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You are on page 1of 9

Figure 1

The web will seek normal entry (right ∠ to roller axis) at the point of contact. Figure 2

Direction Right Angle

of Travel Getting Normal

If the web is not currently entering normal to the roller, it will attempt to get

there at an exponentially decreasing rate.

Direction Edge Position

of Travel Error

Travel

Edge Position

x

Upstream Downstream

Roller Roller

Unwind Windup

or Roller or Roller

Edge Position

Error (x)

Time

Figure 3

Spreading Forces

There are three forces that can move a web outward from its centerline.

offset

2 The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum

Figure 4

Combined Bending and Tension

Bending from spreaders or misaligned rollers, tension from line tension.

Bending, No Tension

Top View

Tension

Top View Distribuion

Tension

Top View Distribuion

Figure 5

Concave Spreader Roller

This spreader is a simple roller whose diameter at the ends > the center.

Optimum Design

D0 D1

Simpler Design

D0 D1

L

A couple wraps

D0 D 1 of tape

The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum 3

Figure 6 Figure 8

Concave Spreader Mechanics The Bowed Spreader Roller

Surface speed variations across the roller induce spreading. The bowed roller is a bearing supported cover on a curve stationary bar.

Spencer Johnston.

F

CL View of Left Half Web Only for Clarity

by an equivalent tensile force at the

centroid and a bending moment.

violated by the angle of the web at

the point of contact with the roller ...

Figure 9

Bow Shape

Superposing the Lateral Force gives the Final Shape The axle of a bowed roller is usually bent into an arc of a circle.

F

CL View of Left Half Web Only for Clarity

V The only way to get the web back to

M

normal entry is by superposition of an b

outward lateral force.

Spread

Thus, the resulting shape from a

Normal Entry combination of a nonuniform tension

distribution and lateral force meets Lc

the normal entry/exit laws as well as

observations of spreader behavior.

r

Radius of Curvature

2 2

L c + 4b

r = Typical radii: 20-200 m

8b

for large radii: Typical bows: 5-100 mm

Lc 2

r ≅

8b

Figure 7

CD Web Stress/Strain in a Concave Spreader Roller

Data Courtesy Dr. Ronald Delahoussaye

Figure 10

141 psi 77 psi -35 psi CD Web Stress/Strain in a Bowed Spreader Roller

Data Courtesy Dr. Ronald Delahoussaye

15 psi 14 psi 76 psi

Inputs:

9 psi 8 psi -1 psi

1.20E-03 Thick

1.57E+05 MD Modulus

1.17E+05 CD Modulus

6 psi 3 psi -1 psi 0.0020"

1.60E-01 MD Poisson

6.00E+00 Width

1.20E+01 Span

1.50E+00 Tension Inputs:

7.50E-01 Radius 1.20E-03 Thick

4.50E+01 Bow Plane 1.57E+05 MD Modulus

9.00E+01 Wrap 1.17E+05 CD Modulus

7 psi 3 psi -1 psi

6 psi 3 psi -1 psi 1.68E+03 Profile 1.60E-01 MD Poisson

6.00E+00 Width

1.20E+01 Span

1.50E+00 Tension

7.50E-01 Radius

4.50E+01 Bow Plane

9.00E+01 Wrap

-1 psi 0 psi 0 psi 1.68E+03 Profile

0 psi 0 psi 0 psi

0.0038"

(Poisson

Contraction)

0.0038"

Upstream Roller (Poisson

Contraction)

Upstream Roller

4 The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum

The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum 5

Figure 11 Figure 15

Effect of Bow & Traction on the Amount of Spread Bow Orientation Changes Span Lengths

The optimum bow for maximum spread depends on tension and traction. A bow turned into the sheet makes the center span length longer/tighter.

Center

Peak Spread: Edges

1. Maximum Traction

2. Bow sized near onset of slippage

+ Spread

Figure 16

Stresses at a Bowed Roller

Bow Lateral and bending forces both contribute to move the web outward.

T1 < T2 < T3

Tension

L

T Tension

CL

CL Lateral

Figure 12

Entering/ Exiting Span Ratio

The entering/exiting span ratio is desirably about 2:1.

Before 2 1 After

Roller Spreader Roller

Figure 17

Wrap Effects on Bowed Roller Spreading

As the wrap increases, so does the carry outward effect. For 180° wrap:

Spreader Roll Wrap Angle Web Exits Here

The bowed roller wrap angle is typically around 30°.

CL

Spreader α

Figure 14

Bowed Spreader Roll Bow Orientation

The bow is pointed downstream on the perpendicular bisector of the wrap.

Bow Direction

Bisector

Rotate Bow INTO web IDEAL BOW DIRECTION Rotate Bow OUT OF web

to tighten to tighten

slack CENTER slack EDGES

6 The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum

Figure 18 Figure 21

Bowed Roller Web Path Effect of Friction on Pipe/D-Bar Spreaders

Web streamlines for various deckle positions. The web is steered by bar/web friction.

Tension/Friction Profile

W2 Hi Tension Lo Tension

F

Note:

applys only to non-slipping rollers.

enter a sliding pipe or D-b spreader

normal to the local axis.

W1

Figure 22

A 'Snake' Shaped D-Bar

Web positions with a positive curvature may wrinkle or overlap slits.

lies above the bar,

Bar Shape then it has a

(Position) R>0 positve curvature

W0 and vice-versa

C R<0

B

A

Bar Slope

(1st Derivative)

Figure 19

D-Bar Spreader

A D-Bar spreader is a stationary bar with intermediate jack adjustments.

Bar

Web Bar Curvature Curvature and the d2 y

±

Jack (2nd Derivative) 2nd derivative of dx2

Beam bar position are κ =

+ Contract closely related. dy 2 3/2

1+

Contract dx

Spread

- Spread

Figure 20

Pipe/D-Bar Mechanics

The web will seek a minimum energy path (length) through the spreader.

After Roller

C B A

Figure 23

The Dual Bowed Roller Spreader

Plan View The dual bowed roller has two fixed bowed rollers for twist/fold spreading.

Pipe/D-bar

Before

CL Roller Optional Pivot

for Spread Adjust

Before Roller

a

A C

End View Energy/

b

Path Length B

c

Roller

The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum 7

Figure 24 Figure 27

The Dual Bowed Roller Mechanics Compliant Cover Spreader

Though difficult to see in this view, all entries and exits are normal. Has a very soft cover with special undercut grooving.

Cover

Shell

Brg

Head

Journal

Twist

Fold

Diverge

Figure 28

Fold Twist Compliant Cover Spreader Principle

The cover defects outward as it passes over the roller.

Outward

Spread Tension

Figure 25

The Pos-Z™ Spreader

The Pos-Z™ has two stationary bowed bars for twist/fold spreading.

Before

Roller Web/Cover Paths - Traction Web/Cover Paths - Slippage

Plan View, Left Side Plan View, Left Side

No Spread? Contraction

CL CL

After

Roller

Figure 26 Figure 29

The Pos-Z™ Spreader Mechanics Slatted Spreader Roller

The outward offset comes from twisting/folding, normal entry not enforced. Has cam actuated 'rubber bands' as a cover which expands.

offset capability of a pair of

Top View angled Pos-Z bars can be

demonstrated as shown at left

using a strip of paper and two

pencils.

End Cam

Poly Bands

Side View

web offset because it wraps the

bar at a tiny helix angle such as

exagerated here. Twisting and

Offset folding is simultaneous at the

bars, but the open spans see no

additional strains.

8 The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum

Figure 30 Figure 33

Edge Pull Web Stretchers Typical Slippage Induced Spreader Wear

Grip and pull the edges of the web outward. Is maximum near the edges of the web.

Worn

New

Releases Here

Cli

p tr

nipped

ack

roller pair Deckle

Face

Clamps Here

Figure 34

Poisson Contraction

Figure 31 The 'Free' spreader.

Contraction by Raised Threads and Grooves

Caused by the increasing CD arc length along the surface.

(aka worm rolls)

Web Web

No Low High

Thread

Tension Tension Tension

Shell

Shell Groove

Figure 32

Force Vectors over Rollers and Spreaders

For a tractive bowed roller, a slipping bowed roller, and a slipping bar.

Web Velocity

Roller & Web Velocity Unknown: Spread

Traction Forces

Web Stresses

Figure 35

Spreading is Temporary

Slipping Bowed Roller Known: Roller Velocity Spreading dissapates due to necking, weave, and camber.

Roller Unknown: Web Velocity

Web Spread Necking Weave Camber

Traction

Traction Forces The web will return to its Random disturbances The web has a natural

Force Web Stresses 'natural' width in about which are different for each curvature which moves

1 width downstream. deckle position steadily some deckle positions

moves some deckle positions apart, and others

apart, and others together. together.

W1

Stationary Bar Known: Roller Velocity

Web Velocity

Web Traction Traction Forces

Velocity Force

May be Spread

Known Web Stresses

Spreader

W0

The Mechanics of Web Spreading - DR Roisum 9

Figure 36 REFERENCES

Spread Distribution

While we can adjust average spread, minimum spread is what is important.

and Applications. TAPPI Finishing and Converting

Probability

Conference Proceedings. (October 1977).

2. Pfeiffer, J. David. Web Guidance Concepts

and Applications. Tappi Journal, Vol. 60, No. 12, pp. 53-

58. (December 1977).

Contract Spread 3. Ducotey, Keith S. Dynamic Coefficient of

Friction Including the Effects of Air Entrainment Between a

Roller and Web. M.S Thesis, Web Handling Research

Center at Oklahoma State University. (December 1987).

4. Adams, Richard J. The Influence of Rolls

Figure 37 and Reels on Flutter and Windage. Tappi Journal, Vol. 75,

Spreading Problem Diagnostics No. 11, pp. 215-222. (November 1992).

Using Fault Tree Analysis.

Underpowered New

5. Shelton, John J. Lateral Dynamics of a

Spreading

System

Spreading

System

Moving Web. Ph.D Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

(July 1968).

Improper

Spreader

Adjust

Spread 6. Gehlback, Lars S. and D. M. Kedl and J. K.

Adjustment Magnitude

Good. Predicting Shear Wrinkles in Web Spans. Tappi

Avg Spread Too High Eliminate Misalign Wrinkle

Journal, Vol. 72, No. 8, pp. 129-134. (August 1989).

Too Low Demands

on Spreader Eliminate Web Mfg 'Streak'

7. Delahoussaye, Ronald D. Analysis of

Deformations, Stresses and Forces in Webs Encountering

Increase Avg/MinSlit Web Width

Spreading Rollers. Ph.D Thesis, Web Handling Research

Duplex every other web position

Center at Oklahoma State University. (December 1989).

Other

8. Lucas, Robert G. Better Spreading of the

Web in the Winder - and How to Achieve It. Pulp & Paper,

Spread Variance Decrease Drive/Tension Variations Vol. 30, No. 3. (Apr il1977).

Problem with MD

Position Decrease Speed/Traction Variations 9. Feiertag, Bruce A. Selection of Bow for

Decrease Web MD Variations

Curved Axis Rollers. TAPPI Finishing and Converting

Allow for Roll Poisson Width Expansion

Conference Proceedings. (October 1981).

10. Anon. D-Bar Spreader Instructions. Beloit

Other

Corporation Manual #J 045-10006, October 1973.

11. Friedrich, Craig R. Stability Sensitivity of

Variance

with CD

Adjust Spreader

Web Wrinkles on Rollers. Tappi Journal, vol 72, no 2, pp

Position Decrease Web CD Variations 161-165. (February 1989).

Misaligned Roller (anywhere) 12. Shelton, John J. Machine Direction Troughs

Other in Web Spans and Corrugations in Wound Rolls. Internal

Report, Web Handling Research Center at Oklahoma

State University. (August 1991).

13. Seo, Y.B. et al. Tension Buckling Behavior

of Paper. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, vol 18, no 2,

pp J55-J59. (March 1992).

Acknowledgements

Oklahoma State University and Robert Lucas of Beloit

Corporate Research for their assistance in reviewing this

paper.

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