). But where does the topic sentence itself come from?
Once we have defined the topic of each section. we can then relate each paragraph’s topic sentence to that section topic. each chapter of the book. but will be consistent in principle: the topic section will derive from something central to the whole book.Figure 3: Thematic Links in the Paragraph The next larger unit of text — the construct which is a combination of components called paragraphs — may be a subsection. If you look carefully at the table of contents of a well-organised book. Of course. an introduction. For simplicity. That "something central" may be expressed in a preface. a section. the sections combine into a larger unit called a chapter. and it may consist of only a single paragraph. can — should — display thematic unity. but we use the condensed headings as a summary representation of the overall semantic structure. The complete outline. See Figure 4 for the complete semantic structure of a tightly-organised book. Every section should begin with what amounts to a topic paragraph — one that sets out the scope or purpose of the section. A label — a heading or title — can be thought of as a condensed statement of the topic of whatever textual unit we are talking about. down to the level of individual paragraphs. and each section of each chapter. Such a table of contents would be rather unwieldy. In practice. This leads inevitably to the question: where does the chapter get its topic section from? The answer will vary in detail. the topic section may not be separately labelled. as the topic of the relevant unit. I was thinking of headings (whether numbered or not). At that point. information-bearing section. or a chapter. we would be able to trace the links quite easily. of course. In the previous paragraph. let’s call it a section. . or simply the book’s title. The topic sentence of each paragraph should then be derived (directly or indirectly) from the topic paragraph. Now the book’s title can be thought of as a label given to the entire text. but it will certainly precede the first "real". If each heading had been written out "in full". I referred to sections as being "separately labelled". so we don’t do it (though eighteenth-century novelists often did). and the chapter must have its topic section. you will see that it reflects the thematic links between the book as a whole.
or explanation: we are concerned with building a coherent picture in the reader’s mind. they are in an additive relationship. but an informative argument. They work like this: • If two items are independently true. or "thread". Logical Links There are six kinds of logical link between items of information: Additive. Alternative. We are concerned with developing not a persuasive argument. To the Greeks it was an important skill. "rhetoric" is something of a dirty word: we generally interpret it as "the trick of taking the audience for a ride". In technical discourse. and Equivalent. but they do not necessarily reveal logical relationships. In classical Greece. Causal. That is the task of rhetoric. The rhetorician starts with a set of principles — which may be subjective or axiomatic. Adversative. thematic links contribute to that coherence in one sense. . The fundamental principle of rhetoric is the development of a coherent line. however. Clearly. it was "the art of constructing an argument". of argument. but have a cumulative effect. but we are concerned with logical consequences. and medieval scholars regarded it as one of the "liberal arts". and the subject is taught in schools and universities. The fact that rhetoric is in bad odour in this country is our loss.Figure 4: Semantic Structure of a Book Rhetorical Structures In present-day Australia. In modern America. explicitly stated or tacitly assumed — and develops logical consequences which lead inexorably to the required conclusion. we are not concerned with persuasion (though some forms of functional text are). the word retains its original meaning. Circumstantial.
subordinating conjunctions. there is a power warning light. or connective adverbs. Typical equivalent relationships are illustration and restatement. They must tell the Tax Office about their income and deductible expenses. The 13cm disk is larger. Australian taxpayers are required to complete an annual tax return. You can install this software from a CD-ROM. The expression of logical relationships can usually be done in any of three ways: using coordinating conjunctions. • If one item causes or is caused by the other. they are in a circumstantial relationship. It should be handled only under the [brand Y] [model Z] safelight. The standard editorial reference for Australian writers is the AGPS style Manual. but it can be quite easy to avoid expressing other kinds of relationship. The temptation must always be resisted: all logical relationships must be clearly expressed. • If two items are true. the 8cm disk has a greater capacity. . The following example of an adversative relationship illustrates all three: • • • Coordinating conjunction: Subordinating conjunction: Connective adverb: The 13cm disk is larger. However. they are in an alternative relationship. but there is (or appears to be) a contrast or conflict between them. The 13cm disk is larger. Writers aiming at international markets should refer to the Chicago Manual of Style. • If one item is essentially a clarification of the other. Immediately to the left of the switch. [Brand X] photograph paper is insensitive to light in the wavelength range [nnn] [ppp] Angstrom. You can install this software from a diskette. Typical circumstantial relationships are spatial and chronological. • If only one of a number of items is true or applicable. There are 1000 metres in a kilometre. but the 8cm disk has a greater capacity. The power switch is at the top right-hand comer of the front panel. although the 8cm disk has a greater capacity. they are in an equivalent relationship. they are in a causal relationship.There are 1000 millimetres in a metre. It is usually difficult to avoid expressing circumstantial relationships (though the expression may be unclear). they are in an adversative (sometimes called contrastive) relationship. • If one item simply gives more detailed information about the other.
and there are grounds for regarding the third option as merely a stylistic variant). Sentence final — The 8cm disk has greater capacity. but puts the end weight on however — on the logical relationship. however. But paragraphs on the printed page do not form a tree structure: they form a linear arrangement of text. we have two sentences. and signals the start of another line. • • • No doubt each would be appropriate in one situation or another (though the second has the special merit of parallelism. In the second sentence. too. In the first sentence.In the first two (conjunction) cases. however. we have some options — four options. To begin with. Transitions as Logical Relationships It can be seen that. the 8cm disk has greater capacity — makes however thematic. The 13cm disk is the theme and is larger is the rheme. a high-level heading will intervene. as in Figure 5. and the part after the conjunction as the comment. there is only one sentence. The link may be indirect. After the verb — The 8cm disk has. called a "transition sentence". A high-level heading serves as a visual indication to "rule off" one line of argument. If we don’t have such a visual indication. . are related both thematically and logically. The exceptions are where the two paragraphs are a significant distance apart in the hierarchical structure of the text — in which case. Each of the four has different implications for theme and emphasis: • Sentence initial — However. Picturing our text as a tree structure. by way of a "common ancestor" or an intermediate node. but what about logical links? In most cases. greater capacity — has the same thematic and end-weighting arrangement as the second example. the links between one sentence and another have both a thematic aspect and a logical aspect. However is the theme and the 8cm disk has a greater capacity is the rheme. After the subject — The 8cm disk. things get rather more complicated. they are arranged head-to-tail. The function of the transition sentence is to tie the tail of one paragraph to the head of the next. More interestingly. of course. we have consecutive paragraphs that are in some way members of the same line of argument. choice. We can generally regard the part before the conjunction as the topic. we can see that thematic links tie paragraphs together by their tops. This function is shown in Figure 6. The same thing can be said of paragraphs: they. as it stands. In the third case. but shifts the tonic stress from 8cm to has. We have already discussed thematic links. to take us from one paragraph to the next. however — retains the 8cm disk in theme position. in most cases. and again puts the end weight on the greater capacity. and we use the transition sentence to show that shared membership. in fact — about where we put however. Read in their printed order. rather than random. has greater capacity — makes the 8cm disk thematic. The important point is that awareness of the thematic and weighting effects enables us to make a principled. we write an explicit link. and puts the emphasis (the "end weight") on the greater capacity.
The second paragraph provides more details about some aspect of the first. the same logical relationships as we have seen before: additive. The second paragraph explains the cause or consequences of the first. by presenting more information with the same general import.Figure 5: Head-to-head Thematic Links Figure 6: Tail-to-head Transition Links In most cases. and identity. or "here's another way to look at it". causal. "there's another way". The second paragraph restricts the scope or effect of the first. "this is not accidental". Cohesive Structures . circumstantial. The second paragraph offers an alternative to the first. by presenting information about limits or special conditions. "this has effects you need to know about". The second paragraph restates or illustrates the first. two consecutive paragraphs are related in one of the following ways: • • • • • • The second paragraph reinforces the first. of course. adversative. alternative. "let’s look at this in more detail". "it’s not quite that simple". The ideal transition sentence is one that makes the logical relationship clear — one that says something like "there’s more to come". by presenting other information that is only "true" if the first is "false". These are.
Information content and logical development are interpretations the reader places on the text. the long screws. to foreshadow something about to be mentioned. and sentences. If the text is disjointed at the level of words. then the carefully-constructed semantic and rhetorical structures simply won’t be apparent. That is. internal links (endophora) may be anaphoric or cataphoric. This task is made far more difficult if the chains are allowed to grow too long. "that". But. we must ultimately find a reference to something outside the text — "two kinds of diskette". always bearing in mind its real referent. The reader must keep track of every current chain. phrases. then. Internal links are called endophoric. "the holes in the corners". The key to keeping chains short is to keep bringing in exophoric references: these can be combined with endophoric references in the . no matter how often we refer to "it". In the sentence pair There are two kinds of diskette. and so on. or if there are too many concurrent chains. is the combination of cohesive ties into cohesive chains which are anchored in reality. or article — to refer to something previously mentioned. A cataphoric link is the use of a determinative to refer forward.So far. one link in the chain must be exophoric. we have seen how the information content and logical development of a text are governed by principles of combination. "outside the text" may mean "something in the writer’s imaginary world". Endophoric & Exophoric Links Perhaps for the sake of dressing the subject in robes of authority. Both are important in functional or technical text. Cohesive structure. they in the second sentence is anaphoric to two kinds of diskette. two kinds of diskette is exophoric. we don’t read information or explanation: we read words. in a functional text. In general. here in the first sentence is cataphoric to the whole of the second sentence. in the second case. They differ in size and capacity. In the sentence pair Here is the next step. How can we analyse or control such a structure? What significant properties does it have? The two limiting properties of cohesive chains are length and number. external links are called exophoric. demonstrative. There is wide agreement about the key factors: text possesses cohesion partly because of internal links ("cohesive ties"). or a process. A great deal of work has been put into understanding textual cohesion. and the uprights are all exophoric. we must end up with something "real" — though it does not have to be concrete: we might be referring to a theory. To complicate matters further. or whatever. and partly because of external correspondences. Take the long screws and insert them in the holes near the corners of the uprights. These chains have a vital characteristic: somewhere. the comers. a principle. In the first case. of course. "they". the holes. So much for the words: what do they mean? An anaphoric link is the use of a "determinative" — a pronoun. some imposing Greek-derived words have been coined for cohesive aspects of text. Reality as Referent Endophoric links can be connected to form cohesive chains. of course.
with little chance of being separated from other items. so the reader must work at untangling knots. and textual cohesion. so that the whole information structure grows in a rational and orderly way. they can at least be kept tangle-free by using parallel grammatical structures. so the reader is distracted into irrelevancies. but that the structure does affect the reader’s processing of the text. textual references are often confused. Poor cohesive structure leaves the reader asking "What is going on?" Structural Integration There we have our three kinds of structure. "the polymerisation process"). so that the reader is led by the hand through an inevitable series of steps. new items of information are not always given a role to play in the development of the story. A weak cohesive structure can leave an item of information to be swamped. The key to reducing the number of concurrent chains is to focus on one thing at a time. But I said earlier that they are not totally independent. where multiple concurrent chains cannot be avoided. or they can be simple exophora ("the long screws". so the question arises: how are the three kinds related? Are there conflicts between them. A weak semantic structure can leave a new item of information floating. A weak rhetorical structure can leave a new item of information to sink out of sight. unless and until a passing hook happens to catch it. so the information structure grows by an untidy process of accretion. that it has a past and a future. Semantic Effects A strong semantic structure ensures that each new item of information fits readily into a coherent framework. Poor rhetorical structure leaves the reader asking "Why are you telling me this?" Cohesive Effects A strong cohesive structure ensures that each item of information is identifiable. so that we must lose strength in one respect in order to gain strength in another? Or are there consistencies between them. "this process"). so that we can achieve heightened structure in all respects at once? . Poor semantic structure leaves the reader asking "Where does this fit?" Rhetorical Effects A strong rhetorical structure ensures that each new item of information is justified. Before moving on. One final point about exophoric references: it’s important to be consistent with terminology. that each new item becomes part of the framework. Using different terms for the same thing can mislead the reader into thinking that a new or different chain has been introduced.form of "reminders" ("these screws". let’s consider the effects of good and bad structure in each of those aspects. that it is there for a reason. unless by chance it falls into a net meant for some other purpose. Effects of Structure We have now identified at least the fundamental characteristics of the three aspects of structure: semantics. new items do not always or immediately form part of the framework. so that its place in the unfolding text is always clear. rhetoric. That is not to say that the reader is conscious of the chains.
We read text in a linear fashion. it means exactly the opposite. itself. In fact. we often have to choose between putting a connective adverb in sentence-initial (thematic) position. It is certainly true that there are fundamental differences in the nature of the three kinds of structure. As we follow the argument. we try to build a coherent mental . To take a simple example. "not really" to conflicts. we can make either the adverb or the subject thematic. rhetorical structure is horizontally hierarchical (based on earlier units controlling later units). mean that the three kinds of structure are consistent: perhaps they are just different — not really related at all. Does this mean that the three are independent? Figure 7: Differences in Structural Perspectives In fact. so we need cohesive structure to maintain textual unity. so we need rhetorical structure to reveal the argument.Fortunately. if we haven’t foreshadowed the logical relationship. the answer is "yes" to consistencies. or putting it somewhere else so that the subject is thematic. There are cases when what looks like a compromise is called for. As we read text. we should make the subject thematic. though. and cohesive structure is linear (based on the identification of later units with earlier units). This looks like a minor conflict between semantic and rhetorical structure. we try to follow the logical relationships it expresses. But this absence of real conflict does not. it’s simply an overlap: if we have foreshadowed the logical relationship. but closer examination reveals that it’s not a compromise at all. as shown in Figure 7: semantic structure is vertically hierarchical (based on larger units containing smaller units).
the reader must work at understanding it. Rhetorical linkages will help the reader to connect all the elements in the substructure. having understood it.representation of reality. We have already seen that the table of contents and the headings are high-level manifestations of semantic structure: in their guise as document outline. accurate. But. So we are looking for ease of retrieval. that effectiveness is determined by four features: information must be easy to find. but also because it obscures . the reader needs to have confidence that all the required information is in one place. There is a difference between accurate and sufficient information being in the book somewhere. Comprehension The primary keys to case of comprehension are rhetorical structure and cohesive structure. and that same information being presented as a single unit or substructure. the reader can then fit it into the developing semantic and rhetorical structures. Clear cohesive ties enable the reader to connect all references to the same element. The three forms of structure have different contributions to make. First. This means that the reader must be able to see "beyond the edges" of the information unit: to see how it fits with adjacent units. but they support and reinforce each other. Explicit logical relationships enable the reader to understand not only "why we are telling you this". and a variety of graphical and typographical techniques — placement of headings. ease of comprehension. the index. and sufficient for purpose. and ease of use. in the context of getting a job done. and so on. but also "what it means". it’s worth digressing to consider how lengthy or convoluted sentences cause problems in comprehension. Of course. sentences are themselves structural elements. Second. so we need semantic structure to provide a framework for that representation. but. clear expression in headings. Accuracy and sufficiency together determine whether the material is easy to use. so the semantic structure of the text is itself critical in determining ease of retrieval. These mechanisms include the table of contents. Let’s see exactly how the three aspects of structure can work together to achieve effectiveness in a functional text. Retrieval It is universally recognised that the primary key to ease of retrieval is the availability of efficient access mechanisms. in many cases. the reader must first deal with the words on the page. These determine how easily the reader can "tell what we are talking about" and "see what we are getting at". At this point. easy to understand. to see what mutual implications it and those other units have for each other. If a sentence is unwieldy. first. and the reader needs to be sure that the information retrieved is appropriate to that situation. a complex sentence is complex or unwieldy not only because it is hard to digest in itself. Beyond this. thematic linkages within the substructure will ensure its semantic unity. Remember. cohesive linkages will help the reader to keep track of the separate elements themselves. The three aspects of structure combine to ensure that the information is not only retrieved easily. and more important. they are the skeleton formed by thematic linkages. once again. but that it is retrieved in one "chunk" that is complete — and completely processable — in itself. the reader does not want just one small element in isolation: the information is to be used in some kind of "situational context". But we must realise that.
K. We both write and edit in a multi-layered fashion. At the next level. This is largely dependent on cohesive structure. M. Conclusion The three kinds of structure are all "born" as the text is written. This is the function of rhetorical structure. Harlow: Longmans Halliday. a "piece" of information. Cohesion in English. Semantic structure is the outcome and expression of the overall design — the organisation of information. Use The primary keys to ease of use are sufficiency of information and sequence of information. M. Context and Text. the reader must be able to fit the new information into a growing appreciation of the whole subject-matter.K. we can work on them separately. FURTHER READING Halliday. and cohesive structure can underpin the unity of related material. rhetorical. At the highest level. In short. Between them. then. & R. I do not for a moment suggest that the kinds of structure I have been talking about directly determine either sufficiency or sequence: these are determined by task analysis and information needs analysis. at one and the same time.logical relationships. At the lowest level. Hasan (1976). but they should be coextensive and coterminous — they represent three ways of looking at and responding to the same passage. Our three kinds of structure are therefore very important in allowing the reader to segment the material into useful and useable chunks.A. a "piece" of explanation. M. but also that it enables us to isolate logical relationships and keep our cohesive chains untangled. The rationale behind the simpler sentence. An Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd edn). manipulates too many concurrent chains.A.A. the reader must be able to work out the sentence’s contribution to the developing argument or explanation. ease of comprehension. Rhetorical structure is the outcome and expression of the approach to argument and explanation.K. Geelong. logical relationships. These pieces may go by different names. is not only that it presents fewer problems on its own account. Vic: Deakin University . comprehension "happens" at more than one level. they help the reader grasp what should be. Cohesive structure is the outcome and expression of clear writing. it is also partly determined by the reader’s ability to identify and handle the chunks themselves. or both. though semantic structure also has an important role here. and cohesive ties — but. But we have seen how semantic. Language. The three kinds of structure thus make separate but mutually-dependent contributions to comprehension. This is the function of semantic structure. so we do not have to keep an eye on three aspects of development simultaneously: concurrently is a more exact term. But they are "conceived" at three different stages. because they have different manifestations. While ease of use is partly determined by the content and sequence of the chunks. Hasan (1985). & R. the reader must be able to work out what a sentence is saying. London: Edward Arnold Halliday. It is the reading process that cannot separate them: if we can create and integrate the three kinds of structure. and a "piece" of text. the reader will reap the benefits — ease of retrieval. (1994). As we write and as we edit. and ease of use. we should look for thematic links.
Qld: John Wiley Strunk.M.H. P. 1979). W. New York: Macmillan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . The Elements of Style (3rd ed. & E. J. Strategies for Student Writers. White. Style. Williams.Peters. Colomb (1990). Milton. (1985).G.B. with G.
5. Menentukan gambaran umum isi berbagai teks fungsional pendek. Mampu mengidentifikasi berbagai jenis Short Functional Text. Menentukan makna kata berdasarkan konteks. Mengidentifikasi berbagai jenis teks fungsional pendek.Tujuan Pembelajaran Setelah mempelajari materi dalam website ini diharapkan pembaca dapat: 1.2. Dapat menemukan informasi faktual dari Short Functional Text. Merespon makna dalam teks tulis fungsional pendek sederhana secara akurat. 5. lancar. Dapat menentukan informasi tersirat dari teks fungsional pendek. dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar Short Functional Texts Prohibition in a Public Place Informational Notice Announcement Informational Notice 1. 3. Mampu mengidentifikasi makna kata berdasarkan konteks dari teks fungsional pendek. 2. Mampu menemukan gambaran umum isi Short Functional Text. 4. . 3. Reading Skill 5. Image Gallery . 1. Menemukan informasi tersirat dari berbagai teks fungsional pendek. 2. Menemukan informasi faktual dari berbagai teks fungsional pendek 4.
Sedangkan teks essay yang berbentuk descriptive.pesan pendek (short message). dan procedure merupakan text panjang yang bisa dikategorikan ke dalam Long Functional Text (Istilah ini tidak baku/tidak lazim digunakan). undangan (invitation). pengumuman (announcement). pengarahan. narrative. Kartu Ucapan (Greeting Cards). sesuatu yang harus dilakukan atau tidak boleh dilakukan yang dapat berupa larangan (prohibition). report. Some Example of Short Functional Texts . daftar belanja (shopping list).Guidance / Instruction Guidance / Instructional Procedure Announcement Short Functional Text Short Functional Text adalah teks pendek yang berisi perintah. dan lain-lain yang mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari. peringatan (notice). recount.
Function / Purpose : To invite someone to attend an occation. We request the pleasure of you in the candle light party for the 10th anniversary of our marriage at garden Resto on February 20. d. state it in the lower left-hand corner Read the following text and answer the question Dear Friends. Why does Rince write the text? 2. The Structure/Parts : The Addressee (The person invited) Salutation The message (the content of the messag) The Sender 3. Where will the party be held? Reading Activity . It gives clear time. It should have an accurate addressee b. Express that the writer is looking forward to seeing person e. 2009 at 19. 2.00 Dress code: Casual Red Thanks Rince 1. The requirements :a. place. and activity c. If there is a dress code.Invitation Invitation Greeting Cards Notice: Guidance Announcement 1. It provides sufficient information about the inviter.
What does the word honour mean? . What kind of text is this? 2. What is the text about? 3.1.
The Important points a. The purpose : a. To motivate someone on gaining achivement 2 . To express sympathy on someone's c.Greeting Cards functions as an expression of sympathy and care to others. Clarify a clear purpose b. 1. What kind of text is that? 3. Use a appraisal diction c. To congratulate someone' achievement b. What does the word your in the text refer to? Reading Activity . Accurate addressee Read the following texts and answer the questions 1. Who is the best team at school? 2.
What does the word wishing in the text mean? 3.1. What is the text about? . Why does Tya send the text? 2.
Where doe the notice exist? 2. People may find this kind of notice in a public places. 4. 3. Read the texts and answer the questions 1. Prohibition notifies people not to do something. Caution or warning warns people to be careful in handling something. What should the people do according to the notice? Reading Activity .The Functions 1. 2. The informational notice provides information that could be useful for people. Guidance gives information to people to do something appropriately. Ignoring the notice may cause injury or breaking the facilities. What does the word expectant mean? 3.
What is the purpose of the notice? 2. Who should follow the instruction? 3. Where do you probably find this notice? Read the text and answer the questions .1.
What should the passenger do to their baggage? 2. What should the driver do before turning left? 3. What should people do when spotting an unattended baggage? . Where do you find such a notice? 2.1. Where do you find such a notice? 3. Should we wait the lamp turn to green? Reading Activity 1.
Clear and complete 4. Who will receive the registration? Reading Activity . Read the text and answer the questions 1. and to the point.A. Announcement provides complete and clear information about certain events or ocation B. inviting. Keep it short. The followings are some tips in writing announcement 1. The Functions 1. For a bad news. make a direct and no-nonsense statement. What is the main purpose of the announcement? 3. Who writes the announcement? 2. 3. Straightforward and ease the readers to get information quickly 2.
What is the purpose of the text? 3. How many hours the shop open during clearance time? 2. How much discount do the customer who buys 29" colour TV/ .1.
Who wrote the message? . If it is an instruction state it clearly. Clear addressee (someone who receives the message) 2. Read the text and answer the questions 1. To send an important message to other people B. Straight forward 3. The Functions Memo While you were out 1.SMS (Short Message Services) A. Some Tips to write a short message 1. Who leave the message? 2.
3. Winfield do ? . What should Mr.
Computa invites the Director to have a reception d. The customers are invited due to the loyalty c. Which statement is correct based on the text? a. Who writes the message? a. SMPN 1 Sleman will celebrate its 25th anniversary b. The customer of Computa 2. The principal of Computa d. Mr. The Director of Computa c. The principal of SMPN 1 Sleman b.Choose best alternative. 1. Ary writes an invitation for the Director .
To tell the visitors that there are water in that area d. In a street b. To guide the visitors how to keep the floor wet 4. What is the function of the notice? a. in a bus . To warn the visitors that the floor is sliperry. To prohibit the visitors not to walk on that area c.3. In a hotel c. b. Where do you probably find such a kind of notice? a. In an aeroplane d.
Shut down the electric lines. c. b. Harwan was quite late to catch the bus. b.5. Which statement is INCORRECT based on the memo above? a. 6. Sri Rejeki sent a message to Harwan to burn CDs. There was one CD to burn in the teacher’s computer. c. Sri Rejeki was quite late to burn the Cds . d. Unplug the cable power of the computer. Keep the CDs and catch the bus quickly. d. Wait the burning process and keep all burnt CDs.What should Rejeki do after reading the memo? a.
7. Whart does the sign mean? a. we must stop before turning left. We may not stop when the traffic light is red. Where do you probably find the message? a. When the traffic light is red. b. in a street . We may not turn left when the traffic light is red. At school c. c. In a supermarket b. in a Bank d. d. When the traffic light is red we must stop and wait until it turns green 8.
How many sports events will be competed? a. Why does each class prepare its team? a. c.five . two b. To have registration to Pak Agung 10. four d. three c.9. To choose the best team for competition b. To prepare the committee of the sports day d. To celebrate the national sport day.
What does the sign mean? a.Choose the best answer. . When the traffic light is red we must stop and wait until it turns green b. we must stop before turning left c. When the traffic light is red. d.We may not stop when the traffic light is red. 1. We may not turn left when the traffic light is red.
d. Shut down the electric lines.2. What is the function of the notice? . What should Rejeki do after reading the memo? a. b. c.Keep the CDs and catch the bus quickly. Unplug the cable power of the computer 3. Wait the burning process and keep all burnt CDs.
To greet someone on a new year c. b. To guide the visitors how to keep the floor wet b. To warn the visitors that the floor is slipery. Why does Meikha write the greeting cards? a. To prohibit the visitors not to walk on that area 4. c. To congratulate on someone's birthday.a.To tell the visitors that there are water in that area d. to express sympathy for bad news d. to congratulate on someone's enggagement .
Who is Etik Sulistyawati? a.5. A newly marriage couple. A new mother d. c.A new sister . A newly born baby b.
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