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PREFACE

Mechanical Engineering is a multidisciplinary subject, which embraces physics,


metallurgy thermodynamics, mechanics fluid, chemistry and electrical principles
and as such is an interesting and often stimulating area of engineering.

The main objective of industrial training is to enable the students to apply the
theoretical knowledge to practical situations & to expose themselves to the
industrial environment. It helps the students to understand the importance of
discipline, punctuality & teamwork & also cultivates a sense of responsibility in
them. With the help of training students get exposed to the current technological
developments & also understand the psychology of the workers.

Working in an industry provides us a practical approach to our theoretical basis of


knowledge acquired in our class room. It has been a great pleasure; training at
NATIONAL FERTILIZERS LIMITED, NAYA NANGAL. This industry helped me to
boost up my practical skills correlating the theories of book into actual work
environment. The following training report presents all my observation, analysis
made during my training period of 4 weeks. The report concerns with the
workshops, urea and bagging plant, where I have been deputed in the training.

The information and data furnished in the context is based on the information
collected by me through interaction with the Engineers, Technocrats,
Technicians, and Workers working in the firm. Despite taking every effort to
procedure an error free report, I apologize for any mistake in the context on my
part.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Out of deep sense of gratitude I express my sincere thanks to H.R.D Department
of N.F.L Nangal for facilitation of my training in the company.

I sincerely express my thanks to Mr. Umesh Kumar (Sr. Manager, Mechanical


Workshop) and his co-workers for providing me with the necessary technical and
operational details about the workshop.

I sincerely express my thanks to Mr. R.K Aggarwal (Sr. Manager, Urea Plant) and
his co-workers for providing me with the necessary technical and operational
details about the urea plant.

I express my sincere gratitude to the Training Officer, Panjab University Swami


Sarvanand Giri Regional Centre, Hoshiarpur for providing me with the
opportunity to undergo training at Industry and gain practical knowledge of
Mechanical Engineering.

I also appreciate the company of my friends in the training period, which


provided a happy environment for learning.

Without the support and wishes of my parents, I could have never completed my
project work, from depth of my heart, I acknowledge them with regard and
affection.

DAKSH SAHORE

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INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL FERTILIZERS LIMITED
National Fertilizers Limited (NFL) – Miniratna (Category -1) company is a major
Indian producer of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers and industrial
chemicals namely, Urea, Neem Coated Urea, Bio-Fertilizers (solid & liquid) and
other allied Industrial products like Ammonia, Nitric Acid, Ammonium Nitrate,
Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Nitrate etc. NFL, incorporated in 1974 is India's largest
Central Public Sector Enterprise (Government of India Undertaking)
in Fertilizer Sector with a turnover of over Rs. 75 billion. Coming under the
administrative control of Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers it is the second
largest producer of the key fertilizer Urea in India. N.F.L has 5 Units operating in
the country:--
• Nangal (Punjab)
• Bathinda (Punjab)
• Panipat (Haryana)
• Two units at Vijaipur (Madhya Pradesh)

NANGAL UNIT
The Nangal unit of N.F.L is located in Nangal town of Punjab. The town is just 10
kilometers from Bhakra Dam. Of all the units of N.F.L, the Nangal Unit produces
largest amount of Urea, about 1675 metric tonnes per day. The various plants in
the Nangal unit are:--
• Ammonia Plant
• Steam Generation Plant
• Urea Plant
• Bagging Plant
• Nitric Acid Plant
• Ammonium Nitrate Plant
• Methanol Plant

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MECHANICAL
WORKSHOP

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DRILLING MACHINE
A drilling machine is a machine tool designed for drilling holes in metals. Drill
Machines are available in various sizes ranging from hand held portable drills
to large floor mounted drills. A picture of Universal radial drill machine is
shown below (fig-W1). This is the most commonly used drill machine in
industries. Drills can perform a number of operations which are given below -
--

• Drilling
• Boring
• Counter Boring
• Counter Sinking
• Tapping

Universal Radial Drilling Machine (fig-W1)

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LATHE MACHINE
The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping articles of metal and
sometimes wood or other materials by causing the work piece to be held and
rotated by the lathe while a tool is advanced into the work causing the cutting
action. There are various types of lathes, most common being the Center lathe
machine (fig-W2). For large production Capstan and Turret lathes are used on
which multiple tools can be mounted. Lathe is a very versatile machine and a
large no. of operations can be performed on lathes which are ----
• Turning (including straight, taper and step turning)
• Thread Cutting (including Tapping)
• Grooving
• Parting-Off
• Facing
• Chamfering
• Knurling
• Forming
• Drilling
• Boring
• Reaming

Center Lathe Machine (fig-W2)

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SHAPER
Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool in which the ram moves the
cutting tool backwards and forwards in a straight line. A single point cutting
tool is used in shaper which machines the job to due to reciprocating motion.
The cutting action is performed in forward stroke while the backward stroke
is idle. The shaper uses crank and slotted lever mechanism due to which the
forward stroke is slower and the backward stroke is faster. A common shaper
is shown below (fig-W3). Shaper is used for –

• Machining horizontal, vertical or angular surfaces.


• Slot cutting
• Keyways cutting
• Machining irregular surfaces
• Machining splines

Shaper OR Shaping Machine (fig-W3)

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PLANER
A planer is used for machining flat surfaces which are large and heavy and are
difficult to be accommodate on the table of a shaper. In planer, the tool is held
stationary and the workpiece reciprocates in contact with it, which results in the
required machining operation. A planer is shown below (fig-W4). A planer can
perform all the operations that can be performed on the shaper but on relatively
large sized jobs --
• Machining horizontal, vertical or angular surfaces.
• Slot cutting
• Keyways cutting
• Machining irregular surfaces
• Machining splines

Planer Machine or Planer (fig-W4)

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SLOTTER
The slotter or slotting machine is also a reciprocating type of machine tool. It may
be considered as a vertical shaper. The chief difference between a shaper and a
slotter is the direction of the cutting action. In slotter, the tool reciprocates in the
vertical direction with help of the ram, whereas in shaper the same happens in
horizontal direction. A slotter is shown below (fig-W5). The slotter is used to
perform following functions –

• Machining horizontal, vertical or angular surfaces.


• Slot cutting, keyway cutting
• Machining irregular surfaces
• Machining splines
• For machining dies and punches
• Internal machining of blind holes

Slotter Machine (fig-W5)

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BORING MACHINE
Boring basically refers to the enlarging of drilled holes, but the boring
machine can perform number of operations other than boring also. Boring
machines are of many types, mainly, horizontal and vertical boring
machines. A horizontal boring machine is shown below (fig-W6). The
common operations performed on the boring machine are –

• Drilling
• Boring
• Reaming
• Tapping
• Facing

Horizontal Boring Machine (fig-W6)

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MILLING MACHINE
A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against
a rotating multipoint cutter. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and removes
metal at very fast rate. That is why milling machine is used in production work.
Milling machines are of various types, general classification being horizontal and
vertical, depending on spindle orientation. A horizontal milling machine is shown
below (fig-W7). The operations performed on the milling machine are –

• Plain milling, face milling, side and angular milling


• T-Slot milling
• Gear cutting milling
• Helical milling
• Keyway milling
• Profile milling

Horizontal Milling Machine (fig-W7)

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GRINDING MACHINE
Grinders are used to get desired surface finish, correct size and accurate shape of
product. Grinding wheel consists of abrasive material particles that are held
together using bonds. The abrasive particles are responsible for the cutting action
of grinders. The most commonly used grinders are surface grinders and
cylindrical grinders. A surface grinder is shown below (fig-W8). Grinders are used
for –

• Rough grinding
• Precision Grinding
• External Grinding
• Internal Grinding
• Flat Grinding
• Tapered Grinding

Surface Grinder (fig-W8)

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GAS WELDING AND GAS CUTTING
A fusion welding process which joins metals, using the heat of combustion of an
oxygen /air and fuel gas (i.e. acetylene, hydrogen propane or butane) mixture.
The intense flame thus generated is used to produce melts and fuse together the
metals, usually with addition of filler metal. The fuel gas generally employed is
acetylene because Oxy-acetylene flame is the most versatile and hottest of all the
flames. The process is shown below (fig-W9) The oxy-acetylene process is also
used for cutting the metals after heating it to its kindling temperature. This is
called gas cutting. Three types of flames are possible in oxy-acetylene process
which are –

• Neutral (Oxygen and Acetylene in equal proportion)


• Oxidizing (excess of oxygen)
• Carburizing (excess of acetylene)

Oxy-Acetylene Gas Welding (fig-W9)

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SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is a commonly used arc welding process
manually carried by welder. It is an arc welding process in which heat for welding
is produced through an electric arc set up between a flux coated electrode and
the workpiece. The flux coating of electrode decomposes due to arc heat and
serves many functions, like weld metal protection, arc stability etc. Inner core of
the electrode supply the filler material for making a weld. The process is shown
below (fig-W10). The applications of this welding include –

• Building and Bridge construction


• Automotive and aircraft industry, etc.
• Air receiver, tank, boiler and pressure vessel fabrication
• Ship building
• Pipes welding

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (fig-W10)

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GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING
Commonly called as TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, in this process a non-
consumable tungsten electrode is used with an envelope of inert shielding gas
around it. The shielding gas protects the tungsten electrode and the molten
metal weld pool from the atmospheric contamination. The shielding gases
generally used are argon, helium or their mixtures. The use of filler metal is not
compulsory, it may or may not be used. The most common application of TIG
welding is for welding aluminum and stainless steel. The TIG welding process is
shown below (fig-W11). The advantages of TIG welding are –

• High quality welds


• No weld spatter
• No flux is used
• Requirement of filler metal is not compulsory
• Little or no post-weld cleaning is required.
• All metals and alloys can be welded
• Appropriate for thin sheets

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (fig-W11)

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GAS METAL ARC WELDING
MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding is the common name of the process. In MIG
welding the electric arc is stuck between a consumable metal electrode and the
workpiece. The commonly used shielding gases are same as those used in the TIG
welding, viz. argon, helium or a mixture of these two gases. The consumable
electrode is in the form of a wire reel which is fed at a constant rate, through the
feed rollers. GMAW is widely used in fabrication operations in factories for
welding a variety of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The process is shown in (fig-
W12). The advantages of the MIG welding are –

• Continuous supply of filler metal gives faster welding


• Can be easily automated
• Higher metal deposition rate
• Thick sheets can be welded
• No slag formation
• No flux is required
• Suitable for Welding most ferrous and nonferrous metals

Metal Inert Gas Welding (fig-W12)

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UREA
PLANT

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo
machinery. These are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational
kinetic energy that typically comes from an engine or electric motor to the
hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The fluid enters the pump impeller along
or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially
outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits. These
pumps may be single-stage or multi-stage (more than one impeller) as shown (fig-
U1 & U2). For higher pressures at the outlet, impellers can be connected in series.
For higher flow output, impellers can be connected parallel.

Single Stage Centrifugal Pump (fig-U1)

Multi Stage Centrifugal Pump (fig-U2)


One of the important parts in this pump is MECHANICAL SEAL which is used to
prevent leakage of the substance along the shaft axis and casing. Although, Gland
packing can also be used but in case of costly or hazardous fluids where 0%
leakage is required, Mechanical Seal (fig-U3) is used.
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Mechanical Seal (fig-U3)

RECIPROCATING (PLUNGER) PUMP


A plunger pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure
seal is stationary and a smooth cylindrical plunger slides through the seal. This
makes them different from piston pumps and allows them to be used at higher
pressures. Plunger pumps are reciprocating pumps that use a crank
mechanism to create a reciprocating motion along an axis, which then builds
pressure in a cylinder or working barrel to force gas or fluid through the pump. A
representation of plunger pump is shown below (fig-U3).

Reciprocating Plunger Pump (fig-U3)

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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
Reciprocating compressors (fig-U4) are positive displacement compressors in
which a piston cylinder arrangement is used to compress gases. The air enters
through suction valve and is compressed by piston moving in cylinder which is
driven using crankshaft by external drive such as electric motor. These may be
single stage or multi-stage. These compressors are of two type according to
piston working direction as –
• Single-Acting-- They are the reciprocating compressor which has piston
working only in one direction. The other end of the piston is often free or
open from which no work is performed.
• Double-Acting-- They are the reciprocating compressor which has piston
working only in one direction. The other end of the piston is often free or
open from which no work is performed. To keep the motion of the piston
perfectly straight, CROSSHEAD is used in this case (fig-U5).

Reciprocating Compressor (fig-U4)

Mechanism of Double Acting Reciprocating Compressor (fig-U5)

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