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# *

TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION
* What is data reasoning?
* Type of statistics
* Variable and data sets
* Type of data
* Level of measurements

*
*
* is a branch of mathematics dealing with the
collection, organizing, analysis, interpretation &
presentation of masses of numerical data.

## * =>meaningful conclusions can be drawn from them.

*
*
* Descriptive statistics
(learn about the data)
* Inferential statistics
(learn about the population-assumption)

## What’s the DIFFERENCE?

*
*Techniques that take the raw scores from a
distribution and summarize them in a form
that is more manageable.
*characteristics of the data = described in
simple terms.
*Methods = summarize, organize, simplify
data.
*
*Include the construction of graphs, charts & tables
and the calculation of various descriptive measures
such as average (MEANS) and measure of variation
(STANDARD DEVIATION).

*
* Other name = statistical induction.
* Comprises the use of statistics to make
inferences concerning some unknown aspect of
a population.
* mathematical tools to make forecasts and
projections by analyzing the given data.

*
*
* Descriptive statistics
* To describe the basic features of the data in a
study.
* To present quantitative descriptions in a
manageable form.

*
* Inferential statistics
* To study samples and then make generalizations
about the population from which they were
selected.

*
*Preliminary descriptive analysis of sample >
choose the appropriate inferential method.
*Descriptive Statistics =
* performed on a sample & on a population
* To examine & explore the data
*Inferential Statistics =
* An inference is made about the population based on
the samples data

*
*VARIABLES
AND
DATA SETS
* A variable is property of an
object or event that can take
on different values. It is a
characteristic associated
with each unit in a
population
*Constant:
* Quantitative data can be distinguished in terms they are
discrete or continuous.

*Discrete vs Continuous
variable
*
*Continuous Variable
* A variable that consists of numbers whose values, at least in
theory has no restrictions.
* Example, weights of female statistics students, reaction
time, standardized test score
*discrete variable
* Count variable
* Continuous Variable
* Number of value with no restrictions

*
*Continuous or
Discrete??
* Cooking time for pasta- Continuous
* IQ score- Continuous
* Age - Discrete
* Population in Parit Raja- Discrete
* Speed of jetliner- Continuous
* Quantitative Data
* Qualitative Data

*
* Data is quantitative if the observations or measurements
made on a given variable of a sample or population have
numerical values.

## * Example: height, weight, number of children, blood

pressure, current, voltage.

*
* is discrete if the corresponding data values take discrete
values.
* Example : number of children, number of cars.

## * is continuous if the data values take continuous values.

* Example: speed, distance, time, pressure.

*
* Data is qualitative if words, groups and categories
represents the observations or measurements.

## * Example: colors, yes-no answers, blood group.

*
* Race * Net Worth (RM)
* Age * Favorite sport
* Family size * Gender
* Academic major * Temperature
* IQ Score
* Political preference

*Qualitative or
Quantitative ?
* Nominal *
* Ordinal
* Interval
* Ratio
*

DAM2013
Nominal Ordinal

LoM
*
Interval Ratio
* variables have values that have no
mathematical interpretation
* data can be placed into categories and
counted only in regard to frequency of
occurrence.
* no ordering or valuation implied
* Eg: Gender (Male and female), Races (Malay,
Chinese, India)

*
* Variables can logically be ranked ordered from
greatest to leased.
* The interval between values can not be interpreted
* provides information about the order of categories
* doesn't tell you how much better person 1 did than
person 2
* but does not indicate the magnitude of differences
between them
* Eg: Young and old, guilty or innocent; or multiple
ranks such as completely agree', 'mostly agree',
'mostly disagree', 'completely disagree

*
* fixed measurement units but have no true zero
point.
* the distance between numbers does have
meaning.
* Eg: temperature, zero degrees does not signify
an absence of temperature

*
* is an interval scale with a true zero point
* scale contains all of the information of the
previous three levels plus it contains an
absolute zero point.
* they can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and
divided in a meaningful way
* Eg: Mass, length, time, plane angle, energy and
electric charge

*
Try to differentiate both cases:
* 0 temperature
* 0 Weight, 0 length, 0 age

*
Determine the level of measurement of the following
data:
1 – Spoken languages (BM, English, Arabic…) - Nominal
2 – Length - Ratio
3 – Degree of satisfaction - Ordinal
4 – Date - Interval
5 – Age – Ratio
6 – Brand of car - Nominal
7 – Olympic medalist (Gold, silver, bronze) - ordinal

*
* Why we learn about data reasoning?
* How many types of statistics?
* Descriptive? Inferens?
* Variable and data sets?
* Independent variable? Dependent variable?
* Type of data
* Quantitative?
* Qualitative
* Data type/Level of measurements
* Nominal
* Ordinal
*
* Ratio
* interval