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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Chapter 02: Gravitation

02 Gravitation
Hints to Problems for Practice
gR 2
6. i. vc = = 7519.07 m s–1
GM E MS R+h
1. F=
R2 2π(R + h)
ii. T= = 1 hr 39 min
22 6.67 ×10−11 × M s × 6 ×1024 vc
3.5 × 10 =
(1.5×10 ) 11 2
1/3
⎛ T 2 GM ⎞
∴ MS = 1.96 × 10 kg 30 7. h= ⎜ 2 ⎟
−R
⎝ 4π ⎠
1 ⎡ (0.2 × 24 × 3600)2 × 6.67 × 10−11 × 5.98 × 1024 ⎤
1/3
6.67 × 10−11 × M × M =⎢
GMm 81 ⎥
2. F= = ⎣ 4 × (3.142)2 ⎦
R2 (3.85 × 105 ) 2
26 – (6.4 × 106)
= 1.999 × 10 N
= 8050 km
7
3. (R + h) = 4.23 × 10 m,
gR 2
gh R 2
8. vc = = 2.38 × 103 m s–1
= = 0.2243 m s–2 (R + h)
g (R + h) 2

1/3
2π(R + h) 2 × 3.142 × 4.23 × 107 ⎛ T 2 gR 2 ⎞
vc = = 9. R+h= ⎜ M 2 ⎟
T 24 × 60 × 60 ⎝ 4π ⎠
3 –1
= 3.076 × 10 m s 1
⎡ (27.5 × 24 × 3600) 2 × 9.8 × (6.4 × 106 ) 2 ⎤ 3
2 = ⎢ ⎥
gh ⎛ R ⎞ ⎣ 4π 2 ⎦
4. i. =⎜ ⎟
g ⎝R+h⎠ = 3.8575 × 105 km
h= ( 2 −1 ) 10. vc = gR 2 / (R + h) = 7545.66 m s
–1

h = 2649 km
gR 2 9.8(6.38 ×106 ) 2
g 'h ⎛ R ⎞
2
11. i. vc = =
ii. =⎜ (R + h) (6.38 + 0.25)106

g ⎝ R + h' ⎠
= 7756.7 m s–1
h′ = 711 km ≈ 7.76 km s–1

gR 2 2π(R + h) 2π ⎡⎣ (6.38 + 0.25)10 ⎤⎦


6

5. vc = ii. T= =
(R + h) vc 7756.7

9.8 × (6.4 × 106 ) 2 = 5371 s


= = 7.4154 km s–1 ≈ 1 hr. and 29.4 min.
(6.4 + 0.9)106
2π(R + h) 2π(R + h)
T= 12. T=
vc vc
2 × 3.142 × (6.4 + 0.9)106 2 × 3.142 × (6.4 + 1)106
= =
7415.35 7364
= 6185.45 s = 6313.90 s
= 1 hr 43.2 min ≈ 6314 s

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

⎡3 ⎤
3
M
iii. B.E. ∝
T12 ⎡ R1 ⎤ ⎢4R⎥
3
R
13. = ⎢R⎥ = ⎢ ⎥
T2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ R ⎥ (B.E.) A M A R B 2 5
= × = ×
⎣ ⎦ (B.E.) B M B R A 1 3
T1 = 0.650 yr. = 10 : 3
2 3 3
⎛ TE ⎞ ⎛ rE ⎞ ⎛ 1.5 ×1011 ⎞ ⎡ h 2 − h1 ⎤ gRm
14. ⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 11 ⎟
18. E = gR 2 m ⎢ ⎥ =
⎝ TM ⎠ ⎝ rM ⎠ ⎝ 2.5 ×10 ⎠ ⎣ (R + h1 )(R + h 2 ) ⎦ 12

TM = 2.15 yrs. 9.8 × 6.37 × 106 × 2 × 103


=
12
15. T ∝ R 3/2 = 1.0404 × 1010 J
T′ ∝ (R + h)3/ 2
GMm
3/ 2 3/ 2 19. K.E. =
T ⎛ R ⎞ ⎡ 6.4 × 106 ⎤ 2(R + h)
=⎜ ⎟ =⎢ 6 ⎥
T' ⎝ R + h ⎠ ⎣ (6.4 + 0.6) × 10 ⎦ 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 102
=
= 0.8742 2(6.4 + 1.6)106
1.4 = 2.5013 × 109 J
T′ = = 1.60 hrs.
0.8742 B.E. = K.E. = 2.5013 ×109 J
T.E. = –K.E. = – 2.5013 ×109 J
GMm GMm
16. (K.E) h1 = = P.E. = –(2K.E.) = – 5.0026 × 109 J
2(R + h1 ) 6R
GMm GMm gRm 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 × 500
(K.E)h 2 = = 20. K.E. = =
2(R + h 2 ) 10R 2 2
10
= 1.568 × 10 J
∆K.E. = (K.E)h 2 – (K.E) h1
P.E. = – 2(K.E.) = – 3.136 × 1010 J
GMm B.E. = K.E. = 1.568 × 1010 J
GMm ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ −
= − = 15R T.E. = – (K.E.) = – 1.568 × 1010 J
R ⎢⎣10 6 ⎥⎦
GMm
6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 400 21. B.E. =
=− 2(R + h)
15 × 6.4 × 106
∴ ∆K.E. = – 1.6675 × 109 J 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 103
B.E. =
∆P.E. = – 2(∆K.E.) = –2(–1.6675 × 109) 2(6.4 + 4)106
∴ ∆P.E. = 3.335 × 109 J = 1.92 × 1010 J

1 GMm
17. i. vc ∝ 22. B.E. =
R 2(R + h)
v cA RB 5 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 50
= = =
v cB RA 3 2(6.4 × 0.6)106
∴ B.E. = 1.4293 × 109 J
R (K.E.) = (B.E) = 1.4293 × 109 J
ii. T∝
vc (P.E.) = − 2(K.E.) = − 2.8586 × 109 J
(T.E.) = − (K.E.) = − 1.4293 × 109 J
TA R A v cB 3 3 3 3
= × = × =
TB R B vcA 5 5 5 5 23. ve = 2g M R M = 2 × 1.63 × 1.7 × 106
= 0.4648 = 2.354 × 103 m s–1 = 2.354 km s–1
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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Chapter 02: Gravitation

24. i. ve ∝ M r−x Me
=
ve' M' x Mm
= = 2
ve M Solving, x ≈ 3.8 × 107 m
ve′ = 11.2 × 2 = 15.8392 km s–1 4. The force on mass m at P due to solid sphere is
1 GM m GM m
ii. ve ∝ F1 = = …(i)
(3R) 2 9R 2
R
Mass of cavity created,
ve' R 1
= = M 4 M
ve R' 2 M′ = × π(R / 2)3 =
4 3 3 8
11.2 πR
ve′ = = 7.9196 km s–1 3
2 The force on mass m due to mass of cavity is
G(M / 8) m GM m
M F′ = =
25. ve ∝ (3R − R / 2) 2
50R 2
R
The force on mass m due to remaining part of
ve M Rm ⎛9⎞ sphere
∴ = × =⎜ ⎟
(ve ) M R Mm ⎝2⎠ 41 GM m
F2 = F1 – F′ = ….(ii)
450 R 2
Hints to Multiple Choice Questions From (i) and (ii)
F2 : F1 = 41 : 50
mv2 Gmm Gm
1. = 2
⇒v= 5. Mass of element of rod of length dx at
r (2r) 4r distance x from point mass M = (M/L) dx
The two particles will move on a circular path Force experienced by point mass due to this
if they always remain oppositely directed and element is
force of gravitation will act radially. GM × (M / L)dx GM 2 dx
dF = =
2. Let resultant force on sphere C be F. x2 L x2
A Total force experienced by point mass due to
whole rod is
2L
2R GM 2 dx GM 2
2R F= ∫ =
L L x2 2L2
F1
2
B
60°
C ⎛4 3 ⎞
2R F2 GMM ⎜ πR ρ ⎟
6. F= = G × ⎝3 ⎠
2
3 Gm 2 (2R) 2
(2R)
F = F + F2 + 2F1F2 cos 60 =
1
2 2

4 R2 4 2 4
=G× π ρR
Gm 2 9
Where, F1 = along CA
4R 2
GM
Gm 2 7. W = mg = m ×
F2 = along CB R2
4R 2 GM ′
W′ = mg′ = m ×
3. Let x be the distance between rocket and ( R ′)
2

moon, when the net gravitational force on


rocket is zero, i.e., gravitational force on M′ R 2 M/7 R2
⇒ × = ×
M ( R ′ )2 ( R / 2)
2
rocket due to earth = gravitational force on M
rocket due to moon. 4
GM e m GM m m ⇒ W ′ = 0.7 ×
Then, = 7
(r − x) 2 x2 = 0.4 kg wt

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

Re Me g m 80 17. Orbital velocity is given by


8. = × = = 3.65 12
Rm Mm ge 6 GM ⎛ GM ⎞
vc = v0 = =⎜ ⎟ where G and M
r ⎝ r ⎠
GM G(2M) are constant.
9. g= 2
, g′ =
R (3R) 2 If radius r changes then, percentage change in
2 orbital velocity is given by
∴ g′ = g
9 ∆v 0 1 ⎛ ∆r ⎞
× 100 = − ⎜ ⎟ × 100 …(1)
∴ g′ = 2.18 m/s2 v0 2⎝ r ⎠
gh R2 64 R2 Given, radius decreases by 1 %
10. = i.e., = ∆v 0 1
g (R + h)2 100 (R + h)2 ⇒ × 100 = − (–1) = 0.5 %
Solving, h = 1600 km. v0 2

11. At h = R 18. Critical velocity of satellite revloving close to


gh R2 R2 1 earth
= = =
g (R + h) 2
( 2R ) 4
2 v
vc = gR , ω = c ∴ ω2 = 2
gR
10 R R
gh = = 2.5 m/s2 ∴ −3
ω = 1.24 × 10 rad/s
4
1
GM Gρ × 4πR 3 4 R3 ⎛ 3π ⎞ 2
12. g= 2 = = πGρR 19. T = 2π =
R 3R 2 3 4 3 ⎜⎝ ρG ⎟⎠
G × ρ × πR
g1 ρ1R1 3
=
g 2 ρ2 R 2
R3 R3
20. T = 2π = 2π
1 2 GM GρV
13. s = ut + at As se = sm = h
2
(4R)3
1 2 1 t2 g t 2 T′ = 2π =T
g e t e = g m t 2m ∴ 2e = m i.e. m2 = 6 ⎡4 3⎤
Gρ ⎢ π(4R) ⎥
2 2 t m ge te
⎣3 ⎦
tm2 = 6t e2 tm = 6t e = 6t
21. h=R
14. gE = g – Rω2
( 2R )
3
8R 3
3 T = 2π =
For given condition, gE = g GM gR 2
4
3 1 g 24 × 60 × 60
Rω2 = g – g i.e. ω2 = No. of revolutions per day =
4 4R T
10 = 38.18
=
4 × 6400 ×103 3 3
2 3 T ⎛r ⎞ 2
⎛4⎞ 2
1 22. T ∝r ∴ 2 =⎜ 2 ⎟ =⎜ ⎟
= rad/s T1 ⎝ r1 ⎠ ⎝1⎠
1600
T2 = 8T1 = 8 years = 8 × 365 day
⎛g⎞ = 2920 day
15. mg he = m ⎜ ⎟ hmoon.
⎝6⎠
1
∴ hmoon = 1.2 × 6 = 1.7 m 23. T2 ∝ d3 ∴ 2
∝ d3
n
GM GM vc1 r 9R 3 ∴ n2 d3 = constant
16. vc = = ; = 2 = =
R+h r vc r1 16R 4 ∴ n12 d13 = n 22 d 32
2

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Chapter 02: Gravitation

24. T2 ∝ r3 GMm
2 3
30. (P.E.)earth =
⎛ T1 ⎞ ⎛ r1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
3
R
⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ M
⎝ T2 ⎠ ⎝ r2 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ G m
(P.E.)planet = 2 = GMm
T1 1 R R
∴ =
T2′ 8 2
∴ Ratio is 1 : 1
3/ 2
T1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ GMm GMm 1 GMm
25. =⎜ ⎟ 31. ∆ P.E. = − =
T2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ R R 6 R
R+
24 5
∴ T2 = = 72 3 hrs
0.192 GM ⎡ mR ⎤ gmR
= 2 ⎢ =
R ⎣ 6 ⎥⎦ 6
GM
26. vc = ⎡ GM ⎤
2R ⎢∵ g = R 2 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
1 GMm mgR gm5h 5
K.E. = mv c2 = = = = (mgh)
2 4R 4 6 6
−GMm ⎛ GMm ⎞
27. (P.E.)final = , 32. (P.E.) = U1 = – ⎜ ⎟
R + nR ⎝ r1 ⎠
−GMm U ×r
(P.E.)initial = ∴ GM = 1 1
R m
∆(P.E.) = (P.E.)final − (P.E.)initial GM
Weight W1 = mg1 = m 2
GMm ⎡ 1 ⎤ r1
= 1−
R ⎣ (1 + n) ⎥⎦

⎡ GM ⎤
and W2 = mg2 = m ⎢ 2 ⎥
⎡ n ⎤ ⎣ r2 ⎦
= gmR ⎢ ⎥
⎣ n + 1⎦ ⎡U r ⎤ 1 U r
= m ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ × 2 = 12 1
−GMm ⎣ m ⎦ r2 r2
28. (P.E.)initial = ,
R 4 ×10 ×10
9 7
W2 = N = 0.04 N
−GMm −GMm 109 ×109
(P.E.)final = =
(R + h) 2R 33. Total energy of satellite in circular orbit of
(∵h = R) radius 2R
E1 = P.E. + K.E.
∆(P.E.) = (P.E.)final – (P.E.)initial GM m 1 ⎡ GM ⎤
2

−GMm ⎛ −GMm ⎞ GMm 1 =– + m⎢ ⎥


= −⎜ = mgR 2R 2 ⎣ 2R ⎦
⎟=
2R ⎝ R ⎠ 2R 2 GM m
=–
⎛ GM ⎞ 4R
⎜∵ g = 2 ⎟ Total energy of satellite in circular orbit of
⎝ R ⎠
radius 4 R
GMm −gR 2 m GM m 1 ⎡ GM ⎤ GM m
2

29. P.E. = – = E2 = – + m⎢ ⎥ =−
R+h R+h 4R 2 ⎣ 2R ⎦ 8R
2
gR m 1 mgR
In magnitude, = mgR Energy spent = E2 – E1 =
R+h 2 8
∴ R + h = 2R 400 × 9.8 × 6.4 ×106
= = 3.14 J
∴ h=R 8

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

1 2GM R1 g
34. (K.E.)1 = mve2 , ve = 40. = k ; 1 = r ; ve = 2gR
2 R R2 g2
1 GM ve1 g1 R1
(K.E.)2 = mvc2 , vc = ∴ = × = rk
2 R v e2 g2 R 2
( K.E.)1 2
=
( K.E.)2 1 41. v'e = 2 × 9 × g × 4R
= 6 2gR = 6 × 11.2 = 67.2 km/s
1 1
( )
2
35. E = mve2 = m 2gR = mgR
2 2 42. M2 = 3M1 and R2 = 3R1
= 500 × 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 2GM
ve =
≈ 3.1 × 1010 J R
ve 1 M1 R 2 M1 3R1
36. Given h = Re = × = × =1
(P.E.)top = (K.E.)bottom ve 2 M 2 R1 3M1 R1
GMm 1 2
− = mv0 2GM
2 Re 2 43. ve =
R
GM Given e2 = 10 ve1
v
∴ v0 =
Re v e2 R1
=
2GM ve1 R2
ve =
Re R2 = 64 km
v0 1
∴ = .
ve 2

37. Oribital velocity of satellite,


GM
v0 =
r
1 1 GMm
Kinetic energy, E = mv 02 =
2 2 r
Kinetic energy for escaping body,
1 1 2GM GM m
E′ = mv e2 = m = = 2E
2 2 r r
Additional energy needed
= E′ – E = 2 E – E = E

38. ve = 2gR and v′e = 2 ( g / 6 ) × ( R / 4 )


2gR ve 11
ve′ = = = km / s
24 24 24

39. R2 = 2R1, ρ1 = ρ 2
M1 M2 M1 R13
= ∴ =
4 / 3πR13 4 / 3πR 32 M 2 R 32
v e2 M 2 R1 R 32 R 1 R 2
= × = × =
v e1 M1 R 2 R13 R 2 R1
ve2 = 11.2 × 2 = 22.4 km/s