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University of Ruse Angel Kanchev

70 Years
Facing Knowledge, Youth and Future
_______________________________________________
RUSE, BULGARIA

Analysis of pedestrian crossing speed at Signalized and Non-Signalized crosswalk.

(A case Study of Central Station to Str. Tzar Osvobotiel road of Ruse City)

By: Sudeep Thapa

(SO144322)

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


ENGINEERING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN TRANSPORTATIONENGINEERING

DEPARMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

RUSE ,BULGARIA

JUNE 2015

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COPYRIGHT

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the work recorded herein or, in their absence, by the Head of the Department
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Ruse, Bulgaria

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UNIVERSITY OF RUSE,

RUSE, BULGARIA

The undersigned certify that they have read and recommended to the Institute of
Engineering for acceptance, a thesis entitled “Analysis of pedestrian crossing speed
at Signalized and Non-Signalized crosswalk.: (A case Study of Central Station to
Str. Tzar Osvobotiel road of Ruse City)" submitted by Sudeep Thapa (SO144322)
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in
Transportation Engineering.

Supervisor:
Dr. Mitko Marinov

External Examiner:

Program Coordinator:

Date: June 2015

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ABSTRACT
Pedestrians are vulnerable road users, and they are always at risk when making
their daily trips. Hence, roadway design and traffic control devices need to
consider pedestrians’ safety. Pedestrian walking speed is fundamental to any
roadway and traffic control design. Here, Pedestrian crossing behavior is
analyzed in order to find the proper location to insert the pedestrian crossing
facilities, as well as to improve the safety while crossing the road. Unfortunately,
no special guidelines exist for pedestrian crossing speed in Bulgaria. The
ultimate goals of this research are to establish the local pedestrian crossing speed,
their variation based on age group and on gender and to identify the contributing
factors. A total of 1353 samples on pedestrian crossing speed were collected at
signalized and non-signalized crosswalks. The analysis shows that crosswalk
type, age and gender significantly contribute to pedestrian speed in Bulgaria
(Ruse city).The study showed that pedestrians at Signalized crosswalk have
significantly faster crossing speed than at Non-signalized crosswalk. The result
showed that children and adult pedestrians are the fastest group, and elderly
pedestrians are the slowest group in terms of pedestrian crossing speed. In case
of non-signalized crosswalk it is found that the Female adult group are found the
slower not only in comparison with male adult group but also from the male and
female child group. Moreover, male pedestrians have significantly faster crossing
speed than female pedestrians do.

Keywords: walking speed, crossing speed, Signalized crosswalk, Non-


signalized crosswalk

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I’m indebted to several persons who have helped me in various ways during the
thesis period.

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr.


Mitko Marinov for his valuable guidance, constant inspiration and encouragement.
It was an honor to work under his supervision.

I’m grateful to Assistant professor Svilen Kostadinov, Assistant professor Pavel


Stoyanov, Assistant Professor Vesela Mihova and Assistant Professor Mikhail
Milchev for their valuable suggestions, support and kind cooperation in
continuing this research work.

I’m also very thankful for the precious support during the completion of this
research to my helping Sister Samrita Thapa and friends Miten Matev, Magdalina
Benina, Maggie Asp, Rostislav Kandilarov, Kalin Krastev and Corina Pista,.

Last but not the least my friends from Bulgaria and all the people who are directly
or indirectly involved in this project deserve special thanks for their kind interest
and support in my research.

Sudeep Thapa
SO144322
June 2015

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ABBREVIATION
PCU Passenger Car Unit

LOS Level of Service

Km Kilometre

m Meter

m/s Meter per second

ft/sec Feet per second

S Seconds

DOF Degree of Freedom

HCM Highway Capacity Manual

MUTCD Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

STATA Data analysis Statistical Software

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Table of contents
COPYRIGHT ................................................................................................................. 1
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. 4
ABBREVIATION .......................................................................................................... 5
Table of contents ............................................................................................................ 6
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 8
1.1 Background:....................................................................................................... 8
1.2 Problem Definition .......................................................................................... 10
1.3 Research Question ........................................................................................... 12
1.4 Research Objective .......................................................................................... 12
1.5 Limitation of Study .......................................................................................... 13
1.6 Organization of Report .................................................................................... 13
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 15
Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION ..................................... 22
3.1 Literature Review ................................................................................................ 25
3.2 Analysis of Pedestrian Crossing Speed............................................................... 25
3.2.1 Study Location ................................................................................................. 25
Chapter 4: DATA ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 33
4.1Bulgarian Pedestrian Speed ................................................................................. 35
4.2Contributing factors ............................................................................................. 35
4.2.1Crosswalk type. ................................................................................................. 35
4.2.2.Age ................................................................................................................... 36
4.2.3Gender ............................................................................................................... 40
4.3 Comparison of pedestrian crossing speed with other countries.......................... 42
4.4 Cumulative Speed Distribution Curve ................................................................ 43
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4.5 Statistical analysis for the observed data ............................................................ 45
Chapter 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ......................................... 49
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 52
Appendix 1: Pantawa Crosswalk ................................................................................. 54
Appendix 2: Borishawa 1St Crosswalk ......................................................................... 57
Appendix 3: Borishawa 2nd Crosswalk ........................................................................ 59
Appendix 4: Lipnik and Souln Cross ........................................................................... 61
Appendix 5: Tsar Osvobotiel and Panaiot Hitov cross ............................................... 64
Appendix 6: Mall Rousse Cross ................................................................................... 69
Appendix 7: Olimp Cross............................................................................................. 75
Appendix 8: Alexandra Street ...................................................................................... 81

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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background:

A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In some


places people travelling with rollers, skaters, scooters and tiny wheel are also
considered as pedestrian. But in Transportation research and analysis, this term is
referred for only those who are walking on a road or pavement. In all over the
Country, the Traffic police Division has expressed serious concern about increasing
number of road accidents involving pedestrian in recent days in the crosswalk and has
appealed all to take extra precaution while travelling in the road. Crosswalks are
designated portions on a roadway to assist pedestrian desiring to cross it. They play a
significant role in the safety and mobility performance of signalized intersection.
Pedestrian-vehicle conflict is considered as one of the most common safety problems
at intersections. By understanding pedestrian behavior at signalized crosswalk and
identifying the influencing factors upon their behavior are essential to pedestrian
safety assessment. Additionally, it helps improve the efficiency of operational
policies at signalized intersection.

This unsafely problem and accident problem is even more worse in Non-signalized
crosswalk, at least in signalized crosswalk both for pedestrian traffic and motor traffic
the time is allocated, but in case of non-signalized crosswalk being more careful is
only one option to reduce or to say for the accident not to be happened.

The operational efficiency of vehicular traffic and pedestrian flow are considered as
important concern especially at crosswalk where both have to share same space.
Crosswalks play a role in the performance of intersections. Their geometry and
configuration including width, position and angle affect directly the safety, cycle

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length and resulting delays for all users. Here when crosswalk width decreases, the
required minimum pedestrian crossing time increase due to the bi-directional
pedestrian flow effects, which leads to longer cycle length and vice versa. So in order
to avoid such situation it is significant to define reasonable geometric characteristics
(width and position), which can optimize the overall performance of the crosswalk.

Considering the crosswalk position, existing manuals do not provide universal


rational specifications on where and how crosswalks should be positioned. In Japan,
position of crosswalk is far from the intersection whereas, in case of USA the
crosswalks are positioned at the corners of the intersection and in case of England and
France they have Z-shaped crosswalk.

On considering the crosswalk width, we all know that from the viewpoint of
pedestrians, wider crosswalks are better since it provides wider space and fewer
interactions between opposing pedestrian, however this may negatively affect the
overall operational performance. MUTCD in the USA recommends a minimum
crosswalk width of 1.8m. Meanwhile the Japanese Manual on Road Marking
recommends a crosswalk width of 4.0m and allows installation of crosswalk up to
3.0m wide when pedestrian demand is expected to be low.

It is considered that among the road users, Pedestrian are considered as the most
vulnerable road users. In order to generate the awareness, many awareness program
are being launching all over the world. The awareness program has been successful in
controlling the problem involving the two wheelers. But still we need to give much
more attention for the Pedestrian group. As the number of the Pedestrian accident is
increasing, this problem needs to be addressed urgently. One of the main reason that
attributed to the high numbers of pedestrian accident is due to careless crossing. This
may be due to insufficient time to cross safely, gross carelessness or other unexpected

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factors. To tackle this problem, one of the alternatives is to consider pedestrian
crossing speed in roadway design and operation.

Unfortunately. There is no specific guidelines exist for pedestrian crossing speed in


Bulgaria. According to HCM, it is noted that the road users having speed less than
10Km/hr are considered as pedestrian. Since Speed is a factor that distinguishes
walking from running. Although walking speeds can vary greatly depending on a
multitude of factors such as height, weight, age, terrain, surface, load, culture, effort,
and fitness, the average human walking speed is about 5Km/hr. Specific studies have
found Pedestrian walking speeds ranging from 4.51 Km/hr to 4.75 Km/hr for older
individuals and from 5.32 Km/hr to 5.43 Km/hr for younger individuals. So we can
say that different individuals have different speed, so to enhance pedestrian safety, a
research must be carried out to determine the pedestrian crossing speed In Ruse and
the factors contributing to the crossing speed.

The main objective for this study is to determine the Bulgarian Pedestrian crossing
speed for both signalized and non-signalized crosswalks, and to study the contributing
factors that affect the crossing speed.

1.2. Problem Definition

Pedestrianisation has become an integral part of sustainable modern urban design.


People nowadays prefer to walk then to ride a motor vehicle if their destination place
is nearby and also in many core city areas the movement of the motor vehicle is
prohibited except the public transit due to which many people have to walk in the
street though they own their own vehicle. So obviously if there is many pedestrian
traffic the crosswalk should be designed in a most efficient and appropriate way for
this the design, arrangement and development of support infrastructure should be
favor of pedestrian movement. To achieve so, pedestrian facilities should be planned
and based on the concrete information on user characteristics, travelling pattern and
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behavior of pedestrian while crossing. The facilities also need to be harmonized with
ambient factors that affect the safe, convenience and secure movements of
pedestrians. Similarly, Traffic accidents involving pedestrians have become a major
safety problem all over the world, particularly in developing countries, due to high
population density, rapid urbanization and lack of adherence to traffic regulations by
both drivers and pedestrian. It is believed that the traffic death has come to the 3 rd
position as the cause of the death.

Due to poor or say lack of knowledge of the traffic regulations at pedestrian crossing
particularly by drivers as well as the attitude creates a situation due to which the
pedestrian may become bold and force the fast approaching vehicle to brake in order
to gain the priority to cross the road. On the other hand if the pedestrian start to do
this frequently it will cause the unacceptable vehicular delay. Due to this reason
Pedestrian are consider as one of the major cause of the traffic accident. So, there is a
special need to analyze the crossing behavior of pedestrian to ensure their safety on
the road.

In Ruse, the rise in vehicular volume over the years and subsequent increase in
vehicular speeds have rendered the road unsafe for crossing at intersection. So it is
essential to understand the condition of current facilities so as it make necessary
change to make safe pedestrian crossing. A very effective tool for doing this is to
understand the level of service offered by the facility. To make the safe pedestrian
crossing, crossing infrastructure should be design based on the local user’s
characteristics. The crossing infrastructure refers to the crossing length and width,
crossing position in case of non-signalized crossing and in case of signalized crossing,
crossing length and width, crossing position and the signal timing (pedestrian green
time).

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The crossing speed of 4 ft/sec (1.219m/sec) is recommended in Highway Capacity
Manual, 2000 for pedestrian on crossing and blindly believing this value the
crosswalks in the city Ruse had been inserted in the street and still being constructed.
However, this might not be appropriate for Bulgaria but nobody tries to find it
whether the value chosen 1.219m/s as pedestrian speed is appropriate for the
Crosswalk design or not. .

1.3 Research Question

It is necessary to know the crossing speed of different group of pedestrian while


designing the signal at intersection. It is normally think that the male pedestrian walk
faster than the Female pedestrian and the elderly group are the slowest group if
considering the age category. So before designing any type of pedestrian facilities the
speed of different types of the pedestrian need to be known. Generally, Speed is
chosen as internationally standard but which is no favorable in our situation. So it is
necessary to determine crossing speed of pedestrian in our situation.

Based on above discussion, this research tries to answer following questions:

1. What is a crossing speed of Pedestrian while crossing a road?

2. What are the contributing Factors which affect the crossing speed of Pedestrian?

1.4. Research Objective

The aim of this research is to analyze and determine the mean pedestrian crossing
speed as well as the lowest (15th percentile) and highest (85th percentile) speed limit
of the pedestrian at signalized and Non-signalized crosswalk of the Ruse City as well
as how the speed varies when there is a pedestrian signal in crosswalk and when there
is no signal in the crosswalk as well as how the speed varies with the age of the
pedestrian and with the gender type of pedestrian.

The following are considered as the sub objectives:


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 To analyze the crossing speed of Pedestrian in both Signalized crosswalk and in Non-
signalized crosswalk.
 To determine the contributing factor which affects crossing speed of pedestrian.

1.5 Limitation of Study

The frequency of pedestrian accident is increasing day by day. Pedestrian are


suffering while crossing the road which may be due to various factors which we will
discuss in this paper. This paper can be one of the imports for improving the crossway
condition and provide necessary information for designing the signal timing at
intersection as well as for the designing of speed breakers before the crossing.
There are certain limitations in this paper which are:
 The choice of the study location and observation of only weekday might generate bias
result.
 Data taken may not be sufficient for analyze which may not give satisfactory result.
 Data was taken only in the normal working day (i.e. the data was not taken in rainy,
foggy type of climate).
The following Pedestrian behavior will not be observed:
o Running
o Crossing Diagonally
o Stopping and resting

1.6 Organization of Report

This report is organized into 5 chapters. A brief presentation about the topic has been
presented in Chapter One. Second chapter contains a detailed review of literature
regarding the works that were done in the past in pedestrian crossing speed and level

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of service of crosswalk. Chapter third is about methodology and data collection,
which methodology was used and what kind of data were collected. Chapter four
describes data analysis and result which were achieved. Finally chapter five gives
the conclusion of work done and some recommendation.

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Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
The pedestrian task for crossing and intersection can be described as including the
following process: expectation, perception, detection, cognition, selection, action,
and reaction visual acuity and color perception are the main processing skills
required to make safe judgments about when to cross the street at the crosswalk..
The walking speed and/or walking time of pedestrians are of prime importance in
studying the operation and design of pedestrian facilities. Many studies had been
carried out which provides that the demographic characteristics like age and gender
directly influence on the road crossing behavior of the pedestrian. Oxley et al.
1997: Lobjois and cavallo, 2007 had carried out the detailed experiments in order
to find out the effect of age on the road crossing behavior of the pedestrian with
respect to the vehicle distance and the speed of the approaching vehicle.
Macroscopic approaches have been widely employed to analyze pedestrian speed
such as in Navin and Wheeler (1969), Fruin (1971), Highway Capacity Manual
(2010). However, compared to walkway and sidewalk, few studies addressed the
issue of pedestrian walking speed at signalized crosswalks under the intersection
geometry and operation.

Harkey, 1995: explores the problems of older drivers and pedestrians at


intersections. The author noted that the elderly pedestrians were the main cause of
the traffic accidents. The author focused the main causes for accidents results from
slower walking speeds: lack of understanding that vehicles may turn during their
walk interval: inability to react quickly enough to avoid turning vehicles: reduced
vision and too much reliance on the pedestrian signal alone.

Some of the studies have also explored the importance of the pedestrian speed at
different locations, such as the Zebra crossing location (Varhelvi, 1998) and
signalized intersection (Tarawnch, 2001).

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Shahin, 2006; carried out a study to identify the pedestrian behavior in mixed
traffic street and have developed a micro-simulation model in order to find out the
fundamental characteristics as well as the conflicts of the pedestrian movement.

Shi et al. 2007: carried out a study in Beijing to investigate the pedestrian
behaviour and traffic characteristics at Non-signalized midblock crosswalk and
figured it out the pedestrian speed changes with the pedestrian behavior. Kadali
and Vedagiri, 2013: had identified the importance of the environmental
characteristics, such as type of crossing facility, traffic volume and roadway
geometry on the road crossing behavior of the pedestrian and also some studies
carried out by Gupta et al. 2010: have explored the pedestrian road crossing
behavior before and after the re-construction of traffic facility.

Tarawneh (2001) analyzed pedestrian walking speeds at various pedestrian


facilities in Jordan. He found that pedestrian walking speeds at walkways,
sidewalks and crosswalks are significantly different. Age, gender, group size and
street width are considered as important factors in defining average pedestrian
walking speeds.

Montufar et al. (2007) analyzed the difference of pedestrian walking speeds at


sidewalks and signalized crosswalks. The effects of seasonality, age and gender of
pedestrians were discussed. It concluded that pedestrian walking speeds at
crosswalks are significantly different from those on sidewalks at a 95% confidence
level. In general, pedestrians walk faster at crosswalk compared to on sidewalk and
walkway.

Lam and Cheung (2000) studied pedestrian walking speeds at different walking
facilities. They found that pedestrian free-flow speeds at outdoor walkways were
lower than that at signalized crosswalks by 17%. It shows that the surrounding
conditions of signalized crosswalks, e.g., the existence of turning vehicles, make
pedestrians walk faster to clear the crosswalk.

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Goh et al. (2012) analyzed pedestrian walking speed at signalized crosswalks and
Non-signalized crosswalks in Malaysia. They found that pedestrians at Non-
signalized crosswalk had significantly higher crossing speed than at signalized
crosswalk. Age and gender are significant influencing factors of pedestrian
crossing speed.

Asano et al. (2013) analyzed the pedestrian walking speeds during PFG. It was
found that the crosswalk length and the distance to crosswalk from the instant
pedestrian positions at the onset of PFG had positive impacts to pedestrian walking
speeds. Because pedestrians had limited time to cross during PFG, they increase
their speeds especially when provided longer crosswalk or shorter entering time. In
addition, higher pedestrian demands result in lower pedestrian walking speeds.

Xin ZHANG et. al. 2013: carried out a research to model pedestrian walking speed
at signalized crosswalks considering Crosswalk Length and Signal timing, the
study had investigated the effect of pedestrian walking speed at the crosswalk and
concluded that the longer crosswalk corresponds to higher walking speed and give
a comparison of pedestrian speed model at Pedestrian green and Pedestrian
Flashing Green which demonstrated that pedestrian walking speed at PFG are
higher and more variable than at PG.

However, few efforts have been made to analyze the effects of crosswalk length,
signal timing and pedestrian crossing direction on pedestrian walking speeds at
crosswalks. For instance, PFG as part of pedestrian green phase typically relates to
higher walking speed. Other influencing factors, e.g., crosswalk geometric
characteristics, pedestrian crossing direction, are also assumed to have effects.
Therefore, this study models pedestrian walking speed as a function of these
factors and provides insights into pedestrian behavior analysis for safety
assessment.

According to completed researches, such as Tanaboriboon et al. (1986);


Tanaboriboon and Guyano (1991); Morrall et al. (1991); Lam et al. (1995);

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Knoblauch et al. (1996); Koushki (1988); Lam and Cheung (2000); Tarawneh
(2001), pedestrian walking speed can be determined by dividing the travel distance
by crossing time. Normally, mean pedestrian walking speed or crossing speed will
be considered. However, it is recommended that 15th percentile of pedestrian
speed can be used as design speed, by assuming that 85% of pedestrian walk faster
than this speed. In contrast, 85th percentile will be the design speed if assume that
15% of pedestrian walk slower than this speed (Tarawneh, 2001).When sufficient
information has been gathered, pedestrians crossing speed were determined and
results were stored into Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), a statistical
tool used to determine the mean, 15 and 85 percentile of the pedestrian crossing
speed. Besides, the STATA Analysis was conducted to evaluate the significance of
the contributing factors.

Table 1: Comparison of pedestrian walking Speeds in Different Countries [23]


(Source: quirky psychologist Richard Wiseman paper published on May 2007)

Average waliking Average waliking


Country Country
speed speed
Singapore 1,706 Sweden 1,412
Denmark 1,664 Slovenia 1,411
Spain 1,653 Japan 1,403
China 1,645 Canada 1,312
Ireland 1,632 Zimbabwe 1,293
Brazil 1,617 Taiwan 1,286
Germany 1,613 Egypt 1,269
America 1,500 Yemen 1,260
Netherland 1,495 Romania 1,253
Austria 1,493 UAE 1,230
Poland 1,491 Syria 1,230
UK 1,479 Jordan 1,129
Crotia 1,475 Switzerland 1,036
Czech Republic 1,457 Bahrain 1,018
New Zealnad 1,426 Malawi 0,968
France 1,423

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According to completed researches, such as Tanaboriboon et al. (1986);
Tanaboriboon and Guyano (1991); Morrall et al. (1991); Lam et al. (1995);
Knoblauch et al. (1996); Koushki (1988); Lam and Cheung (2000); Tarawneh
(2001), pedestrian walking speed can be determined by dividing the travel
distance by crossing time. Normally, mean pedestrian walking speed or crossing
speed will be considered. However, it is recommended that 15th percentile of
pedestrian speed can be used as design speed, by assuming that 85% of pedestrian
walk faster than this speed. In contrast, 85th percentile will be the design speed if
assume that 15% of pedestrian walk slower than this speed (Tarawneh,
2001).When sufficient information has been gathered, pedestrians crossing speed
were determined and results were stored into Statistical Package for Social
Science (SPSS), a statistical tool used to determine the mean, 15 and 85
percentile of the pedestrian crossing speed. Besides, the Bivariate analysis (chi-
square test) was conducted to evaluate the significance of the contributing factors.

Empirical data on walking speed

In addition to consideration of mean walking speed (MWS), the 15th-percentile


speed also is important. Fifteen percent of pedestrians walk at or slower than this
speed. This is analogous to most 85th- percentile measures commonly used in
traffic engineering and highway design-where 85 percent of the observed values
fall within the capabilities of all users observed. Kell indicated that the 15 th
percentile speed is generally is an acceptable value to use in timing the signals for
pedestrians (Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies 2000).

Knoblauch et. al. 1995: had found out that the mean walking speed for the
younger and the older pedestrians was 4.95 ft/sec and 4.11 ft/sec respectively. The
15th percentile speed was 4.09 ft/sec and 3.19 ft/sec for younger and older
pedestrian respectively. These data were also stratified by city, pedestrian
characteristics, signal and operational characteristics, geometric characteristics

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and ambient conditions.

Alhajyaseen and Nakamura, 2010: developed a theoretical methodology to model


total pedestrian crossing time. Their proposed model was validated from empirical
data. In the dinal formulation,the reduction in crossing speed is estimated as a
function of pedestrian demands at both sides of the crosswalk, signal timing
parameters and crosswalk geometry. The developed theoretical methodology by
group was utilized to estimate the minimum pedestrian crossing time requirements
as a function of crosswalk width and pedestrian demands at both sides of the
crosswalk. This methodology can be represented by a following figure.

Fig 1: Trade-off between crosswalk width and cycle length

Coffin and Morrall, 1995: conducted a study of walking speeds for pedestrian
older than 60 at six field locations in Calgary, Canada: two pedestrian-actuated
mid-block crosswalks, two crosswalks at signalized intersections, and two
crosswalks at non-signalized intersections. Pedestrians were timed from when
they stepped off the curb until they stepped onto the sidewalk at the other side.
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The measured distance for each intersection was the observed most-traveled path
of pedestrians using the crosswalk. After pedestrian crossed the road, they were
intercepted and asked if they had time to answer questions about the intersections.
The interview were used to determine the pedestrians age. Mean walking speed at
the two signalized intersection were 4.5ft/sec and 4.6 ft/sec. The combined 15 th
percentile speed was 4 ft/sec. Mean walking speed at the signalized pedestrian
actuated mid-block crossing was 4.1 and 4 ft/sec, with a combined 15 th percentile
speed of 3.3 ft/sec.

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Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION

To achieve the objectives as stated in this study, following methodology has been
adopted (fig. 1).
i. Literature review
ii. Conceptual framework
iii. Site selection
iv. Data collection
v. Data Processing
vi. Data analysis
vii. Conclusion and Recommendation

Fig. 2: Framework of research

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The study was carried out in main streets of Ruse city of Bulgaria. It was selected
due to available of both signalized intersection as well as non-signalized
intersection and this section is vulnerable for pedestrian while crossing due to
possibility of numbers of accidents. The total Eight study location seven for
signalized crossing and one for non-signalized crossing. However, the selected
sites are not similar in terms of traffic volume and Pedestrian volume. For this
study, the signalized crosswalk (Fig. 1) is defined as a crosswalk with provision
for pedestrian crossing by assigning the right of way using traffic device, such as
signal timing. Meanwhile, non-signalized crosswalk (Fig. 2) represents crosswalk
without proper provision for pedestrian crossing. Especially in this study, the non-
signalized crosswalk used is a type of crosswalk within the vicinity of major
traffic generating landmark.

A total of 1353 samples were collected both at signalized and non-signalized


control type crosswalk during peak hour time in weekdays. Out of these, 984
samples were collected at signalized crosswalk, while the rest of the 369 samples
were observed at non-signalized crosswalk. The samples were further broken
down into various age categories such as, children (<20 years old); adult (21-60
years old) and elderly (>60 years old). For each of the category, samples were
taken with consideration given on equalities of gender.

For age group, children are classified as pedestrian with age less than 20 years
old. This range of age is recognized by United Nations Children’s Fund
(UNICEF) as teenager or children. While pedestrian with age more than 60 years
old is classified as elderly or senior citizen, and this is the retirement age for
Bulgaria.

The data were collected through the use of data acquisition form, which consisted
of two parts, namely as general information and pedestrian characteristics. In the
general information part, some information such as environmental factors,
traffic conditions, study location layout and some contributing factors were
gathered. Whereas, in the second part, pedestrians crossing speed correspond to
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the pedestrian characteristics, such as gender and age were reported. A pre-test
was performed on the data acquisition form to identify flaws, to verify the
accuracy and to allow for amendment before the actual data collection.

On the actual data collection, two major activities were involved. The first
activity involved the manual time recording for pedestrian to cross the respective
crosswalk, with the assistance of stopwatch. The second activity is mainly to
clarify the gender and age.

To obtain significant results, it is necessary to standardize the format of the


information at the early stage of data collection. The primary objective is to
eliminate the confusion when collecting data, which may lead to inappropriate
results. A guide was used in assisting on this study and is stated below
(Knoblauch et al., 1996):

The following individuals were not observed:


1. Pedestrian walking in groups;

2. Pedestrian carrying load (e.g. children, heavy bags, suitcases);

3. Pedestrian walking with bicycle or pets;

4. Pedestrian pushing strollers;

5. Pedestrian holding hands (couple) or assisting other pedestrian;

6. Disabled pedestrian.

The following pedestrian behavior were not observed:

• Running;
• Crossing diagonally;
• Stopping and resting.

A group is defined as two or more pedestrians walking at the approximately same


time, regardless of whether or not they were apparently friends or associates. For

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weather condition, dry condition is classified as clear, with dry footpath or
roadway. While for wet condition, it is immediately after rain with wet footpath
(sidewalk) or roadway. For this study, data were not collected during heavy rain;
due to a decrease in pedestrian activity.

When sufficient information had been gathered, pedestrians crossing speed were
determined and results were stored into Microsoft excel, a statistical tool
used to determine the mean, 15 and 85 percentile of the pedestrian crossing
speed.

3.1. Literature Review.

A detailed literature survey was conducted to study the various methods that had
been proposed by different researchers and the method that were currently used
for the estimation of Pedestrian crossing speed of crossing at signalized and
non-signalized intersection.

3.2. Analysis of Pedestrian Crossing Speed.

Here the Pedestrian crossing speed is analyzed in two different category, first
one is based on the gender and second one is based on the age group. Here in
order to find out the pedestrian behavior for pedestrian signal, the study is done
in both type of signalized and non-signalized crossings.

3.2.1. Study Location.

The focus of the study was on pedestrian crossing speed while crossing a road in
major streets of Ruse city of Bulgaria on Central Station to Str. Tzar Osvoboditel
road of Ruse City. The location crossing with its physical characteristics is given
in following Table.

The sites were selected by satisfying the following requirements:


- 25 -
1. There is reasonable flow of pedestrian.
2. It is away from the bus stop and other facilities, which may cause the pedestrian
to halt.
Once the side is selected appropriate position is chosen to install the Video
VBOX Pro to record the video on that site.

Fig 2: VBOX apparatus for taking the videorecords

Fig 3: Tripod stand to support the video camera

Table 2: Physical characteristics of selected sites for crossing

Location Description Length Width Green Red

- 26 -
number (m) (m) time time
(sec) (sec)

1 Panteona 12.5 4 30 40

2 Borisova 1st 24 4 24 15

3 Borisova 2nd 18 4 24 15

4 Near Mall 8.2 3 10 52


Ruse

5 Tzar 11 4.8 50 30
Osvoboditel
and Panayot
Hitov cross

6 Sloun and 19.2 4.4 15 47


Lipnik Cross

7 Olimp cross 11.5 4 35 55

8 Alexandrovska 10 4m each
street (Non- and 11m
signalized) in
between

- 27 -
Fig 4: View of the Panteona crosswalk

- 28 -
Fig 5: Borisova 1st crosswalk

Fig 6: Borisova 2nd crosswalk

- 29 -
Fig 7: Crosswalk near Mall Rousse

Fig 8: Olimp Cross

- 30 -
Fig 9: Tzar Osvobotiel and Panayot Hitov cross

- 31 -
Fig 10: Sloun and Lipnik Cross

Fig 11: Alexandrovska Street

- 32 -
Chapter 4: DATA ANALYSIS
After extracting all the data from the video recording then they are subjected for
analysis process in order to find the mean speed for different categories of the
pedestrian. The result is shown below in tabular format.

Table 3 gives the pedestrian crossing speed for signalized crosswalk in


various categories. Pedestrian crossing times for different conditions are
expressed in term of mean speed. Similar findings are presented in Table 4 for
non-signalized crosswalk.

Table3: Pedestrian crossing Speed for signalized crosswalk

Signalized crosswalk

Categories Number Speed, m/s

female child 37 1,406

male child 20 1,389

female adult 351 1,404

male adult 308 1,476

female elderly 108 1,247

male elderly 78 1,293

- 33 -
Table 4: Pedestrian Crossing Speed in Non-signalized crosswalk

Non-signalized

Categories Number Speed, m/s

female child 14 1,366

male child 9 1,458

female adult 168 1,293

male adult 146 1,355

female elderly 26 1,216

male elderly 29 1,183

Here in Signalized crosswalk the male adult is seems to be the fastest group. The
average walking speed of the adult and that of children are found to be slight
faster than the elderly group. This may be due to the aging or to the extra care
taken by the elderly group. Regardless of the categories the average speed of the
pedestrian for the signalized crosswalk is found to be 1.404 m/s.

And in Non-Signalized crosswalk it is found that the male pedestrian for children
and adult categories are walking faster than the Female pedestrian while in case
of Elderly category male pedestrian are walking slower than the female
pedestrian. Here also regardless of the categories the average speed of the
pedestrian for the Non-Signalized crosswalk is found to be 1.371 m/s.

On comparing both type of crosswalk it is found that by analysis except the


average walking speed for male child category, the average walking speed for the
group belonging to other categories is higher in signalized crossings in Ruse city.
- 34 -
4.1. Bulgarian Pedestrian Speed

The mean Bulgarian pedestrian speed at non-signalized crosswalk is 1.371m/s.


This value is quite higher than the countries like Romania, Switzerland, Syria.
However for countries like Singapore, Germany, Poland, Denmark, Austria the
speed is quite lower.

In comparison to other European countries, such as Denmark, Germany, Poland,


Austria, Bulgarian pedestrians walk in slower pace. This could be due to the
physical differences among pedestrians (e.g. height) and dressing and habits. For
example, taller pedestrians have longer footsteps, thus their movement length are
greater in distance compared to those who are shorter. Inconvenient dressing such
as, traditional custom could also influence the walking speed of pedestrian in
terms of free movement of both footsteps. Similar findings have been reported by
Researchers Tanaboriboon et al. (1986) , Tanaboriboon and Guyano (1991) and
Psychologist Richard Wiseman (2007)

Meanwhile, for signalized crosswalk in Bulgaria, the mean pedestrian speed is


1.404 m/s, which is higher than mean speed at non-signalized crosswalk. As most
of the studies conducted did not emphasize on this consideration in determining
pedestrian speed, it is not possible to carry out a comparison on this value.

4.2. Contributing factors.


4.2.1. Crosswalk type.

Normally in most of all countries the pedestrian speed at the non-signalized


crosswalk is faster than that of Signalized crosswalk. But here in our case in city
ruse, the pedestrian at the non-signalized crosswalk are found to be walking
slowly than the pedestrian from the signalized crosswalk. May be this is because
in signalized crosswalk there is only a limit time (time to cross the street in most
of the crosswalk is less). However in case of Non-signalized crosswalk though the
- 35 -
pedestrian are not protected and are always at risk while crossing, but due to the
hump present in front of crosswalk they have the mentality that the vehicle will
stop for them while crossing. So they walk more casually in Non-signalized
crosswalk than in Signalized crosswalk. This contributing factor is in line with
some research conducted (Tanaboriboon et al., 1986; Tanaboriboon and Guyano,
1991).

4.2.2. Age.

There is a significant difference in terms of age and pedestrian crossing speed.


Findings indicate that elderly pedestrian with age greater than 60 years old are
likely to walk slower and which can explain why most of the pedestrian accident
mainly involves elderly pedestrian. Insufficient time to cross safely may lead to
the road accident involving elderly pedestrian and the roadway design should
consider this.

In contrast, children pedestrians (age less than 20 years old) are the fastest group.
This is mainly because children pedestrian are the youngest group are generally
very energetic. Furthermore, their reaction is faster than adult and elderly group.
Road accident involving children might not necessarily be due to the lack of
crossing time, since they do walk faster than other groups, it might be contributed
by other factors, such as playing while crossing, low perception capability, lack of
proper safety education or lack of proper safe crossing facilities. Similar findings
were also supported by Tanaboriboon et al. (1986); Tanaboriboon and Guyano
(1991); Morrall et al. (1991); Bowman and Vecellio (1994); Knoblauch et al.
(1996); Oxley et al. (1997) and Tarawneh (2001).

- 36 -
I) For Signalized crossing
Table 5: Distribution of male pedestrian walking speed based on age

Age group Speed, m/s

<20 years 1,389

20-60 years 1,476

>60 years 1,293

Fig 12: Distribution of Male Pedestrian Walking speed based on age

Table 6: Distribution of Female pedestrian walking speed based on age

Age group Speed m/s

<20 years 1,406

20-60 years 1,404

>60 years 1,247

- 37 -
Fig 13: Distribution of Female Pedestrian Walking speed based on age

II) For Non-Signalized crossing


Table 7: Distribution of male pedestrian walking speed based on age

Age group Speed m/s

<20 years 1,458

20-60 years 1,355

>60 years 1,183

- 38 -
Fig 14: Distribution of Male Pedestrian Walking speed based on age

Table 8: Distribution of Female pedestrian walking speed based on age

Age group Speed m/s

<20 years 1,293

20-60 years 1,366

>60 years 1,216

Fig 15: Distribution of Female Pedestrian Walking speed based on age

- 39 -
4.2.3. Gender.

There is a strong relationship between pedestrian speed and gender. Male


pedestrians were more likely to walk faster than females when crossing the road.
This is in line with some studies reported (Tanaboriboon et al., 1986;
Tanaboriboon and Guyano, 1991; Morrall et al., 1991; Lam et al., 1995;
Knoblauch et al., 1996; Koushki, 1988; Lam and Cheung, 2000; Tarawneh, 2001).
Men usually give less priority for safety compared to women. So far, the general
conclusion is that male pedestrians walk faster than female pedestrians do.
Therefore, they are more vulnerable group, especially if they are rushing and thus
paying less attention, which could lead to road accident. It explains why many
road accident cases involve male pedestrian. But in our case in Ruse city the result
is a little different, there is no such difference in the pedestrian speed of the child
group and elderly group in both Signalized and non-signalized group but in case
of Adult group the male pedestrian are found walking slowly in Non-signalized
crosswalk whereas the same group are found to be walking faster in the signalized
crosswalk than the female pedestrian. Here another thing to be considered is that
the adult pedestrian are walking slowly in the non-signalized crosswalk than in the
signalized crosswalk which is simply not acceptable in the society because they
are the one who should teach the coming generation about the safety that need to
take care in such type of crosswalk where there is no pedestrian signal timing, it is
because statistics on the previous research shows that more accident had happened
in the non-signalized crosswalk than in the Signalized crosswalk. The comparison
of crossing speed of the pedestrian in both type of crosswalk is shown in table
below.

I) For Male Pedestrian


Table 9: Comparison of Male pedestrian speed in both type of crosswalk

Age group Speed m/s

- 40 -
Signalized Non-signalized

<20 years 1.389 1.458

20-60 years 1.476 1.355

>60 years 1.293 1.183

II) For Female Pedestrian


Table 10: Comparison of Female pedestrian speed in both type of crosswalk

Speed m/s
Age group
Signalized Non-Signalized

<20 years 1.406 1.293

20-60 years 1.404 1.366

>60 years 1.247 1.216

Fig 16. Comparison of the speed of pedestrian based on age group in both type
of crosswalk
- 41 -
4.3. Comparison of pedestrian crossing speed with other countries.

As we have already see the different pedestrian speed from different countries in
Table 1, now with the help of that table we will compare the pedestrian speed of
the Ruse city with the cities of different countries.

Table 11: Average walking Speed for Pedestrian from different countries

Average
Average
waliking
Country Country waliking
speed
speed (m/s)
(m/s)
Singapore (Singapore) 1,706 Sweden (Stockholm) 1,412
Denmark (Copenhagen) 1,664 Slovenia (Ljubljana) 1,411
Spain (Madrid) 1,653 Japan (Tokyo) 1,403
China (GuangZhou) 1,645 Bulgaria (Ruse) 1,312
Ireland (Dublin) 1,632 Canada (Ottawa) 1,312
Brazil (Curitiba) 1,617 Zimbabwe (Harare) 1,293
Germany (Berlin) 1,613 Taiwan (Taipei) 1,286
America (New York) 1,500 Egypt (Cairo) 1,269
Netherland (Utrecht) 1,495 Yemen (Sana'a) 1,260
Austria (Vienna) 1,493 Romania (Bucharest) 1,253
Poland (Warsaw) 1,491 UAE (Dubai) 1,230
UK (london) 1,479 Syria (Damascus) 1,230
Crotia (Zagreb) 1,475 Jordan (Amman) 1,129
Czech Republic (Prague) 1,457 Switzerland (Bern) 1,036
NewZealand
1,426 Bahrain (Manama) 1,018
(Wellington)
France (paris) 1,423 Malawi (Blantyre) 0,968

- 42 -
Fig 17: Comparison of Pedestrian speed from people living in different parts of
world

4.4. Cumulative Speed Distribution Curve.

With the help of the data extracted for every cross walk, then the data were
separated in two groups i.e. data from Signalized crosswalk are merged in one
group and data from the Non-signalized group merged in another group. And with
the help of these data the cumulative Speed distribution curve is drawn for both
cases.

- 43 -
Fig 18. Cumulative distribution curve for Signalized crosswalk.

From the above graph we concluded that the 15th percentile speed is 1.179 m/s and
the 85th percentile speed is 1.643 m/s for the signalized cross walk of Ruse City.

Fig 19: Cumulative Distribution Curve for Non-signalized crosswalk

- 44 -
From the above graph we concluded that the 15th percentile speed is 1.11 m/s and
85th percentile speed is 1.474 m/s for Non-signalized crosswalk of Ruse city.

4.5. Statistical analysis for the observed data.


Before doing any statistical analysis we have to check whether the data are
normally distributed or not.

Fig 20: Histogram showing the data of signalized crosswalk.

The above histogram shows that the data taken in the signalized crosswalk are
normally distributed and we can do the further statistical analysis with this data.

- 45 -
Fig 21: Histogram showing the data of Non-signalized crosswalk
The above figure shows that the data that was taken in non-signalized crosswalk
are normally distributed so we can do the statistical analysis with these data.

Table 12: STATA Analysis for Signalized Crosswalk

Variable B-Coeff. Standard t-stat P-Value 95%


Error confidence
interval

Sex (Male), “a” 0.058 0.0154 3.73 0.33 0.027 0.088

Age Group

I) Child “b” -0.038 0.031 -1.22 0.222 -0.099 0.023

II) Elderly “c” -0.257 0.0195 -13.2 0.000 -0.295 -0.219

Constant 1.447 0.011 126.58 0.000 1.425 1.47

- 46 -
The analysis shows that on unit increment of the pedestrian, the speed of the Male
pedestrian will increase by 0.058 factor than the female pedestrian on keeping the
age factor constant.

Similarly The Analysis shows that with unit increment of the number of the
pedestrian, the speed of the pedestrian will decrease by 0.038 factor for child group
and decrease by 0.257 factor for elderly group on keeping the Adult group as the
base.

On equation form,

Pedestrian Speed (Y)= 1.447+0.058*a-0.038*b-0.257*c

Table 13: STATA analysis for Non-signalized crosswalk

Variable B- coeff Standard t-stat P-value 95%


Error confidence
interval

Sex (Male) “a” 0.065 0.021 3.13 0.002 0.024 0.105

Age Group

I) Child “b” -0.074 0.043 -1.74 0.083 0.0158 0.01

II) Elderly “c” -0.215 0.029 -7.42 0.000 -0.272 -0.158

Constant 1.313 0.031 41.49 0.000 1.251 1.375

The analysis shows that on unit increment of the pedestrian, the speed of the Male
pedestrian will increase by 0.065 factor than the female pedestrian on keeping the
age factor constant.

- 47 -
Similarly The Analysis shows that with unit increment of the number of the
pedestrian, the speed of the pedestrian will decrease by -0.074 factor for child
group and decrease by 0.215 factor for elderly group on keeping the Adult group as
the base.

On Equation form,

Pedestrian Speed (Y) = 1.313+0.065*a-0.074*b-0.215*c

- 48 -
Chapter 5: CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
With the help of the data we collected in the Signalized and Non-signalized
crosswalk, we had done several analysis and finally collected the following
findings:

The mean, 85th percentile and the 15th percentile pedestrian speeds at signalized
crosswalk in the Ruse city of Bulgaria are 1.404 m/s, 1.643m/s and 1.179 m/s
respectively.

For Non-signalized crosswalk the mean, 85th percentile and the 15th percentile
pedestrian speeds in Ruse city of Bulgaria are found to be 1.371m/s, 1.11 m/s and
1.474 m/s respectively.

Among many factors that can contribute the variation on the pedestrian speed, the
most significant factors that affects in the variation of the pedestrian speed of the
Ruse city Bulgaria are found to be the Crosswalk type, Age factor and the Gender.

Except the Male children group, it is found that the Walking speed of the
pedestrian of other groups (Female children, Male and Female Adult and Male
and Female Elderly Group) are significantly higher in the Signalized crosswalk
than in Non-signalized crosswalk.

The children and adult group are walking relatively faster than the Elderly group
(greater than 60 years old). So while designing the signalized crosswalk in future,
consideration should be given to elderly pedestrian to ensure they will get
sufficient time for the safe crossing of the road.

In the street most of the pedestrian belong to the adult group (20 to 60 years age
group) and it is found that the male pedestrian from this group have significantly
faster crossing speed than female pedestrian. As Female pedestrian from this
group are walking slower, it should be included in the consideration of the
pedestrian accident study.
- 49 -
In signalized crosswalk, the time allocated for the green signal for pedestrian is
found comparatively less than the time it has to be given for the respective
crosswalk and for the pedestrian traffic that are using that crosswalk.

And in case of non-signalized crosswalk the people seems to be more careless and
walking slowly than that from walking in the signalized crosswalk. It may be
because of the lack of awareness or may be due to the attitude problem. Here
though the adult group (20-60 years) are said to be more energetic but here in our
studies it is found that the walking speed of the Female adult group is quite more
or less equal to the speed of the elderly group (> 60 years) pedestrian.

Another thing which should be checked in city Ruse is that, there is variation in
the crosswalk width, like place where there is more pedestrian volume (bi-
directional flow) the width is only 3.0m in front of Mall Ruse. And in some places
there is diagonal crossing like in Borisova which will take more time to cross the
street, so as far as possible the crossing should be made as straight as possible.

And in most of the signalized crossing the time for pedestrian crossing is so less
that the most of the elderly pedestrian have to walk in red phase too, similarly by
doing this study we can say that the signalized crossing has given no facilities for
physically challenged pedestrian. So if city Ruse has to look the countermeasures
to reduce the pedestrian-traffic crash in the crosswalk, first the traffic control
operators of the city Ruse has to update the method by which they are designing
the signal timing.

Nowadays the traffic signal design for pedestrian are using 1.22 m/s based on
HCM, 2000 which doesn’t provide sufficient time for pedestrian to cross safely.
Perhaps, this may be one of the main reasons why pedestrian at the signalized
crosswalk tends to walk faster.

In order to promote the pedestrian safety, it is recommended to incorporate the


latest findings for traffic control design and more relevant studies should be
carried out to further investigate the more factors which will affect the pedestrian

- 50 -
crossing speed.

- 51 -
REFERENCES
o 1. Transportation Research Board (TRB), (2000), Highway Capacity Manual,
Washington, DC, National Research Council.
o 2. Dixon, L. B. (1996), “Bicycle and pedestrian level-of-service performance
measures and standards for congestion management systems”, Transportation
Research Record, 1538, pp 1-9.
o 3. Gallin, N. (2001), “Quantifying pedestrian friendliness: Guidelines for
assessing pedestrian level of service”, Proceedings from Australia: Walking the
21stCentury Conference.
o 4. Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities –IRC: 103 –(1998), The Indian
Roads Congress, New Delhi.
o 5. Muraleetharan, T., Adachi, T., Hagiwara, T., Kagaya,S. (2005) “Method to
determine pedestrian level -ofservice for crosswalks at urban intersections”,
Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transporta tion Studies, Vol. 6, pp.
127-136
o Dr.L.R.Kadiyali “Traffic Engineering and Transportation planning”, Khanna
publishers.
o Bowman, B.L.; Vecellio, R.L. 1994. Pedestrian Walking Speeds and Conflicts at
Urban Median Locations, Transportation Research Record, 1438: 67-73
o Knoblauch, R.L.; Pietrucha, M.T.; Nitzburg, M. 1996. Field Studies of Pedestrian
Walking Speed and Start-up Time, Transportation Research Record.DOI:
hž p://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1538-04, 1538: 27-38.
o Lam, W.K.L.; Morrall, J.F.; Ho, H. 1995. Pedestrian Flow Characteristics in
Hong Kong, Transportation Research Record, 1487: 56-62.
o Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM). 2004. Statistical Report Road Accidents
Malaysia – 2003.
o Recommended Walking Speeds for Pedestrian Clearance Timing Based on
Pedestrian Characteristics(By Tim J. Gates, David A. Noyce, Andrea R. Bill, and
- 52 -
Nathanael Van Ee , Paper No. 06-1826 ).
o Recommended ProceduresChapter 13, "Pedestrians,"of theHighway Capacity
Manual Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities Task Order 8:
Pedestrian-Bicycle Research Program by: Nagui M. Rouphail, Professor, P.I.
Joseph E. Hummer, Associate Professor, co-P.I. Joseph S. Milazzo II, Research
Assistant.
o Virkler, Mark and Sathish Elayadath. "Pedestrian Speed-Flow-Density
Relationships."Transportation Research Record1438, Transportation Research
Board, 1994a.
o Tarawneh, S. M. (2001) Evaluation of Pedestrian Speed in Jordan with
Investigation of Some Contributing Factors, In Journal of Safety Research, 32,
pp.229-236
o Transportation Research Board (2010) Highway Capacity Manual (HCM),
National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA
o Traffic Control Devices Handbook. Institute of Transportation Engineers,
Washington, D.C, 2001.
o L. R Kadiyali. Traffic Engineering and Transportation Planning. Khanna
Publishers,New Delhi, 1987.

- 53 -
Appendix 1: Pantawa Crosswalk

Width of Crossing= 4m
Location: Pantawa Length of crossing=12.5m
Speed
Ped No Gender Age Group Time to cross
(m/s)
street (s)
1 Female Adult 9 1.389
2 Male Adult 10 1.250
3 Male Adult 8 1.563
4 Male Adult 10 1.250
5 Female Adult 7 1.786
6 Female Adult 8 1.563
7 Male Adult 11 1.136
8 Female Adult 11 1.136
9 Male Adult 10 1.250
10 Female Elderly 9 1.389
11 Male Adult 8 1.563
12 Male Adult 8 1.563
13 Male Adult 11 1.136
14 Male Adult 8 1.563
15 Male Adult 9 1.389
16 Female Child 10 1.250
17 Male Adult 9 1.389
18 Female Elderly 9 1.389
19 Male Adult 8 1.563
20 Female Elderly 9 1.389
21 Male Child 10 1.250
22 Male Elderly 9 1.389
23 Female Adult 7 1.786
24 Female Adult 8 1.563
25 Male Child 12 1.042
26 Female Adult 9 1.389
27 Female Adult 10 1.250
28 Female Adult 11 1.136
29 Male Adult 11 1.136
30 Male Elderly 9 1.389
31 Male Adult 10 1.250
32 Female Adult 8 1.563
33 Male Adult 8 1.563
34 Male Adult 10 1.250
35 Female Adult 9 1.389
- 54 -
36 Male Elderly 7 1.786
37 Male Adult 8 1.563
Time to cross Speed
Ped No Gender Age Group
street (s) (m/s)
38 Female Elderly 9 1.389
39 Female Elderly 10 1.250
40 Female Adult 11 1.136
41 Male Elderly 9 1.389
42 Female Elderly 10 1.250
43 Female Elderly 9 1.389
44 Male Elderly 9 1.389
45 Male Elderly 11 1.136
46 Female Adult 8 1.563
47 Female Elderly 10 1.250
48 Female Elderly 11 1.136
49 Female Elderly 11 1.136
50 Female Adult 10 1.250
51 Female Elderly 12 1.042
52 Male Adult 9 1.389
53 Female Elderly 11 1.136
54 Male Elderly 9 1.389
55 Male Adult 8 1.563
56 Female Adult 8 1.563
57 Female Adult 9 1.389
58 Female Adult 9 1.389
59 Female Elderly 10 1.250
60 Female Adult 9 1.389
61 Male Adult 7 1.786
62 Female Adult 7 1.786
63 Male Adult 7 1.786
64 Female Adult 8 1.563
65 Male Adult 6 2.083
66 Male Elderly 8 1.563
67 Female Adult 8 1.563
68 Male Elderly 12 1.042
69 Female Elderly 15 0.833
70 Male Elderly 12 1.042
71 Female Adult 9 1.389
72 Female Adult 9 1.389
73 Male Adult 11 1.136
74 Male Adult 9 1.389
75 Female Adult 9 1.389
76 Male Adult 9 1.389
77 Male Adult 11 1.136
- 55 -
78 Male Elderly 11 1.136
79 Female Adult 8 1.563
Time to cross Speed
Ped No Gender Age Group
street (s) (m/s)
80 Female Adult 9 1.389
81 Female Elderly 11 1.136
82 Male Adult 10 1.250
83 Female Elderly 13 0.962
84 Female Adult 8 1.563
85 Male Adult 11 1.136
86 Male Adult 12 1.042
88 Male Adult 8 1.563
89 Female Adult 8 1.563
90 Female Adult 9 1.389
91 Female Elderly 10 1.250
92 Female Adult 10 1.250
93 Male Adult 8 1.563
94 Female Adult 11 1.136
95 Female Child 10 1.250
96 Male Adult 9 1.389
97 Female Adult 11 1.136
98 Male Adult 11 1.136
99 Male Adult 7 1.786
100 Male Adult 8 1.563
101 Male Adult 8 1.563

- 56 -
Appendix 2: Borishawa 1St Crosswalk

Width of Crossing= 4m
Location: Borishawa 1st Length of crossing= 14m
Time to cross the
Ped no Age Group Gender Speed (m/s)
street
1 Elderly Female 12 1.167
2 Adult Female 10 1.400
3 Child Female 10 1.400
4 Adult Female 9 1.556
5 Child Female 12 1.167
6 Adult Male 10 1.400
7 Adult Male 8 1.750
8 Adult Male 10 1.400
9 Elderly Male 10 1.400
10 Elderly Female 12 1.167
11 Adult Male 10 1.400
12 Adult Female 11 1.273
13 Elderly Male 10 1.400
14 Elderly Female 12 1.167
15 Child Male 10 1.400
16 Adult Male 10 1.400
17 Adult Female 11 1.273
18 Adult Female 12 1.167
19 Adult Female 12 1.167
20 Adult Male 10 1.400
21 Adult Male 12 1.167
22 Elderly Male 10 1.400
23 Adult Female 9 1.556
24 Elderly Female 10 1.400
25 Child Male 10 1.400
26 Adult Male 8 1.750
27 Child Female 12 1.167
28 Elderly Female 10 1.400
29 Adult Male 6 2.333
30 Elderly Male 10 1.400
31 Elderly Female 10 1.400
32 Elderly Female 10 1.400
33 Adult Male 9 1.556
34 Adult Male 10 1.400
35 Adult Male 11 1.273

- 57 -
36 Adult Female 11 1.273
37 Adult Female 12 1.167
38 Elderly Female 11 1.273
39 Adult Male 10 1.400
Time to cross the
Ped no Age Group Gender Speed (m/s)
street
40 Elderly Female 10 1.400
41 Elderly Male 11 1.273
42 Elderly Male 10 1.400
43 Adult Male 11 1.273
44 Adult Female 10 1.400
45 Adult Male 11 1.273
46 Elderly Female 10 1.400
47 Elderly Female 9 1.556
48 Elderly Female 11 1.273
49 Adult Male 9 1.556
50 Adult Male 14 1.000
51 Adult Female 10 1.400
52 Adult Female 10 1.400
53 Adult Female 11 1.273
54 Elderly Female 10 1.400
55 Adult Male 10 1.400
56 Adult Female 13 1.077
57 Adult Male 13 1.077
58 Elderly Female 12 1.167
59 Adult Male 9 1.556
60 Adult Male 9 1.556
61 Adult Female 10 1.400
62 Adult Female 9 1.556
63 Elderly Female 10 1.400
64 Elderly Female 12 1.167
65 Adult Male 10 1.400
66 Adult Female 13 1.077
67 Adult Female 13 1.077
68 Adult Male 11 1.273
69 Adult Male 10 1.400
70 Adult Female 9 1.556
71 Elderly Male 11 1.273
72 Elderly Female 10 1.400
73 Adult Female 9 1.556
74 Adult Male 10 1.400
75 Adult Female 11 1.273
76 Adult Male 9 1.556
77 Adult Male 8 1.750
78 Adult Female 10 1.400
79 Adult Female 10 1.400
- 58 -
80 Adult Female 10 1.400
81 Adult Male 9 1.556
82 Adult Female 12 1.167

Appendix 3: Borishawa 2nd Crosswalk

Width of Crossing= 4m length of


Location: Borishawa 2nd Crossing= 18m
Time to cross the Speed
Ped no category Gender
street (m/s)
1 Child Female 11 1.636
2 Elderly Female 11 1.636
3 Adult Male 13 1.385
4 Adult Male 9 2.000
5 Adult Male 14 1.286
6 Adult Male 12 1.500
7 Adult Male 11 1.636
8 Adult Male 13 1.385
9 Adult Female 11 1.636
10 Child Female 12 1.500
11 Child Female 11 1.636
12 Adult Male 15 1.200
13 Elderly Male 10 1.800
14 Adult Male 13 1.385
15 Child Female 13 1.385
16 Adult Male 12 1.500
17 Adult Female 17 1.059
18 Adult Female 18 1.000
19 Child Female 10 1.800
20 Adult Female 13 1.385
21 Elderly Male 15 1.200
22 Child Male 10 1.800
23 Child Male 14 1.286
24 Elderly Female 13 1.385
25 Adult Female 14 1.286
26 Adult Female 13 1.385
27 Adult Male 12 1.500
28 Elderly Male 13 1.385
29 Elderly Female 12 1.500
30 Elderly Male 11 1.636
31 Adult Female 16 1.125
32 Adult Male 19 0.947

- 59 -
33 Adult Male 12 1.500
34 Adult Male 14 1.286
35 Adult Female 13 1.385
36 Adult Male 14 1.286
37 Adult Female 17 1.059
38 Adult Male 14 1.286
Time to cross the Speed
Ped no category Gender
street (m/s)
40 Adult Female 12 1.500
41 Adult Male 10 1.800
42 Adult Male 12 1.500
43 Adult Female 13 1.385
44 Adult Male 12 1.500
45 Elderly Male 13 1.385
46 Adult Male 14 1.286
47 Adult Male 14 1.286
48 Adult Male 15 1.200
49 Adult Male 12 1.500
50 Adult Male 11 1.636
51 Adult Male 11 1.636
52 Adult Male 12 1.500
53 Adult Female 17 1.059
54 Adult Male 14 1.286
55 Adult Male 13 1.385
56 Adult Male 13 1.385
57 Adult Female 12 1.500
58 Adult Female 15 1.200

- 60 -
Appendix 4: Lipnik and Souln Cross
Length of crossing=19.2m
Location: Lipnik Souln Cross Width of Crossing= 4.4m
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age Group street speed (m/s)
1 Male adult 12 1.600
2 Male adult 12 1.600
3 Female adult 13 1.477
4 Female adult 13 1.477
5 Female adult 12 1.600
6 Male adult 14 1.371
7 Male adult 12 1.600
8 Female adult 13 1.477
9 Female adult 13 1.477
10 Female adult 13 1.477
11 Male adult 12 1.600
12 Female adult 15 1.280
13 Female Elderly 16 1.200
14 Female adult 16 1.200
15 Male Elderly 17 1.129
16 Female adult 14 1.371
17 Female Elderly 17 1.129
18 Female adult 12 1.600
19 Male adult 12 1.600
20 Male adult 12 1.600
21 Male adult 13 1.477
22 Female Elderly 14 1.371
23 Female adult 14 1.371
24 Male adult 14 1.371
25 Female adult 12 1.600
26 Female adult 13 1.477
27 Male adult 14 1.371
28 Male adult 12 1.600
29 Female Elderly 15 1.280
30 Female Elderly 15 1.280
31 Male Elderly 15 1.280
- 61 -
32 Male adult 14 1.371
33 Male adult 15 1.280
34 Female Elderly 15 1.280
35 Male adult 15 1.280
36 Male adult 13 1.477
37 Male Elderly 13 1.477
38 Female adult 14 1.371
39 Male Elderly 11 1.745
40 Male adult 14 1.371
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age Group street speed (m/s)
41 Male adult 14 1.371
42 Male adult 13 1.477
43 Female Elderly 13 1.477
44 Male adult 13 1.477
45 Female adult 14 1.371
46 Male adult 13 1.477
47 Female adult 14 1.371
48 Female adult 15 1.280
49 Male adult 12 1.600
50 Male adult 11 1.745
51 Male adult 13 1.477
52 Female adult 13 1.477
53 Female Elderly 16 1.200
54 Male Elderly 13 1.477
55 Female adult 14 1.371
56 Female Elderly 15 1.280
57 Female Elderly 16 1.200
58 Male adult 12 1.600
59 Male adult 12 1.600
60 Female adult 14 1.371
61 Male adult 12 1.600
62 Female adult 13 1.477
63 Male adult 14 1.371
64 Male Elderly 16 1.200
65 Male Elderly 16 1.200
66 Female adult 15 1.280
67 Female adult 15 1.280
68 Male adult 15 1.280
69 Female adult 13 1.477
70 Female adult 14 1.371
71 Female Elderly 16 1.200
72 Male Elderly 14 1.371
73 Male adult 14 1.371
74 Female adult 14 1.371
75 Female Child 13 1.477
- 62 -
76 Male adult 11 1.745
77 Female adult 12 1.600
78 Female adult 13 1.477
79 Male adult 14 1.371
80 Male adult 14 1.371
81 Male adult 13 1.477
82 Male adult 13 1.477
83 Female adult 15 1.280
84 Female adult 15 1.280
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age Group street speed (m/s)
85 Female Elderly 16 1.200
86 Male adult 13 1.477
87 Female adult 14 1.371
88 Male adult 13 1.477
89 Female adult 13 1.477
90 Female adult 13 1.477
91 Male adult 13 1.477
92 Male Child 13 1.477
93 Male Child 13 1.477
94 Female adult 12 1.600
95 Male Elderly 17 1.129
96 Female Elderly 18 1.067
97 Male adult 13 1.477
98 Female adult 12 1.600
99 Male adult 12 1.600
100 Female Elderly 15 1.280
101 Female Child 14 1.371
102 Female Child 14 1.371
103 Female adult 15 1.280
104 Female adult 14 1.371
105 Female adult 14 1.371
106 Female adult 14 1.371
107 Female adult 14 1.371
108 Male adult 13 1.477
109 Male adult 13 1.477
110 Male adult 12 1.600
111 Female adult 12 1.600
112 Male adult 12 1.600
113 Male adult 14 1.371
114 Male adult 13 1.477
115 Male adult 12 1.600
116 Female adult 14 1.371
117 Female adult 13 1.477

- 63 -
Appendix 5: Tsar Osvobotiel and Panaiot
Hitov cross
Location: Tsar Osvobotiel and
Panaiot Hitov cross Width of Crossing= 4.8m Length of Crossing=11m

Time to cross
Ped No Gender Age Group the street Speed (m/s)
1 Female Adult 8 1.375
2 Female Adult 7 1.571
3 Female Adult 7 1.571
4 Female Adult 7 1.571
5 Female Adult 7 1.571
6 Female Elderly 9 1.222
7 Male Adult 7 1.571
8 Male Elderly 12 0.917
9 Male Adult 7 1.571
10 Male Adult 8 1.375
11 Female Adult 9 1.222
12 Female Elderly 11 1.000
13 Male Elderly 11 1.000
14 Female Elderly 12 0.917
15 Female Adult 9 1.222
16 Female Adult 10 1.100
17 Female Adult 7 1.571
18 Female Elderly 12 0.917
19 Female Adult 9 1.222
20 Male Elderly 9 1.222
21 Male Elderly 8 1.375
22 Female Elderly 9 1.222
23 Female Elderly 12 0.917
24 Male Elderly 12 0.917
25 Male Adult 7 1.571
26 Female Elderly 11 1.000
27 Male Adult 8 1.375
28 Female Child 8 1.375
29 Female Adult 8 1.375
30 Male Adult 8 1.375
31 Female Adult 11 1.000
32 Female Elderly 13 0.846
33 Male Elderly 13 0.846
34 Male Adult 9 1.222
35 Male Adult 9 1.222
- 64 -
36 Male Adult 7 1.571
37 Female Elderly 10 1.100
38 Female Adult 8 1.375
39 Female Adult 8 1.375
Time to cross
Ped No Gender Age Group the street Speed (m/s)
40 Female Elderly 9 1.222
41 Male Elderly 7 1.571
42 Female Elderly 10 1.100
43 Female Elderly 9 1.222
44 Female Adult 8 1.375
45 Male Adult 7 1.571
46 Female Adult 7 1.571
47 Male Elderly 8 1.375
48 Female Adult 9 1.222
49 Male Adult 7 1.571
50 Male Adult 9 1.222
51 Female Adult 9 1.222
52 Female Adult 9 1.222
53 Female Adult 9 1.222
54 Female Adult 8 1.375
55 Male Adult 8 1.375
56 Male Adult 7 1.571
57 Female Elderly 11 1.000
58 Male Adult 9 1.222
59 Female Adult 9 1.222
60 Male Elderly 10 1.100
61 Male Adult 7 1.571
62 Female Adult 7 1.571
63 Female Adult 8 1.375
64 Female Adult 8 1.375
65 Male Adult 8 1.375
66 Female Elderly 10 1.100
67 Male Adult 6 1.833
68 Female Adult 7 1.571
69 Female Elderly 7 1.571
70 Female Adult 9 1.222
71 Female Adult 9 1.222
72 Female Adult 9 1.222
73 Male Elderly 10 1.100
74 Female Adult 9 1.222
75 Male Elderly 11 1.000
76 Male Adult 10 1.100
77 Male Adult 7 1.571
78 Male Elderly 100 0.110
79 Female Elderly 10 1.100
- 65 -
80 Male Adult 9 1.222
81 Male Adult 7 1.571
82 Female Adult 10 1.100
83 Male Adult 9 1.222
Time to cross
Ped No Gender Age Group the street Speed (m/s)
84 Male Adult 8 1.375
85 Female Adult 9 1.222
86 Female Adult 7 1.571
87 Male Adult 8 1.375
88 Male Adult 9 1.222
89 Male Elderly 10 1.100
90 Female Elderly 10 1.100
91 Male Elderly 12 0.917
92 Male Adult 8 1.375
93 Female Adult 9 1.222
94 Male Adult 8 1.375
95 Male Adult 8 1.375
96 Male Adult 9 1.222
97 Male Elderly 9 1.222
98 Female Adult 9 1.222
99 Female Adult 8 1.375
100 Male Adult 7 1.571
101 Female Adult 8 1.375
102 Female Elderly 11 1.000
103 Female Adult 8 1.375
104 Male Adult 7 1.571
105 Male Adult 8 1.375
106 Male Adult 8 1.375
107 Female Adult 9 1.222
108 Male Adult 8 1.375
109 Female Adult 8 1.375
110 Male Elderly 13 0.846
111 Female Child 8 1.375
112 Female Adult 9 1.222
113 Male Adult 9 1.222
114 Male Adult 8 1.375
115 Female Adult 7 1.571
116 Female Adult 11 1.000
117 Male Child 10 1.100
118 Male Child 11 1.000
119 Male Adult 8 1.375
120 Female Adult 6 1.833
121 Male Elderly 9 1.222
122 Male Adult 7 1.571
123 Female Adult 9 1.222
- 66 -
124 Female Child 9 1.222
125 Male Child 10 1.100
126 Male Elderly 11 1.000
127 Male Adult 7 1.571
Time to cross
Ped No Gender Age Group the street Speed (m/s)
128 Female Adult 6 1.833
129 Female Adult 8 1.375
130 Female Adult 8 1.375
131 Female Adult 7 1.571
132 Female Adult 9 1.222
133 Female Adult 9 1.222
134 Female Adult 10 1.100
135 Female Adult 10 1.100
136 Female Adult 9 1.222
137 Male Elderly 9 1.222
138 Female Elderly 10 1.100
139 Female Elderly 10 1.100
140 Male Adult 6 1.833
141 Female Adult 7 1.571
142 Female Adult 8 1.375
143 Female Adult 9 1.222
144 Female Elderly 11 1.000
145 Male Adult 8 1.375
146 Male Adult 10 1.100
147 Female Adult 8 1.375
148 Female Child 7 1.571
149 Female Adult 8 1.375
150 Female Adult 10 1.100
151 Male Child 10 1.100
152 Male Adult 9 1.222
153 Female Adult 8 1.375
154 Male Adult 7 1.571
155 Female Adult 7 1.571
156 Female Adult 10 1.100
157 Female Adult 10 1.100
158 Male Adult 8 1.375
159 Male Adult 8 1.375
160 Male Adult 10 1.100
161 Female Adult 10 1.100
162 Female Adult 9 1.222
163 Male Elderly 13 0.846
164 Female Elderly 14 0.786
165 Male Adult 8 1.375
166 Male Adult 7 1.571
167 Female Child 7 1.571
- 67 -
168 Male Adult 8 1.375
169 Female Adult 8 1.375
170 Female Adult 8 1.375
171 Female Adult 8 1.375
Time to cross
Ped No Gender Age Group the street Speed (m/s)
172 Male Adult 8 1.375
173 Male Adult 9 1.222
174 Male Adult 7 1.571
175 Male Adult 9 1.222
176 Female Adult 9 1.222
177 Male Adult 11 1.000
178 Female Elderly 11 1.000
179 Female Elderly 11 1.000
180 Female Adult 7 1.571
181 Female Adult 7 1.571
182 Female Adult 7 1.571
183 Female Adult 8 1.375
184 Female Adult 7 1.571
185 Female Adult 8 1.375
186 Female Adult 7 1.571
187 Female Adult 10 1.100
188 Female Adult 10 1.100
189 Female Child 10 1.100
190 Female Adult 9 1.222

- 68 -
Appendix 6: Mall Rousse Cross
Width of Crossing= 3m
Location: Near Mall rousse Length of Crossing=8.2m
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
1 Female Child 6 1.383
2 Female Child 5 1.660
3 Male Child 5 1.660
4 Female Child 6 1.383
5 Male Child 5 1.660
6 Male Child 6 1.383
7 Female Child 7 1.186
8 Female Child 6 1.383
9 Female Child 5 1.660
10 Male Child 5 1.660
11 Female Child 5 1.660
12 Male Elderly 7 1.186
13 Male Elderly 5 1.660
14 Male Elderly 6 1.383
15 Male Elderly 6 1.383
16 Male Elderly 7 1.186
17 Female Adult 5 1.660
18 Female Adult 6 1.383
19 Female Adult 5 1.660
20 Male Adult 8 1.038
21 Female Adult 6 1.383
22 Female Adult 6 1.383
23 Male Adult 5 1.660
24 Male Adult 5 1.660
25 Female Adult 6 1.383
26 Female Adult 6 1.383
27 Female Adult 5 1.660
28 Male Adult 5 1.660
29 Female Adult 5 1.660
30 Male Adult 6 1.383
31 Female Adult 5 1.660
32 Male Adult 6 1.383
33 Male Adult 5 1.660
34 Female Adult 5 1.660
35 Female Adult 5 1.660
36 Female Adult 5 1.660
- 69 -
37 Female Adult 6 1.383
38 Female Adult 7 1.186
39 Male Adult 4 2.075
40 Female Adult 5 1.660
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
41 Female Adult 5 1.660
42 Female Adult 6 1.383
43 Female Adult 5 1.660
44 Female Adult 6 1.383
45 Female Adult 6 1.383
46 Male Adult 4 2.075
47 Female Adult 5 1.660
48 Female Adult 6 1.383
49 Female Adult 6 1.383
50 Female Adult 6 1.383
51 Male Adult 5 1.660
52 Male Adult 6 1.383
53 Female Adult 5 1.660
54 Female Adult 6 1.383
55 Male Adult 6 1.383
56 Female Adult 5 1.660
57 Female Adult 5 1.660
58 Female Adult 5 1.660
59 Female Adult 5 1.660
60 Female Adult 6 1.383
61 Female Adult 6 1.383
62 Male Adult 6 1.383
63 Female Adult 6 1.383
64 Female Child 7 1.186
65 Female Child 6 1.383
66 Female Child 6 1.383
67 Male Elderly 7 1.186
68 Female Elderly 7 1.186
69 Male Elderly 6 1.383
70 Male Elderly 7 1.186
71 Female Elderly 6 1.383
72 Female Elderly 6 1.383
73 Female Elderly 6 1.383
74 Female Elderly 5 1.660
75 Male Elderly 7 1.186
76 Female Elderly 7 1.186
77 Female Elderly 7 1.186
78 Male Elderly 5 1.660
79 Female Elderly 7 1.186
80 Male Elderly 6 1.383
- 70 -
81 Female Elderly 6 1.383
82 Male Adult 5 1.660
83 Male Adult 5 1.660
84 Female Adult 5 1.660
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
85 Female Adult 4 2.075
86 Female Adult 4 2.075
87 Female Adult 6 1.383
88 Male Adult 6 1.383
89 Female Adult 6 1.383
90 Male Adult 4 2.075
91 Male Adult 7 1.186
92 Female Adult 6 1.383
93 Female Adult 6 1.383
94 Female Adult 6 1.383
95 Female Adult 6 1.383
96 Male Adult 7 1.186
97 Male Adult 5 1.660
98 Female Adult 7 1.186
99 Male Adult 6 1.383
100 Male Adult 6 1.383
101 Male Adult 5 1.660
102 Female Adult 6 1.383
103 Female Adult 7 1.186
104 Male Adult 5 1.660
105 Female Adult 6 1.383
106 Male Adult 6 1.383
107 Male Adult 4 2.075
108 Female Adult 5 1.660
109 Male Adult 5 1.660
110 Female Adult 5 1.660
111 Male Adult 5 1.660
112 Male Adult 6 1.383
113 Female Adult 6 1.383
114 Male Adult 6 1.383
115 Female Adult 6 1.383
116 Female Adult 5 1.660
117 Female Adult 4 2.075
118 Female Adult 7 1.186
119 Male Adult 5 1.660
120 Female Adult 5 1.660
121 Female Adult 6 1.383
122 Male Adult 5 1.660
123 Male Adult 5 1.660
124 Female Adult 6 1.383
- 71 -
1 Female Adult 9 1.389
2 Male Adult 10 1.250
3 Male Adult 8 1.563
4 Male Adult 10 1.250
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
5 Female Adult 7 1.786
6 Female Adult 8 1.563
7 Male Adult 11 1.136
8 Female Adult 11 1.136
9 Male Adult 10 1.250
10 Female Elderly 9 1.389
11 Male Adult 8 1.563
12 Male Adult 8 1.563
13 Male Adult 11 1.136
14 Male Adult 8 1.563
15 Male Adult 9 1.389
16 Female Child 10 1.250
17 Male Adult 9 1.389
18 Female Elderly 9 1.389
19 Male Adult 8 1.563
20 Female Elderly 9 1.389
21 Male Child 10 1.250
22 Male Elderly 9 1.389
23 Female Adult 7 1.786
24 Female Adult 8 1.563
25 Male Child 12 1.042
26 Female Adult 9 1.389
27 Female Adult 10 1.250
28 Female Adult 11 1.136
29 Male Adult 11 1.136
30 Male Elderly 9 1.389
31 Male Adult 10 1.250
32 Female Adult 8 1.563
33 Male Adult 8 1.563
34 Male Adult 10 1.250
35 Female Adult 9 1.389
36 Male Elderly 7 1.786
37 Male Adult 8 1.563
38 Female Elderly 9 1.389
39 Female Elderly 10 1.250
40 Female Adult 11 1.136
41 Male Elderly 9 1.389
42 Female Elderly 10 1.250
43 Female Elderly 9 1.389
44 Male Elderly 9 1.389
- 72 -
45 Male Elderly 11 1.136
46 Female Adult 8 1.563
47 Female Elderly 10 1.250
48 Female Elderly 11 1.136
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
49 Female Elderly 11 1.136
50 Female Adult 10 1.250
51 Female Elderly 12 1.042
52 Male Adult 9 1.389
53 Female Elderly 11 1.136
54 Male Elderly 9 1.389
55 Male Adult 8 1.563
56 Female Adult 8 1.563
57 Female Adult 9 1.389
58 Female Adult 9 1.389
59 Female Elderly 10 1.250
60 Female Adult 9 1.389
61 Male Adult 7 1.786
62 Female Adult 7 1.786
63 Male Adult 7 1.786
64 Female Adult 8 1.563
65 Male Adult 6 2.083
66 Male Elderly 8 1.563
67 Female Adult 8 1.563
68 Male Elderly 12 1.042
69 Female Elderly 15 0.833
70 Male Elderly 12 1.042
71 Female Adult 9 1.389
72 Female Adult 9 1.389
73 Male Adult 11 1.136
74 Male Adult 9 1.389
75 Female Adult 9 1.389
76 Male Adult 9 1.389
77 Male Adult 11 1.136
78 Male Elderly 11 1.136
79 Female Adult 8 1.563
80 Female Adult 9 1.389
81 Female Elderly 11 1.136
82 Male Adult 10 1.250
83 Female Elderly 13 0.962
84 Female Adult 8 1.563
85 Male Adult 11 1.136
86 Male Adult 12 1.042
88 Male Adult 8 1.563
89 Female Adult 8 1.563
- 73 -
90 Female Adult 9 1.389
91 Female Elderly 10 1.250
92 Female Adult 10 1.250
93 Male Adult 8 1.563
Time to cross the
Ped No Gender Age group street Speed (m/s)
94 Female Adult 11 1.136
95 Female Child 10 1.250
96 Male Adult 9 1.389
97 Female Adult 11 1.136
98 Male Adult 11 1.136
99 Male Adult 7 1.786
100 Male Adult 8 1.563
101 Male Adult 8 1.563

- 74 -
Appendix 7: Olimp Cross
Width of Crossing= 4m
Location: Olimp Cross Length Of Crossing= 11.5m

PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
1 Male Elderly 10 1.150
2 Male Adult 10 1.150
3 Female Adult 10 1.150
4 Female Child 10 1.150
5 Male Adult 7 1.643
6 Male Elderly 8 1.438
7 Female Adult 7 1.643
8 Female Elderly 10 1.150
9 Female Elderly 10 1.150
10 Female Adult 7 1.643
11 Male Elderly 10 1.150
12 Male Adult 7 1.643
13 Female Adult 7 1.643
14 Female Adult 8 1.438
15 Male Elderly 11 1.045
16 Female Adult 9 1.278
17 Female Adult 8 1.438
18 Female Adult 9 1.278
19 Male Adult 7 1.643
20 Female Child 7 1.643
21 Male Adult 7 1.643
22 Male Adult 6 1.917
23 Female Adult 7 1.643
24 Female Child 7 1.643
25 Female Adult 7 1.643
26 Male Adult 6 1.917
27 Female Adult 7 1.643
28 Female Adult 8 1.438
29 Female Elderly 9 1.278
30 Female Elderly 11 1.045
31 Male Adult 8 1.438
32 Female Adult 6 1.917
33 Male Elderly 8 1.438
34 Male Adult 7 1.643
35 Male Adult 6 1.917
36 Female Adult 8 1.438
37 Female Elderly 10 1.150
38 Female Adult 6 1.917
- 75 -
39 Female Adult 8 1.438
40 Female Elderly 12 0.958
PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
41 Male Adult 6 1.917
42 Male Adult 7 1.643
43 Male Elderly 11 1.045
44 Female Adult 6 1.917
45 Female Elderly 10 1.150
46 Female Adult 7 1.643
47 Female Adult 8 1.438
48 Male Adult 7 1.643
49 Female Adult 7 1.643
50 Male Elderly 8 1.438
51 Male Adult 8 1.438
52 Female Adult 6 1.917
53 Female Adult 8 1.438
54 Male Adult 6 1.917
55 Female Adult 6 1.917
56 Female Adult 6 1.917
57 Male Adult 7 1.643
58 Female Adult 10 1.150
59 Male Adult 9 1.278
60 Male Adult 9 1.278
61 Female Adult 9 1.278
62 Male Adult 7 1.643
63 Male Adult 6 1.917
64 Male Adult 6 1.917
65 Female Adult 7 1.643
66 Male Adult 7 1.643
67 Female Adult 8 1.438
68 Male Adult 7 1.643
69 Female Adult 9 1.278
70 Female Adult 7 1.643
71 Female Adult 7 1.643
72 Male Adult 7 1.643
73 Female Elderly 9 1.278
74 Female Adult 7 1.643
75 Female Adult 8 1.438
76 Male Elderly 7 1.643
77 Female Adult 8 1.438
78 Male Adult 7 1.643
79 Male Elderly 10 1.150
80 Female Adult 8 1.438
81 Female Adult 8 1.438
82 Female Elderly 12 0.958

- 76 -
83 Female Child 8 1.438
84 Female Child 7 1.643
PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
85 Male Child 6 1.917
86 Female Adult 7 1.643
87 Male Adult 8 1.438
88 Male Adult 8 1.438
89 Male Adult 9 1.278
90 Female Elderly 10 1.150
91 Male Adult 6 1.917
92 Male Adult 8 1.438
93 Male Adult 6 1.917
94 Male Adult 8 1.438
95 Female Elderly 12 0.958
96 Male Adult 8 1.438
97 Female Adult 7 1.643
98 Male Adult 7 1.643
99 Male Adult 7 1.643
100 Female Adult 6 1.917
101 Female Adult 6 1.917
102 Female Adult 7 1.643
103 Female Elderly 12 0.958
104 Female Elderly 11 1.045
105 Female Adult 10 1.150
106 Female Elderly 10 1.150
107 Male Adult 6 1.917
108 Male Adult 5 2.300
109 Male Adult 7 1.643
110 Male Adult 7 1.643
111 Female Adult 8 1.438
112 Female Adult 7 1.643
113 Female Adult 6 1.917
114 Male Adult 8 1.438
115 Female Adult 7 1.643
116 Female Adult 7 1.643
117 Female Elderly 9 1.278
118 Female Elderly 9 1.278
119 Female Adult 9 1.278
120 Male Adult 7 1.643
121 Female Adult 8 1.438
122 Female Child 7 1.643
123 Female Elderly 9 1.278
124 Male Elderly 11 1.045
125 Male Adult 7 1.643
126 Female Adult 8 1.438

- 77 -
127 Female Adult 9 1.278
128 Male Adult 7 1.643
PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
129 Male Adult 7 1.643
130 Female Adult 7 1.643
131 Female Child 7 1.643
132 Male Adult 7 1.643
133 Male Adult 8 1.438
134 Male Adult 8 1.438
135 Male Adult 8 1.438
136 Male Adult 7 1.643
137 Female Adult 7 1.643
138 Female Adult 7 1.643
139 Female Adult 7 1.643
140 Female Adult 6 1.917
141 Female Adult 9 1.278
142 Female Adult 9 1.278
143 Female Adult 8 1.438
144 Female Adult 8 1.438
145 Male Elderly 13 0.885
146 Female Adult 9 1.278
147 Female Adult 9 1.278
148 Male Adult 7 1.643
149 Male Adult 7 1.643
150 Male Adult 9 1.278
151 Male Adult 9 1.278
152 Male Adult 8 1.438
153 Male Adult 7 1.643
154 Male Adult 7 1.643
155 Male Adult 6 1.917
156 Female Elderly 10 1.150
157 Female Adult 9 1.278
158 Male Adult 7 1.643
159 Female Adult 7 1.643
160 Male Adult 6 1.917
161 Female Adult 6 1.917
162 Female Adult 7 1.643
163 Male Adult 6 1.917
164 Female Elderly 9 1.278
165 Female Adult 10 1.150
166 Female Adult 10 1.150
167 Male Child 10 1.150
168 Male Elderly 9 1.278
169 Female Adult 10 1.150
170 Female Child 10 1.150

- 78 -
171 Male Adult 7 1.643
172 Male Adult 8 1.438
PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
173 Female Adult 7 1.643
174 Male Adult 7 1.643
175 Male Adult 9 1.278
176 Male Adult 8 1.438
177 Male Adult 6 1.917
178 Female Adult 7 1.643
179 Female Adult 7 1.643
180 Female Adult 6 1.917
181 Female Adult 8 1.438
182 Female Adult 7 1.643
183 Female Adult 6 1.917
184 Male Elderly 10 1.150
185 Female Adult 7 1.643
186 Female Adult 6 1.917
187 Female Adult 7 1.643
188 Female Adult 9 1.278
189 Female Adult 6 1.917
190 Male Adult 6 1.917
191 Female Adult 9 1.278
192 Male Adult 6 1.917
193 Male Child 7 1.643
194 Female Adult 8 1.438
195 Male Elderly 10 1.150
196 Female Elderly 10 1.150
197 Male Adult 6 1.917
198 Female Adult 8 1.438
199 Male Adult 6 1.917
200 Male Adult 7 1.643
201 Female Adult 6 1.917
202 Female Adult 9 1.278
203 Female Elderly 12 0.958
204 Female Adult 10 1.150
205 Male Adult 10 1.150
206 Female Adult 6 1.917
207 Male Adult 7 1.643
208 Female Adult 7 1.643
209 Female Adult 8 1.438
210 Male Adult 7 1.643
211 Male Adult 7 1.643
212 Female Adult 10 1.150
213 Male Child 10 1.150
214 Female Elderly 12 0.958

- 79 -
215 Female Elderly 12 0.958
216 Female Adult 8 1.438
PED no. Gender Age Group Time to cross the street Speed (m/s)
217 Female Adult 8 1.438
218 Male Adult 7 1.643
219 Male Adult 8 1.438
220 Male Adult 8 1.438
221 Female Adult 8 1.438
222 Female Adult 8 1.438
223 Female Adult 8 1.438
224 Female Adult 8 1.438
225 Female Adult 8 1.438
226 Female Adult 8 1.438
227 Female Adult 7 1.643
228 Male Adult 7 1.643
229 Male Adult 8 1.438
230 Male Adult 7 1.643
231 Male Adult 8 1.438
232 Female Adult 7 1.643
233 Male Adult 8 1.438
234 Male Elderly 10 1.150

- 80 -
Appendix 8: Alexandra Street

Location: Alexandra Width of Crossing= 4m each Length Of crossing=10m


Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
1 Male Adult 8 1.250
2 Male Adult 7 1.429
3 Male Adult 7 1.429
4 Male Elderly 9 1.111
5 Female Adult 8 1.250
6 Female Elderly 10 1.000
7 Male Adult 8 1.250
8 Male Elderly 8 1.250
9 Male Adult 8 1.250
10 Female Adult 8 1.250
11 Female Adult 9 1.111
12 Female Adult 8 1.250
13 Male Adult 9 1.111
14 Female Adult 6 1.667
15 Male Adult 8 1.250
16 Female Elderly 8 1.250
17 Male Elderly 9 1.111
18 Male Adult 8 1.250
19 Male Elderly 11 0.909
20 Male Elderly 10 1.000
21 Male Adult 10 1.000
22 Male Adult 8 1.250
23 Male Adult 7 1.429
24 Male Adult 8 1.250
25 Female Adult 9 1.111
26 Male Adult 8 1.250
27 Female Adult 9 1.111
28 Female Adult 7 1.429
29 Female Child 8 1.250
30 Female Adult 7 1.429
31 Male Adult 6 1.667
32 Male Elderly 8 1.250
33 Male Elderly 9 1.111
34 Female Elderly 9 1.111
35 Male Adult 9 1.111
36 Female Adult 9 1.111
- 81 -
37 Male Adult 7 1.429
38 Female Adult 7 1.429
39 Male Adult 6 1.667
40 Female Adult 6 1.667
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
41 Female Adult 6 1.667
42 Male Adult 8 1.250
43 Female Elderly 7 1.429
44 Male Adult 8 1.250
45 Female Adult 8 1.250
46 Female Adult 7 1.429
47 Male Adult 7 1.429
48 Male Adult 6 1.667
49 Male Elderly 8 1.250
50 Female Adult 7 1.429
51 Male Adult 5 2.000
52 Female Adult 6 1.667
53 Female Adult 7 1.429
54 Female Adult 6 1.667
55 Female Adult 7 1.429
56 Female Adult 8 1.250
57 Male Child 9 1.111
58 Female Child 10 1.000
59 Female Adult 8 1.250
60 Female Elderly 9 1.111
61 Female Adult 9 1.111
62 Female Adult 8 1.250
63 Male Child 8 1.250
64 Female Adult 8 1.250
65 Female Elderly 9 1.111
66 Female Elderly 10 1.000
67 Female Adult 6 1.667
68 Female Adult 7 1.429
69 Female Adult 6 1.667
70 Female Elderly 7 1.429
71 Male Adult 7 1.429
72 Male Adult 5 2.000
73 Male Adult 9 1.111
74 Female Adult 7 1.429
75 Female Adult 6 1.667
76 Male Child 6 1.667
77 Male Elderly 8 1.250
78 Female Adult 8 1.250
79 Female Adult 8 1.250
80 Female Adult 6 1.667
- 82 -
81 Male Adult 6 1.667
82 Male Adult 6 1.667
83 Female Adult 6 1.667
84 Male Adult 8 1.250
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
85 Female Adult 8 1.250
86 Female Adult 9 1.111
87 Female Adult 7 1.429
88 Female Adult 9 1.111
89 Male Elderly 8 1.250
90 Female Adult 8 1.250
91 Female Adult 7 1.429
92 Female Adult 6 1.667
93 Female Child 9 1.111
94 Female Child 8 1.250
95 Female Adult 8 1.250
96 Female Adult 7 1.429
97 Female Elderly 7 1.429
98 Male Adult 6 1.667
99 Female Adult 6 1.667
100 Male Adult 7 1.429
101 Male Adult 6 1.667
102 Male Adult 7 1.429
103 Female Adult 7 1.429
104 Male Adult 7 1.429
105 Female Elderly 9 1.111
106 Male Adult 7 1.429
107 Male Adult 8 1.250
108 Male Adult 6 1.667
109 Male Adult 7 1.429
110 Male Adult 7 1.429
111 Male Adult 7 1.429
112 Male Adult 8 1.250
113 Female Adult 9 1.111
114 Female Adult 7 1.429
115 Female Adult 7 1.429
116 Male Adult 6 1.667
117 Female Adult 7 1.429
118 Female Adult 9 1.111
119 Male Child 8 1.250
120 Male Adult 8 1.250
121 Male Elderly 8 1.250
122 Male Adult 6 1.667
123 Female Adult 6 1.667
124 Female Adult 8 1.250
- 83 -
125 Female Adult 8 1.250
126 Female Elderly 7 1.429
127 Male Elderly 7 1.429
128 Female Adult 8 1.250
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
129 Male Adult 8 1.250
130 Male Adult 6 1.667
131 Male Adult 7 1.429
132 Male Elderly 12 0.833
133 Male Adult 6 1.667
134 Female Elderly 9 1.111
135 Female Elderly 9 1.111
136 Female Adult 7 1.429
137 Female Adult 9 1.111
138 Male Child 9 1.111
139 Female Adult 8 1.250
140 Female Adult 8 1.250
141 Female Adult 9 1.111
142 Female Adult 9 1.111
143 Female Adult 7 1.429
144 Female Adult 8 1.250
145 Female Elderly 7 1.429
146 Female Adult 8 1.250
147 Male Child 8 1.250
148 Female Adult 7 1.429
149 Female Adult 7 1.429
150 Female Adult 7 1.429
151 Female Adult 8 1.250
152 Female Adult 7 1.429
153 Male Adult 7 1.429
154 Female Adult 8 1.250
155 Male Adult 7 1.429
156 Female Adult 9 1.111
157 Male Adult 6 1.667
158 Female Adult 8 1.250
159 Female Adult 9 1.111
160 Male Elderly 9 1.111
161 Female Adult 9 1.111
162 Male Child 9 1.111
163 Female Adult 6 1.667
164 Female Elderly 8 1.250
165 Female Adult 6 1.667
166 Male Elderly 9 1.111
167 Male Adult 7 1.429
168 Female Adult 8 1.250
- 84 -
169 Male Adult 8 1.250
170 Female Elderly 8 1.250
171 Male Adult 7 1.429
172 Female Adult 8 1.250
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
173 Female Adult 9 1.111
174 Female Adult 6 1.667
175 Female Adult 7 1.429
176 Female Adult 8 1.250
177 Female Adult 8 1.250
178 Female Adult 6 1.667
179 Female Adult 7 1.429
180 Female Adult 8 1.250
181 Female Adult 7 1.429
182 Female Adult 8 1.250
183 Female Adult 9 1.111
184 Female Adult 7 1.429
185 Female Adult 7 1.429
186 Female Adult 8 1.250
187 Female Adult 7 1.429
188 Female Adult 7 1.429
189 Female Adult 6 1.667
190 Female Adult 7 1.429
191 Female Adult 7 1.429
192 Female Adult 7 1.429
193 Female Adult 8 1.250
194 Female Adult 7 1.429
195 Female Adult 6 1.667
196 Female Adult 7 1.429
197 Female Adult 7 1.429
198 Female Adult 7 1.429
199 Female Adult 8 1.250
200 Female Adult 9 1.111
201 Female Adult 9 1.111
202 Female Adult 8 1.250
203 Female Adult 9 1.111
204 Female Adult 6 1.667
205 Female Adult 8 1.250
206 Female Adult 7 1.429
207 Female Adult 7 1.429
208 Female Adult 7 1.429
209 Female Adult 8 1.250
210 Female Adult 6 1.667
211 Female Adult 6 1.667
212 Female Adult 7 1.429
- 85 -
213 Female Adult 6 1.667
214 Female Adult 8 1.250
215 Female Adult 8 1.250
216 Female Adult 6 1.667
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
217 Female Adult 6 1.667
218 Female Adult 7 1.429
219 Female Adult 7 1.429
220 Female Adult 7 1.429
221 Female Adult 8 1.250
222 Female Adult 7 1.429
223 Female Adult 6 1.667
224 Female Adult 7 1.429
225 Female Adult 7 1.429
226 Female Adult 7 1.429
227 Female Adult 9 1.111
228 Female Adult 8 1.250
229 Female Adult 7 1.429
230 Female Adult 8 1.250
231 Female Adult 9 1.111
232 Female Adult 7 1.429
233 Female Adult 7 1.429
234 Female Adult 9 1.111
235 Female Adult 7 1.429
236 Female Adult 7 1.429
237 Female Adult 6 1.667
238 Female Adult 6 1.667
239 Female Adult 7 1.429
240 Female Adult 10 1.000
241 Female Adult 7 1.429
242 Female Adult 8 1.250
243 Female Adult 7 1.429
244 Female Adult 8 1.250
245 Female Adult 8 1.250
246 Female Adult 7 1.429
247 Female Adult 7 1.429
248 Female Adult 8 1.250
249 Female Adult 6 1.667
250 Female Adult 9 1.111
251 Female Adult 8 1.250
252 Female Adult 9 1.111
253 Female Adult 9 1.111
254 Female Adult 8 1.250
255 Female Adult 8 1.250
256 Female Adult 9 1.111
- 86 -
257 Female Adult 6 1.667
258 Female Adult 7 1.429
259 Female Adult 8 1.250
260 Female Adult 7 1.429
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
261 Female Adult 6 1.667
262 Female Adult 8 1.250
263 Female Adult 7 1.429
264 Male Adult 7 1.429
265 Male Adult 7 1.429
266 Male Adult 8 1.250
267 Male Adult 7 1.429
268 Male Adult 6 1.667
269 Male Adult 6 1.667
270 Male Adult 6 1.667
271 Male Adult 8 1.250
272 Male Adult 6 1.667
273 Male Adult 7 1.429
274 Male Adult 6 1.667
275 Male Adult 7 1.429
276 Male Adult 6 1.667
277 Male Adult 6 1.667
278 Male Adult 6 1.667
279 Male Adult 7 1.429
280 Male Adult 6 1.667
281 Male Adult 8 1.250
282 Male Adult 8 1.250
283 Male Adult 6 1.667
284 Male Adult 8 1.250
285 Male Adult 11 0.909
286 Male Adult 7 1.429
287 Male Adult 7 1.429
288 Male Adult 5 2.000
289 Male Adult 8 1.250
290 Male Adult 7 1.429
291 Male Adult 6 1.667
292 Male Adult 7 1.429
293 Male Adult 6 1.667
294 Male Adult 6 1.667
295 Male Adult 7 1.429
296 Male Adult 8 1.250
297 Male Adult 8 1.250
298 Male Adult 8 1.250
299 Male Adult 8 1.250
300 Male Adult 8 1.250
- 87 -
301 Male Adult 7 1.429
302 Male Adult 7 1.429
303 Male Adult 7 1.429
304 Male Adult 6 1.667
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
305 Male Adult 6 1.667
306 Male Adult 7 1.429
307 Male Adult 7 1.429
308 Male Adult 6 1.667
309 Male Adult 7 1.429
310 Male Adult 7 1.429
311 Male Adult 7 1.429
312 Male Adult 8 1.250
313 Male Adult 6 1.667
314 Male Adult 7 1.429
315 Male Adult 6 1.667
316 Male Adult 6 1.667
317 Male Adult 6 1.667
318 Male Adult 7 1.429
319 Male Adult 7 1.429
320 Male Adult 6 1.667
321 Male Adult 7 1.429
322 Male Adult 6 1.667
323 Male Adult 6 1.667
324 Male Adult 7 1.429
325 Male Adult 6 1.667
326 Male Adult 7 1.429
327 Male Adult 6 1.667
328 Male Adult 7 1.429
329 Male Adult 9 1.111
330 Male Adult 7 1.429
331 Male Adult 6 1.667
332 Male Adult 6 1.667
333 Male Adult 7 1.429
334 Female Child 9 1.111
335 Female Child 8 1.250
336 Female Child 7 1.429
337 Female Child 8 1.250
338 Female Child 6 1.667
339 Female Child 7 1.429
340 Female Child 7 1.429
341 Female Child 7 1.429
342 Female Child 6 1.667
343 Female Child 6 1.667
344 Male Child 8 1.250
- 88 -
345 Male Child 6 1.667
346 Female Elderly 10 1.000
347 Female Elderly 10 1.000
348 Female Elderly 9 1.111
Time to cross the
Ped No Sex Age Group street (Sec) Speed (m/s)
349 Female Elderly 8 1.250
350 Female Elderly 9 1.111
351 Female Elderly 12 0.833
352 Female Elderly 10 1.000
353 Female Elderly 9 1.111
354 Female Elderly 5 2.000
355 Female Elderly 6 1.667
356 Male Elderly 11 0.909
357 Male Elderly 8 1.250
358 Male Elderly 8 1.250
359 Male Elderly 8 1.250
360 Male Elderly 8 1.250
361 Male Elderly 9 1.111
362 Male Elderly 9 1.111
363 Male Elderly 8 1.250
364 Male Elderly 9 1.111
365 Male Elderly 7 1.429
366 Male Elderly 9 1.111
367 Male Elderly 11 0.909
368 Male Elderly 7 1.429
369 Male Elderly 6 1.667

- 89 -