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PERFECT PRACTICE

SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 1: NUMBER SYSTEM


(1.1 Real numbers) WORKSHEET 1.1(a)

1. State whether each of the following statements is true or false.


a) all whole number are integers
b)all integers are natural numbers.
c) all natural numbers are whole numbers.

d) 7 is a rational numbers.
e)4.58 is a rational numbers.
f) 0.121212… is an irrational numbers.
g)6.313313331… is an irrational numbers.

ans: a) True d) False f) False


b) False e) True g) True
c) True

2. Given the intervals A   4, 2  , B   1, 7  , and C   x : 6  x  0, x  Z  . By

using the number line, find the interval of


a) A  C c) B  C
b) A  C d) B  C

ans: a) 6, 5   4, 2  b) 4, 3, 2, 1, 0

c) 1, 0 d) 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1   1, 7 

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SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 1: NUMBER SYSTEM


WORKSHEET 1.1 (b)
(1.2 complex Numbers)

1. Find a and b in each of the following cases.

a) a  b  (a  b)i  6  4i c)  2  3i  a  bi   1  i

b) a  2b  (a  b)i  9 d) a  bi   5  i  3  2i 

ans:
1 5
a) a  5, b  1 c) a  ,b 
13 13
b) a  3, b  3 d) a  17, b  7

2. Given that z  2  3i , express each of the following in the form of a  bi


z
a)  z  i  z  i  b)
1 z

ans:
11 3
a) 12i b)   i
10 10

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER 1: NUMBER SYSTEM WORKSHEET 1.2

(1.2 complex Numbers-Polar Form)

1. Complete the following table

No z r Ѳ z = r(cosѲ + i sin Ѳ)
1 3+4i

2 -12+5i

3 -8-3i

4 5-6i

6 -2i

7 -7

8 4

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

ANSWER SCHEME
PERFECT SCORE : COMPLEX NUMBER (POLAR FORM) WORKSHEET 1.2

No z r Ѳ z = r(cosѲ + i sin Ѳ)
1 3+4i 5 0.9273 5(cos 0.9273 rad +i sin 0.9273 rad)

2 -12+5i 13 2.747 13(cos 2.747 rad +i sin 2.747 rad)

3 -8-3i -2.783

4 5-6i -0.8761

5 10 -2.618 10(cos(-2.618)rad + i(-2.618)rad)

6 -2i 2 -1.571 2(cos (-1.571)rad + i(-1.571)rad)

7 -7 7 3.142 7(cos 3.142 rad + i 3.142 rad)

8 4 4 0 4(cos 0 rad +i sin 0 rad)

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER 1: NUMBER SYSTEM
WORKSHEET 1.3
(1.3 Indices, Surds, Logarithm)

INDICES

Rules of indices 1. Rewrite into indices form: Answer

a) 2 8
1. a m  a n  a m  n a) 2 5  2 3  b) 36  3 2  b) 3 4

am 75 43 a) 7 3
2.  a mn a)  b)  b) 4 1
a n
72 44

3. a m n
 a mn a) 3 
4 2
 b) 5 
2 3

a) 3 8
b) 5 6

abn 3m2  2q 3 


a) 9m 2
4.  a nb n a) b) b) 8q 3

n 3 3 a) 8
a
a)    b)   
an 2 3 125
5.    n , b  0
b b 5 4 b) 27
64

2. Without using calculator, evaluate: Answer

1 1
2 3 a) 3 b) 5
a) 9 b) 125

2 3
c) 4 d) 27
c) 8 3 d) 81 4

1 1
e) 5  3 f) 2  5 e) f)
125 32

1 2
 4 2  27  3 g) 2 h) 3
g)   h)   3 4
9  64 
1 3
 
 16  2  100  2 g) 5 h) 27
i)   j)   4 1000
 25   9 
2 3
 1  2 h)  27
k)    l)    g) 49
 7  3 8

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PERFECT PRACTICE WORKSHEET 1.3
SM015 MATHEMATICS

3. Simplify the following: Answer

1 1 1 3

a) 8  2
3 2
b) 3  272 3 a) 2 2 b) 27

1 1 1
c) d) 7
c) 125  5 3 2
d) 7  492 2
5

1 1 2

9 3
2 2
2 23 3
e) 3
f) 1
e) 27 f) 1
2 2
3 4
m

2 n 1  2 n 5m  5 2
g) h) 3m
g) 2 h) 1
2 2n 2
5
r
33s  9 s 1
7 r  49 2 j) s g) 7 1 r h) 3 3 s
i) s2
7 r 1  7 2 r 3  27 3

4. Write in the simplest form: Answer

3a 2  2 2
1
a) b) 2b 3
 25 2 a) 36a 2 b) 40b3

2c  81d 
1 1 5 21
2 3 2 3
c) 8  4 2
d) 93 2 c) 2 2 c6 d) 3 2
d6

2
 1 
e) 125m   5 3 2 3
 25m  f) 49n  3 2
  7 2  7n  e) 5m 5 f) 7n 4
 

5. Solve for x: Answer

1
a) 2 3 x  4 x 1 b) 16 x  2 2 x 1 a) 2 b) 
2

x
1 x
c)    9 x  4 1 8
3 d)    25 x  2 c) d) 4
5 3

x2 2
e) 64 3
 16 2 x f) 16 x 1  8 2 x e) f) 2
3

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

Rules of surd 1. Write the surd: Answer

1. a  b  ab a) 2 3  b) 5 7  a) 6 b) 35

a a 5 7
2.  a)  b)  a) 5 b) 7
b b 2 3 2 3

3. a b  c b  a  c  b a) 2 2  3 2  a) 4 3  2 3  a) 5 2 b) 2 3

WORKSHEET 1.3

SURD

2. Write the surd in the simplest form: Answer

a) 3 3 b) 2 3  3 3 a) 2 3 b) 5 3

c) 34 3 d) 2 2 c) 5 3 d) 0

e) 3 2  2 f) 5 2  3 2 e) 2 2 f) 2 2

g) 12 h) 18 g) 2 3 h) 3 2

i) 50 j) 20 i) 5 2 j) 2 5

3. Evaluate the following: Answer

a) 3 2  2 b) 4 3  3 a) 6 b) 12

c) 5 2 3 2   d) 3 3 2 3   c) 30 d) 18

e) 2 5 3 2   f) 3 3  7 e) 6 10 f) 3 21

g) 3  2 3  h) 2 3  2 g)
h)
6 3
6 2

7  3  2
i) 2 7  2 5  j) 2 i) 2 14  2 35
j) 2 21  2 14

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

4. Expand the surd: Answer

a)  3 2  3 2  b)  5 3  5 3  a) 5  2 6
b) 8  2 15

c)  3 2  3 2  d)  5 3  5 3  c) 5  2 6
d) 8  2 15

e)  5 2  5 2  f)  7 3  7 3  e) 3
f) 4

g) 3 3 2  2 3  h)  2 2 3  3 2  g) 4 6  11
h) 3 6 8

i) 3 5 2  2 5  j) 2 
3 2 2 2 3  i) 2 10  13
j) 3 6  2

5. Rationalize the denominator Answer

2 4
a) b) a) 2 3 b) 4 7
3 7 3 7

5 9 c) 5 2  5
c) d)
2 1 32 d)  9 3  18

2 4 e)  1  3
e) f)
1 3 2 2 f) 4  2 2

5 8 g) 5 3 5 2
g)
3 2
h)
2 5 
h)  8 2  5
3

2 2 i) 6 2
i)
3 2
j)
5 3
j) 1
2
 10  6 

2 1 32 k) 3  2 2
k) l)
l)  7  4 3
2 1 32

m) 7  3 5
5 3 2 3 2
m) n)
5 3 2 3 n) 11  6 2
7
o) 9  4 2
4 2 9 3 7
o) p)
4 2 9 3 p) 14

3 3
13 13

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS WORKSHEET 1.3

6. Find x by squaring both sides Answer

a) x 1  3 b) x 3  2 a) 8 b) 7

c)  1 d)  5
c) 2x  5  2  0 d) 6  2x  4  0 2

e) x  1  2x  3 f) x  2  3x e) 4 f) 1

g) 1  3x  2 x  4  0 h) 4 x  3x  2  0 g) 3 h) 2

i) 1
i) x  20  4  x j) x  17  x  1 4
j) 64

k) 3 25
k) 3x  1  3x  2 l) 2x 1  2x  3 16
l)
18

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 1.4

CHAPTER 1: NUMBER SYSTEM


(1.3 Indices, Surds and Logarithms)

LOGARITHMS Changing the base from a to b,


If a, M and N  R  , x  R , log b b 1
5. log a b  
1. log a M  log a N  log a MN log b b log b b
M
2. log a M  log a N  log a Notes:
N
6. log a 1  0
3. log a N x  x log a N
7. log a a  1
Changing base to c;
8. log a a k  k

4. log a b 
log c b 9. use log a X  N  X  a N
log c a when it is appropriate.

1. Without using a calculator, find the values of the following :

(a) log3 81 [Ans: x=4] (b) log5 0.04 [Ans: x=-2]

(c) log5 1 [Ans: x= 0 ] (d) ln e3 [Ans: x= 3]

1 [Ans: x 
1
(e) log 2   [Ans: x  3 ] (f) log100 10 ]
8 2

2. Given log3 4  1.262 and log3 5  1.465 , find without using a calculator:

(a) log3 100 [Ans: x  4.192 ] (b) log3 1.25 [Ans: x  0.203 ]

(c) log3 320 [Ans: x  5.251 ] (d) log3 0.8 [Ans: x  0.203 ]

3. Without using a calculator, evaluate

(a) log3 9  log3 21  log3 7  log3 3 [Ans: x  2 ]

1
(b) log 25  log8  3log 2 [Ans: x  2 ]
3
log 714  log 7 2 1
(c) [Ans: x  ]
log 7 98  log 7 30  log 715 2

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

WORKSHEET 1.4
4. Express as a single logarithms

(a) 3log5 x  3log5 y  2log5 w 1


(b)  2ln a  ln b   5ln c 
2
a 2b
x3 y3 [Ans: ln ]
[Ans: log 5 2 ] c5
w

5. Prove that logb a  logcb  logd c  logd a

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 2 : EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES & ABSOLUTE VALUES


WORKSHEET 2.1(a)
(2.1 Equations)


(a)Rules of Indices ( a  , m, n  ): Index Property of Equality

For positive real number a  a  1 ,


mn
1) a  a  a
m n 1
6) a n n
a If a x  a y , then x  y.
mn
2) a  a  a
m n
m
7) a n  a For example:
 
m n
m n
3) a a mn

3x 1  32
8)  ab   a b
n n n
4) a  1 , a  0
0
 x 1  2
x 1
n
a
n
1 a
5) a  n  9)    , b0
an b bn
#applicable only when the bases are same.

  62 x 1
4 11 1
1. 7 x  343 1
9. 3 x  x 5 3 3
3 3
6 36 15. 2
 9x
3
2. 52  5 x  57
1
1
16. 2x 
x 2
 2   8 3
10.     
4 x1

 8 1 x
2
3. 4 2
x
 3   27 
 
17. 32 x2 10 3x  1  0
11. 4
x1
 64 3

4. 16 x 1  82 x 1
12. 49
x1
 7
 
18. 52 x  10 5x  16  0
5. 8 x  2 x1  4
13. 3
3 x 2
39  
19. 49x  48 7 x  72
6. 34 x 1  3x  9 1
 23 
3
20. e
2x
 e x  30  0
14.    54
3x
 
7. 6 23x  2x1  48  2



 
x2
 1 
8.    3x
 27 

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

ANSWER WORKSHEET 2.1 (a)

3 1 1 1
1) x  2) x  9 3) x  4) x  5) x 
4 4 2 2

1 3
6) x   7) x  2 8) x   9) x  3 10) x  1
3 2

3 8
11) x  2 12) x   13) x  14) x   4 15) x  1
4 9

16) x  2  3 17) x  0, 2 18) x  1.292, 0.431 19) x  2 20) x  ln 6

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS


(b) Rules of Surd ( a, b  ) WORKSHEET 2.1(b)

1) a  b  ab 3) a b  c b  (a  c ) b

2)
a
b

a
b
, b0 4)  a b  
a  b  a b

1.Solve the following (contains one surd): b) 4 x  3  2  4 x  1

Note: Isolate the surd term to one side


and then square both sides and solve. c) 2  2 x  1  2 x  1

a) x4  x2 d) 5x  1  x  2

b) x  2  3  0 e) x  1 1  1  2 x

c) 4 x  1  x  4
3.Solve the following:
Note: Square both sides and isolate the
d) 7  x  5  x remaining surd term to one side. Next,
square both sides again and solve.

e) 31 10 x  4  x
a) 4 x  3  x  1  9 x  2

2.Solve the following (contains two surds):


b) x  1  12  x  13  4 x
Note: Move one to each side of the
equation. Square both sides and isolate
the remaining surd term. Then, square c) x  x  3  x  5
both sides and solve.
d) x  6  x  3  2 x  5
a) 3x  2  x  2  2

e) 6 x  2  2 x  3  4 x  1
ANSWER

1. a) x  5 b) x  11 c) x  0,8 d) x  2 e) x  5,3

2.
a) x  2, 6
1 5 9 1  2 7
b) x  c) x  d) x  e) x 
4 8 4 9

3. 1
a) x  3 b) x  3 c) x  4 d) x  2 e) x 
4
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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 2: EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES & WORKSHEET 2.2

& ABSOLUTE VALUS


(2.1 Equations)

If a, M and N  R  , x  R, Changing the base from a to b,

1. log a M  log a N  log a MN log b b 1


5. log a b  
M log b b log b b
2. log a M  log a N  log a
N Notes:
3. log a N x  x log a N
6. log a 1  0
Changing base to c;
7. log a a  1
log c b
4. log a b  8. log a a k  k
log c a
9. use log a X  N  X  a N
when it is appropriate.
[Remember to check your answers by substituting back the values of x into original equation.]

1. Solve the questions:

(a) x  log2 128 [Ans: x=7] (b) x  log3 81 [Ans: x=4]

1 1
(c) x  log3 [Ans: x= -3 ] (d) x  log 2 [Ans: x= -3]
27 8

(e) x  log9 3 [Ans: x 


1
] (f)
x  ln e 2 [Ans: x= 2]
2

2. Solve for x by using logarithmic properties:

(a) 52 x  13 [Ans: x  0.7968 ] (b) 23 x 2  5 [Ans: x=1.4406]


1 2 x
(c) 35 7 [Ans: x=0.2263 ] (d) 1000  46e 0.4 x [Ans: x= -7.70]

3. Find the solutions.

(a) log 2  2 x  1  2 [Ans: x 


3
] (b) log 2  x  2   0 [Ans: x=-1]
2

(c) log x 25  2 [Ans: x= 5 ] (d) log 2  x  3  log 2  2 x  1 [Ans: x= 2 ]

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 2.2

(e) 2log 2 x  log 2  6 x  5 (f) log 3 3x  log 9 28 x  3

[Ans: x  1 or x  5] [Ans: x 
1
x  3]
9

(g) log3 2  log3 x  log3  3x  5 (h) ln x  ln x 


1
ln 81
2
[Ans: x= 5 ]
[Ans: x= 3 ]

4. Solve the following questions:

 
(a) log x 2  6  log x  1  1
(b) log 4 x  log 4  x  2  
1
log 4 9
2
[Ans: x  2 x  8]
[Ans: x= 1 ]

(c) log 2 x 2 
log 2 x
 9 log 2 2  
(d) log2 x2  3x  2  1  log 2  x  2
log 2 4
[Ans: x= 1]
[Ans: x = 6]

(e) log 4 x  log 2 x  x 1 (f) 2ln x  ln  6  x  x  ln 3


2

[Ans: x  1 x 2 ] [Ans: x= 3]

 
(g) log3 x2  4 x  6  1  log3 x (h) log5 1  log5 2 x   log5 10

[Ans: x= 2] [Ans: x = 5]

5. Solve the following questions: (Hint: Change into same base to the form of log a x )

(a) log3 x  3log x 3  4 (b) 6log7 x  10  4log x 7

[Ans: x  27 x  3 ] [Ans: x  49 x  0.523 ]

(c) log5 x  4log x 5 (d) 6  log x 16  4log 4 x

1 [Ans: x=2 x= 4]
[Ans: x  25 x  ]
25

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 2: EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES & ABSOLUTE VALUES


(2.2 Inequalities - linear & quadratic)
WORKSHEET 2.3

1. Find the set values of x which satisfy the following inequalities.


Express your answers in solution set form and interval form.

(a) 4 x  3  7 (b) 6(1  x)  3


Ans:  1,   or {x : x  1}
Ans:  ,  or {x : x  }
1 1
 2 2
(c) 3 x  4  5  2 x (d) 2( x  4)  5

Ans:  ,   or {x : x  } Ans:  ,   or {x : x  }
9 9 3 3
 5  5 2  2
(e) x  1  2 x  5 (f) 4  3 x  5
Ans:  4,   or {x : x  4}  4 5 4 5
Ans:   ,  or {x :  x }
 3 3 3 3
(g) 1  2 x  4 (h) 4 x  1  x  1  2 x

 1 Ans:  ,   or {x : x   }
1 1 1
Ans: 2, or { x :  2  x  }
 2  2  3 3

(i) 1  3  2 x  7 (j) 3  2 x  4  5

Ans:  2, 2 or {x :  2  x  2}  7 1
Ans:  , or { x : 
7
 x 
1
}
 2 2  2 2
x  4 1 x 1
(k) 2  9 (l)  2
2 3 2
Ans:  14,8 or {x :  14  x  8} 5  5
 3 ,5  or {x : 3  x  5}
Ans:

x 3x 2  3x
(m)  3 (n) 3  2
2 2 3
Ans:  , 3 or {x : x  3}  4 11  4 11
Ans:  ,  or { x :   x  }
 3 3  3 3

17
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

WORKSHEET 2.3
NOTE : To solve Quadratic Inequalities use ONE method only.
3 Methods : (i) Graphical (ii) Table of Signs (iii) Real Number Line.

2. Find the set values of x which satisfy the following inequalities.


Express your answers in solution set form and interval form.

(a) x  4 x  5  0 (b) x  4 x  5  0
2 2

Ans:  1,5 or {x :  1  x  5} Ans:


 , 1  5,  or {x : x  1 or x  5}

(c) x  4 x  0 (d)  x   x  2
2 2

Ans: Ans:
 , 4  0,   or {x : x  4 or x  0} (, 1)  (2, ) or {x : x  1 or x  2}

(e) x( x  1)  20 (f) 2 x  x  6  0
2

Ans:  5, 4 or {x :  5  x  4} Ans:  2,  or {x :  2  x  }


3 3
 2 2

(g) (2 x  2)( x  7)  0 (h) (3x  2)( x  5)  0

Ans:  5,   or {x :  5  x   }
Ans: 2 2
 , 7  1,   or {x : x  7 or x  1}    3 3

(i) m  36  9m (j) 6( k  1)  5k
2 2

Ans: Ans:
(, 12)  (3, )  2 3 
or {m : m  12 or m  3}  ,     ,  
 3 2 
2 3
or {k : k   or k  }
3 2
(k) x( x  3)  4 (l) 3x  x  4
2

Ans:  1,4 or {x :  1  x  4} Ans:

 , 1  
4  4
,   or {x : x  1 or x  }
3  3

18
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 2: EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES & WORKSHEET 2.4

& ABSOLUTE VALUES


(2.2 Inequalities [rational] )

Strategy for solving rational Notes:


inequalities Cross multiplication must be avoided in
1. Rewrite the inequality with 0 on solving rational inequalities.
the right.
Eg. It is wrong if we state
2. Use only addition or substraction
to get an equivalent inequality
(Do not cross-multiply variable
terms)
3. Factorize the numerator and
denominator.
4.Use the real number line method
or table of signs method to
determine the intervals that
satisfy the original inequality.
5.Write the solution set using
1. Solve the following inequalities using the real number line method.
interval notation.
(a) (b)

[Ans: ] [Ans: ]

2. Solve the following inequalities using table of signs method.

(a) (b)

[Ans: ] [Ans:  4, 3   1,   ]

3. Find the range of values of for each of the following inequalities.

(a) (b)

[Ans: ] [Ans: ]

(c) (d)

[Ans: ] [Ans: )]

19
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS WORKSHEET 2.4

4. Find the solution set of the following inequalities:

(a) (b)

1 [Ans:
[Ans: x :  4  x  1 or x2  ]
2 ]

5. Find the range of values of that satisfy

(a) (b)

[Ans: [Ans: or ]

(c) (d)

[Ans: ] [Ans: ]

20
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 2: EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES & WORKSHEET 2.5


& ABSOLUTE VALUES

(2.3 Absolute Values - equation)

1. Solve the following equations.


(a) 1  2 x  3  6 (b) 3  2 x  5   4

[Ans: x = -1,2] [Ans: x= -1,1]

x 1 3 5 (d) 2 y  3  1  11
(c)  1 [Ans:  , ]
2 4 2 2
[Ans: x= -8,2]

(e) a  2 (f) y  2  1

[Ans: no solution] [Ans: no solution]

2. Solve the following equations. Give your answer in solution set.

(a) 3x  1  x  2 1 1
(b) y  3  y 1
2 4
 1 3
Ans:  x : x   , 

Ans:  y : y  ,16
 4 2 8
 3

(c) 3  t  t  5 (d) x3  x2

Ans: t : t  1 1
Ans : x : x  
2

3. Find the solutions. Give your answer in solution set.

(a) x 2  2 x  1 (b) 2 x  10  x 2  5 x


Ans : x : x  1,1  2 ,1  2  Ans: x : x ,2,2,5

(c) x 2  x  1  1 (d) x 2  7x  6  6

Ans: x : x ,1,0,1, 2 Ans: x : x 0,3,4, 7

21
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 2.6

CHAPTER 2: EQUATION INEQUALITIES AND ABSOLUTE VALUES


(2.3 Absolute Values)

Notes:
On the real-number
line, the distance of a
number x from 0
(origin) is called the
absolute value of x
and is denoted by |x|

To solve problem such as |ax + b| = c, we can use :


(i) Basic Definition, or
(ii) Squaring Both Sides

A. Solve the following absolute value inequalities by using the basic definition.
x 5 x 1
1. 2 x  3  1 2.  3. 2
3 6 x3

x 2x
4. 2 5.  1 6. x 2  6 x  4  4
x4 x3

22
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 2.6

B. Find the possible value of x that satisfy the following inequalities by squaring
both side.

1. x  3  2 x  5 2. 2 x  5  10  3x 3. x  4  2 x  6

4. x  4  3 x  2 5. 3x  1  2 x 6. x  4  4 x  2

Ans:
 5 5
A   , 1    2,   2   2 , 2  3   7,  5
 3     3,  
 3
1

 3   0, 2    4, 6 
4   2 ,1 5  1, 3  6

Ans:  10 
x    , 2    ,  
B  2
x    8,   x    , 3    5,    3 
2 3
 3
1

 1 4 
é 3 ù x    ,    1,   x , 4
4 x =ê- , 1ú 5  5 6 5 
ë 2 û

23
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 3: SEQUENCE AND SERIES WORKSHEET 3.1


(3.1 Sequence and Series)

Sequence and Series

Geometric Sequence: Arithmetic Sequence:


Tn 1. d  Tn  Tn 1
1. r 
Tn 1 2. Tn  a  (n  1)d or Tn  S n  S n 1
n 1
2. Tn  ar or Tn  S n  S n 1 n
3. S n  [2a  (n  1)d ]
a(1  r n ) 2
3. Sn  for r  1 n
1 r or S n  (a  l )
a(r n  1) 2
or Sn  for r  1
r 1
a
4. S  , r 1
1 r

1. a) Given 1,5,9,13,……Write down the 10th term Ans: 37


b) Given 8,11,14,….,302 . Find the common difference and the number of terms. Ans: 99
c) Given 9,14,19,…..Find S17 Ans: 833

2. The sum of the first 15 terms of an arithmetic series is 255 and the sum of the next 15
term is 705. Find the first term and the common difference. Ans: a=3,d=2

3.The 5th term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the sum of the first 7 terms is 14. Find the
sum of the first 4 terms of this sequence. Ans: S4=14

4. a) Given 4,8,16,…… Write down the 9th term. Ans: 1024


b) Given -6, 12, -24….. Find S10 Ans: 2046

5. The first term of a geometric sequence is 6. The last term is 1458 and the sum of all the
terms is 2184. Find the common ratio of this geometric sequence. Ans: r=3

8 16
6. Given the series 4    .... , calculate the sum to infinity . Ans: S∞=2.4
3 9

24
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 3: SEQUENCE AND SERIES WORKSHEET 3.2


(3.2 Binomial Expansion)

1. Expand the following .


(a) (1  2 x)4 (b) (1  3 y)4
x
(c) (2  3x)5 (d) (  y)4
2
(e) (3x  2 y 2 )6 (f) ( x 2  2 y )7

(g) (1  2)7 (h) (2  3)6


1 1
(i) ( x  )5 (j) ( x  )8
x x
Answers :
1. (a) 1  8 x  24 x 2  32 x 3  16 x 4
(b) 1  12 y  54 y  108 y3  81y 4
2

( c) 32  240 x  720 x 2  1080 x3  810 x 4  243x5


1 4 1 3 3
(d) x  x y  x 2 y 2  2 xy 3  y 4
16 2 2

(e) 729x6  2916x5 y 2  4860x4 y 4  4320x3 y6  2160x2 y8  576xy10  64 y12

(f) x14  14x12 y  84x10 y 2  280x8 y3  560x6 y 4  672x4 y5  448x2 y6  128 y7

(g) 239 169 2

(h) 1351  780 3


1
(i) x  5 x  10 x  10 x
5 3
 5 x 3  x 5

25
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
(3.2 Binomial Expansion) WORKSHEET 3.2

BINOMIAL THEOREM
For positive integer n,
n  n  n  n  n
(a  b)n    a nb0    a n1b1    a n2b2  ...    a nr b r  ...    a 0bn
0 1  2 r  n
1. Write down the first four terms in the expansion of the following .

(a) (1  2 x)9 (b) (1  3x)12


x
(c) (2  x)10 (d) (1  )15
3
x
(e) (2  )8 (f) (3  2 x)7
2

2. Find the first three terms in the expansion of ( x  3 y)10 .


3. Use the binomial expansion to expand the following expressions .

(a) ( x  2 y)4 (b) (2 y  x)4


1
(c) (1  )6 (d) (2  y)5
x
1 1
(2 A  B ) (f) ( a 3  b 3 )
2 4 4
(e)

(g) ( x 1  e x )5 (h) ( x 3  2 y 2 )3

Answers :

1. (a) 1  18 x  144 x  672 x


2 3

(b) 1  36 x  594 x  5940 x


2 3

( c) 1024  5120 x  11520 x  15360 x3


2

35 2 455 3
(d) 1  5 x  x  x
3 27
(e) 256  512 x  488 x  224 x
2 3

(f) 2187  10206 x  20412 x  22680 x


2 3

26
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 3.2

2. x10  30 x9 y  405x8 y 2  ...

3. (a) x4  8x3 y  24 x2 y 2  3xy3  16 y 4

(b) 16 y
4
 32 y3 x  24 y 2 x2  8 yx3  x4

6 15 20 15 6 1
( c) 1      
x x 2 x3 x 4 x5 x 6
(d) 32  80 y  80 y 2  40 x3  10 y 4  y5

(e) 16 A  32 A B  24 A B  8 AB  B
4 3 2 2 4 6 8

4 1 2 2 1 4
(f) a 3  4ab 3  6a 3 b 3  4a 3 b  b 3

(g) x5  5x4e x  10 x3e2 x  10 x2e3 x  5x 1e4 x  e5 x

(h) x9  6 x6 y 2  12 x3 y 4  8 y 6

5 1
(i) x10  5x7  10 x4  10 x  
x 2 x5

To find rth term, we could use the following formula.

 n  n r
Tr 1    a br
r

1. Write down the terms stated in the expansion of the following.

(a) (2  3a)6 ; middle term (b) (1  3b)7 ; ter m in b4

1 x 2 2 10
(c) (2 x 2  )12 ; 10th term (d) (  ) ; term in x 2
x 3 x
1 5 1 16
(e) (x  ) ; term in x (f) ( x2  ) ; term independent of x
2x 2 x6

27
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

WORKSHEET 3.2
2. Find the coefficient of x
4
y5 in the expansion of ( x  3 y)9

1 40
3. Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (x  )
x3
4. Find the coefficient of

(a) x15 in the expansion of ( x  x 2 )10


1
(b) x10 in the expansion of (2 x 2  )20
x

Answers :

1. (a) 4320a 3 (b) 2835b


4

1760 4480 2
(c) (d) x
x3 27
1 3
(e) 2 x (f) 113
2 4
2. -30.618
3. 847660528
4. (a) -252 (b) 189190144

28
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 3: SEQUENCES & SERIES WORKSHEET 3.3

(3.2 Binomial Expansion )


Note:
For n is a positive integer (power of a descending while power of b ascending)

a  bn  a n  
n  n1  n  n2 2
a b   a b  ...  b n
 
1  2
 n
The (r + 1) term is Tr 1   a nr b r
r
For n is a negative integer or rational number

nn  1
1  axn  1  nax  ax2  nn  1n  2 ax3  ....
2! 3!
validity of expansion ax  1

1. Expand up to and including the term in x3. Hence, find the Tips/Answer
validity of expansion.

(a) 1  2 x 
2
*Remember to use
bracket when substitute
ax and n.
[Ans: 1-4x+12x2-32x3+..]

Ans:
(b) 1  5 x  1  5 x  2
1

5 25 125 3
1 x  x2  x  ..
2 8 16

1
(c)
1  3x [Ans: 1+3x+9x2+27x3+..]

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 3.3
2. Expand up to and including the term in x3. Hence, find the Tips/Answer
validity of expansion.

(d) 2  x 
1
Factor out the 2

1 x x2 x3
[Ans:    ]
2 4 8 16

Rearrange and factor out


(e) x  8   8  x 
2 2
 
3 3
the -8
Ans:
1 x 5 5
  x2  x3
4 48 2304 50736

3. State the coefficient of the following expansion Tips/Answer

(f) 3  4 y  the term in y 5 [Ans: T6 = -1548288 y5 ]


8

(g) 2 x  3 [Ans: T5 = 22680 ]


7
the term in x 3

30
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 3.3

(h) 4 x  5 y 5 the third term [Ans: 16000 x3y2 ]

4. Find the term independent of x Tips/Answer

 2
6 [Ans: -160]
(i)  x  
 x

4 
10 [Ans: 2949120]
(j)   x 4 
x 

6
 2
(k)  x 2  
 x [Ans: 240]

31
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 4.1
CHAPTER 4: MATRICES
(4.1 Matrices)
Matrix Definition - A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers enclosed between
brackets.
NOTES :
-ORDER or DIMENSION of a matrix with in row and n columns is mxn

-The numbers that make up a matrix are called its entries or elements, aij , and they are

specified by their row and column position.

-The matrix for which the entry is in ith row and jth column is denoted by  aij 

NO. QUESTIONS ANSWERS


Determine the order of each matrix.

2 a b c  a)1x3
  1 2   
1 a) 1 5 6 b) d c)   d) 1 2 3 b)3x1
   
 4  3 4   4 d 5 c)2x2
d)3x3

Find the order of AB in each case if the matrices can be multiplied.

2 a) A has order 4x2, B has order 2x5 a)4x5

b)A has order 4x3, B has order 3x2


b)4x2

1 2 0  5 0 0 
0 1 
Given A  0 0 7  B  0 6 0  C 
0 0 2  0 0 7  1 0 

a)A,B, C,D,E,F
4 0 0 1 2 3  5 3 4 
D   2 3 0  E   4 6 5  F  0 6 5 
3

0 4 6   3 2 7  0 0 7  b)B

Determine which of the above matrices are :


a) square matrix b) diagonal matrix

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
c) lower trianglular d)upper triangular c)D
d)F

4 1 2 3   2 undefined because
Find the sum of
 4 6 5  + 7 
    the matrix are in
 3 2 7   4 different order

1 2 3   5 3 4 6 5 7
  
Find the sum of 4 6 5 + 2 6 5
  2 12 10 
     
5  3 2 7   4 1 7   1 3 14 

2 3  4 4 6 7 
Find the sum of     2 12
6  4 5  2 7   

 5 2 
 
Given P= 3 3 , find (2P)T=2PT
7   10 6 8
 4 6   4 6 12 
 

 3  6 9 12 
 
Let A= 4 and B=  2 3 4 , find AB.
 8 12 16 
8    
7  14 21 28

3 4
 
Given that C=  2 6 3 and D= 5 6 ,find CD.
9   30 28
 2 0 

10 6  6 2  x 2
Given 3      8 
10  11 8  1 y   4 2 X=-3, y=-8

Find the values of x and y.

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Find the values of a, b, c, and d if a=-6


11 b=4

 2  a 6 4  8 4  c 4 c=-2
 10 2b 2  2  4d 2
   8 d=3

1 2 2  1 5 2
 
Given matrix S= 5 4 2 .Find ST
2 4 7
12    
 2 7 1   3 2 1 

13 Find the product of the matrix. 10 7 7 


10 11 3
1 2 0  
 2 2 3  
 4 0 3  1 0 2 
   2 1 1
 

 21 8 7
 3 12 13
 6 2 3  3 0 5  
     6 0 
 1 2 4 , and N=  7 4 3
14 If matrix M= 6
 2 3 0   2 6 0 

Find 4M-N.

4 0
If D is the diagonal matrix given by D=  
15  0 3 16 0
 0 9
Find D2  

 5 5 0 0
Given A=   , find the values of a and b if A2=  
16 a b 0 0 a=-5 , b=-5

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WORKSHEET 4.2
CHAPTER 4: MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

(4.2 Determinant of Matrices)

3 0 6 
1. Given that A  1 2 5 . Find the minors and cofactors of a11 , a21 and a32 .
7 4 8 

5 4 1 
2. If A  6 3 3  . Find the minor and the cofactor for every element in the
7 1 2 

first column of A. Hence, find A .

1 2 1 
3. Given that A   3 1 2 . Find A .
 4 0 0 

 1 2 3
4. Given that B   4 5 4 , show that B  BT .
 9 2 1 

2 m 1
5. It is given that 3 1 0  14 .
m 0 1

a. Determine the value of m .

b. Without expanding about any row or column, evaluate the

4 6 2
determinant 3 1 0.
9 0 3

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WORKSHEET 4.2

1 2 1
3 1 2  25
4 1 0
6. Show that .

Without using expansion, deduce the value of

1 1 2
3 2 1
4 0 1
a.
3 1 2
4 1 0
1 2 1
b.
1 2 1
6 2 4
4 1 0
c.

ANSWER:

1. M11  4; M21  24; M31  21 ; C11  4; C21  24; C31  21

2. M11  3; M21  7; M31  9 ; C11  3; C21  7; C31  9 ; 36

3.20

5.(a) -3 (b) 84

6.(a) 25 (b) -25 (c) 50

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CHAPTER 4: MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


(4.3 Inverse Matrices) WORKSHEET 4.3

INVERSE MATRIX BY USING ADJOINT MATRIX :

1
A1  adj  A 
A

For a 2 x 2 matrix,

a b  1  d b  1
A ; A1 
ad  bc  c a   A adj  A
 c d   

1. Find the inverse matrices of

  3 7 1 
 2 5 3   10 10 5 
(a) A   0 1 1  Ans :  1 11 1 
  20 20 20  
 2 4 8    1 1 
 20  20
9
 20  
 3 7  5 
2 3 2    2 8 4
(b) B   2 2 2   Ans :  1  1 1 
  2 
 3 5 1   1 
 2  8  4  
1 1

  1 3 1 
 2 1 5   12 8 24  
(c) C   3 0 1   Ans :   1  1 13  
  12 8 24  
1 2 1    1 
1  1  
  4 8 8 

by using the adjoint matrix.

 k 3  19 
2. Given that R    and 4 7 R 1   4   , find the value of k.
 k  1 2  2

 Ans : k  1

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CHAPTER 4: MATRICES WORKSHEET 4.4

(4.4 Inverse Matrices)


3. Find the inverse matrix of each of the following matrices by using Elementary Row
Operations (ERO) method.

1 1 2  1 2 2 
(a) A   4 0 3  (b) B  0 1 1 
5 1 2  1 0 2 

4. Matrix R and S given as

0 1 1   6 0 2
  
R   5 1 1 and S   13 2 5
 2 3 3  17 2 5 

Show that RS = 4I , where I is an identity matrix. Hence obtain R-1 and S-1

Ans
 1 1 
 4 0
4 
   3 0 3   3 0 3 
A  adj A  C T   7 8 5  A1   7 8 5 
1 7 2 5  1
1 (a) 
 12 3 12  12
   4 4 4  4 4 4 
 1 1 1
 
 3 3 3 

 
 1 2 0 
   2 4 0   2 4 0 
adj B  C   1 0 1 B   1 0 1
1 1 1
(b) B 1   0   T 1
 2 2 2
 1  1 1 1   1 1 1 
1 1 
 
 2 2 2 

 3 1   1 1 
 2 0 0
2  4 4 
   
2. R   
5
S 
1 13 1 1 5 1 1
 
 4 2 4 4 4 4
 17 1 5  1 3 3 
    
 4 2 4   2 4 4 

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PERFECT PRACTICE
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CHAPTER 4: MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF WORKSHEET 4.5


LINEAR EQUATIONS

(4.4 System of linear equations with three variables)

The matrix equation AX=B can be solved by


a) Finding the inverse matrix method
b) Using the elimination method

1. Solve the following matrix equations by using:


i. the inverse method
ii. the elimination method

 1 1 1  x  12   2 1 3  x   1 
         
(a)  0 1 2  y   10  (b)  3 1 4  y    7 
 2 1 1  z  16   5 2 6  z   5 
         
[Ans: x=4, y=6, z=2] [Ans: x=3, y= -2, z=1]

 1 6 2  x   5   2 3 4  x   1 
         
(c)  2 3 1  y    4  (d)  2 2 3  y    2 
 3 4 1 z   2   1 2 1  z   5 
         
[Ans: x=1, y= -3, z= -7 ] [Ans: x=3, y= -5, z= -2]

5 x  2 y  3z  48
2. Given 7 x  3 y  4 z  67
x  2 y  3z  32

Write the above system of linear equations in the form of a matrix equation. Hence,
solve the equation.
[Ans: x=4, y=5, z=6]

 1 3 4   1 0 1 
   
3. Given A   5 2 3  , B   14 4 17  . Find AB. Hence, solve the matrix
 2 3 4   11 3 13 
   
 1 3 4  x   3 
    
equation  5 2 3  y    0  [Ans: x=1, y= -8, z=7]
 2 3 4  z   2 
    

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 4.5

 1 2 3   11 9 13 
   
4. If P   4 1 5  , Q   14 0 7  . Find PQ. Hence, determine the inverse
 2 1 6   6 3 9 
   

matrix of P and solve the following system of linear equations:

 x  2 y  3z  4
4 x  y  5 z  5
2 x  y  6 z  2

 21 0 0   11 9 13 
  P 1 1  
[Ans: PQ   0 21 0    14 0 7  [x= -3, y=2, z=1]
 0 0 21 21  
   6 3 9 

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 5: FUNCTIONS WORKSHEET 5.1

(5.1 – FUNCTIONS )

1. State which of the following relations represent functions.


(a) X Y X Y (b) X Y
(c)
s  1 s  1 s  1
t  12 t  12 t  12
u   3 u   3 u   3

(d) X Y (e) X Y
s  1 s  1
12 t  12
t   3 u   3

(f) {(2,1),(4,1),(6,5),(8,10)}
(g) {(10,-10),(20,-20),(30,-30),(40,-40),(20,-50)}

Ans: (a),(b) & (f)

2. Determine whether the following graphs are function by using vertical-line


test.
(a) y (b) y

X X
O O

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
y y WORKSHEET 5.1
(c) (d)

X
O
X
O

Ans: (a) & (c)

3. Determine whether the following functions are one-to-one (use graphical


approach and algebraic approach).
(a) f : x  x 1 , xR
1
(b) f :x , x  R,x  0
x
1
(c) f :x , x  R,x  1
x 1
(d) f : x  x  1, x  R,x  1
f : x   x  2  8,
2
(e) xR
(f) f : x  2x , xR

Ans: (c), (d) & (f)

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SM015 MATHEMATICS

WORKSHEET 5.2

5.2 MODULE : GRAPH SKETCHING

MATHEMATICS SM015

(Refer to Module 5.2)


(1 - 20 Pages)

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SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 5: FUNCTIONS WORKSHEET 5.3

(5.2 COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS )


1. Given that functions f ( x)  x 2  3, g ( x)  2 x  5, h( x)  x  3 .Find

a) f g b) g h c) h f d) h2

2. If f  x   3x 2  4 and g ( x )  4 x  1 , find the value of

a) ( f g ) 1 b  g f 1 c) f 2  2  d) g 2  3

3. Given that f  x   2 x 2 , g  x   2 x  8 and h  x   ln x , find

a) g h f b) h g f c) g f h

4. Given that g ( x )  3  x and f g ( x)  x2  6 x  10 . Find the function f.

4
5. Given that g  x   , find f(x) such that fg  x   3x  8
x
6. Given that f ( x)  x 2  1 and f g ( x)  x2  4 x  5 . Find the function g.

7. Given that f  x   x  3 , find g (x) such that fg  x   2 x  11

8. Given that f  x   ax  b where a and b are constants, g  x   6 x  5 and

fg  x   3x  2 , find the values of a and b.

Answers:

1. a) 4 x 2  20 x  22 b) 2 x  3  5 c) x

d) x3 3

2. a) 31 b) 27 c) 772
d) 43

3. a) 2ln  2 x2   8 b) ln  4 x2  8 c) 4(ln x)2  8

4. f  x   x2  1

12
5. f  x  8
x
6. g  x  x  2

7. g  x   4  x2  11x  31

1 9
8. a b
2 2

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PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER 5: FUNCTIONS WORKSHEET 5.4


(5.3 Inverse Functions )

Method of Finding the Inverse Function


 If f is one-to-one function which maps elements x in the domain X onto elements y
in the codomain Y , then the inverse function f 1 maps y back to x . That is

f : x  y  f 1 : y  x
or f ( x)  y  f 1 ( y )  x
In other words,
f  f 1 ( x)   f 1  f ( x)   x

1. Find the inverse of the following functions

a) f ( x)  4 x  3 , xR g) f ( x)  x  3 , x3

b) f ( x)  2  3 x , xR h) f ( x)  2  x , x2

c) f ( x)  x 3  2 , xR i) f ( x)  x 2  4 , x0

f ( x)  1  x3 , xR f ( x)   x  2 1 , x  2
2
d) j)

1
e) f ( x)  , x3 k) f ( x)  x2  2 x  6 , x0
3 x
1
f) f ( x)  , x5 l) f ( x)  6 x  x2 ,x3
x 5

2. For the cases above, sketch the graph of the functions and its inverse on the same axis
3. By using the above inverse functions , state the domain and ranges

Answers:
x 3 2 x
(1). a) f 1 ( x)  b) f 1 ( x)  c) f 1 ( x)  3 x  2 d) f 1 ( x)  3 1  x
4 3

1 1 1
e) f ( x)  3  f) f 1 ( x)   5 g) f 1 ( x)  x 2  3 h) f 1 ( x)  2  x 2
x x
i) f 1 ( x)  x4 j) f 1 ( x)  x 1  2 k) f 1 ( x)  x  5  1 l) f 1 ( x)  9  x  3

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
WORKSHEET 5.4
(2)
a) b) c)

d) e) f)

f) h) i)

j) k) l)

WORKSHEET 5.4

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SM015 MATHEMATICS
(3)

a) Range of f 1 : x  R b) Range of f 1 : x  R c) Range of f 1 : x  R

Domain of f 1 : x  R Domain of f 1 : x  R Domain of f 1 : x  R

d) Range of f 1 : x  R e) Range of f 1 :    ,3 f) Range of f 1 :  5,  

Domain of f 1 : x  R Domain of f 1 :  0,   Domain of f 1 :  0,  

g) Range of f 1 :  3,   h) Range of f 1 : (   , 2 i) Range of f 1 :  0 ,  

Domain of f 1 :  0 ,   Domain of f 1 :  0 ,   Domain of f 1 :  4,  

j) Range of f 1 :  2,   k) Range of f 1 :  0 ,   l) Range of f 1 :  3,  

Domain of f 1 :  1,   Domain of f 1 :  6 ,   Domain of f 1 : (   ,9 

CHAPTER 5: FUNCTIONS

47
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS WORKSHEET 5.5
(5.4 Exponential And Logarithmic Functions)

1. Find  f g  x  and  g f  x  for the following functions of f  x  and g  x  :


a) f ( x )  2  e x g  x  9  2x
b) f ( x )  e 2 x g  x   ln x
c) f ( x )  1  ln  3  x  g  x   2 x  3

2. Given that f ( x )  x  4 and g  x   ln  x  1 . Find  g f  x  and  f g 1   x  .

3. Find the inverse of f  x   1  e x  2 and sketch the graph of f  x  and f 1  x 


on the same coordinate axes.

4. Given that f  x   5  2e 2 x . Determine the inverse of f  x  and sketch the


graph of f  x  and f 1  x  on the same coordinate axes. State the domain
and range of f 1  x  .

5. Find the inverse of f  x   e 2 x 3  2 and sketch the graph of f  x  and f 1  x 


on the same coordinate axes. State the domain and range of f 1  x  .

6. Function f is defined by f  x   ln  2 x  5 . Find f 1  x  and sketch the graph


of f  x  and f 1  x  on the same coordinate axes.

7. Given that f  x   1  ln  3  x  . Determine the inverse of f  x  and sketch the


graph of f  x  and f 1  x  on the same coordinate axes. Determine the
domain and range of f 1  x  .

8. Find the inverse of f  x   ln  3 x  2  and sketch the graph of f  x  and


f 1  x  on the same coordinate axes. Determine the domain and range of
f 1  x  .

WORKSHEET 5.5

48
PERFECT PRACTICE
SM015 MATHEMATICS

ANSWERS:

1. (a) f g  x   2  e 9 2 x  g f  x   5  2e x
(b)  f g  x   x 2  g f  x   2 x
(c)  f g  x   1  ln  2 x   g f  x   5  2 ln  3  x 

2. g f  x   ln  x  3 f g 1   x  e x
5

3. f 1  x   2  ln  x  1

1  x5
f 1  x    ln  D f 1   5 ,   R f 1    ,  
2  2 
4.

1
5. f 1  x   3  ln  x  2   D f 1   2 ,   R f 1    ,  
2

6. f 1  x  
2

1 x
e 5 

7. f 1  x   3  e1 x D f 1    ,   R f 1    , 3

ex  2  2 
8. f  x   D f 1    ,   R f 1    ,  
1

3  3 

49