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34 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Formation of a haze must be carefully distinguished from contacted by water, the aqueous phase which separates is
separation into two distinct phases with a more or less dis- particularly aggressive in its attack on fuel system metals.
tinct boundary. Haze formation is not grounds for rejection. The tern (lead-tin alloy) coating on fuel tanks, aluminum,
Actual separation into two distinct phases is the criterion for magnesium and zinc castings, and steel components such as
failure. fuel senders, fuel lines, p u m p housings, and injectors, are
susceptible.
A number of test procedures, other than long-term vehicle
Compatibility With Plastics and Elastomers
tests, have been used or proposed to evaluate the corrosive ef-
Plastics and elastomers used in current automotive fuel fects of fuels on metals. The tests range from static soaking of
systems such as gaskets, O-rings, diaphragms, filters, seals, metal coupons to operation of a complete automotive fuel
etc., may be affected in time by exposure to motor fuels. system. None of these tests has yet achieved the status of an
These effects include dimensional changes, embrittlement, ASTM standard.
softening, delamination, increase in permeability, loss of
plasticizers, and disintegration. Certain gasoline-oxygenate Applicable ASTM Specifications
blends can aggravate these effects.
ASTM Title
The effects depend upon the t>pe and amount of the oxy-
genates in the blend, the aromatics content of the gasoline, D4806 Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for
the generic polymer and specific composition of the elas- Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automo-
tomeric compound, the temperature and duration of contact, tive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
and whether the exposure is to liquid or vapor. D4814 Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition
Engine Fuel
Currently, there are no generally accepted tests that corre-
late with field experience to allow estimates of tolerance of D5797 Specification for Fuel Methanol (M70-M85)
for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
specific plastics or elastomers to oxygenates.
D5798 Specification for Fuel Ethanol (Ed75-Ed85)
for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
Metal Corrosion D5983 Sjjecification for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether
(MTBE) for Downstream Blending with Au-
Corrosion of metals on prolonged contact can be a prob- tomotive Spark-Ignition Fuel
lem with gasolines alone, but is generally more severe with D02:1347 Committee D02 Research Report on Reformu-
gasoline-alcohol blends. When gasoline-alcohol blends are lated Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

Applicable ASTM/IP Test M e t h o d s


Before using any test method, the Scope shall be reviewed to make sure the test method is applicable to the product being
tested and that the specified measurement range covers the area of interest.

ASTM IP Title

D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure


D130 154 Test Method for Detection of Copper Corrosion From Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish
Test
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D381 131 Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
D525 40 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method)
D665 135 Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water
D873 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels (Potential Residue Method)
D 1266 107 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D 1298 160 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Sp)ecific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and
Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D 1319 156 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
D2276 216 Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling
D2533 Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence
Spectrometry
D2699 237 Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D2700 236 Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D2885 360 Test Method for Research and Motor Method Octane Ratings Using On-Line Analyzers
D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative
Microcoulometry
D3227 342 Test Method for Thiol (Mercaptan) Sulfur in Gasoline, Kerosene, Aviation Turbine, and Distillate Fuels
(Potentiometric Method)
Applicable ASTM/IP Test Methods (continued)
ASTM IP Title

D3231 Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasohne


D3237 Test Method for Lead in GasoUne by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
D3341 Test Method for Lead in Gasohne-Iodine Monochloride Method
D3348 Test Method for Rapid Field Test for Trace Lead in Unleaded Gasoline (Colorimetric Method)
D3606 Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas
Chromatography
D3703 Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels
D3710 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline and Gasoline Fractions by Gas
Chromatography
D3831
Test Method for Manganese in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
D4045
Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry
D4052 365
Test Method for Density and Relative Density of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4053
Test Method for Benzene in Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Infrared Spectroscopy
D4057
Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294
Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence
Spectrometry
D4420 Test Method for Determination of Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
D4815 Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and Ci to C4
Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
D4952 Test Method for Qualitative Analysis for Active Sulfur Species in Fuels and Solvents (Doctor Test)
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5059 228 Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline by X-Ray Spectroscopy
D5188 Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Determination of Fuels (Evacuated Chamber Method)
D5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Motor Fuels and Oil by
Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5482 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method-Atmospheric)
D5500 Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation of Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake
Valve Deposit Formation
D5580 Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, p/m-Xylene, o-Xylene, C9 and
Heavier Aromatics, Total Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
D5598 Test Method for Evaluating Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electronic Port Fuel
Injector Fouling
D5599 Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen
Selective Flame Ionization Detection
D5769 Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas
Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
D5845 Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, Methanol, Ethanol and rert-Butanol in
Gasoline by Infrared Spectroscopy
D5986 Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates, Benzene, Toluene, C8-C12 Aromatics and Total
Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
D6201 Test Method for Dynamometer Evaluation of Unleaded Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve
Deposit Formation
D6293 Test Method for Oxygenates and Paraffin, Olefin, Naphthene, Aromatic (O-PONA) Hydrocarbon Types
in Low-Olefin Spark Ignition Engine Fuel by Gas Chromatography
D6296 Test Method for Total Olefins in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels by Multi-dimensional Gas
Chromatography
D6334 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
D6378 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPx) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and
Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
D6421 Test Method for Evaluating Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electronic Port Fuel Injector
Fouling by Bench Procedure
D6422 Test Method for Water Tolerance (Phase Separation) of Gasoline-Alcohol Blends
D6445 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D6447 Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Voltammetric Analysis
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6550 Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography
D6623 Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by High
Resolution Gas Chromatography