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- 505 Chapter Summaries
- History of Statistics
- Introduction ( script # 1 )
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- Statistics
- ch07
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TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION

* What is data reasoning?

* Type of statistics

* Variable and data sets

* Type of data

* Level of measurements

*

*

* is a branch of mathematics dealing with the

collection, organizing, analysis, interpretation &

presentation of masses of numerical data.

*

*

* Descriptive statistics

(learn about the data)

* Inferential statistics

(learn about the population-assumption)

*

*Techniques that take the raw scores from a

distribution and summarize them in a form

that is more manageable.

*characteristics of the data = described in

simple terms.

*Methods = summarize, organize, simplify

data.

*

*Include the construction of graphs, charts & tables

and the calculation of various descriptive measures

such as average (MEANS) and measure of variation

(STANDARD DEVIATION).

*

* Other name = statistical induction.

* Comprises the use of statistics to make

inferences concerning some unknown aspect of

a population.

* mathematical tools to make forecasts and

projections by analyzing the given data.

*

*

* Descriptive statistics

* To describe the basic features of the data in a

study.

* To present quantitative descriptions in a

manageable form.

*

* Inferential statistics

* To study samples and then make generalizations

about the population from which they were

selected.

*

*Preliminary descriptive analysis of sample >

choose the appropriate inferential method.

*Descriptive Statistics =

* performed on a sample & on a population

* To examine & explore the data

*Inferential Statistics =

* An inference is made about the population based on

the samples data

*

*VARIABLES

AND

DATA SETS

* A variable is property of an

object or event that can take

on different values. It is a

characteristic associated

with each unit in a

population

*Constant:

* Quantitative data can be distinguished in terms they are

discrete or continuous.

*Discrete vs Continuous

variable

*

*Continuous Variable

* A variable that consists of numbers whose values, at least in

theory has no restrictions.

* Example, weights of female statistics students, reaction

time, standardized test score

*discrete variable

* Count variable

* Continuous Variable

* Number of value with no restrictions

*

*Continuous or

Discrete??

* Cooking time for pasta- Continuous

* IQ score- Continuous

* Age - Discrete

* Population in Parit Raja- Discrete

* Speed of jetliner- Continuous

* Quantitative Data

* Qualitative Data

*

* Data is quantitative if the observations or measurements

made on a given variable of a sample or population have

numerical values.

pressure, current, voltage.

*

* is discrete if the corresponding data values take discrete

values.

* Example : number of children, number of cars.

* Example: speed, distance, time, pressure.

*

* Data is qualitative if words, groups and categories

represents the observations or measurements.

*

* Race * Net Worth (RM)

* Age * Favorite sport

* Family size * Gender

* Academic major * Temperature

* IQ Score

* Political preference

*Qualitative or

Quantitative ?

* Nominal *

* Ordinal

* Interval

* Ratio

*

DAM2013

Nominal Ordinal

LoM

*

Interval Ratio

* variables have values that have no

mathematical interpretation

* data can be placed into categories and

counted only in regard to frequency of

occurrence.

* no ordering or valuation implied

* Eg: Gender (Male and female), Races (Malay,

Chinese, India)

*

* Variables can logically be ranked ordered from

greatest to leased.

* The interval between values can not be interpreted

* provides information about the order of categories

* doesn't tell you how much better person 1 did than

person 2

* but does not indicate the magnitude of differences

between them

* Eg: Young and old, guilty or innocent; or multiple

ranks such as completely agree', 'mostly agree',

'mostly disagree', 'completely disagree

*

* fixed measurement units but have no true zero

point.

* the distance between numbers does have

meaning.

* Eg: temperature, zero degrees does not signify

an absence of temperature

*

* is an interval scale with a true zero point

* scale contains all of the information of the

previous three levels plus it contains an

absolute zero point.

* they can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and

divided in a meaningful way

* Eg: Mass, length, time, plane angle, energy and

electric charge

*

Try to differentiate both cases:

* 0 temperature

* 0 Weight, 0 length, 0 age

*

Determine the level of measurement of the following

data:

1 – Spoken languages (BM, English, Arabic…) - Nominal

2 – Length - Ratio

3 – Degree of satisfaction - Ordinal

4 – Date - Interval

5 – Age – Ratio

6 – Brand of car - Nominal

7 – Olympic medalist (Gold, silver, bronze) - ordinal

*

* Why we learn about data reasoning?

* How many types of statistics?

* Descriptive? Inferens?

* Variable and data sets?

* Independent variable? Dependent variable?

* Type of data

* Quantitative?

* Qualitative

* Data type/Level of measurements

* Nominal

* Ordinal

*

* Ratio

* interval

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