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02 Gravitation

Hints to Problems for Practice

gR 2

6. i. vc = = 7519.07 m s–1

GM E MS R+h

1. F=

R2 2π(R + h)

ii. T= = 1 hr 39 min

22 6.67 ×10−11 × M s × 6 ×1024 vc

3.5 × 10 =

(1.5×10 ) 11 2

1/3

⎛ T 2 GM ⎞

∴ MS = 1.96 × 10 kg 30 7. h= ⎜ 2 ⎟

−R

⎝ 4π ⎠

1 ⎡ (0.2 × 24 × 3600)2 × 6.67 × 10−11 × 5.98 × 1024 ⎤

1/3

6.67 × 10−11 × M × M =⎢

GMm 81 ⎥

2. F= = ⎣ 4 × (3.142)2 ⎦

R2 (3.85 × 105 ) 2

26 – (6.4 × 106)

= 1.999 × 10 N

= 8050 km

7

3. (R + h) = 4.23 × 10 m,

gR 2

gh R 2

8. vc = = 2.38 × 103 m s–1

= = 0.2243 m s–2 (R + h)

g (R + h) 2

1/3

2π(R + h) 2 × 3.142 × 4.23 × 107 ⎛ T 2 gR 2 ⎞

vc = = 9. R+h= ⎜ M 2 ⎟

T 24 × 60 × 60 ⎝ 4π ⎠

3 –1

= 3.076 × 10 m s 1

⎡ (27.5 × 24 × 3600) 2 × 9.8 × (6.4 × 106 ) 2 ⎤ 3

2 = ⎢ ⎥

gh ⎛ R ⎞ ⎣ 4π 2 ⎦

4. i. =⎜ ⎟

g ⎝R+h⎠ = 3.8575 × 105 km

h= ( 2 −1 ) 10. vc = gR 2 / (R + h) = 7545.66 m s

–1

h = 2649 km

gR 2 9.8(6.38 ×106 ) 2

g 'h ⎛ R ⎞

2

11. i. vc = =

ii. =⎜ (R + h) (6.38 + 0.25)106

⎟

g ⎝ R + h' ⎠

= 7756.7 m s–1

h′ = 711 km ≈ 7.76 km s–1

6

5. vc = ii. T= =

(R + h) vc 7756.7

= = 7.4154 km s–1 ≈ 1 hr. and 29.4 min.

(6.4 + 0.9)106

2π(R + h) 2π(R + h)

T= 12. T=

vc vc

2 × 3.142 × (6.4 + 0.9)106 2 × 3.142 × (6.4 + 1)106

= =

7415.35 7364

= 6185.45 s = 6313.90 s

= 1 hr 43.2 min ≈ 6314 s

1 1

Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

⎡3 ⎤

3

M

iii. B.E. ∝

T12 ⎡ R1 ⎤ ⎢4R⎥

3

R

13. = ⎢R⎥ = ⎢ ⎥

T2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ R ⎥ (B.E.) A M A R B 2 5

= × = ×

⎣ ⎦ (B.E.) B M B R A 1 3

T1 = 0.650 yr. = 10 : 3

2 3 3

⎛ TE ⎞ ⎛ rE ⎞ ⎛ 1.5 ×1011 ⎞ ⎡ h 2 − h1 ⎤ gRm

14. ⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 11 ⎟

18. E = gR 2 m ⎢ ⎥ =

⎝ TM ⎠ ⎝ rM ⎠ ⎝ 2.5 ×10 ⎠ ⎣ (R + h1 )(R + h 2 ) ⎦ 12

=

12

15. T ∝ R 3/2 = 1.0404 × 1010 J

T′ ∝ (R + h)3/ 2

GMm

3/ 2 3/ 2 19. K.E. =

T ⎛ R ⎞ ⎡ 6.4 × 106 ⎤ 2(R + h)

=⎜ ⎟ =⎢ 6 ⎥

T' ⎝ R + h ⎠ ⎣ (6.4 + 0.6) × 10 ⎦ 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 102

=

= 0.8742 2(6.4 + 1.6)106

1.4 = 2.5013 × 109 J

T′ = = 1.60 hrs.

0.8742 B.E. = K.E. = 2.5013 ×109 J

T.E. = –K.E. = – 2.5013 ×109 J

GMm GMm

16. (K.E) h1 = = P.E. = –(2K.E.) = – 5.0026 × 109 J

2(R + h1 ) 6R

GMm GMm gRm 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 × 500

(K.E)h 2 = = 20. K.E. = =

2(R + h 2 ) 10R 2 2

10

= 1.568 × 10 J

∆K.E. = (K.E)h 2 – (K.E) h1

P.E. = – 2(K.E.) = – 3.136 × 1010 J

GMm B.E. = K.E. = 1.568 × 1010 J

GMm ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ −

= − = 15R T.E. = – (K.E.) = – 1.568 × 1010 J

R ⎢⎣10 6 ⎥⎦

GMm

6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 400 21. B.E. =

=− 2(R + h)

15 × 6.4 × 106

∴ ∆K.E. = – 1.6675 × 109 J 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 103

B.E. =

∆P.E. = – 2(∆K.E.) = –2(–1.6675 × 109) 2(6.4 + 4)106

∴ ∆P.E. = 3.335 × 109 J = 1.92 × 1010 J

1 GMm

17. i. vc ∝ 22. B.E. =

R 2(R + h)

v cA RB 5 6.67 × 10−11 × 6 × 1024 × 50

= = =

v cB RA 3 2(6.4 × 0.6)106

∴ B.E. = 1.4293 × 109 J

R (K.E.) = (B.E) = 1.4293 × 109 J

ii. T∝

vc (P.E.) = − 2(K.E.) = − 2.8586 × 109 J

(T.E.) = − (K.E.) = − 1.4293 × 109 J

TA R A v cB 3 3 3 3

= × = × =

TB R B vcA 5 5 5 5 23. ve = 2g M R M = 2 × 1.63 × 1.7 × 106

= 0.4648 = 2.354 × 103 m s–1 = 2.354 km s–1

2

Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Chapter 02: Gravitation

24. i. ve ∝ M r−x Me

=

ve' M' x Mm

= = 2

ve M Solving, x ≈ 3.8 × 107 m

ve′ = 11.2 × 2 = 15.8392 km s–1 4. The force on mass m at P due to solid sphere is

1 GM m GM m

ii. ve ∝ F1 = = …(i)

(3R) 2 9R 2

R

Mass of cavity created,

ve' R 1

= = M 4 M

ve R' 2 M′ = × π(R / 2)3 =

4 3 3 8

11.2 πR

ve′ = = 7.9196 km s–1 3

2 The force on mass m due to mass of cavity is

G(M / 8) m GM m

M F′ = =

25. ve ∝ (3R − R / 2) 2

50R 2

R

The force on mass m due to remaining part of

ve M Rm ⎛9⎞ sphere

∴ = × =⎜ ⎟

(ve ) M R Mm ⎝2⎠ 41 GM m

F2 = F1 – F′ = ….(ii)

450 R 2

Hints to Multiple Choice Questions From (i) and (ii)

F2 : F1 = 41 : 50

mv2 Gmm Gm

1. = 2

⇒v= 5. Mass of element of rod of length dx at

r (2r) 4r distance x from point mass M = (M/L) dx

The two particles will move on a circular path Force experienced by point mass due to this

if they always remain oppositely directed and element is

force of gravitation will act radially. GM × (M / L)dx GM 2 dx

dF = =

2. Let resultant force on sphere C be F. x2 L x2

A Total force experienced by point mass due to

whole rod is

2L

2R GM 2 dx GM 2

2R F= ∫ =

L L x2 2L2

F1

2

B

60°

C ⎛4 3 ⎞

2R F2 GMM ⎜ πR ρ ⎟

6. F= = G × ⎝3 ⎠

2

3 Gm 2 (2R) 2

(2R)

F = F + F2 + 2F1F2 cos 60 =

1

2 2

4 R2 4 2 4

=G× π ρR

Gm 2 9

Where, F1 = along CA

4R 2

GM

Gm 2 7. W = mg = m ×

F2 = along CB R2

4R 2 GM ′

W′ = mg′ = m ×

3. Let x be the distance between rocket and ( R ′)

2

rocket is zero, i.e., gravitational force on M′ R 2 M/7 R2

⇒ × = ×

M ( R ′ )2 ( R / 2)

2

rocket due to earth = gravitational force on M

rocket due to moon. 4

GM e m GM m m ⇒ W ′ = 0.7 ×

Then, = 7

(r − x) 2 x2 = 0.4 kg wt

3 3

Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

8. = × = = 3.65 12

Rm Mm ge 6 GM ⎛ GM ⎞

vc = v0 = =⎜ ⎟ where G and M

r ⎝ r ⎠

GM G(2M) are constant.

9. g= 2

, g′ =

R (3R) 2 If radius r changes then, percentage change in

2 orbital velocity is given by

∴ g′ = g

9 ∆v 0 1 ⎛ ∆r ⎞

× 100 = − ⎜ ⎟ × 100 …(1)

∴ g′ = 2.18 m/s2 v0 2⎝ r ⎠

gh R2 64 R2 Given, radius decreases by 1 %

10. = i.e., = ∆v 0 1

g (R + h)2 100 (R + h)2 ⇒ × 100 = − (–1) = 0.5 %

Solving, h = 1600 km. v0 2

gh R2 R2 1 earth

= = =

g (R + h) 2

( 2R ) 4

2 v

vc = gR , ω = c ∴ ω2 = 2

gR

10 R R

gh = = 2.5 m/s2 ∴ −3

ω = 1.24 × 10 rad/s

4

1

GM Gρ × 4πR 3 4 R3 ⎛ 3π ⎞ 2

12. g= 2 = = πGρR 19. T = 2π =

R 3R 2 3 4 3 ⎜⎝ ρG ⎟⎠

G × ρ × πR

g1 ρ1R1 3

=

g 2 ρ2 R 2

R3 R3

20. T = 2π = 2π

1 2 GM GρV

13. s = ut + at As se = sm = h

2

(4R)3

1 2 1 t2 g t 2 T′ = 2π =T

g e t e = g m t 2m ∴ 2e = m i.e. m2 = 6 ⎡4 3⎤

Gρ ⎢ π(4R) ⎥

2 2 t m ge te

⎣3 ⎦

tm2 = 6t e2 tm = 6t e = 6t

21. h=R

14. gE = g – Rω2

( 2R )

3

8R 3

3 T = 2π =

For given condition, gE = g GM gR 2

4

3 1 g 24 × 60 × 60

Rω2 = g – g i.e. ω2 = No. of revolutions per day =

4 4R T

10 = 38.18

=

4 × 6400 ×103 3 3

2 3 T ⎛r ⎞ 2

⎛4⎞ 2

1 22. T ∝r ∴ 2 =⎜ 2 ⎟ =⎜ ⎟

= rad/s T1 ⎝ r1 ⎠ ⎝1⎠

1600

T2 = 8T1 = 8 years = 8 × 365 day

⎛g⎞ = 2920 day

15. mg he = m ⎜ ⎟ hmoon.

⎝6⎠

1

∴ hmoon = 1.2 × 6 = 1.7 m 23. T2 ∝ d3 ∴ 2

∝ d3

n

GM GM vc1 r 9R 3 ∴ n2 d3 = constant

16. vc = = ; = 2 = =

R+h r vc r1 16R 4 ∴ n12 d13 = n 22 d 32

2

4

Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Chapter 02: Gravitation

24. T2 ∝ r3 GMm

2 3

30. (P.E.)earth =

⎛ T1 ⎞ ⎛ r1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞

3

R

⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ M

⎝ T2 ⎠ ⎝ r2 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ G m

(P.E.)planet = 2 = GMm

T1 1 R R

∴ =

T2′ 8 2

∴ Ratio is 1 : 1

3/ 2

T1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ GMm GMm 1 GMm

25. =⎜ ⎟ 31. ∆ P.E. = − =

T2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ R R 6 R

R+

24 5

∴ T2 = = 72 3 hrs

0.192 GM ⎡ mR ⎤ gmR

= 2 ⎢ =

R ⎣ 6 ⎥⎦ 6

GM

26. vc = ⎡ GM ⎤

2R ⎢∵ g = R 2 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

1 GMm mgR gm5h 5

K.E. = mv c2 = = = = (mgh)

2 4R 4 6 6

−GMm ⎛ GMm ⎞

27. (P.E.)final = , 32. (P.E.) = U1 = – ⎜ ⎟

R + nR ⎝ r1 ⎠

−GMm U ×r

(P.E.)initial = ∴ GM = 1 1

R m

∆(P.E.) = (P.E.)final − (P.E.)initial GM

Weight W1 = mg1 = m 2

GMm ⎡ 1 ⎤ r1

= 1−

R ⎣ (1 + n) ⎥⎦

⎢

⎡ GM ⎤

and W2 = mg2 = m ⎢ 2 ⎥

⎡ n ⎤ ⎣ r2 ⎦

= gmR ⎢ ⎥

⎣ n + 1⎦ ⎡U r ⎤ 1 U r

= m ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ × 2 = 12 1

−GMm ⎣ m ⎦ r2 r2

28. (P.E.)initial = ,

R 4 ×10 ×10

9 7

W2 = N = 0.04 N

−GMm −GMm 109 ×109

(P.E.)final = =

(R + h) 2R 33. Total energy of satellite in circular orbit of

(∵h = R) radius 2R

E1 = P.E. + K.E.

∆(P.E.) = (P.E.)final – (P.E.)initial GM m 1 ⎡ GM ⎤

2

= −⎜ = mgR 2R 2 ⎣ 2R ⎦

⎟=

2R ⎝ R ⎠ 2R 2 GM m

=–

⎛ GM ⎞ 4R

⎜∵ g = 2 ⎟ Total energy of satellite in circular orbit of

⎝ R ⎠

radius 4 R

GMm −gR 2 m GM m 1 ⎡ GM ⎤ GM m

2

29. P.E. = – = E2 = – + m⎢ ⎥ =−

R+h R+h 4R 2 ⎣ 2R ⎦ 8R

2

gR m 1 mgR

In magnitude, = mgR Energy spent = E2 – E1 =

R+h 2 8

∴ R + h = 2R 400 × 9.8 × 6.4 ×106

= = 3.14 J

∴ h=R 8

5 5

Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XII Sci.: Physics Numericals

1 2GM R1 g

34. (K.E.)1 = mve2 , ve = 40. = k ; 1 = r ; ve = 2gR

2 R R2 g2

1 GM ve1 g1 R1

(K.E.)2 = mvc2 , vc = ∴ = × = rk

2 R v e2 g2 R 2

( K.E.)1 2

=

( K.E.)2 1 41. v'e = 2 × 9 × g × 4R

= 6 2gR = 6 × 11.2 = 67.2 km/s

1 1

( )

2

35. E = mve2 = m 2gR = mgR

2 2 42. M2 = 3M1 and R2 = 3R1

= 500 × 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 2GM

ve =

≈ 3.1 × 1010 J R

ve 1 M1 R 2 M1 3R1

36. Given h = Re = × = × =1

(P.E.)top = (K.E.)bottom ve 2 M 2 R1 3M1 R1

GMm 1 2

− = mv0 2GM

2 Re 2 43. ve =

R

GM Given e2 = 10 ve1

v

∴ v0 =

Re v e2 R1

=

2GM ve1 R2

ve =

Re R2 = 64 km

v0 1

∴ = .

ve 2

GM

v0 =

r

1 1 GMm

Kinetic energy, E = mv 02 =

2 2 r

Kinetic energy for escaping body,

1 1 2GM GM m

E′ = mv e2 = m = = 2E

2 2 r r

Additional energy needed

= E′ – E = 2 E – E = E

2gR ve 11

ve′ = = = km / s

24 24 24

39. R2 = 2R1, ρ1 = ρ 2

M1 M2 M1 R13

= ∴ =

4 / 3πR13 4 / 3πR 32 M 2 R 32

v e2 M 2 R1 R 32 R 1 R 2

= × = × =

v e1 M1 R 2 R13 R 2 R1

ve2 = 11.2 × 2 = 22.4 km/s

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