Introduction : Offering all our customers “driving pleasure and outstanding environmental and safety performance”

 Finding solutions to global warming and other environmental problems that we currently face is certainly an urgent issue. As an automaker concerned with offering our customers exceptional value, Mazda is striving to meet the need for ever-better environmental and safety performance in automobiles. We believe our job is to address such requirements while continuing to ensure the kind of driving pleasure that only Mazda can deliver.  The next-generation SKYACTIV technology introduced here is designed to simultaneously achieve the seemingly conflicting goals of driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance without the slightest compromise.  We will begin to equip SKYACTIV technology in new Mazda vehicles sold from 2011 onwards. Our approach is to provide driving pleasure while reducing overall CO2 emissions by improving the core performance attributes of all Mazda vehicles.  We have set ourselves the goal of offering all our customers driving pleasure along with outstanding environmental and safety performance. Look forward to exciting developments from Mazda as we move towards a sustainable future for people and the automobile.

Internal Combustion Engines (ICE)

 In March 2007, Mazda announced the “Sustainable Zoom-Zoom” plan, detailing the company’ s long-term vision for technology development. This vision commits us to make “cars that always excite, look inviting to drive, are fun to drive, and make you want to drive them again,” and to help achieve “an exciting, sustainable future for cars, people and the Earth.” Based on this plan, we have announced that by 2015 we intend to make a 30% improvement on the 2008 average fuel economy of Mazda vehicles sold worldwide.

Average fuel economy for all cars

“Sustainable Zoom-Zoom”- Long-term vision for technology development -

Plan to raise average fuel economy of Mazda cars sold globally by approx.

30%

   Average fuel economy

improvement ratio for cars sold in Japan : approx.

30%

2001         2008        2015

(Calender year)

Fig.1-1 Target of Average Fuel Consumption

Electric Devices

Electric vehicle Hybrids   Regenerative braking Idling stop system
Electric Devices

“Building Block Strategy” - Contributing as it expands In recent years, new electric devices have been introduced that have led to the development of automobiles such as hybrids and electric vehicles. We have entered an era in which performance delivered by the engine, transmission, body, chassis and other vehicle parts is being augmented through their combination with electrical components. Nevertheless, it is forecast that internal combustion engines will still account for a high percentage of automobile powertrains even as far ahead as 2020 ( Fig 1-2 ).

Electric vehicle

Base engines (ICE)

2010

Plug-in Hybrids    Hybrids     Regenerative braking Electric Devices

Idling stop system

Electric vehicle
Plug-in Hybrids     Hybrids   

ICE

Base engines (ICE)

2015

Regenerative braking Idling stop system

ICE

Base engines (ICE)

2020

Fig.1-2 Anticipated Expansion in Adoption of     Environmental Technologies

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Consequently, Mazda is prioritizing improvement of the base technologies that are responsible for the core performance of our cars while adopting a Building Block Strategy of gradually introducing electric devices such as regenerative braking, hybrid and other systems ( Fig.1-3). This approach aims to effectively reduce total CO 2 emissions with cars that offer a winning combination of driving pleasure and excellent environmental and safety performance to all our customers, without relying heavily on vehicles that are strictly dedicated to meeting environmental needs.

Step-1  Motor Drive technology Step-2  Regenerative Braking g Braki Step-1  Base Technology
Fig.1-3 Building Block Strategy

i-stop

“SKYACTIV” - Next-generation technologies embodying Sustainable Zoom-Zoom  SKYACTIV is the name we have given to our next-generation technologies whose purpose is to realize Mazda’ s Sustainable Zoom-Zoom long-term vision for technology development. SKYACTIV is a term we coined to suggest harmony between driving pleasure and excellent environmental and safety performance. All of Mazda’s next-generation technologies associated with the Building Block Strategy are included under this umbrella concept.

“Breakthrough” - The Mazda approach to solving mutually conflicting issues  SKYACTIV technology is characterized by theprinciple of breakthroughs. A good example is the conflicting challenge of improving fuel economy while boosting torque. Rather than aiming solely for an ideal balance between the two, we instead employed the breakthrough approach of technical innovation to improve both fuel economy and torque. We applied the same approach to address problems in all areas. This enabled us to vastly improve performance. In our latest effort, we pursued the ideal vehicle structure from scratch, with no preconceptions. In this way, we were able to radically transform powertrains and platforms concurrently, greatly increasing the possibility of achieving breakthroughs.

Challenge B

h h gh al o ou ic o h o hr og h o k o k o kt ol on t t ea hn ti v v Br tec ova i n ia nn vi in

Fig.1-4 Breakthrough

Be st ba la nc e

ap pr oa ch

Challenge A

“Monotsukuri Innovation” (innovative manufacturing)

- Process-innovation in car building  Since 2007, even before we introduced SKYACTIV, Mazda has been reforming all the processes involved in making cars, from research and development through to manufacturing. This company-wide project, which we call Monotsukuri Innovation, is organized around a common architecture concept and a flexible manufacturing concept based Bundled Product Planning. Through breakthroughs in both diversification to meet varying customer needs, and commonization for increased efficiency, the project has enabled us to deploy high-grade, high-performance technologies over a wider range of vehicle models, and to respond quickly to changes in customer demands.
Support for common producti upport u production i cesses i processes to raise volume effici efficiency
Common architecture concept

Production

Bundled product planning

Development

Flexible manufacturing concept

Support for competitive multi-product manufacturing
Fi 1 5 M Fig.1-5 Monotsukuri Innovation t k iI t

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“Base Technologies” - the cornerstone of the Building Block Strategy This section introduces the next-generation base technologies to be progressively equipped in most models as the foundation of SKYACTIV. The following three areas are vital to the dramatic improvements we are striving to simultaneously achieve for driving pleasure, and environmental and safety performance.

(1) Highly efficient engines with a world-beating compression ratio developed in pursuit of ideal combustion (2) Highly efficient transmissions developed in pursuit of the ideal transmission (3) Highly-rigid body and chassis that achieve outstanding crash safety performance through comprehensive weight reduction technology

(1) Highly efficient engines with a world-beating compression ratio developed in pursuit of ideal combustion
 The development of automotive mechanisms for engines has a history going back more than 120 years. For this reason we tend to find it difficult to think that any further improvement in performance is possible. But the fact remains that 70 to 80 percent of the energy contained in fuel is lost within a vehicle’s powertrain and fails to be transferred as motive power to its wheels. Many of today’s automakers are working on engine refinement by making engines smaller and various other methods. One of Mazda’s recent developments towards an ideal engine configuration is the Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine, which offers the combined advantages of both gasoline and diesel engines. In commercializing the rotary engine and through other remarkable technical achievements, Mazda has a history of making the seemingly impossible possible. Now, we have taken on the challenge of pursuing ideal combustion. As a result, we have attained a world’ s best: a compression ratio of 14.0:1 in both the gasoline and diesel categories. Thanks to a number of technological breakthroughs, we succeeded in dramatically improving fuel efficiency, power, exhaust gas emissions and other attributes. With the diesel engine in particular, we have managed to meet stringent exhaust gas emissions regulations in every country our vehicles are sold without installing expensive aftertreatment devices such as urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to counteract NOx emissions.

Fig.1-6 SKYACTIV -G

Fig.1-7 SKYACTIV-D

(2) Highly efficient transmission developed in pursuit of the   ideal transmission
 Vehicle transmissions are not only extremely important for improving fuel economy, they also exert a major influence on driving performance. The performance demands on automatic transmissions

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vary greatly depending on the market, and since there is not a single transmission in existence that satisfies all these varied demands, automakers deploy a variety of systems, each matched to a particular market. Employing the world’ s most commonly-used combination - a torque converter and stepped automatic transmission - as the basic structure, and by using technology that substantially reduces slip in starting devices, Mazda has brought together the benefits of each system and developed a highly efficient automatic transmission with a substantially direct drive feel that will be perfectly suited to conditions in numerous global markets.

Fig.1-8 SKYACTIV-Drive

(3) Highly rigid body and chassis that achieve outstanding crash safety performance through comprehensive weight reduction technology  Mazda has always put the highest priority on offering driving pleasure, and is therefore strongly focused on weight. Reducing vehicle weight does not simply boost fuel economy; combined with the innovative engines described above, it complements the engine’s performance potential, and vastly improves the vehicle’ s core performance attributes when driving, turning and stopping. To gain maximum benefit from the complete redesign of its base technologies, Mazda also set itself the challenge of reducing the weight of its vehicles by approximately 100 kilograms through a process of “comprehensive weight reduction,” which was focused mainly on the next-generation body and chassis. This all-inclusive process aimed to achieve a lightweight and highly-rigid body with excellent crash safety performance by pursuing an ideal body structure, adopting new production technologies and substituting new materials. For example, by first addressing the issue of the locations for the powertrain, chassis and other components, we were able to design an ideal body structure. The optimization of materials and sheet thicknesses was enabled through the use of computer-aided engineering (CAE). Additionally, new production technologies such as laser welding and weld bonding ultimately helped reduce weight and resulted in better crash safety performance and rigidity. We have also pursued chassis improvements through an optimized suspension structure and mounts.

Fig.1-9 SKYACTIV-Body

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Fig.2-21 SKYACTIV-Drive

Technology
Good FE Easy start up (Launch feel) Easy start up on hill (Creep) Direct feel Smooth shifting (Shifting Quality) FE at low speed FE at high speed

CVT + + + +
Important in European market

DCT + + + o

Step AT o + + + o o
Important in NA market

SKYACTIV - Drive + + + + + +
Ideal for global market

+ : Better o : Average − : Worse

Important in Japanese market

Fig 2-22. Advantages of Each Transmission Type

(2)Improvement in Fuel Economy and Achievement of Direct Feel with Full Range Lock-Up The torque converter transfers engine power to the transmission through fluid, making a smooth start-up and gearshifts possible. The drawback is that fuel economy worsens due to the loss of power transfer through the fluid, and slippage during rapid acceleration, which causes vehicle speed to lag behind engine speed. Therefore, a torque converter with a lock-up clutch was developed, which locks the torque converter’ s turbine to the impeller to improve fuel economy and direct drive feel.

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