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Construction of Hydropower Plant

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR

FOUR MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING


AT
FIROZPUR, PUNJAB

(From 21st January 2019 to 21st May 2019)

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLEGE

LUDHIANA, PUNJAB

(An autonomous college under UGC Act)

SUBMITTED BY SUBMITTED TO

PARUL KOHLI HARDEEP SINGH RAI

D4 CE C E DEPARTMENT HEAD

150391/1606614

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As the professional courses not only require the theoretical knowledge but practical
knowledge too, that is why university started conducting training programs for the students,
so that they can get ample view of practical problems. I find it a matter of Honor in showing
the feeling of indebtedness and thankfulness to the Dr. Sehijpal Singh, Principal, Guru
Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana for providing this opportunity to carry out the
four months industrial training.
The constant guidance and encouragement received from Er. K.S.Maan, Dean Training &
Placement cell, has been of great help in carrying out the project work and is acknowledged
with reverential thanks.
It is my privilege to express my profound ineptness, my deep sense of gratitude to P.A.U
(Punjab Agricultural University), Ludhiana for showing trust in me and assigning me such an
important and interesting project and also for sparing time from their schedule to discuss and
clarify issues related to this project.
I sincerely thank to my project guide Er. Gurpreet Singh Grewal (PROJECT
ENGINEER) for their kind co-operation in the completion of my project work.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. H.S. RAI (H.O.D) of CIVIL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College for providing me an
Opportunity to do my project work on ― Construction of Hydro power plant.

This project bears on imprint of many people.

I am also very thankful to my friends and family members who supported me, encouraged
me all the time to go through this whole project.

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STUDENT DECLARATION

This is to certify that I, PARUL KOHLI student of B.Tech (Civil) – 8th Semester
University Roll No.1606614 has undergone industrial training in "SIDHWAN POWER
PLANT " as required of four months industrial training for the award of degree of B.Tech
Civil Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana and prepared the report
entitled ― “HYDRO POWER PLANT” which is an authentic record of my work carried
out at Firozpur, Punjab.
If any discrepancy is found regarding the originality of this project I may be held responsible.
I have not copied from any report submitted earlier this or any other university. This is purely
original and authentic work.

PARUL KOHLI

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PROJECT ABSTRACT

This report deals with the construction of hydro power plant .The project is related to the
construction of hostels mess which is RCC framed structures (Single storey), with the total
estimated cost to be around 40 lakhs . The construction of hostels mess is handovered to the
local contractor to HARIOM CONSTRUCTIONS.

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STUDENT PROFILE

1. Name of the student: Parul kohli

2. Father's Name: Mr. Rakesh kohli

3. College: Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana

4. Class: B.Tech in Civil Engineering

5. Class Roll No.: 150391

6. University Roll No.: 1606614

7. Date of Birth: 23/03/1997

8. Session/Year: 2015-19

9. Contact no: +91-9814251436

10. E-mail Id: kohliparul662@gmail.com

11. Name of organization: sidhwan hydro power plant, Ludhiana

12. Period of Training: 21/01/19 to 21/05/19

13. Location of the Project: firozpur , punjab

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INDEX

CONTENTS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 09
1.1 General Introduction
1.2 About Company
1.3 About Contractor
2. About the Project 11
2.1 Details about the project undertaken
2.2 Location of site on map
2.3 Duties of site engineer
3. Machinery and Equipments 13
3.1 Concrete Mixer
3.2 Drill Machine
3.3 Concrete Vibrator
3.4 Measuring tape
3.5 JCB
3.6 Jack Hammer
3.7 Head Pan
4. Materials 16
4.1 Cement
4.2 Aggregates
4.2.1 Fine aggregates
4.2.2 Coarse aggregates
4.3 Reinforcement
4.4 Fly ash
4.5 Admixtures
4.6 Fine sand
4.7 Concrete
5. Construction Details 25
5.1 Clearance of site
5.2 demarcation of site

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5.3 Surveying and layout
5.4 Excavation of soil
5.5 Foundation
5.5.1 Type of foundation
5.5.2 Construction Steps For Foundation
5.6 Columns
5.6.1 Specification of Columns
5.6.2 Construction Steps of Columns
5.7 Beams
5.7.1 Types of Beams
5.7.2 Steps of Construction of Beams
5.8 Slab
5.8.1 Types of Slab
5.8.2 Construction steps of Slab
5.8.3 Specifications of Slab
5.9 Damp Proof Course
5.9.1 Causes of Dampness
5.9.2 Effects of Dampness
5.10 Brickwork
5.10.1 Course
5.10.2 Bonds
5.10.3 Mortar
5.10.4 Soaking of Bricks
5.10.5 Checking of Brickwork
5.11 Defects in Brick Masonry
5.12 Plastering
5.12.1 Requirements of good Plaster
5.12.2 Cement Mortar
6. Various Test Performed at Site 44
6.1 Test on Soil Sample Report
6.2 Test on Cement Sample Report
6.3 Test on Steel Sample Report
6.4 Test on Brick Sample Report

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6.5 Test on Concrete Cube Report

7. References 54

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Introduction

The industrial training is a part of continuous learning process. So this field exposure that
uplifts the knowledge and experience of students needs to be properly documented in the
form of report, which can be termed as “Industrial report". A properly prepared industrial
training report can facilitate the presentation of the field experience is an orderly, precise and
interesting manner. The purpose of industrial training is:-

1) To provide field exposure to the students.


2) To have better understanding of engineering practices.
3) To make them adapt to field conditions.
4) To provide opportunities to the students to handle tasks independently.
5) To help the students understand about the duties of an engineer and other supervision staff
in an organization.
6) To let them know the common field problems.
7) To impart intensive training to the students to enable them to be at par with the latest used
technical equipments.

1.2 About the Company

The Punjab Agricultural University was established in 1962 to serve the state of erstwhile
Punjab. It was inaugurated by Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Prime Minister of India on July 8,

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1963. On trifurcation of Punjab in November 1966, Haryana Agricultural University was
carved out of PAU by an Act of Parliament in February 1970. Later, in July 1970, Himachal
Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidalya was established. In 2006 the College of Veterinary Science
was upgraded to become Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University
(GADVASU) at Ludhiana. The Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) is located in Ludhiana
city (Punjab State) in north-west India at a distance of 316 km from New Delhi. It is well
connected by road and rail with the national capital. Situated on the Ludhiana - Ferozepur
Road, the University covers an area of 1510 acres on its main campus and 4615 acres at the
regional research stations. Modeled on the pattern of land grant colleges in U.S.A., the PAU
performs the integrated functions of teaching, research and extension in agriculture,
agricultural engineering, home science and allied disciplines. The University has well
equipped laboratories, library and lecture rooms and elaborate farm facilities. Hostel
accommodation is available in the university hostels for single students. Married students, if
accompanied by their family members, will have to find accommodation outside the campus.

The XEN (Civil) Office is situated in the Thapar Hall. All Construction Work to be done in
the university or any property that comes under its power like Krishi Vigyaan Kendra, is
managed by the Department itself and is outsourced via Quotations or Tenders opened by
PAU itself.

1.3 About Contractor

Hariom Construction is involved in civil construction of industrial and residential project and
have executed several projects. This organisation have team of skilled personals with rich
experience coupled with machinery, tools, vehicles and plants. Head office of this
construction company is in Ludhiana, Punjab.

Company mainly deals with

• Construction of residential buildings


• Construction of commercial buildings

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2. ABOUT THE PROJECT

2.1 Details about the project undertaken

Boys’ Hostel Mess is one of the two twin hostels being constructed in PAU, Ludhiana for
students by Hariom Construction Consortium Pvt. Ltd., Ludhiana. Each Hostel mess is
approximately a 40 Lakhs Project and is destined to be completed by 15 months (approx.)
from the date of beginning of Construction. The Hostel mess itself is spread in an area of
3240.61 sq. ft. It is surrounded by a boundary wall from all sides to separate it from
previously present hostels . It contains all the goodness of modern civil engineering and
technology which makes it sound and safer. For better safety, the structure is designed for the
highest seismic considerations of Zone IV as stipulated by the Indian codes. Bearing capacity
of soil is taken not less than 10 ton/sq. m. and grade of concrete to be used is M25 as
specified by the architect. However, specific tests were performed to cross-check the above
mentioned. Structure Drawing is designed by GURU NANAK DEV ENGG. COLLEGE

Figure 1 – Layout of Boys Hostel Mess

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Map Location

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2.3 Duties of Site Engineer

Main duties and jobs to be performed by a site engineer:


A site engineer functions as part of the site management group joining with and working
alongside architects, engineers, construction managers, supervisors, planners, surveyors and
subcontractors. Their main responsibility is to ensure site security, health, safety, and
organization and supervision of material and human resources. They apply designs and plans
to mark out the site and can be involved in projects ranging from small scale to very large
scale ventures. In general, they perform a technical, organizational and supervisory role on
construction projects, including setting out roads, drains, sewers and other structures
involved in construction operations. They also prepare reports as and when required during
construction purposes to help resolve any unexpected technical difficulties, and other
problems that may arise during construction period.

Chapter 3: MACHINARY AND EQUIPMENTS

Different types of machinery and equipments are used at site for different purposes in
construction site according to the requirements.

Different types of Machinery and Equipments used at site:-

 Tower Crane
 Concrete Pump
 Concrete Batching Plant
 Backhoe Loader and Excavator
 Bar Cutting Machine
 Welding Machines
 Needle Vibrators
 Bar Bending Machine
 Bar Threading Machine
 Jack Hammer
 Auto Level

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 Concrete Bucket
 GI Pipes for Concrete Pumping

CONCRETE MIXER

DRILL MACHINE

CONCRETE VIBRATOR

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MEASURING TAPE

JCB

JACK HAMMER

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HEAD PAN

Chapter 4: MATERIALS :-

At the site following materials were being used:-

General

To achieve these requirements the control of the constituent materials needs to be increased
and the tolerable variations restricted, so that daily production of concrete is within the
conformity criteria without the need to test and/or adjust every batch.

4.1 Cement
Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other
materials together. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either
hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of
hydration, a chemical reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water. Thus, they
can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction
results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water. Non-
hydraulic cements do not harden underwater; for example, slaked limes harden by reaction
with atmospheric carbon dioxide .The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in
the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement an aggregate,
to form a strong building material.
The function of cement is to act as a binding material in mortar, concrete etc. and combine
with water and to form cement paste. Cement becomes firm and hardens due to chemical
reaction, called hydration. On setting and hardening the cement binds the aggregate together

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into a stone like hard mass and thus provides strength.

At the site the types of cement being used for different purposes are:-

For Structural Work – Ultratech Cement

For Plastering Work – Ultratech Cement

Initial Setting Time – 30 Minutes

Final Setting Time – 10 Hours

4.1 Aggregates
Lightweight aggregates should be used at the site. These may be uncrushed, crushed or
partially crushed gravels or stone most of which is retained on 4.75mm IS sieve. They should
be hard, strong, dense, durable, clear and free from veins and adherent coatings; and free
from injurious amounts of disintegrated pieces, alkali, organic matter and other deleterious
substances. Flaky and elongated aggregates should be avoided. The moisture content, water
absorption, grading and variations in fines content of all aggregates is to be closely and
continuously monitored and must be taken into account in order to produce good or better
concrete of constant quality. Usually washed aggregates are normally given a more
consistent product.
The shape and particle size distribution of the aggregate is very important and affects the
packing and voids content. Some mix design methods use the voids content of the aggregate
in predicting the volumes of paste and of mortar required. Single size aggregate and/or a gap
in the grading between coarse and fine aggregates are used in some mix designs. Tests are
performed on aggregates to decide its quality.

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There are three types of aggregates according to their shape i.e. rounded aggregates, angular
aggregates and irregular aggregates.
Aggregates are the chemically inert materials comprises of broken stones and in irregular
size and shapes and sizes. It is the major constituent used in concrete.

Types of aggregate:-
 Fine Aggregates
 Coarse Aggregates

4.2.1 Fine Aggregates


The influence of fine aggregates on the fresh properties of the concrete is significantly
greater than that of coarse aggregate. Particle size fraction of less than 0.125 mm should be
include the fines content of the paste and should also be taken into account in calculating the
water powder ratio. Sand is used as fine aggregate having size (> .07mm). It is a granular
form of silica. Sand used for mix design is known as standard sand. Sand used in mortars
for construction purposes should possess at least 85% of the strength of standards and
mortars of like proportions and consistency. The standard sand should be free from organic
impurities. The loss of mass on extraction with hot hydraulic acid of relative density 1.16
should not be more than 25%.
The high volume of paste in concrete mixes help to reduce the internal friction between the
sand particles but a good grain size distribution is still very important. Many mix design
methods use blended sands to match an optimized aggregate grading curve and this can also
help to reduce the paste content. Some producers prefer gap-graded sand. Simply The
aggregate, which passes through 4.75mm IS Sieve and entirely retain on 75 micron
(.075mm) IS Sieve is known as fine aggregate

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4.2.2 Coarse Aggregates

Lightweight aggregate has been normally used for concrete but note that the aggregate may
migrate to the surface if the paste viscosity is low and this may not be detected by the sieve
segregation resistance test.
The reinforcement spacing is the main factor in determining the maximum aggregate size.
Aggregate blocking must be avoided as concrete flows through the reinforcement and the L-
box test is indicative of the passing ability of an concrete mix. The maximum aggregate size
should be limited to 12-20 mm, although larger sizes are being used.
The particle size distribution and the shape of coarse aggregate directly influence the flow
and passing ability of concrete and its paste demand. The more spherical the aggregate
particles the less they are likely to cause blocking and greater the flow because of reduced
internal friction.
The aggregate, which pass through 75mm IS Sieve and entirely retain on 4.75 IS Sieve is
known as coarse aggregates.

Sizes of coarse aggregates being used in site are:-


 Coarse aggregate of 20mm size
 Coarse aggregate of 10mm size

20mm size coarse aggregates 10mm size coarse aggregates

4.3 Reinforcement
Steel reinforcements are used generally in the form of bars of circular cross section (it may
be Hexagonal in shape) in concrete structure. Plain concrete without steel or any other
reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of best form of

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reinforcement to take the stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads
especially tensile and shear force. The grade of steel used is Fe 500D grade, because it has
better strength and ductility, where D stands for elongation and 500 indicates yield stress of
500 N/mm2. Limited the use of plain mild steel bars because of higher yield stress and bond
strength resulted in saving of steel quantity. The diameter of steel ranges from 6mm to 32
mm. The material which is used in concrete in order to increase its strength is called
reinforcement. Steel bars are highly strong in tension, shear, bending moment, torsion and
compression.

Types of reinforcement bars being used at site:- Type – Thermo Mechanically Twisted
(TMT)

Sizes – 8mm, 10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm, 25mm, 32mm.

Grade – Fe500

Brand/Company – Tata Tiscon

Couplers of sizes – 20mm, 25mm, 32mm.

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4.4 Fly Ash
At the site, a small amount of fly ash was also being used which is produced by burning of
coal in thermal power plants, providing increased cohesion and reduced sensitivity to
changes in water content. However, high levels of fly ash may produce a paste fraction which
is so cohesive that it can be resistant to flow.

4.5 Admixtures
Admixtures are the chemicals used to improve the properties of concrete in plastic and
hardened stage. Admixtures also increase the mean strength of concrete. It also helps to
increase workability of concrete in plastic stage and also used to reduce water content.
Choice of admixture for optimum performance may be influenced by the physical and
chemical properties of the binder/addition. Factors such as fineness, carbon content, alkalis
and C3A may have an effect. It is therefore recommended that compatibility is carefully
checked if a change in supply of any of these constituents is to be made.
Admixtures will normally be very consistent from batch to batch but moving to another
source or to another type from the same manufacturer is likely to have a significant effect on
concrete performance and should be fully checked before any change is made. Quantity to be
added in batching plant is decided by trials.

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In this project for Concrete admixture used is RHEOPLAST-WR (CA-111).

CA -111 is a water reducing admixture designed for the production of block industry. It can
reduce the material cost by reduction in cement content without loss in strength

ADVANTAGES

 Increase early and compressive strength with normal setting

 Lower permeability

 Excellent handing property

 Increase productivity, resulting in a reduced labour cost

 To reduce material cost in block industries and performance

 Allow good compressive strength without addition extra cement

USES

 To reduce material cost in block industries, semidry concrete manufacture without loss of
product properties and performance.
 Allow good compressive strength without addition extra cement.

4.6 Fine Sand


Fine sand is that type of sand which is composed of grains ranging from 0.10 to 0.25mm in
diameter. Fine sand is being used at site for plastering mortar

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4.7 Concrete
Concrete is a construction material which can be defined as the mixture of cement,
aggregates, water which hardens on drying. Concrete is good in compression but not in
tension and thus steel is used to increase its tensile strength.
When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a
fluid slurry that is easily poured and moulded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with
the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a
durable stone-like material that has many uses. Often additives (such as pozzolana or
superplasticiers) are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet
mix or the finished material. Mostly concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded
to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.

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Chapter 5: Construction Details

The following steps were followed during the construction of any project:

1. Clearance of site.
2. Demarcation of site.
3. Surveying and layout.
4. Excavation of soil.
5. Bearing test of soil.
6. Foundation.
7. Provision of expansion joints.
8. Shuttering.
9. Provision of columns.
10. Provision of beams.
11. Slab.
12. De-shuttering.
13. Finishing
14. Final completion and handover of project.

Some of the details of the above mentioned phases undertaken during the course of the project are
mentioned below

5.1 Clearance of site

It is the very first step in construction process which involves removal of unwanted materials ,
vegetative cover , trees etc. that are present on the land on which construction is to be carried. All
unwanted grass, trees etc. are removed to ensure that there is no obstruction present on site . mainly
used a JCB machine on the site.

5.2 Demarcation of site

This step involves marking of chosen area on which construction is to be started so as to identify the
construction zone and to carry out further construction steps easily. In this project the total built up
area was approximately 3240.61 sq.ft

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5.3 Surveying and layout

It is the third step involved in construction process which includes staking out reference points and
markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads, buildings, etc. These
markers are usually staked out according to a suitable coordinate system selected for the project. In
case of this project central point was marked with the help of a thread and plumb bob as per the grid
drawing. With respect to this centre point, all the other points of columns were decided as its exact
position is very critical.

5.4 Excavation of soil

An excavation is defined as a man-made cut, cavity, or depression in the earth’s surface. In this
project, excavation was carried out by JCB. Adequate precautions were taken to check that the
excavation operations do not damage the adjoining structures. Excavation was carried out by
providing adequate side slopes and dressing of excavation bottom. The soil present beneath the
surface was too moist so it was dumped and was not used for back filling. The depth of excavation is
6.2m from the ground level. After the process of digging the soil is compacted with the help of soil
compacter. The quantity of excavation are calculated in cu m. Excavation in foundation is calculated
by taking the dimensions of length, breadth and height from drawings. Foundation trenches shall be
dug out to the exact width of foundation concrete and the sides shall be vertical. If the soil is not
good and does not permit vertical sides the side should be sloped back or protected with timber
sharing excavated earth shall not be placed within 1 m of the edge of the trench.

5.5 FOUNDATION
Foundation – The lower most, part of a structure which transmits all loads and is in direct
contact with the ground is called a foundation.

Function of foundation - The main function of the foundation is to spread or distribute the weight
of the structure over a large area to avoid unequal settlement of the soil below. To provide a level
surface for the building and to increase the stability of the structure.

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5.5.1 Types of foundation – There are two types of foundation.

• Deep Foundation – The foundation of structure when taken deep to attain a bearing stratum suitable
in all respects is called Deep Foundation. Example of deep foundation – Piles, cofferdams, caissons.

• Shallow Foundation – A foundation placed immediately between the lower parts of the super
structure is called Shallow Foundation. Shallow foundation distributes the structural loads over a
large area at shallow depth below the ground level.

Types of foundation used –

• Combined Footing – A spread footing which supports two or more columns is known as spread
footing.

• Spread or Isolated Footing – It is a most common type of foundation and is also known as a
simple footing. It transmits the load of the isolated column or single column.

5.5.2 Construction steps for the foundation

• First of all the layout of the foundation is being done in accordance to the drawing provided.

FOOTING DRAWING

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Plan of Footing

• After that the earth work excavation is being done taking the proper offset.

• After the excavation soil will be manually compacted by hand compacter than PCC is being laid
according the size of foundation and PCC is mostly 3” more than the all sides of the foundation face
there length and width.

• After the completion of the PCC work marking of columns take place on the foundation .

• Than Reinforcement work will start. First of all the bars in the shorter span (main bars) are laid and
after that in the longer span (distributed bars). All the bars will be tied with the binding wires.

• 10mm diameter bottom bars are used at the spacing of 5” in the both ways (i.e. longer and shorter
span). Outer edge of bars is bent upward from all sid

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Footing dimensions and reinforcement

After the completion of the bottom reinforcement. Column reinforcement will be started. Now, the
top reinforcement of footing will be done according to the given specifications in drawing

5.6 COLUMN

Column is a vertical structural element that transmits the load transferred by the beams above it to
the sub-structure.

5.6.1 - Specifications of Column

Size 15’’* 18’’


15’’* 18’’
9”*18”
Grade of Concrete M25

Steel Used Main reinforcement – 12mm,


16mm,20mm,25mm dia
Stirrups – 8mm dia
Grade of Steel Fe500

Clear cover 40mm sides to main reinforcement

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5.6.2 - Construction steps of Column

• First of all the layout of the columns is done in according to the drawing and proper marking.

• Reinforcement of column is done by given specification from drawing of the selected column. Laps
of steel bars using for column reinforcement should not be less then 50d and d is representing the dia
of bar in mm.

• In column layout drawing, Columns are named as column C1, C2, C3 etc. First check the particular
column that you want to cast from column layout and then prepare the reinforcement according to
column schedule.

Details of columns

• After the completion of the column reinforcement the framework of column is done by using
the Frame plates there sizes is 1’-0” x 3’-0”, 1’-3” x 3’-0” and 1’-5” x 3’-0”. Before the framework
the coating of shuttering oil is done on the inner face of the frame plates for smooth surface column
after the casting. The clear cover will be checked and maintained 40mm from the main
reinforcement of the column.

• After the framework of column the casting of the column is done by using the concrete of M25
grade. During the casting of the column concrete will be compacted by using vibrator for proper
settlement of the concrete.

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COLUMN

5.7 BEAMS

A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending.
The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own
weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.

5.7.1 Types of Beams:-

• Simply Supported Beam - A beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no
moment resistance.

• Fixed Beam - A beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.

• Over Hanging Beam - A simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.

• Double Overhanging Beam - A simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both
ends.

• Continuous Beam - A beam extending over more than two supports.

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• Cantilever Beam - A projecting beam fixed only at one end.

5.7.2 Steps of Construction of Beam


• First of all casting the column at the height of the bottom of the beams.

Beam and Slab Layout

• After the checking, Shuttering work by using shuttering plates and that is start according to give as
drawing, there location, size and height. Size of the shuttering plates is 1’-0” x 3’-0”, 1’-3” x 3’-0”,
1’-5” x 3’-0”, 2’-0” x 4’-0”.

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BEAMS REINFORCEMENT DETAIL

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• After the completion of the shuttering work reinforcement of the beams are started. All the
reinforcement detail is also given in the slab beam detail drawing. Reinforcement are done according
on the given specification from the drawing.

Reinforcement of the beams

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• After the completion of the reinforcement of beams and slab they will be cast both beams and slab at
same period.

Plinth beam details :-

Plinth Beam Detail

Plinth Beam at site

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5.8 SLAB

Definition: - A large, thick, flat piece of stone or concrete, typically square or rectangular in shape.

5.8.1 Types of Slab:-

One Way Slab:- One way slab is supported on two opposite side only thus structural action is only
at one direction. Total load is carried in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beam. If a slab
is supported on all the four sides but the ratio of longer span (l) to shorten span (b) is greater than 2,
then the slab will be considered as one way slab. Because due to the huge difference in lengths, load
is not transferred to the shorter beams. Main reinforcement is provided in only one direction for one
way slabs.

Two Way Slab: - Two way slabs are the slabs that are supported on four sides and the ratio of
longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is less than 2. In two way slabs, load will be carried in both the
directions. So, main reinforcement is provided in both directions for two way slabs.

5.8.2 Construction steps for slab:-

• After the casting of column at desire height, frame works of the beams as well as slab are
start by using the shuttering plates and the size of the plates use for slab is 1’-0” x 3’-0” , 1’-3” x 3’-
0” , 1’-5” x 3’-0”, 2’-0” x 4’-0” and 1’-0” x 1’-0”.

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• After the shuttering work of the slab and before the starting of the reinforcement, first oiling
is done on the shuttering plates with oil.

• After the oiling of shuttering plates, the reinforcement of the slab is done properly according to the
specification of the drawing.

5.8.3 - Specifications for slab are:-

Thickness of slab 0’-5.5”

Grade of concrete used M-25

Grade of reinforcement used Fe – 500

Reinforcement used Main bars – 8mm Φ @ 10” C/C

Distribution bars – 10mm Φ @ 6” C/C

Clear cover provided 25mm-30mm from bottom to main


reinforcement

• After the reinforcement of the slab fitting of the electrical pipes is done .

• After the electrical pipes, slab will be casted by using M25 concrete. During the casting of slab,
thickness of the slab will be checked place by place with the help of the steel bar having marking at
5.5” and using the vibrator for proper settlement and finishing the surface of slab.

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5.9 DAMP PROOF COURSE

Dampness: – Dampness in a building occurs due to faulty construction and use of poor quality
material or sometimes due to bad design. Dampness affects the life of a building and creates
unhygienic conditions for the occupants. So one of the most essential major causes of dampness to a
structure is absorption of moisture by the building material. The thickness of D.P.C is 2.5cm.

Damp Proof Course:- A continuous layer of impervious damp resisting material provided to protect
super structure of the building from dampness is called Damp Proof Course.

In our site they are using Dr. Fix it (chemical) in the concrete for damp proof course.

5.9.1 - CAUSES OF DAMPNESS

• Rising of Moisture from ground.

• Action of rain

• Exposed top of walls

• Condensation

5.9.2 - EFFECTS OF DAMPNESS :-

1. Causes rotting of wood.


2. Causes corrosion of metallic fixtures.
3. Deteriorate electric installations.
4. Deteriorate carpet & furniture’s.
5. Causes spots on the floors and walls.
6. Causes petting off and removal of plaster.
7. Causes bleaching and blistering of paints.
8. Causes efflorescence in bricks, tiles and stones
9. Dangerous for the health of occupants.
10. Reduces the life of structures
11. Promotes growth of termites

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D.P.C at Site

5.10 BRICK WORK

A brick unit construction bonded with mortar is termed as Brick Masonry. Mortar acts as the
cementing materials, as well as it holds the individual bricks together, thereby forming slid
homogeneous structure.

Average size of a first class brick is 190mm x 90mm x 90mm and it weighs about 3 to 3.5 kg.

5.10.1 - Course: - Typically rows of the bricks is called course.

5.10.2 - Bonds: - A systematic arrangement of a course of bricks in brick masonry, by which the
continuous vertical joints are formed on over lapping course of bricks. In our site we used English
bond and Stretcher bond. English bond is used in 9” wall and Stretcher bond is used for 4” walls.

5.10.3 - Mortar:- It is a mixture of cement and sand, that mortar is called Cement mortar .
Sometimes, mud is used instead of cement mortar; such type of masonry done with mud is called

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mud masonry. In our site, cement mortar is used and ratio of mortar for 9” walls is 1:5 and for 4”
walls is 1:4. The thickness of mortar joints does not exceed 10mm.

5.10.4 - Soaking of brick:-


Bricks are used fully soaked in clean water by submerging in tank for a period of 12 hour
immediately before use. But at site sprinkling of water is done on bricks.

Soaking of Bricks

5.10.5 - Checking of Brick Work:-

• For Calculating Numbers of bricks.

Area of wall / Area of Brick = Approximate Number of brick

• Horizontally checking of wall – If wall is between the columns then check the walls horizontally by
using the thread and hold at face of both columns and check the wall horizontally.

• Vertically checking of wall :- Plumb bob is used to check the wall vertically. They are checked
while starting the new course of bricks.

• Cross checking - While the completion of wall, cross checking will be done. In this we can check the
whole wall at one time.

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Brickwork at Site

5.11 - DEFECTS IN BRICK MASONRY

1. Sulphate attack:

Sulphate salts present in brickwork react with alumina content of cement and with hydraulic lime in
the lime mortar causing considerable increase in the volume of mortar. This, in turn results in
chipping and spalling of bricks and formation of cracks in joints and rendering.

This defect occurs in situations where the brickwork is exposed like boundary walls, parapets etc. or
where it is likely to be in contact with moisture like manholes, retaining walls etc.

This defect can be remedied by adopting suitable construction details and choosing materials in such
a way that entry of moisture into the body of brickwork can be checked.

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2. Corrosion of embedded iron or steel:

Iron or steel embedded in brickwork gets corroded in the presence of dampness. On corrosion, the
metal expands in volume and tends to crack the brickwork.

This effect can be prevented by encasing the reinforcement or iron member in dense cement mortar
and providing a cover of 15 to 25 mm around the embedded member.

3. Shrinkage on drying:

Brickwork normally swells with the absorption of water and subsequently shrinks when the water
evaporates. In the process of shrinkage, it develops cracks in the masonry joints. If the mortar used
in the masonry is lean, the cracks are distributed over a large number of joints and in case of rich
mortar, the cracks are few but wider. Such cracks do not affect the structural strength of the
brickwork and can be easily rectified.

4. Crystallization of salts from bricks:

This defect commonly occurs in masonry made out of bricks which contain excessive soluble salts.
When such bricks come in contact with water, the soluble salts get dissolved and appear in the form
of fine whitish crystals on the surface of brickwork.

Crystallization of Salts from Bricks

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5.12 PLASTERING

Plastering is used to describe the thin plastic covering that is applied on the surfaces of walls and
ceilings. The plastering removes the unevenness of the surfaces and sometimes the plastering is used
to develop decorative effects.

5.12.1 - Requirements of good plaster

• It should adhere to the background and should remain adhered during all variations of the climatic
changes.

• It should be cheap, economical, hard and durable..

• It should be possible to apply it during all weather conditions.

• It should effectively check the entry or penetration of moisture from the surface.

• It should possess good workability.

5.12.2 - Cement Mortar

The cement mortar consists of one part of cement to four parts of clean, course sand by volume. The
materials are thoroughly mixed in dry conditions before water is added to them. The mixing of
material is done on a watertight platform and mortar of one cement bag only is prepared at a time
and this quantity of mortar is consumed within 30min after adding water.

Cement Mortar Ratio Thickness of Plastering


1:5 12.5 mm
1:4 10 mm

Chapter 6 :- VARIOUS TEST PERFORMED AT SITE

 Test on soil sample

 Test on cement sample

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 Test on steel sample

 Test on bricks sample

 Test on concrete cubes

TEST ON SOIL SAMPLE REPORT:-

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TEST REPORT OF CEMENT SAMPLE :-

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TEST REPORT OF STEEL SAMPLE:-

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TEST REPORT OF BRICK SAMPLE :-

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TEST REPORT OF CONCRETE CUBES :-

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Chapter 7 :- REFERENCES

• Building Construction book by Rangwala

• Google.com

• Google Maps

• Theconstructor.org

• Quora.com

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