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Below details 5 lesson plans in a Year 9 English secondary school classroom that form a

lesson sequence that both addresses and is aimed to teach most of the content descriptors
outlined in the Year 9 AC: English. Indeed, this lesson sequence takes place early on in the
first term of the school year, the first week in fact, focusing on the classic 1967 novel The
Outsiders by S.E. Hinton (1967) as its ‘cornerstone textual tool’ in teaching students to achieve
successful learning outcomes in Year 9 English. Over all, the objective of this 5 class lesson
sequence is clear, as its goal is to teach/develop many of the Language, Literature and
Literacy AC: English content descriptions in student’s learning outcomes, with a particular
focus on the improvement of student’s knowledge in the role of textual structures, Genres,
literary devices, the changing nature of the English language and characterisation in English,
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, n.d.). S.E. Hinton’s novel, The
Outsiders, is a great literary text to use as a ‘guide’ or ‘deconstructing tool’ for a teacher to use
to help to show and teach these English cornerstones in Year 9 students throughout the lesson
sequence. Although, it is expected, in fulfilment of this objective, that students have a
necessary prior knowledge in basic spelling, grammatical, literary critical thinking, visual
literacy, verbal/written communication and reading comprehension skills.

Lesson 1: The Introduction of the Text/First impressions of a text (The Outsiders)

YEAR LEVEL & SUBJECT: Year 9 English DATE: 3rd February 2020

NO. OF STUDENTS: 25 TOPIC/FOCUS: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton

CONCEPT: First impressions of a text/how the introduction of a text signposts the fore coming structure of the plot of a text to the reader


ACELA1553, ACELA1770, ACELT1771, ACELT1634, ACELY1739, ACELA1560


The students will be able to: Identify/understand the many different ways an author (like S.E. Hilton) of a text structures their introduction in order to ‘hook’ the
reader and pass on basic starting plot information to the reader, or i.e. what their story is going to be about

SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIRED: Data Projector/PowerPoint, student notebooks/paper, pens/pencils, The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton novel,
whiteboard and whiteboard markers



RESOURCE STEPS OF THE LESSON (including specific
TIMING REACTIONS OR (including consideration of informal and/or formal
S (key activities and key questions) RESPONSES the need to adapt, reteach assessment links to
or extend) Australian Curriculum

25 PowerPoint, Starter It is expected that A successful teacher This starter task lends
Mins Data students will look at may need to walk itself heavily to AC:
Lesson Steps:
Projector, their own group’s book around the room and English CD’s
Pens/pencil 1. Teacher writes learning cover and reflect listen in to what each ACELA1560,
s, student objective on whiteboard (see upon/discuss, group is discussing ACELT1771 and
notebook, above) and prepares data alongside their fellow about their book cover ACELT1634. After all,
Whiteboard, projector/PowerPoint while group members, just and step in if a group is a teacher, in having
whiteboard students file into their seats (5 what they think this either off-task and not their students report
markers mins) book cover means talking about classroom back to them their
suggest about what is content or also intervene findings from their
2. Teacher displays 3 different going to happen if a group seems to be discussion helps the
book covers of past (and throughout the novel’s struggling in making teacher to access just
current) editions of ‘The plot. Students should connections between what background
Outsiders’ on PowerPoint and be actively thinking and their cover and what knowledge each
splits classroom into 3 engaging with their they think the novel is student process into
separate groups to both peers in a positive, about. At the end of the coming to
discuss and write down in each academic way. classroom discussion, learning/reading
group what they think their teacher may need to ask about this novel.
designated (by teacher) book students
cover tells them about what the prompting/guiding
novel is going to be about? (10 questions to focus their
mins) thoughts on what they
3. Each group then reports back discussed in their group
to the teacher about what their if the group struggled to
group decided that their book form/remember their
cover tells them about the conclusions.
novel’s plot. Teacher writes
down each group’s response
on whiteboard for ALL students
to copy down (10 mins)
Key Question: What do you think (X)
depicted in your book cover can tell you
about what the novel is going to be

25 ‘The Main Segment It is expected that A successful teacher By asking the class
Mins Outsiders’ students will quietly inspiring achievable about their own
1. Teacher asks students to open
novel, listen to the speaker learning outcomes in thoughts/internal
their copy of ‘The Outsider’s
PowerPoint, (either a voluntary their students will, while memorisation about
novel and read together (as a
Data student or teacher) reading along with the what they think
class) the opening chapter 1 of
projector, reading the first chapter class, correct any chapter 1 entailed, the
the novel. (10 mins)
student and read along with pronunciation/reading teacher can check not
2. After checking/asking for
notebook, them and the rest of the comprehension only for student’s
student’s understanding of
pens/pencil class, paying attention difficulties that students understanding of the
what happened in the first
s to every detail in the might display (this is who, what, when and
chapter, teacher then shows
chapter. Afterwards, especially critical when where of the chapter
PowerPoint notes (for students
students are expected differentiating for but also gauge which
to copy down) that not only
to copy down the students with a disability members of the class
display to students what
chapter notes and inside the classroom). are dedicating
actually happened in Chapter 1
introduction analysis Teacher should also, themselves to the
but also explain just what type
provided by the teacher while presenting class or not.
of introduction S.E. Hinton has
in relative silence. PowerPoint notes to
written at the start of their novel
students, answer any
to signpost their plot and hook
clarifying questions
the reader, (i.e. first person
students might have and
narration, humorous
provide examples to
introduction, tense
students as well.
introduction, etc.), (15 mins).

10 Student Closure Students are expected Again, the teacher By looking at student’s
mins notebook/pa to actively and relatively should answer any completed responses
1. Teacher displays a PowerPoint
per, silently (for other clarifying questions either in this class, or
slide detailing all the different
pens/pencil, students benefit) firstly students have on all the at the start of the next
types of introductions that an
data listen to the teacher different types of lesson, the teacher
author could use in writing a
projector/PP explain all the different introduction styles used can check for each
text (with explanations). The
types of introduction by authors in texts, student’s
teacher then asks students to
‘styles’ and then displayed via understanding of the
choose one introduction type
secondly create/write PowerPoint. While material covered in
and have a go at starting to
their own attempt at students are writing their the lesson, as the
write their own introduction to a
their version of a short attempt at an collecting of the class
text in that style/literary form. If
not finished, students can story introduction. introduction, the teacher responses serves as a
continue for Homework for Students are expected should also be available formative assessment
teacher to check next lesson to be on task and be for students who ask for tool for the teacher.
(10 mins). creative in their work. help/clarification on their
introduction style they
have chosen.

Lesson 2: Genres and identifying them by looking at a text

YEAR LEVEL & SUBJECT: Year 9 English DATE: 4th February 2020

NO. OF STUDENTS: 25 TOPIC/FOCUS: The Outsiders by S.E. Hilton
60 Mins

CONCEPT: The different types of genres and identifying them in a literary text


ACELA1553, ACELY1739, ACELY1748


The students will be able to: Identify/describe different types of genres and apply/associate them to a literary text (especially The Outsiders).
Commented [JG1]: Learning objectives, such as this
one, are professionally demonstrative of my ability to
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIRED: The Outsiders novel, Laptop/computer (BYOD program/PC classroom), Data projector/PowerPoint, student
craft not only positively challenging learning objectives,
notebooks, pens/pencils but also objectives that cater for the continued
development of the learning outcomes of all students,
LESSON PROCEDURE with all their diverse achievement levels/learning
STEPS OF THE LESSON (including specific
TIMING RESOURCES REACTIONS OR (including consideration of informal and/or formal
(key activities and key questions) RESPONSES the need to adapt, reteach assessment links to
or extend) Australian Curriculum

15- 20 The Outsiders Starter It is expected that each It is imperative that a Again, by asking
mins novel, student student display on task teacher, during the students after they
1. Teacher starts lesson by
notebook, behaviour and attitude reading of chapter 2 of have read the novel,
writing out lesson
pens/pencils, in completely reading the novel (since this is an ‘what do you think
objective on whiteboard
data and comprehending individual reading task), happened in this
and then asking students
projector/PP, the events of chapter 2, offer their assistance (if chapter (who, what,
to read chapter 2 of the
whiteboard, with no conversations wanted) in assisting the when, where, why)…,’
novel, The Outsiders,
whiteboard between each other student(s) with a a teacher can
silently and individually
markers that would disrupt the disability that may have successfully gauge
(10-15 mins)
learning/reading trouble in their reading which students are on
2. After class seems to
experience of their comprehension skills to task and have
have completed reading,
fellow students. Of read. This is whether it be developed a
the teacher then stops
course, challenging by sitting down successful
students, asks them
behaviours from individually with these understanding of the
what they thought students would be student(s) and assisting chapter’s events and
happened in the chapter, addressed to by the them. Of course, if those who have not
and then displays a teacher. After the students, at the end of who might need
PowerPoint giving a reading has been the reading still ask further assistance.
written summary of the completed, it is clarifying questions, the
main plot points/events expected of students teacher should do their
of the chapter for that they actively listen best to address and
students to copy down to the teacher’s answer these questions.
into their notebooks. The summary of the chapter
teacher verbally and take notes.
elaborates on these
points to the class to
increase their individual
understanding (5 mins)

30 laptop/computer Main Segment It is expected that A successful teacher One way that a
mins (BYOD program students partake in during this activity would teacher can ensure
1. Students (either alone or
or computer collaborative or be constantly on the that students have
in groups) are asked to
classroom) individual learning that move around the achieved successful
open/logon to a laptop or
is powered by their own classroom, stopping learning outcomes in
computer and to go on
individual learning every once in a while to this activity is to be
the internet and research
responsibility which will sit down with a group or constantly stopping by
all the components of all
allows them to an individual student and groups/individual
the main different types
successfully complete answer any queries or students and checking
of fiction genres,
this online research assist them with their in on or assisting
(including their
activity. Of course, it work in whatever way is students with their
definitions and what
may be expected that necessary. If a teacher work. After all, a
some students, with does have to sit down/be teacher can gauge by
features that each genre
access to the internet, stationery in the looking at a students
has to have to identify
might display off-task classroom, they should in-progress work if
them in a text). They are
behaviour during this make sure that they are they on their way
then to type down their
activity, which a sitting up the back of the to/show a decent
findings into a word
teacher should always room, to ensure that all literary understanding
document. (30 mins).
be on the lookout for to the student’s PC screens of genres and how to
Note: this assumes the school address. can be seen and identify them in a text.
promotes a BYOD program/has monitored for off-task
access to a PC classroom. behaviour. A teacher
should be careful to
always check in with
those students who
struggle with
technological learning.

10-15 Laptop/PC(BYOD Closure Students will be As a successful year 9 Of course, this section
mins program or expected to either work English teacher then, it is of the lesson is an
1. After all mainstream
access to a PC collaboratively or imperative that they take imperative formative
genres have been
classroom), The individually to achieve an active role in assisting assessment tool in
researched and filed into
Outsiders novel, the learning outcome of those students that find testing students ability
a word document by a
student notebook being able to interrelating two sets of to reach all of the
student/student group,
successfully interrelate information together, or curriculum CD’s listed
all students are then
the findings they have critically analysing a text, above. After all, the
asked to pick out which
found about each difficult. Nearing the end teacher receives a
genre/genres they think genre (along with its of the lesson the teacher direct digitalised
the novel, The Outsiders, identifying features) should also double-check formative report, if you
best reflects/is an and then apply it in with the class if all will, of each student’s
exemplar of, (while critically reading the groups/individual progress towards
including direct evidence first two chapters of the students have emailed meeting these
from the novel and their novel. Of course some their work to the learning outcomes
chapter summary notes students may struggle teacher’s school email through the email
of the first 2 chapters). with interrelating two account. submitted at the end
Students will type their forms of information of the lesson.
response into the same together or show off
word document and task behaviour
email their completed however.
work to the teacher’s
school email account.

Lesson 3: How different texts can promote different emotive responses/opinion in their audiences on a similar issue

YEAR LEVEL & SUBJECT: Year 9 English DATE: 7th February 2020

NO. OF STUDENTS: 25 TOPIC/FOCUS: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton

CONCEPT: Understanding/identifying the many literary/emotive techniques that different texts use to promote different emotional responses/opinions
in their audiences on a similar issue.


ACELA1560, ACELA1553, ACELT1771, ACELT1636, ACELT1637, ACELT1772, ACELY1739, ACELY1740, ACELY1742


The students will be able to: Identify/understand the ways in how two different texts can position a reader to feel about/look at a similar issue in very different ways
(e.g. The media and S.E. Hinton’s portrayal of teenage gangs)

SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIRED: Data projector/PowerPoint, teacher generated worksheet (with a table to fill in, asking students to focus on
the imagery, tone and emotive language in a text to position its reader/viewer), The Outsiders novel, student notebook, pens/pencils, whiteboard,
whiteboard markers



TIMING RESOURCES (including specific informal
REACTIONS OR (including consideration of
(key activities and key questions) and/or formal assessment
RESPONSES the need to adapt,
links to Australian
reteach or extend)
Curriculum Descriptors)

20 Data 1. Teacher, (after writing the It can be reasonably A teacher may need to The student’s verbal
mins projector/PP, lesson objective on the expected that go back and look at the responses to the
students whiteboard), displays students will, for the literary devices again if examples shown to them
notebook, PowerPoint notes on the most pay rapt silent students seem to via the PowerPoint can
pens/pencils, literary techniques that texts attention to the struggle, at first, in be a great tool by the
whiteboard, (visual and written) use to teacher as they deconstructing each teacher in
whiteboard emotionally influence their explain and provide textual example shown understanding, at a
markers audiences in reaching a exemplar to all the to them via the surface level, the
certain opinion on a certain different literary PowerPoint using the learning understanding
issue/event, (students copy techniques that an literary devices just of the classroom in
down both the notes and author of a text uses taught to them. Also, understanding literary
their responses to the to promote a certain teacher should devices as there uses in
ensuring examples teacher emotional viewpoint definitely answer any persuading an audience.
in their audiences on confirmation questions
displays to them on the an issue/event. Of that students ask of
PowerPoint). (20 mins). course, it is them on the learning
expected also that material. It might also
Key Questions: What techniques can
students actively be a good idea for
you identify in this written example on
think about, when teacher to ask students
the projector? What tone does this
looking critically at they know struggle with
advertisement display do you think?
each example, the interrelating knowledge
knowledge that they what they think in
have just learnt on looking at the examples
the literary devices – so that the teacher
and then interrelated can identify if they need
that knowledge to extra assistance in
the said example grasping all concepts.
shown to them.

30 Data Main Segment It is expected that An effective teacher As a teacher walks

mins projector/PP, students will in an during this segment around and consulates
1. Teacher hands worksheet
The Outsider’s attentive and critical would be constantly with all student groups
out to the class depicting a
novel, fashion watch the walking around to each throughout the segment,
blank table with columns
worksheet, media video while group and help guide said teacher can gain a
focusing on the use of literary
pens/pencils, looking out for, by their learning progress huge understanding
devices such as tone,
student applying their throughout the (based on the fact they
imagery and emotive
notebook knowledge from the collaboration activity choose the groups) just
language used in a text for
Starter, any (while answering any what students groups
students to identify. Then,
examples of literary questions students they selected seem to
while watching 5 minutes of
devices used might have – without struggle in learning this
a media video depicting
throughout. During doing the task for content (judging by their
‘youth crime,’ (A Current
the collaborative them). expression of the task
Affair, 2016), students will
learning discussion towards the teacher) and
look for (and write down in
phase of this those that may need to
the worksheet table)
segment, it is be challenged further in
examples of these devices
expected students future similar
being used to influence the
and share their own, activities/learning.
audience throughout the
and listen to others,
video. (10 mins).
knowledge about
2. After this is done, students
what examples of
will then be separated by the
literary devices they
teacher into groups of 5, in
can see in the video
order to discuss what
and its juxtaposition
examples of literary devices
to the
they saw being used to
influence the audience’s
of the novel.
opinion on youth gangs in
the video. Then students will
also discuss (and write
down) in the novel, The
Outsiders, what examples of
literary devices said novel
uses to identify/portray the
youth gangs of the ‘Socs’
and ‘Greasers,’ (Hinton,
1967). Student groups may
read the first 5 chapters
(skim reading) to identify
examples of this. (20 mins).
10 Student Closure To think critically Teacher should The responses that a
mins notes/notebook, about the two definitely look to teacher receives from
1. Teacher asks student
worksheet, The portrayals and continue to ask critical students can help them
groups, verbally, what
Outsiders novel respond to the enquiry questions of to judge which students
examples of literary devices
teacher’s guided students and as have been able to use
they saw influencing their
questions about students respond, their critical analysis
portrayal of youth gangs,
both texts’ guide them towards the skills to analyse both
both in the video and the
representations of learning texts successfully and
novel. Teacher narrows in on
youth gangs. outcomes/objective make a critical
asking/getting students to
that the lesson aims for. interpretation in deciding
think about what is similar
what messages each
and different between these
text is promoting (in this
two different portrayals of
case, the portrayal of
youth gangs and the role the
youth gangs).
authors of these texts has in
constructing these
portrayals. (10 mins).
Key Questions: How does the
video/novel represent youth gangs?
What differences and similarities can
you see in both portrayals?

Lesson 4: The evolution of the English language

YEAR LEVEL & SUBJECT: Year 9 English DATE: 11th February 2020

NO. OF STUDENTS: 25 TOPIC/FOCUS: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton
DURATION: 60 mins

CONCEPT: To identify/understand the Australian English language is always developing and is not stable but fluid in its evolution.


ACELA1550, ACELT1633, ACELA1561, ACELA1562


The students will be able to: identify/understand that the English language is always evolving by dropping words, creating new words and so forth, as is evident in
some of the outdated literary words/concepts throughout The Outsiders.

SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIRED: The Outsiders novel, Data projector/PP, Laptop/PC (BYOD program or PC classroom), student notebook,
pens/pencils, whiteboard, whiteboard markers



STEPS OF THE LESSON (including specific
TIMING RESOURCES REACTIONS OR (including consideration of informal and/or formal
(key activities and key questions) RESPONSES the need to adapt, reteach assessment links to
or extend) Australian Curriculum

20 Data Starter It is expected of During the reading The ability to critically

mins Projector/PP, students that they read portion of this task, it is reflect on the text and
1. Teacher (after writing
The through either chapter 3 imperative for a its events, along with
learning objectives on board)
Outsiders or any beyond, but also successful teacher that reading
asks students to silently start
novel, try to silently they practice comprehension, are
reading Chapter 3 and
pens/pencils, sympathise all the plot differentiation by sitting both definitely
maybe even start to read
student chapter 4 of the novel (if there developments/characte down with students with learning abilities that
notebook, progress through reading r relationships that they a disability during this can be judged by a
whiteboard, The Outsiders, outside of read as they progress time and assist them as teacher during this
whiteboard class time, has surpassed through the novel. they might struggle in segment. Especially
markers that of the events in chapter During the chapter reading the text to an as when checking for
3). (15 mins). summary section of this higher standard/rate students
2. Teacher stops students and starter task, students than other students. As understanding after
then displays PowerPoint should feel encouraged always, the teacher the reading portion.
with notes summarising the to ask any clarifying should encourage
events and key character questions of the teacher clarifying questions of
interactions throughout to improve their own their students in regards
chapter 3 for students to copy learning understanding. to understanding the
down into their notebooks (5 plot/characterisation of
mins). the novel chapter.

30 Data Main Segment It is expected students A good teacher, Of course, this activity
mins projector/PP, will be especially although they give definitely has unique
1. Teacher displays a
Laptop/PC critically and practically students the learning value in formative
PowerPoint slide listing all of
(BYOD or PC engaged throughout freedom/benefits to assessing, if you will,
the, now, outdated 1960s
classroom), this task, especially achieve successful not only student’s ICT
English ‘slang’ and informal
pens/pencils, when it comes to having learning outcomes by capabilities but also
words that are present
student to guess just exactly themselves, needs to ability to conduct
throughout the novel.
notebook what some of the be constantly checking effective research and
Teacher asks volunteering
outdated English in on every students present an
students to have a go at
vocabulary in The research work to ensure researched
verbally stating what they
Outsiders really means. they stay on track and ‘argument,’ (in this
think those words/concepts
This is also true with are not accessing case, on just what
mean (10 mins).
students having to find internet material they exactly they think the
2. After having students think
out the answers to shouldn’t be. outdated language of
for themselves over the
these questions The Outsiders
meanings behind the
themselves. In a sense, means).
outdated pieces of English,
the fact that the
teacher asks students (either
students are
in groups or individually) to
responsible for most of
logon/hop onto their
their learning
laptops/PC and to go internet
throughout, would
searching for the definitions
definitely spike some
and possible applications of
student’s engagement
these outdated English
in the material (although
words/concepts. Students
some might display off-
write their
task behaviour – thanks
definitions/applications into
to the inclusion of ICT
their notebook. (20 mins).

10 Whiteboard, Closure Students will be On the other hand, the This ending task
mins whiteboard expected to effectively effective teacher should definitely allows for a
1. After ensuring all students
markers, communicate their makes sure all students teacher to gain a
have completed this research
student findings back to the have all the definitions background
task, the teacher then will ask
notebooks/n teacher in a down to these 1960s knowledge of their
students (going around the
otes, synchronised way. It is slang terms present own student’s prior
room) for the actual
pens/pencils expected that students throughout the novel, as knowledge, in terms of
definitions behind these
will probably also be understanding them is their prior
words (to write up onto the
able to demonstrate crucial to not only understanding of the
board for students to copy
their own understanding understanding how many different
down who struggled in
of the definitions of the English is always words/phrases of
researching this task) and
outdated English by evolving, but also in vocabulary in English
also share what modern
trying to translate into understanding, proper, (as students are
English word/concept (if any)
today’s modern English the events of the whole asked to substitute
they would put in place of this
standards – which will of The Outsiders the outdated English
probably be a joyous novel itself. vocabulary into more
activity for all students,
outdated word/concept. (10 testing their prior modern vocabulary
mins). knowledge. components).
Key Question: If this language is
outdated and can be eliminated and/or
replaced by new vocabulary, what
does this say about the evolution of
English over time?

Lesson 5: The Outsiders character diary entry

YEAR LEVEL & SUBJECT: Year 9 English DATE: 14th February 2020

NO. OF STUDENTS: 25 TOPIC/FOCUS: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton
DURATION: 60 mins

CONCEPT: The role of characterisation in a fiction text and each character’s relationship to other characters, the plot, etc.


ACELT1771, ACELT1634, ACELT1773


The students will be able to: Understand and demonstrate the impact of a central character, (either Ponyboy Michael Curtis, Darrell Curtis or Sodapop Curtis), on
the events of the plot and their interrelationship with other characters in The Outsiders novel.

SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIRED: Data projector/PP, whiteboard, whiteboard markers, student notebook/A4 paper, pens/pencils, The Outsiders



TIMING RESOURCES REACTIONS OR (including specific informal
(including consideration of
(key activities and key questions) RESPONSES and/or formal assessment
the need to adapt, reteach
links to Australian
or extend)
Curriculum Descriptors)

20 Data Starter Students are expected Teacher should do their A teacher can easily
mins projector/PP, to participate in best to ensure that each check/test a student’s
1. Unlike previous lessons,
The volunteering to read student has an accurate understanding of the
teacher (after writing
Outsiders out-loud sections of summary of each of the novel by evaluating their
lesson objectives on the
novel, chapter 4 if called upon novel’s chapters, covered own chapter summaries
board) guides out loud
student by the teacher. so far, inside their before they have shown
student reading of the
notebook, Students are also notebooks (answering the PP to the class. If
whole of chapter 4 of The
pens/pencil, expected to take down questions from students more work is required
whiteboard, not only teacher about the chapters if by the teacher to update
constraints), (15 mins)
whiteboard generated notes on needed), as this is not a student’s chapter
2. Teacher, like previous
markers what happened in only imperative in summaries/understandi
lessons, shows class
chapter 4 but also go completing tasks in this ng of the begging of the
PowerPoint detailing the
back and make sure lesson but also in coming novel, future
events of the chapter for
that all their other to revise the novel later in differentiation acts may
students to copy down to
chapter summaries in the unit for assessment
improve their
their notebooks are purposes. As before, the
understanding of the text. accurate/similar to the teacher should also need to be
However, teacher also, in teacher’s laid out on the differentiate their time for implemented.
addition, shows students PP also. students with reading
(on that same slide) a comprehension
very, very brief summary difficulties.
of all the first 4 chapters of
the novel. This is done to
refresh student’s memory
of where the class is at in
the novel overall. (5 mins)

30 student Main Segment Students are expected In this goal, a teacher This section of the
mins notebook, to critically look at the must assist their students lesson, in having
1. Using this chapter
pens/pencils, events of the first 4 by answering students write their
knowledge, teacher then
The chapters and construct comprehension questions diary themed
asks students to write a
Outsiders a diary entry that on the novel’s plot from conclusions on their
personal diary entry
novel reflects their own students and also character’s depiction in
through either the
understanding of a main differentiating by sitting the novel, really goes a
perspective of main
character’s own impact down with those students long way in assessing
characters Ponyboy,
and interrelationship who find writing skills student’s, not only
Sodapop or Darrell
upon the events and difficult to come by easily. understanding of the
Curtis, (Hinton, 1967),
other characters of the text, but also ability to
that reflects their own
novel. critically read a text as
character’s experiences
and interactions with
other characters
throughout the novel’s
first 4 chapters (almost
half-way through the
novel). Students will be
allocated a character by
being placed into 3
different groups by the
teacher, of which each
group focuses on one of
the characters, (30 mins).

10 Student Closure Students are expected Successful teacher will As with the middle of
mins notebook, to listen closely to need to take key points on this lesson, students are
1. Teacher asks for 1 or 2
pens/pencils, volunteering students volunteering students’ assessed, thanks to the
volunteers from each
whiteboard, diary entries and write diary entries, with a key reading out of both diary
‘character group’ to read
whiteboard down the key notes focus on their characters entries form their own
out their diary entry from
markers. from them (as impact on the plot and and other characters
the point of view their own
highlighted by teacher interactions/interrelations perspectives, on their
assigned character.
on whiteboard) in hip with other characters ability to sympathise or
Teacher writes important
addition to their own in the novel (as lesson read the text from more
points from student’s
responses to this task objective exemplifies). than one angle,
entry onto whiteboard for
(especially those of the approach or character’s
other students to add to
other two characters). position.
their own notes/entries.
(10 mins).

As can be seen detailed throughout the above lesson sequence, there is a high emphasis on
teaching students to critically read a text, not just in the mere reading of S.E. Hinton’s novel,
but also in asking students to make/present a critical argument about the text in a classroom
setting, throughout almost all of these lessons in some shape or form. Indeed, in other words,
students, throughout the sequence, are asked to make meaning out of different aspects of the
novel, which is no mistake, because, as scholar’s Kalantzis and Cope point out, “children [or
students] become capable adult meaning-makers at a time when our meaning-making
environments are dramatically changing… the changes in our communications and learning
environments are so significant that we need to expand our frame of reference beyond
'literacy' to 'literacies,” (Kalantzis & Cope, 2012, p. 177). Especially when a teacher’s English
students will be eventually going into an adult word filled with ‘fake-news’, greater online
communications, and the like.
In response to this, academics like Cope and Kalantzis, have implored to English teachers to
adopt a ‘multi-literacies approach’ in which teachers are to teach/develop two modes of
meaning-making in students, in both representation meaning and communication meaning,
(Kalantzis & Cope, 2012, p. 177). Representation meaning-making is when students look at a
body of text and try to make sense of that text that they reading inside their own mind; but in
a way that is fluid, in that, they see the text in their “mind’s eye” in a way that is suitable to
them, always, “(re)constructing their worlds” or, in this case, experiences of a text, to fit their
‘mental narrative’ (Kalantzis & Cope, 2012, p. 178). While, at the same time, communication
meaning is a reciprocal meaning-making process (building upon representation) that occurs
when a person creates a message that impacts other people’s ‘mental narratives’ of the world
(such as an image, spoken thought or text), enabling a response, whether it either be a silent
(representation) or aloud (reciprocated communication) one, (Kalantzis & Cope, 2012, p. 178-
179). Again, this learning sequence teaches/develops in students both these representation
and communication meaning-making processes, especially in lessons where students read
the novel to themselves, and in other lessons when students participate in the many
collaborative group-work/social communication activities, respectively.
Speaking of group- work or collaborative learning, this lesson sequence features many
opportunities for group-work in which students work together with their peers in building on
their preconceived knowledge of English skills in consultation with others and, at the same
time, transfer their own English knowledge to other students as well that are in the group. At
a year 9 English level, group work offers great learning outcomes as students not only learn
to manage their time or learn to cooperatively work with others, but also, “learn to use
individual and group processes to generate, investigate, document, clarify, refine, critically
evaluate and present ideas and information drawn from books, the internet and other sources
of information,” (Baxter, 2009, p. 199). This benefits are present throughout the lessons
sequence whether it be from students forming groups to deconstruct and discuss their critical
analysis of the book covers in lesson 1, all the way through to the optional group work that
comes with the ICT research of outdated English terms/concepts in lesson 4.
Indeed, group work seems to be a very good learning tool in the English classroom in
improving the majority of student’s learning outcomes throughout this lesson sequence,
however, that is not always true for some students, like that of students with autism in the
class, which there are two. Of course, there are many studies suggesting the
learning/wellbeing difficulties (along with possible teaching strategies to address them) that
students with autism face in the classroom (as exemplified in Appendix A), but the most
important difficulty to consider in reflecting on this lesson sequence, is the fact that students
with autism may not always be able to concentrate or learn effectively if they have too much
social communication while learning (The National Autistic Society, 2011). Of course, this is
not always unavoidable, but it is also why, as exemplified in the lesson sequence (especially
when student(s) are asked to independently conduct in an ICT research activities in lessons
2 and 4), students are not required to always work in groups to complete every activity. Indeed,
to benefit these students with autism there are many activities throughout the lesson sequence
that give the choice to these students upon whether or not they want to conduct in collaborative
learning, where independent learning would do just the same amount in improving learning
Although, it should also be noted that in this Year 9 English class, described in this lesson
sequence, there is also a Japanese foreign exchange student present, in which, who while
demonstrates a decent knowledge in speaking, reading and writing Japanese and simple
English, seems to struggle in doing so at the same pace as his fellow peers and often confuses
similar English words/sounds with each other. As far as reading and drawing meaning from
texts goes for this student, as this lesson sequence heavily focuses on, scholar Kylene Beers
offers some practical advice to teachers to help improve this student’s learning outcomes in
English. Indeed, she suggests that teachers cannot rely on one simple/one dimensional
teaching strategy to improve a low-level reading student’s (such as this student’s)
comprehension ability, (such as leaving the student by themselves to read the text or direct
instructing the text), but instead states that teachers should:
“monitor the use of the strategy; offer less coaching as less is called for (removing the
scaffold); ask students what strategy they are using and why (therefore bringing the use of
the strategy to the student's awareness); give students continued opportunity to observe
more modelling; provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for students to transact with
other students with a range of texts.” (Beers, 2003, p. 37).
This is why in the lesson sequence, to differentiate for this student’s learning needs, it is
recommend that the teacher goes and sits down with the students that display limited
reading comprehension skills while the rest of the class silent continues to read the novel,
and is also why there are many opportunities for students to conduct group work when
critically analysing the novel directly in a lesson.
Although an English teacher is majorly concerned with teaching students the language,
literacy and literature skills outlined in the AC: English, the national curriculum also expects
all teachers to develop and teach students numeracy skills (Australian Curriculum,
Assessment and Reporting Authority, n.d.). On reflection of the constructed lesson sequence
above, there are many opportunities for the teacher to instil in students key numeracy skills,
ranging from the very basic like asking students to form groups of (#), to the more direct, like
showing students how to type a URL into the address bar during the ICT components of the
sequence (which oftentimes requires a basic numeracy understanding to achieve).
As mentioned, this lesson sequence also includes activities that directly use ICT
technologies to assist the teacher in improving student’s learning outcomes. After all, there
are many ICT activities throughout the sequence, ranging from using a PowerPoint to better
project the learning material across to students, to the other extreme of letting students use
their laptops to surf the internet to complete a research activity in which they are directly held
responsible for their learning (outside of the teacher’s direct instruction). This is important
aspect of the modern classroom, as the inclusion of ICT opportunities in improving students
learning in English is imperative, as, scholar La Craze illustrates:
“The effects of new technology and globalisation have transformed the amount and diversity
of information available, how information can be presented, and the ease with which anyone
can become a published author… children’s learning of literacy is no longer limited to the
classroom, as students are constantly engaged in the process of making meaning and
sharing multimodal texts in their out-of-school lives.” (La Caze, 2017, p. 16).
What’s more, is that by just using ICT technologies in the classroom, teachers can improve
the learning outcomes of student’s exponentially in ways that traditional technologies, like
the newspaper and textbook, never can (La Caze, 2017, p. 17). This is especially true, as
highlighted by Kalantzis and Cope (in La Caze’s work), in the ways ICT not only helps to
improve student’s multiliteracy skills but also in improving learning outcomes in the areas of
agency, divergence, multimodality and conceptualisation (La Caze, 2017, p.17).

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). Australian Curriculum:
English. Retrieved May 2, 2018, from
Baxter, D. (2009). Small Group Work. In W. Sawyer, S. Gannon, & M. Howie (Eds.), Charged
with meaning: Re-viewing English (3rd ed., pp. 197-203). Melbourne, Australia: Phoenix
Beers, G. K. (2003). Assessing dependent reader's needs. In When kids can't read, what
teachers can do: A guide for teachers, 6-12 (pp. 23-39). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
A Current Affair. (2016). Youth crime [Video file]. Retrieved from
Hinton, S. E. (1967). The Outsiders. New York, United States: Viking Press.
Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2012). Literacies as multi-modal designs for meaning.
In Literacies(pp. 173-205). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
La Caze, S. (2017). Changing classroom practice through blogs and vlogs. Literacy Learning:
the Middle Years, 25(1), 16-27. Retrieved from
The National Autistic Society. (2011, October 17). Classroom and playground: support for
children with autism spectrum disorders.
Appendix A

(The National Autistic Society, 2011).