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# ECE666: Power Systems Operation: Winter 2018

Assignment-1
Last Date of Submission- Wednesday, 7th February 2018, 4:30 PM

Answers can be hand-written and submitted on paper; or be a scanned pdf / MSWord file
submitted on-line in the Assignment Solution Drop-Box, on LEARN.

1. The cost functions for three thermal generators, in \$/h, are given as follows:
C1 (P1 ) = 0.004 P12 + 7.2 P1 + 350
C2 (P2 ) = 0.0025P22 + 7.3P2 + 500
C3 (P3 ) = 0.003P32 + 6.74 P3 + 600
where P1, P2 and P3 are in MW. The generator limits in MW as follows:
100 ≤ P1 ≤ 400; 150 ≤ P2 ≤ 600; 50 ≤ P3 ≤ 300
The total system load is 975 MW. Neglecting line losses, find the optimal economic dispatch,
the system marginal cost and the incremental cost of generation of the three generators.

2. The cost functions, in \$/h, for two 800 MW thermal generators are given as follows:
C1 (P1 ) = 0.004 P12 + 6 P1 + 400
C2 (P2 ) = αP22 + βP2 + 500
where P1 and P2 are in MW. It is given that the system marginal cost is 8 \$/MWh when the
demand is 550 MW, and 10 \$/MWh when demand is 1300 MW. Find the cost coefficients α
and β of the second generator.

3. The fuel cost functions for three thermal generators, in \$/h, are given as follows:
C1 (P1 ) = 500 + 5.3P1; C 2 (P2 ) = 500 + 5.5 P2 ; C3 (P3 ) = 500 + 5.8 P3 ;
where 𝑃𝑃1 , 𝑃𝑃2 , and 𝑃𝑃3 are in MW. The total load is 800 MW. The generator limits in MW are
as follows:
200 ≤ P1 ≤ 450; 150 ≤ P2 ≤ 350; 100 ≤ P3 ≤ 225;
Neglecting line losses, find the optimal dispatch and the system marginal cost.

4. A system comprising two generating units, has the following incremental cost functions:
dC1 dC 2
= 0.008PG1 + 8 ; and = 0.012 PG 2 + 9
dPG1 dPG 2
The system is operating on economic dispatch with PG1 = PG2 = 500 MW. It is known that the
incremental loss factor of Generator-2 is 0.2. Find the Penalty Factor of Generator-1.

5. Consider three utilities A, B, C with demands PDA = 425 MW, PDB = 320 MW and PDC = 400
MW, respectively. The composite cost characteristic and generation limits of each utility are
given as follows:
𝐶𝐶𝐴𝐴 (𝑃𝑃𝐴𝐴 ) = 2.546𝑃𝑃𝐴𝐴2 + 23.45𝑃𝑃𝐴𝐴 + 4 \$/ℎ𝑟𝑟 150 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ≤ 𝑃𝑃𝐴𝐴 ≤ 700 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵 (𝑃𝑃𝐵𝐵 ) = 18.54𝑃𝑃𝐵𝐵2 + 78.43𝑃𝑃𝐵𝐵 + 3 \$/ℎ𝑟𝑟 100 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ≤ 𝑃𝑃𝐵𝐵 ≤ 500 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
2
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 (𝑃𝑃𝐶𝐶 ) = 5.354𝑃𝑃𝐶𝐶 + 54.34𝑃𝑃𝐶𝐶 + 9 \$/ℎ𝑟𝑟 200 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ≤ 𝑃𝑃𝐶𝐶 ≤ 600 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
a. If the three utilities operate independently to meet their own demand, find their
respective cost and marginal cost of generation.
b. Now, let the three utilities coordinate their dispatch to operate as a power pool, and
minimize the total aggregated cost. Assuming that inter-utility transmission constraints
are not considered, find the following:
i) Total pool cost, pool marginal cost, and the cost to each utility individually.
ii) Pool savings achieved, as compared to independent operation (case-a).
iii) Optimal dispatch of each utility.
iv) The optimal transactions between the utilities in pool operation.

6. Consider two generators whose cost characteristic and generation limits are given:
C1 (P1 ) = 0.00253P12 + 3.19 P1 + 850 \$ / hr; 100MW ≤ P1 ≤ 850MW
C2 (P2 ) = 0.00325P22 + 5.11P2 + 1687 \$ / hr 100MW ≤ P2 ≤ 600MW
The total system loss can be expressed as follows:
PLoss ( P1 , P2 ) = 11× 10 −5 P12 + 6 × 10 −5 P22 , MW
Given that the system demand is 1200 MW, find the optimal generation schedule that
minimizes the total generation cost while meeting the total system demand and losses.
(Note: Solve the coordination equations. A fair degree of accuracy is desired.)

7. Two thermal generators supply power to a load. Their respective incremental generation
costs are given as follows:
dC1 ( P1 ) dC 2 ( P2 )
= 0.00643P1 + 3.37 \$ / MWh = 0.00364 P2 + 7.19 \$ / MWh
dP1 dP2
The transmission loss is given by,
PLoss ( P1 , P2 ) = 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 + 0.0045 P1 P2 MW
The two generators are dispatched optimally, to minimize the total system cost, and the
system marginal cost thus obtained, is 30 \$/MWh. Find the optimal dispatch of the two
generators.

8. Jack and Jill are two system dispatch colleagues in the same electric utility- the Ideal
Waterloo Power Company, which has lossless lines and three generating units. At a certain
hour, Jack claims that the system is on economic dispatch. In the next few minutes Jill
observes the set of data representing incremental changes in generator MW outputs and
total production cost rates, as given below:

## ∆Ct (\$/hr) ∆Pg1 ∆Pg2 ∆Pg3

0 1 1 -2
30 1 1 1
-20 -3 1 1

After seeing the third reading Jill says, “Jack you are wrong.” Is Jill correct in saying that Jack
is wrong? How does she arrive at that conclusion from the information given?
9. Consider two electric utilities whose composite CO2 emission characteristics, Ei(Pi), and the
total generating capacity limits are provided below.

## Utility Emission Characteristics Limits

1 E1 ( P1 ) = 25 + 3.5 P1 + 0.0275 P12 kg / hr 50 MW ≤ P1 ≤ 650 MW

## 2 E 2 ( P2 ) = 48 + 6.2 P2 + 0.065 P22 kg / hr , 30 MW ≤ P2 ≤ 400 MW

Utility-1 has a system demand of 575 MW and Utility-2 demand is 325 MW. Find the
optimal generation schedule that minimizes the total system emissions while satisfying all
generation limits. Hence find the value of system λ and explain its significance.
Also find the total reduction in system emissions because of joint dispatch, as compared
to the system emissions when the two utilities operate independently.

10. A power utility comprising a hydro and a thermal generating unit supplies the system
demand of 200 MW, which remains constant over a week (168 hours). The thermal unit
cost characteristic and capacity limit is as follows:
CTH ( PTH ) = 0.04 PTH
2
+ 11PTH + 100 \$/h 30MW ≤ PTH ≤ 200MW
The total hydro energy available over the week is 28,000 MWh. The hydro unit’s water
discharge rate and capacity limit is as follows:
qH (PH ) = 300 + 25 ⋅ PH + 0.0075PH
2 acre - ft/h 0 MW ≤ PH ≤ 250 MW
Find the number of hours the thermal unit should operate if the operator is seeking to
minimize the operating cost over the week.
a. Find the total volume of water discharged from the reservoir over the week.
b. If the total water available for draw-down is reduced by 5%, how many extra hours
should the thermal unit operate?

11. The system load is supplied by a hydro and a steam generator with characteristics below:
Steam system: C ( PS ) = 0.0027 PS2 + 9 PS + 200 \$/h; 30 MW ≤ PS ≤ 400 MW
Hydro plant: q(PH ) = 5.64 PH + 180 acre − ft / hr ; 0 MW ≤ PH ≤ 600 MW
The system load profile is given below:
Hour 1 – Hour 4: 725 MW
Hour 5 – Hour 8: 615 MW
The hydro reservoir is limited to a total drawdown capacity of 25,000 acre-ft over the 8-
hour period. Inflow to the reservoir is to be neglected.
a. A hydro-thermal generation schedule is to be drawn up so as to minimize the total
cost. Formulate the appropriate Lagrangian function and develop the KKT conditions
for the optimum.
b. Using an iterative procedure, determine the optimal dispatch for the above system.

## 12. Solve Question-11 using the following hydro generator characteristic:

q H (PH ) = 300 + 25 ⋅ PH + 0.0075PH2 acre - ft/h 0 MW ≤ PH ≤ 600 MW
The hydro reservoir is limited to a total drawdown capacity of 75,000 acre-ft over the 8-
hour period. Inflow to the reservoir is neglected.
Note: Use an iterative approach, as discussed in lecture. Present three iterations of
the outer loop.
Suggestion: Use starting guess of λ1=λ2=40 \$/MWh, γ = 0.35 \$/acre-ft.