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An Alteration of the Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0: A Comparative Study

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

An Alteration of the Web 1.0, Web 2.0


and Web 3.0: A Comparative Study
B. K. Hiremath1 & Anand Y. Kenchakkanavar2
1
Librarian, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida-201301 (UP).
2
Junior Research Fellow, Department of Studies in Library and Information Science,
Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, INDIA
Abstract : The development of Web is changed to Web was established by Tim Burners-Lee
be as an entire improvement in the present world. in late 1989 (Getting ) He outlook of the abilities of
The World Wide Web as the prevalent information the World Wide Web was expressed by three
construct has had much progress since its improvements, typically associated with three
initiations. The main purpose of this paper points that is, the Web of documents (Web 1.0), the
surrounding the developments of the web from web Web of people (Web 2.0) and the Web of data (the
1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0. Web 1.0 first generation still-to-be-realised Web 3.0) (Anderson, 2007).
web like a web of information connections, Web 2.0 Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) the
second generation web like a web of person to USSR initiated first artificial earth satellite
person connections, Web 3.0 like a semantic web ‘Sputnik’ in 1957. In 1958 United States funds the
these all web connections are explained as three ARPA within the Department of Defence and in
generations of the web in this paper. This paper 1969 ARPANET started. ARPANET is first
explains that the development of staring from the packet-switch network and connected four
web to the future developments in the field of Web universities. In 1970 ARPANET used the Network
Technology. Control Protocol (NCP) and in 1971 fifteen sites
linked universities and research organisations. In
Keywords: ICT, Internet, IT, Web 1.0, Web 2.0, 1984 Jon Postel and Paul Mockapertis introduced
Web 3.0 and WWW Domain Name System (DNS) and first registered
domain is symbolic.com. In 1983 NCP is changed
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Introduction
(TCP/IP) (Leiner et al 2009).
The worldwide alterations particularly the
Information and Communication Technologies The World Wide Web produces a
(ICTs) have made an impact on the functioning of multidimensional web of infrastructure. The WWW
modern society. The developments of ICTs have plan was initially developed to provide a circulated
changed the users’ prospect from the modern hypermedia system which could without difficulty
society in different ways. The use of ICTs as a tool access from any desktop computer and information
that would like to provide an effective reach across the world. The WWW contains
communication and information services to standard formats for text, graphics, sound, and
peoples. The World Wide Web (WWW) has to a video which can be indexed simply and searched
great extent changed the way people access by all networked machines. The WWW is only one
information and communication with other people. of the techniques of practical implementations of
Social Medias are communication through the the Internet. The WWW presents the interment
internet that enables social relations. It is an groups and new opportunity to develop the
effective approach for people to use in worldwide field of the texts, images, animations,
communicating and interacting with each other. sounds, etc., all parts of which are quick to cross
Recent proceed in Information Technology (IT) connect with everyone. W3C (2007) paper
have not only improved the facility to access, store describes initially WWW program improvement
and process information in worldwide but also have continues on the NeXT (TBL). This was a ‘What
brought ought the significant changes in the You See Is What You Get’ (WYSIWYG) browser
concept, advance services, functioning and or editor with straight inline creation of links. The
management. World Wide Web has developed in primary web server was nxoc01.cern.ch, afterwards
exponentially within the last few years. called info.cern.ch, and the first web page is
http://nxoc01.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.
html.

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 705


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

Internet users around worldwide 40 per user’s nearly 2.1 billion are in the top twenty
cent of the peoples have an internet connection countries. China is the most internet users (642
today. In 1995 Internet users are worldwide less million in 2014) in the world and the next three
than 1%. Internet users’ year by year has improved countries are United States, India and Japan. The
from 1999 to 2013. The internet users initially figure-1 and table-1 below show the number of
billion was achieved in 2005, second billion was global internet users per year since 1993 and
reached in 2010 and the third billion was Country wise internet users.
successfully reached in 2014. Worldwide internet
Figure 1: Internet users in the world from 1993 to 2014 (As on 1st July 2014)

http://www.internetlivestats.com

Table 1: Internet users of the top ten different countries

Ran Countr Internet 1 1 Year Total 1 Yr Penetrati Country' Country


k y Users Year User Country Populati on s share 's share
Growt Growth Population on (% of of World of
h% Change Pop. Populati World
(%) with on Internet
Internet) Users
1 China 641,601,0 4% 24,021,0 1,393,783,8 0.59% 46.03% 19.24% 21.97%
70 70 36
2 United 279,834,2 7% 17,754,8 322,583,00 0.79% 86.75% 4.45% 9.58%
States 32 69 6
3 India 243,198,9 14% 29,859,5 1,267,401,8 1.22% 19.19% 17.50% 8.33%
22 98 49
4 Japan 109,252,9 8% 7,668,53 126,999,80 -0.11% 86.03% 1.75% 3.74%
12 5 8
5 Brazil 107,822,8 7% 6,884,33 202,033,67 0.83% 53.37% 2.79% 3.69%
31 3 0
6 Russia 84,437,79 10% 7,494,53 142,467,65 -0.26% 59.27% 1.97% 2.89%
3 6 1
7 German 71,727,55 2% 1,525,82 82,652,256 -0.09% 86.78% 1.14% 2.46%
y 1 9
8 Nigeria 67,101,45 16% 9,365,59 178,516,90 2.82% 37.59% 2.46% 2.30%
2 0 4

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

9 United 57,075,82 3% 1,574,65 63,489,234 0.56% 89.90% 0.88% 1.95%


Kingdo 6 3
m
10 France 55,429,38 3% 1,521,36 64,641,279 0.54% 85.75% 0.89% 1.90%
2 9

Source: http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country/

Journey of World Wide Web (WWW) Web 1.0 is the first generation, functioning of the
web it lasted from 1989 to 2005 and Tim Burners-
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee projected the Lee in 1989 recommended and creating a
proposed of an international system of protocols. It comprehensive hypertext space (Aghaei,
is distributed hypermedia server and it permits Net Nematbakhsh & Farsani, 2012). In web 1.0 is a
users to arrange electronic documents that are very small number of writers formed web pages for
composites or pointers to, many different files of a huge number of readers. Web 1.0 was the mainly
potentially different types, scattered across the a read-only web. The idea behind of the web 1.0
world. Tim Berners-Lee named as the World Wide was to make a common information space within
Web (WWW). Tim Berners-Lee of the European the internet user’s and exchanging of
Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) developed communication through sharing information. Web
the WWW and a lot of communication protocols 1.0 offered the contact information example email,
that form the backbone of the WWW (Cohen- address, phone number, fax and it also provides
Almagor, 2011). brochures to similarly advertisements in
newspapers and magazines. The websites
The World Wide Web has the ability to integrated static Hyper Text Mark-up Language
present huge amounts of diverse, complex, (HTML) pages that reorganized infrequently
multimedia information that is richly (Singh, Gulati & Gulati, 2011).
interconnected and cross-referenced through
hypermedia links. Unfortunately, when navigating The main aim of the web 1.0 is to
through such large hypermedia documents, users distribute the information for anybody at any time
may encounter several problems. It is easy to and create an online presence. Users and visitors of
become entangled in a large and complex web of the websites could only visit the sites without any
decentralized, unstructured, and largely irrelevant impacts or contributions and linking structure was
information. Web users can become disoriented too weak. Web 1.0 is a system of interlinked and
when overloaded with massive amounts of whole protocols included HTTP, HTML, URI
information, much of which may be irrelevant. This Newer Protocols are XML, XHTML and it
disorientation, or tendency to lose one's sense of provides hypertext documents through accessed
location and direction, is often a consequence of using the Internet. The main purpose of web 1.0 is
searching through large nonlinear hypermedia to create an online presence and to make their
documents (Head, Archer and Yuan, 2000) information accessible to anybody at any time
(Patel 2013).
The WWW permits to the users of
computer to position and view multimedia-based Web 2.0
files for example text, animation, graphics, audios/
videos files etc. In the present day computer Web 2.0 is the second generation of web.
applications can be written to communicate along The term web 2.0 was officially distinct in October
with the worldwide hundreds of millions of 2004 and the term coined by Dale Dougherty
computers. The Internet can create our work easier (O’Reilly Media) and Craig Cline (Media Live).
by integration computing and communications The idea started through a conference
technologies. It builds information immediately and brainstorming session among O’Reilly and Media
easily accessible worldwide. The paper describes a Live International (O'Reilly, 2005).
holistic analysis of the WWW eventually become
the World Wide Web. Here author would like to Tim O’Reilly defines ‘Web 2.0 is the
explain about the most important differences business revolution in the computer industry
among Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0. caused by the move to the internet as platform, and
an attempt to understand the rules for success on
Web 1.0 that new platform. Chief among those rules is this:
Build applications that harness network effects to

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 707


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

get better the more people use them (O’Reilly, participative web. Web 2.0 is absolutely the
2006).’ subsequently big thing in the World Wide Web and
it offers use of recent technologies and concepts in
Web 2.0 is considered as read-write web order to create the user familiarity, more
and it permits managing and assembling large interactive, useful and interrelating. Web 2.0 is not
worldwide multitude with familiar interests in only a new version of web 1.0 it includes Flexible
social relations. The term Web 2.0 is usually linked web design, creative reuse, updates, collaborative
with web applications that make easy interactive content creation and modification were facilitated
with an information sharing, interoperability, user- through web 2.0. The web 2.0 included
cantered design, and collaboration on the World technologies and services and it consist blogs,
Wide Web. Social networking sites main propose is Audio, Chats, Bookmarking, Calendar, E-
real-time channels for information sharing and commerce, E-mail, Games, E-learning,
communication. Social networking sites are communication, Forums, Mapping, Multimedia
encouraging social interaction through profile- Wiki, Portals, really simple syndication (RSS),
based user accounts. Social networking sites focus Mashups, Tags, etc., (Hassan, Sarhan, & El-
on new avenues for communication and Dosouki, 2012) The differentiations among Web
relationship with users (Kenchakkanavar, 2015). 1.0 and Web 2.0 are several that are describe in the
following table.
Web 2.0 is also identified the knowledge web,
people-centric web, read-write web, and
Table-2 A Comparison of web 1.0 and web 2.0

SI No Web 1.0 Web 2.0


1 Tim Berners Lee Tim O’Reilly
2 Read only web Read and write web
3 Hardware costs Bandwidth costs Hardware costs Bandwidth costs
4 Companies Participation
5 Millions of people users Billions of people user
6 Friend List, Address Book Social networking Sites
7 Information sharing Interaction
8 One Directional Bi-Directional
9 Connect information Connect people
10 Personal Websites Blog and Social Profile
11 Companies Group communities
12 Client-Server Peer to Peer
13 HTML, Portals XML, RSS
14 Taxonomy Tags
15 Individual Sharing
16 Web forms Web applications
17 Static content and one way publishing Two way communication through social media
information
Web 3.0 Tim Berners Lee inventor of the World
Wide Web was the one who came up with thought
Web 3.0 a phrase coined by John Markoff of Semantic Web i.e. web 3.0. Which intends to
of the New York Times in 2006 is third generation Read Write Intelligent web, individually oriented,
of the World Wide Web, usually conjectured to highly portable and provides User developed smart
include semantic tagging of content. Web 3.0 is applications in terms of the characteristic at front
also known as the Semantic Web the foundation of end? At backend characteristics web 3.0 provides
the Semantic Web is data integration. By using content (semantic)-aware and context-aware, next
metadata, ‘display only’ data is converted to generation browsing and searching capabilities,
meaningful information which can be located, Richness to high data (Patel 2013). Web3.0
evaluated, and delivered by software agents (Patel supports world wide database and web oriented
2013). architecture which in earlier stage was described as
a web of document it deals mainly with static
HTML documents, but dynamically rendered pages

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 708


Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-4, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

and alternative formats should follow the same links are between documents or part of them
conceptual layout standards whenever possible and (Choudhury, 2014).
Table - 3 A Comparison of web 2.0 and web 3.0
SI No Web 2.0 Web 3.0

1 Tim O’Reilly Tim Berners Lee

2 Read and write web Executable Web

3 Social web Semantic web

4 Participation and interaction Understanding self

5 Bi-Directional Multi user virtual environment

6 Connect people Connect knowledge

7 Wikis, Wikipedia Semantic Wikis: Semantic MediaWiki,


SemperWiki, Platypus, dbpedia, Rhizome
8 Web 2.0 is more about 2 way communications Web 3.0 is curiusly undefined, AI and the
through social networking, blogging, wikis, web learning what you want and delivering you
tagging, user generated content and video. a Personalized web experience.
9 Google personalized, dump find, hakia Semantic Search: SWSE, Swoogle,
Intellidimension
10 Google scholar, Book search Semantic Digital Libraries: JeromDl, BRICKS,
Longwel
11 Community portals Semantic Forums and community portals: SIOC,
OpenLink, DataSpaces
12 Online social networks Semantic Social Networks: FOAF, People
aggregator

Conclusion 3. Getting. B. (2007). Basic Definitions:


Web 1.0, Web. 2.0, Web 3.0. Available:
Based on the above fact, this paper has http://www.practicalecommerce.com/articl
given an overview from the evolution of the web. es/464/Basic-Definitions-Web-10-Web-
Technologies can provide many possibilities, but 20-Web-30/.
they cannot ‘fix’ meanings (Suthers, 2005). Web
1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0 were described as three 4. Choudhury, N (2014) World Wide Web
generations of the web and the characteristics of the and Its Journey from Web 1.0 to Web 4.0.
generations are compared. Future work on this International Journal of Computer
paper will focus on the deeper and broader research Science and Information Technologies,
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