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Telecommunications Laboratory, Nokia Networks,

Tampere University of Technology P.O.Box 361, FIN-00045, Nokia Group Finland

P.O.Box 553, FIN-33101, Tampere, Finland

inverse wavelet transform has been proposed to solve

In this contribution, we propose a new filtering and denoising problem. However, this is a more

denoising technique for one-dimentional signals based on computationally complex approach [1].

the nonlinear quadratic Teager-Kaiser operator. This

technique is a threshold ‘energy’ based approach where In this paper, we propose a new filtering and denoising

outliers are first detected and then replaced by their approach for one-dimensional signals based on a

estimated values. The proposed technique performs nonlinear quadratic operator called Teager-Kaiser (TK)

better compared to the alpha-trimmed and running mean operator. As an important potential application for these

filter, also with moderate complexity. In particular, we techniques, we examine improving the accuracy and

present an application of the proposed real-time filtering certainty of mobile phone positioning. This positioning

approach for postprocessing the measurements of time problem is an important and interesting research topic, as

delay signals in a mobile positioning system highly positioning could e.g., help to locate people in need of

affected by the propagation environment. emergency service [2]. The location can be determined

I INTRODUCTION using measurement signals from multiple Base

Transceiver Stations (BTS). However, due to the

Various filtering methods have been proposed in the multipath interference, a measurement signal is highly

course of years. There are both linear and nonlinear corrupted and a proper filtering method is needed.

alternatives, and filtering is often a trade-off between

different features, such as performance in Gaussian and II TEAGER-KAISER OPERATOR

non-Gaussian environments, ability to adapt in case of

nonstationary signals, edge preservation and Based on Newton’s law of motion, a nonlinear quadratic

computational complexity. Two most typical methods are operator called Teager-Kaiser (TK) operator was first

running mean and median filters, which exploit a sliding introduced by Teager and Kaiser [3],[4] to measure the

fixed length window. Mean filters are known to remove real physical energy of a system. This nonlinear operator

well additive Gaussian noise, but they tend to soften differs from the common way to calculate the energy of a

edges and can not fully cope with impulsive noise. discrete-time signal as the average sum of its squared

Median filters on the other hand are nonlinear, they magnitudes. The energy of a generating system of a

involve sorting of the data, and are able to eliminate simple oscillation signal was computed as the product of

impulses at the expense of some streaking and edge the square of the amplitude and the frequency of the

jittering. Many modifications have been developed to signal. It was found that this nonlinear operator exhibits

find a good compromise. One of the simplest categories several attractive features such as simplicity, efficiency

is trimmed mean filters, which reject some probable and ability to track instantaneouly-varying spacial

outliers before taking the mean. Ranked order and patterns. Since its introduction, several applications have

weighted order statistic filters represent an extension of been derived for one-dimensional [5],[6], and two-

the ordinary median filter [1]. dimensional signal processing [7].

The continuous-time TK operator of a complex-valued

Denoising deals basically with the same problem of signal x (t ) is defined as follows [6]

estimating the underlying signal from the noisy

observations, but data is now not needed to process on- EC [x(t )] = x& (t ) x&* (t ) −

1

2

[

&x&(t ) x* (t ) + x(t ) &x&* (t ) ]. (1)

line or is not time-dependent at all. Therefore, noncausal

filters can be exploited, the simplest proper algorithm is

When x (t ) is real, Eq. (1) reduces to the continuous-

gliding window smoother, which differs from the running

window mean filter only in that the cursor is now in the time TK operator of a real-valued signal [3]

middle of the window, not in the right-hand end.

E R [x (t )] = x& 2 (t ) − x(t ) &x&(t ) . (2)

Naturally, the same procedure can be applied to the other

window-based methods as well. Denoising is not Similarly, by making certain combinations of the

restricted to the methods acting in time domain, the discretized mapped derivatives, the discrete-time TK

signal is often processed in some transform domain. operator for real-valued signal is given by [4]

Wavelet transform has recently gained research interest

in several fields of signal processing, using thresholding

E D [x (n)] = E (n) = x 2 ( n) − x( n − 1) x( n + 1) . (3) TK filtering algorithm:

For n = 2 to L, do

E ( n) ← OTD 2 (n) − OTD(n − 1) × OTD(n + 1)

III E-OTD POSITIONING METHOD

Th( n) ← [Th(n − 1) × (n − 1) + β × E ( n) ] n

Mobile phones have gained tremendous popularity in the if E (n) < Th(n) then

last few years. Many kinds of services have been Tmp_OTD(n) ← OTD(n)

designed in addition to usual voice calls. The main else

characteristic of a wireless phone is its mobility; it Tmp_OTD(n) ← Filt_OTD(n − 1)

follows the user almost everywhere, and therefore one

end if

very attractive application would be a positioning service

Filt_OTD(n) ← mean[Tmp_OTD(n − win + 1 ... n)]

especially for emergency situations. A wireless phone

cannot currently be accurately located in a GSM network end do

[1],[8]. The identity of the serving Base Transceiver

Station (BTS) is called Cell Identity (CI). CI is known The adaptive threshold is estimated by β times the mean

and can be used for positioning but it results in poor of the ‘energy’ of the preceding samples. The energy-like

accuracy, which is also dependent on the size of the cell. quantity of the processed sample is then compared to the

Another, preferable way for finding a solution for this corresponding threshold value. If the ‘energy’ is greater

positioning problem would be utilizing signal time delay than the corresponding threshold, the sample value of the

or angle of arrival information [9]. In synchronous input OTD signal is replaced by the sample value of the

systems, the Observed Time Difference (OTD) previous ouput. After removing impulsive interference

positioning method calculates the time interval between through this process, the OTD signal is filtered by the

the receptions of bursts from two different BTS. This windowed mean of the preceding samples including the

results in a hyperbola that lies between the two BTS's. processed sample.

When this calculation is repeated for several neighbor

BTS's, several hyperbolas are formed, and the location of The performance of the TK filter is very much related to

the wireless phone is determined by the place where the the filter window length (win), and also to the adaptive

hyperbolas intersect. Measurement errors are parameter (β) which permits to select the best fitted

unfortunately unavoidable. One severe source of errors is threshold corresponding to the specific signal in

multi-path interference, and it leads to reduction in the question. The following table shows the MSE of the

positioning accuracy. Therefore, post-processing of the OTD filtered signal for TK filter with respect to these

measurement signal is obviously needed. In this paper, two parameters:

we used an OTD signal measured via modified software

of a NOKIA 8110 mobile phone (see Fig. 2). Here, the Table I

MSE win=5 win=10 win=15 win=20 win=25 win=30 win=35 win=40

OTD value is represented in multiple of 1/16 bit intervals β=0.3 2,17 1,99 2,18 2,57 3,06 3,65 4,33 5,11

β=0.6 2,47 1,96 1,88 2,00 2,21 2,46 2,76 3,12

which corresponds approximately to 60 meters β=0.9 2,68 1,96 1,79 1,79 1,88 2,01 2,17 2,37

β=1.2 2,95 1,98 1,70 1,65 1,68 1,74 1,84 1,97

fluctuation in distance. Notice also that the OTD signal β=1.5 3,07 1,93 1,60 1,50 1,50 1,53 1,60 1,71

β=1.8

slope varies with the MP speed. β=2.1

3,10

3,37

1,88

2,13

1,51

1,73

1,40

1,58

1,38

1,55

1,41

1,56

1,47

1,60

1,56

1,67

IV TK OPERATOR IN FILERING Notice that in case of a long window size, small values of

beta result in poor performance because the filter is too

Teager-Kaiser filtering technique is a detection based

slow to follow nonstationary variations of the signal. On

approach in which outliers are first detected using an

the other hand, when win is small, also smaller beta is

adaptive threshold (Th) based on the TK energy-like

desired to achieve good performance.

quantity, and then replaced by their estimated values. TK

filter is described by the following algorithm (formulated

Similarly, Table II provides the MSE for the alpha-

for the OTD filtering application):

trimmed mean filter [1] with respect to the window size

and the alpha parameter:

Inputs:

OTD measurement vector of length L

Table II

β adaptivity parameter MSE win=5 win=10 win=15 win=20 win=25 win=30 win=35 win=40

α=0.00 4,27 2,60 2,02 1,78 1,65 1,58 1,57 1,58

win length of the window α=0.05 4,27 2,60 2,02 1,62 1,53 1,50 1,51 1,51

α=0.1 4,27 2,60 1,81 1,62 1,48 1,46 1,47 1,50

α=0.15 4,27 2,29 1,76 1,56 1,48 1,46 1,48 1,53

Output: α=0.20 3,85 2,24 1,73 1,56 1,48 1,46 1,49 1,53

α=0.25 3,85 2,24 1,73 1,56 1,48 1,47 1,49 1,53

Filt_OTD filtered OTD signal of length L α=0.30 3,85 2,27 1,75 1,58 1,49 1,47 1,49 1,53

α=0.35 3,85 2,27 1,79 1,60 1,49 1,47 1,49 1,53

α=0.40 4,38 2,43 1,87 1,62 1,51 1,49 1,51 1,55

α=0.45 4,38 2,43 1,87 1,69 1,55 1,50 1,52 1,58

Initializations:

Tmp _ OTD = OTD

Performance comparison between the three filtering

E (1) = OTD(2)2 − OTD(1) × OTD(3) algorithms - namely Teager filter, sliding window mean,

Th = β × E (1) and alpha-trimmed mean filter - is provided for as a

function of window length in Figure 1. Only window

length is varied, other parameters are fixed to the value

that gave the minimum MSE. As we can see, for small 2540

MSE=2.166, MAXE=5.0115, Window=5, β=0.19

Teager Filter

window lengths the results are clearly beneficial for the 2520

differences get smaller, but running mean filter remains

2480

still slightly behind the other two algorithms. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

2540

MSE=3.8539, MAXE=8.6667, Window=5, α=0.23

Alpha−Trimmed

At this point it is important to bear in mind that the 2520

2480

length of the window. Alpha trimmed mean involves 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

2540

sorting and is therefore more complex, at least MSE=4.2666, MAXE=8.06, Window=5

Running Mean

O(win*log(win)), depending on the sorting algorithm 2520

used. 2500

2480

The filter performance is also visualized for two specific 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Samples (Time)

1400 1600 1800 2000

cases. Figure 2 shows the filtering results for optimum Figure 3. Filtering of OTD signal with the Teager-Kaiser

parameters, and Figure 3 shows the filtering results for filter, alpha-trimmed mean, and running mean filter,

using optimal α and β parameters. The window length is

short window length of 5, with optimal α and β. equal to 5.

30

Teager, MSE

Alpha−Trimmed, MSE

Running Mean, MSE

Teager, MAXE

V TK OPERATOR IN DENOISING

25 Alpha−Trimmed, MAXE

Running Mean, MAXE

The TK operator based denoising algorithm consists of

three steps:

3.5

20

1. Calculate the energy-like (E) and threshold (Th) for

3

each sample, and save indices of the samples for

MSE, MAXE

2 2. Use linear interpolation to replace the sample-values

10 1.5

between indexed samples.

25 26 27 28 29 30

3. Use a sliding window mean to smoothen the output.

5

The algorithm used in the simulations is as follows:

Inputs:

0 OTD measurement vector of length L

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Window Length

β adaptivity parameter

Kaiser, alpha-trimmed mean, and running mean filter, in win length of the window

the OTD filtering application.

Ouput:

2550

Filt _ OTD Filtered OTD signal of length L

Input Signal

OTD Signal

2500

Initializations:

2450 Tmp _ OTD = OTD

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

2540

MSE=1.4056, MAXE=3.0503, Window=25, β=1.86

Teager Filter

2520

2500

Th = β × E (1)

2480 ind = 1

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

2540 N =0

Alpha−Trimmed

2520

2500

TK denoising algorithm:

2480

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 for n = 2 to L, do

2540

Running Mean

MSE=1.5721, MAXE=3.0832, Window=34

2520

2500

2480

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Samples (Time)

1400 1600 1800 2000

if E (n) < Th(n) then

Figure 2. Filtering of OTD signal with the Teager-Kaiser ind ← [ind n]

filter, alpha-trimmed mean, and running mean filter,

using optimum parameters. N ← N +1

end if

The proposed filtering technique is used in on-line end do

applications, which require causal signal processing ind ← [ind L]

methods. On the contrary, denoising is not time-

dependent process.

for k = 1 to N , do VI CONCLUSIONS

slope ← [Tmp _ OTD(ind (k + 1)) − Tmp _ OTD(ind ( k ))]/

In this paper we proposed a new approach for filtering

[ind (k + 1) − ind (k )] and denoising one-dimensional signals based on the

for i = ind ( k ) + 1 to ind (k + 1) − 1, do energy-like Teager operator. In particular, the filtering

Tmp _ OTD( n) ← Tmp _ OTD( n − 1) + slope approach is used for real-time postprocessing of OTD

end do signals heavily affected by multipath interference.

end do Consequently, by minimizing the variations in the OTD

Pad _ 1 ← [Tmp _ OTD(1) L Tmp _ OTD(( win − 1) / 2)] signals, we improve the positioning accuracy. The

Pad _ 2 ← [Tmp _ OTD( L + 1 − ( win − 1) / 2) L Tmp _ OTD( L)] Teager filter gives clearly better performance than the

Tmp _ OTD ← [Pad _ 1 Tmp _ OTD Pad _ 2]

other approaches when short window length is used. In

other words, the Teager filter would allow to use shorter

sum ← [Tmp _ OTD(1) L Tmp _ OTD( win)]× [1 L 1]T window length for a given MSE performance, and clearly

for t = 1 to L, do faster changes in the desired signal component could be

Filt_OTD(t) ← sum/win tolerated than with the other approaches.

sum ← sum + Tmp _ OTD(t + win + 1) − Tmp _ OTD(t )

end do ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As figure 4 shows, the performance of the TK denoising

under the project “Analog and Digital Signal Processing

approach is superior to the two filter types with respect Techniques for Highly integrated Tranceivers”, and Tampere

to the MSE and maximum absolute error. Figure 5 shows Graduate School in Information Science and Engineering

the denoising results for an OTD signal. (TISE).

REFERENCES

18

Smoothing Teager, MSE

Smoothing Alpha−Trimmed, MSE [1] J. Astola and P. Kuosmanen, Fundamentals of Nonlinear

16 Somoothing Running Mean, MSE

Smoothing Teager, MAXE Digital Filtering, CRC Press LLC, 1997.

Smoothing Alpha−Trimmed, MAXE

Smoothing Running Mean, MAXE

14

[2] FCC Regulation Proposal: Notice of Proposed Rule

3

12 Making, FCC Docket No. 94-237, Adopted Date: Sept.

2.5

19, 1994, Release Date: Oct. 19,1994.

MSE, MAXE

10 2

1.5

[3] J. F. Kaiser, "On a simple algorithm to calculate the

8

1

'energy' of a signal", Proc. IEEE ICASSP’90,

6

0.5 Albuquerque, New Mexico, pp. 381-384, April 1990.

0

80 85 90 95 100

4 [4] J. F. Kaiser, "On Teager's energy algorithm and its

generalization to continuous signals", Proc. 4th IEEE

2

Digital Signal Proc. Workshop, Mohonk (New Paltz),

NY, September 1990.

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Window Length

Figure 4. MSE and maximum absolute error of the [5] P. Maragos, J. F. Kaiser, and T. F.Quatieri, "On amplitude

smoothing Teager-Kaiser, alpha-trimmed, and running and frequency demodulation using energy operators",

mean filter. IEEE Trans. Signal Proc., Vol. 41, pp. 1532-1550, Apr.

1993.

2540

MSE=0.41518, MAXE=1.6567, Window=100, β=0.16384

[6] R. Hamila, J. Astola, F. Alaya Cheikh, M. Gabbouj, and

Smooth. Teager

Function", IEEE Trans on Signal Proc., Vol. 47, No. 1,

2500

pp. 260-262, January 1999.

2480

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Smooth. α−Trimmed

"Impulse Noise Removal In Highly Corrupted Color

2520

Images," Proc. 1996 IEEE Int. Conf. On Image Proc.,

2500 Lausanne, Switzerland, Vol. I, pp. 997-1000, Sept.,

2480

1996.

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Smooth. Running Mean

2540

MSE=0.7973, MAXE=1.825, Window=100 [8] ETSI GSM 05.05, Digital cellular telecommunication

2520 system (Phase 2+); Radio transmission and reception,

2500

Release 1997, version 6.3.0, ETSI, 1998.

2480

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Samples (Time)

1400 1600 1800 2000 [9] G. P. Yost, and S. Panchapakesan, Improvement in

Figure 5. Denoising results for optimum α and β, and Estimation of Time of Arrival (TOA) from Timing

window length 100. Advance (TA), Proc. IEEE Universal Personal

Communications (IUPC 98), Florens Italy, 1998.

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