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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE
DECLARATION i
CERTIFICATION ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
ABSTRACT v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES xxi
LIST OF FIGURES xxvii
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES xxxi

CHAPTER ONE: FEASIBILITY STUDY


1.1 Introduction to Ethylbenzene 1
1.1.1 Natural Occurrence 3
1.1.2 Current Application 3
1.1.3 Reaction Mechanism 3
1.1.4 Catalyst Selection (ZSM-5 Zeolite) 4
1.1.5 Physical, Chemical and Thermodynamics 5
Properties
1.2 Process Selection 6
1.2.1 Alkylation of Benzene and Ethylene by Mobil-Badger 7
Ethylbenzene Process by using ZSM-5 Catalyst
Via vapour phase
1.2.1.1 Process Description 9
1.2.2 Lummus/UOP Ethyl Benzene Process by 10
Alkylation of Benzene and Ethylene in Liquid phase
1.2.2.1 Process Description 13
1.2.3 Alkar Process by using Boron Trifluoride (BF3) 14
Catalysts
1.2.3.1 Process Description 16
1.3 Process Selected 20
1.3.1 Comparison between Process 20
1.3.2 Description to Process 20
1.4 Process Details 22
1.4.1 Alkylation Process 23
1.4.2 Transalkylation Process 24
1.4.3 Separation and Purification Process 25
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1.5 Market Analysis 26


1.5.1 Introduction 26
1.5.2 Market Survey for Raw Materials 27
1.5.2.1 Benzene 27
1.5.2.2 Global Production and Demand of Benzene 28
1.5.3 Ethylene 29
1.5.3.1 Global Production and Demand of Ethylene 30
1.5.3.2 Production and Demand of Ethylene and 33
Benzene in Malaysia
1.6 Market Survey Of Ethylbenzene 34
1.6.1 Global Production and Demand of Ethylbenzene 34
1.6.1.1 Production of EthylBenzene Worldwide 34
1.6.1.2 Demand of Ethylbenzene Worldwide 35
1.6.1.3 Comparison of Global Ethylbenzene Forecast 36
Demand and Production in Year 2013 until 2016
1.6.1.4 The Influence Factor of Ethylbenzene Demand 37
1.6.1.5 Global Ethyl Benzene Market Restraints 38
1.6.2 Production and Demand of Ethylbenzene in Malaysia 38
1.7 Styrene Capacity Installations in Developing Countries to 42
Contribute to Global Ethylbenzene Demand
1.7.1 Global Styrene Demand 43
1.8 Economic analysis 44
1.9 Profitability Analysis 44
1.10 Break Even Analysis 46
1.10.1 Process economics and estimation 46
1.10.2 Total Capital investment 46
1.10.2.1 Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) 46
1.10.2.2 Working Capital 47
1.10.2.3 Start-up cost 47
1.10.3 Total Cost (TC) 48
1.10.4 Gross-Roots Capital Cost (GRC) 48
1.10.4.1 Estimation of Grass-roots capital 49
1.10.4.2 Estimation of Total Capital Investment (TCI) 51
1.10.4.3 Estimation raw material cost 52
1.10.4.4 Cost Analysis for Selling Price per Unit 53
1.10.4.5 Estimation of utilities cost 53
1.10.4.6 Estimation of operating labor 54
1.10.4.7 Estimation of total production cost 56
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1.10.4.8 Breakeven Analysis 58


1.10.4.9 Calculation of Payback Period, PBP 60
1.11 Conclusion 65
1.12 Site Location 66
1.12.1 Introduction 66
1.12.2 Criteria Of Site Selection 66
1.12.2.1 Raw material 66
1.12.2.2 Land price 67
1.12.2.3 Proximity to market 67
1.12.2.4 Utilities 67
1.12.2.5 Transport facilities 67
1.12.2.6 Availability of labour 68
1.12.2.7 Safety and environment impact 68
1.12.2.8 Climate 68
1.13 Site Location Overview 68
1.13.1 Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex (TLIC), Johor 69
1.13.2 Telok Kalong Industrial Area, Terengganu 71
1.13.3 Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang 73
1.13.4 Comparison Of Available Site Location 76
1.14 Weightage Study 78
1.15 Plant Site Location Selected 79
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CHAPTER TWO: PROCESS FLOW


2.1 Introduction 80
2.2 General Assumptions 81
2.3 Basic Calculation 82
2.4 Mass Balance Calculation 84
2.4.1 Balance on Alkylation Reactor, R-101 84
2.4.2 Balance on Ethylene Column, T-101 88
2.4.3 Balance on Transalkylation Reactor, R-102 91
2.4.4 Balance on Mixer, M-102 93
2.4.5 Balance on Benzene Column, T-102 96
2.4.6 Balance on Ethylbenzene Column, T-102 99
2.4.7 Balance on Diethylbenzene Column, T-102 101
2.4.8 Balance on Tank, V-101 103
2.4.9 Balance on Mixer, M-103 104
2.4.10 Balance on Mixer, M-101 106
2.5 Comparison Of Total Mass Flowrate 108
2.6 Conclusion Mass Balance 109
2.7 Energy Balance 110
2.7.1 Introduction 110
2.8 General Assumptions And Procedures 111
2.8.1 Assumption 111
2.8.2 Reference condition 111
2.8.3 Equation for Reactive Process 112
2.8.4 Equation for Nonreactive Process 112
2.8.5 Equation for Heat Capacity, Cp 113
2.9 Physical Properties 113
2.9.1 Heat Capacities for Liquid phase 114
2.9.2 Heat Capacities for Vapor phase 114
2.10 Energy Balance Calculation 115
2.10.1 Sample Calculation Reactor R – 101 115
2.10.2 Pump (P-104) 122
2.10.3 Pump (P – 102) 123
2.10.4 Pump (P – 103) 124
2.10.5 Heater (E – 103) 124
2.10.6 Distillation column (T-104) 126
2.10.7 Distillation column (T – 103) 126
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2.10.8 Cooler (e-101) 129


2.10.9 Tank (V-101) 129
2.10.10 Cooler (E-102) 131
2.10.11 Mixer (M - 103) 132
2.10.12 Reactor (r-102) 134
2.10.13 Pump (P-101) 135
2.10.14 Distillation column (T - 102) 136
2.10.15 Mixer (M - 101) 138
2.10.16 Distillation column (T - 101) 140
2.10.17 Mixer (M - 102) 142
2.10.18 Valve (V – 1) 144
2.11 Summary Energy Balance Calculated 145
2.12 Process Simulation 146
2.12.1 Process Description 146
2.12.2 Fluid Packages 146
2.12.3 Alkylation and Transalkylation process to produce EB 146
2.12.4 Separation and Purification Process 147
2.13 ASPEN Simulation Layout 148
2.14 Description of Stream Table 149
2.15 Stream Table 151
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CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT


3.1 Chemical Design of Alkylation Reactor (R-101) 154
3.1.1 Introduction 154
3.1.2 Types of Reactor 156
3.1.3 Fixed Bed Reactor Design of Alkylation Reactor 159
3.1.3.1 Determination of theoretical background of reactor 159
design
3.1.3.2 Assumption of Design 159
3.1.3.3 Reaction Rate 160
3.1.3.4 Development of concentration profile 160
3.1.3.5 Determination of Concentration Profile by using 163
Euler’s Method
3.1.3.6 Calculation of Reactor Volume and Dimensions 167
3.1.3.7 Determination of Reactor Bed 167
3.1.3.8 Determination of Catalyst Conditions in Fixed Bed 169
Reactor
3.1.4 Velocity 172
3.1.5 Pressure Drop 172
3.1.6 Heat Balance 173
3.1.7 Optimum Pipe diameter 174
3.1.8 Summary for Chemical Design of Alkylation Reactor 174
3.1.9 Mechanical Design of alkylation reactor (r-101) 176
3.1.9.1 General Design Procedure for Mechanical Design 176
3.1.10 Steps on Mechanical Design of Reactor 180
3.1.11 Design Pressure 181
3.1.12 Design Temperature 181
3.1.13 Material Used 181
3.1.14 Welded Joint Efficiency 181
3.1.15 Corrosion Allowance 182
3.1.16 Minimum Wall Thickness 182
3.1.17 Heads and Closure 183
3.1.18 Total Height of Reactor 185
3.1.19 Design of Vessels Subject to Combined Loading 186
3.1.20 Dead weight of reactor and contents 186
3.1.20.1 Dead weight of vessel 186
3.1.20.2 Weight of insulation material 187
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3.1.20.3 Weight of Plates 187


3.1.20.4 Weight of catalyst 187
3.1.20.5 Weight of Raw Material 188
3.1.21 Vessel Support 188
3.1.22 Bracket Support 189
3.1.23 Bolted Flange Design 191
3.1.24 Gasket 193
3.1.25 Flanges faces 193
3.1.26 Man holes 193
3.1.27 Summary of Mechanical Design of Equipment 194
3.2 Distillation Column, T-103 196
3.2.1 Introduction 196
3.2.2 Introduction to distillation column 196
3.2.3 Chemical design of distillation column, T-103 198
3.2.3.1 General Design Data 198
3.2.3.2 Determination of dew point and bubble point 199
3.2.3.3 Determination of relative volatility 201
3.2.3.4 Estimation of minimum reflux ratio 203
3.2.3.5 Minimum number of stages using Fenske Equation 205
3.2.3.6 Determination of optimum operating reflux ratio, R 206
3.2.3.7 Determination of feed-point location 208
3.2.3.8 Overall column efficiency 209
3.2.3.9 Estimation of physical properties 210
3.2.3.10 Column sizing 212
3.2.3.11 Liquid flow pattern 217
3.2.3.12 Plate design 218
3.2.3.13 Weir dimension 219
3.2.3.14 Check weeping 221
3.2.3.15 Plate pressure drop 223
3.2.3.16 Downcomer liquid back-up 225
3.2.3.17 Column height 227
3.2.3.18 Check entrainment 227
3.2.3.19 Perforated area 229
3.2.4 Summary of chemical design 232
3.2.5 Mechanical design of distillation column, T-103 233
3.2.5.1 Introduction 233
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3.2.5.2 Design pressure 233


3.2.5.3 Design temperature 234
3.2.5.4 Material of construction 234
3.2.5.5 Wall thickness 235
3.2.5.6 Heads and closure 237
3.2.5.7 Weight load 239
3.2.5.8 Wind loads 242
3.2.5.9 Analysis of stresses for vessel 243
3.2.5.10 Vessel support 249
3.2.5.11 Base ring anchor bolt design 253
3.2.5.12 Pipe diameter 257
3.2.5.13 Flanges design 260
3.2.5.14 Summary of mechanical design 263
3.3 Chemical and mechanical design of fixed bed reactor R – 102 266
3.3.1 Chemical Design Of The Reactor R-102 266
3.3.1.1 Introduction 266
3.3.1.2 The Reaction 266
3.3.1.3 The initial concentration of component 268
Diethylbenzene and Benzene
3.3.1.4 Residence time 269
3.3.1.5 Determination of Reynolds Number R – 102 274
3.3.1.6 Determination of Pressure Drop in Fixed bed 276
3.3.1.7 Cooling Water Jacket Design for Reactor R – 102 276
3.3.1.8 Summary for chemical design of R – 102 279
3.3.2 Mechanical design for reactor R-102 280
3.3.2.1 Material of Construction 280
3.3.2.2 Design Pressure 280
3.3.2.3 Design Temperature 280
3.3.2.4 Reactor Weight 282
3.3.2.5 Vessel Support 283
3.3.2.6 Bolted Flanged Joints 285
3.3.2.7 Manhole 287
3.3.2.8 Top cover for Reactor R – 102 288
3.3.2.9 Summary for mechanical design of fixed bed 289
reactor R – 102
3.4 Heat exchanger design 290
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3.4.1 Introduction 290


3.4.2 Basic Chemical Design Procedure 291
3.4.2.1 Design Criteria for Process Heat Exchanger 291
3.4.2.2 Fluid Allocation 293
3.4.3 Heat Exchanger Chemical Design 293
3.4.3.1 Specification 293
3.4.3.2 Physical Properties 294
3.4.3.3 Overall coefficient 295
3.4.3.4 Exchanger Type and Dimensions 295
3.4.3.5 Heat Transfer Area 296
3.4.3.6 Layout and Tube Size 296
3.4.3.7 Number of Tubes 297
3.4.3.8 Bundle and Shell Diameter 298
3.4.3.9 Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient 298
3.4.3.10 Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient 299
3.4.3.11 Overall Coefficient 302
3.4.3.12 Pressure Drop 303
3.4.4 Summary of Heat Exchanger (E-101) Chemical Design 305
3.4.5 Mechanical Design of Heat Exchanger 306
3.4.6 Design Pressure and Temperature 306
3.4.7 Material of Construction 307
3.4.8 Design Stress 307
3.4.9 Wall Thickness 308
3.4.10 Head and Closure 309
3.4.11 Channel Cover Thickness 310
3.4.12 Dead Weight Load 310
3.4.12.1 Weight of Vessel 310
3.4.12.2 Weight of Tubes 311
3.4.12.3 Weight of Insulation 311
3.4.13 Vessel Support 312
3.4.13.1 Vessel Longitudinal Stress, 313
3.4.13.2 Vessel Circumferential Stress, 313
3.4.14 Nozzle Diameter 315
3.4.14.1 Tube Side Nozzle 315
3.4.14.2 Shell Side Nozzle 315
3.4.15 Baffle Heat Exchanger 316
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3.4.15.1 Height from Baffle Chord to the Top of Tube 316


Bundle, Hb
3.4.15.2 Bundle Cut, Bd 316
3.4.15.3 Number of Tubes in Windows Zone, Nw 317
3.4.15.4 Equilateral Triangular Pitch,p’t 317
3.4.15.5 Number of Tube Rows in Window Zone,Nwv 317
3.4.15.6 Number of Tubes in Cross Flow Zone, Nc 318
3.4.15.7 Ratio Number of Tubes in Window Zone to Total 318
Number,Rw
3.4.15.8 Window Zone Area,Aw 318
3.4.15.9 Number of Tube Rows in Cross Flow Zone 318
Area,Ncv
3.4.15.10 Baffle Cut Height,Hc 318
3.4.15.11 Tube to Baffle Clearance Area, Atb 319
3.4.15.12 Baffle to Shell Clearance Area,Abs 319
3.4.15.13 Baffle Cut Area,Ab 319
3.4.16 Summary of Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design 321
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CHAPTER FOUR: PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION


4.0 Introduction 312
4.1 System Design For Equipment’s 315
4.1.1 Control system for reactor R-101 315
4.1.2 Control system for distillation column T – 103 318
4.1.3 Control system for reactor R-102 322
4.1.4 Control system for Cooler E – 101 325
4.1.5 Control system for distillation column T – 101 327
4.1.6 Control system for distillation column T – 102 331
4.1.7 Control system for distillation column T – 104 335
4.1.8 Control system for Cooler E – 102 339
4.1.9 Control system for Heater E – 103 341

CHAPTER FIVE: PROCESS INTEGRATION


5.0 Introduction 343
5.1 Process description 344
5.2 Pinch technology 344
5.2.1 Stream Data 345
5.2.2 Problem Table Method 347
5.2.3 Heat Cascade 349
5.3 Heat exchanger network design 350
5.3.1 Network Design below the Pinch 350
5.4 Network design for maximum energy recovery 351
5.5 Conclusion 352
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CHAPTER SIX: ENVIRONMENT, WASTE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT


6.1 Introduction 355
6.2 Waste management hierarchy 356
6.3 Environmental laws and regulations 357
6.3.1 Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations 1978 358
6.3.2 Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent) Regulations 2009 359
6.3.3 Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009 359
6.3.4 Environmental Quality (Schedule Wastes) Regulations 2005 360
6.3.5 Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Schedule 361
Wastes Treatment and Disposal Facilities) Regulations
2006
6.4 Air quality 361
6.5 Gases waste 363
6.5.1 Source of Pollution 363
6.5.2 Waste Composition 364
6.6 Waste gas prevention and treatment 365
6.6.1 Combustion System 366
6.6.2 Incinerator for Gases Treatment 366
6.6.2.1 Direct Flame Incineration 367
6.6.2.2 Thermal Incineration 368
6.6.2.3 Catalytic Incineration 369
6.6.3 Selection of Waste Gas Treatment 370
6.6.4 Material Balance 373
6.7 Combustion chamber design procedures 376
6.7.1 High Heating Value (HHV) 376
6.7.2 Calculation for Air Requirement 379
6.7.3 Equipment Sizing 380
6.7.4 Stack Design 385
6.7.5 Incineration Efficiency 386
6.8 Preliminary estimation costs of waste treatment plant 387
6.9 Waste treatment plant layout and process flow diagram 389
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CHAPTER SEVEN: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


7.0 Cost estimation 390
7.1 Alkylation reactor (R-101) 390
7.1.1 Alkylation Reactor purchase cost (R-101) 390
7.2 Distillation column cost (T-103) 392
7.2.1 Column Cost 392
7.3 Transalkylation reactor (R – 102) 395
7.3.1 Transalkylation Reactor Purchase Cost 395
7.4 Heat Exchanger (E-101) 397
7.4.1 Determination of bare module costs at base condition of 397
Heat Exchanger
7.5 Pump 399
7.6 Mixer 401
7.7 Cost of manufacturing 404
7.8 Cost of operating labor 407
7.9 Utility cost 409
7.10 Raw material cost 413
7.11 Cost of waste treatment 414
7.12 Cash flow diagram 416
7.13 Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) 416
7.14 Taxation, cash flow and profit 418
7.15 Discounted profitability criteria 421
7.16 Conclusion 426
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CHAPTER EIGHT: PLANT SAFETY AND LAYOUT


8.0 Introduction 427
8.1 Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) 428
8.2 SOP for Critical Equipment 429
8.2.1 SOP for Heat Exchanger (E-101,E-102, and E-103) 429
8.2.1.1 Start-up Procedure 429
8.2.1.2 Shut-down Procedure 430
8.2.2 SOP for Distillation Column (T-101, T-102, T-103 and 431
T-104)
8.2.2.1 Start-up Procedure 431
8.2.2.2 Shut-down Procedure 431
8.2.3 SOP for Reactor (R-101 and R-102) 432
8.2.3.1 Start-up Procedure 432
8.2.3.2 Shut-down procedure 432
8.2.4 SOP for Pump (P-101,P-102,P-103,and P-104) 433
8.2.4.1 Start-up Procedure 433
8.2.4.2 Shut-down Procedure 433
8.3 Checklist 433
8.3.1 General Hazard Checklist 434
8.4 Start-up and Shut-down Procedure 436
8.4.1 Plant Start-up for new EB Plant 436
8.4.2 EB Plant Start-up Procedure 437
8.4.3 EB Plant Shut-down 438
8.5 Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) 438
8.5.1 HAZOP Objectives 439
8.5.2 HAZOP Team 439
8.5.3 HAZOP Analysis 440
8.5.4 HAZOP Analysis Procedure 441
8.5.5 System Parameters 442
8.5.6 Guide Word 442
8.6 HAZOP Study on Major Equipment 443
8.6.1 Alkylation Reactor (R-101) 443
8.6.2 Transalkylation Reactor (R-102) 444
8.6.3 Distillation Column (T – 103) 445
8.6.4 Heat Exchanger (E-101) 446
8.7 Plant Layout 447
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8.7.1 Plant Layout Objectives 448


8.7.2 Site Layout 448
8.8 Possible Facility and Plant Area Zoning 449
8.9 Emergency Response Plan (ERP) 453
8.9.1 ERP Objectives 453
8.9.2 ERP Safety Procedures 454
8.10 Hazard Identification and Release Measures 454
8.11 Types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 456
8.12 Possible Accident Scenario 457
8.13 EB Plant Emergency Action 460
8.13.1 Fire detected 461
8.13.2 If alarm is heard 461
8.14 Ethylbenzene Handling and Storage 476
8.15 Possible Emergency Devices 478
8.15.1 Fire Alarm 478
8.15.2 Portable Fire Extinguisher 479
8.15.3 Hose Reel 479
8.15.4 Sprinkler 480
8.15.5 Wet Rising Main 480
8.16 Ethylbenzene Plant Layout 481

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Market And Economic Analysis, Raw Material, Equipment Data


Sheet
Appendix B: Land, Water and Electricity Rates

Appendix C: Sample calculation of Energy Balance

Appendix D: ASPEN Simulation

Appendix E: Process Instrumentation Diagram (PID)

Appendix F: Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

Appendix G: Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP)

Appendix H: Heat Exchanger

Appendix I: Equipment Design Drawing