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Session

Outline -
CONTEXT OF AND RATIONALE FOR PLANNING:
HISTORY, EVOLUTION AND APPROACHES

By: Nic Agustin, PhD, EnP


Introduction

Context of and rationale for planning over time follow the history of cities where
they were derived…



en·vi·ron·ment
(inˈvīrənmənt)
noun
noun: environment; plural noun: environments; noun: the environment
1. the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or
operates.
Synonyms: habitat, territory, domain;
More surroundings, environs, conditions - "birds from many environments”

2. the natural world, as a whole or in a particular geographical area, especially as
affected by human activity.
Synonyms: the natural world, nature, the earth, the planet, the ecosystem, the
biosphere, Mother Nature; wildlife, flora and fauna, the countryside - "the impact of
pesticides on the environment"

Planning: Defined

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING, also known as urban and regional planning, city
planning, town and country planning, and/or human settlements planning, refers to
the multi-disciplinary art and science of analyzing, specifying, clarifying,
harmonizing, managing and regulating the use and development of land an water
resources, in relation to their environs, for the development of sustainable
communities and ecosystems.
– RA 10587

An environmental planner refers to a person who registered and licensed to
practice environmental planning and who holds a valid Certificate of Registration



and a valid Professional Identification Card from the Board of Environmental
Planning and the Professional Regulation Commission. – RA 10587

Role of a planner

• One who creates and recommends on land use and other planning fields
• An advisor and regulator to the government, private sector, and the
communities
• An urban designer
• Someone who looks far into the future for the welfare of a place
• A capacity builder, facilitator, and educator
• An advocate of causes


TIMELINE OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
(as guide in understanding the evolution of planning approaches)

„ non-organized human settlements
„ settled agricultural settlements
„ early urbanization – static urban settlements
„ middle period – static urban settlements
„ industrial urbanization – dynamic urban settlements or dynapolis
„ world ecumenopolis

I. NON-ORGANIZED HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

„ from 90,000 to 10,000 years ago
„ nomadic hunters and gatherers
„ lived in caves, hollow trees and other natural formations



II. SETTLED AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENTS

„ From 10,000 to 6,000 B.C.
„ Domestication of plants like wheat, rye and corn
„ Domestication of animals (8,000 B.C.) like dogs, goats, cattle, sheep
„ Led to formation: primitive organized settlements
„ Perfected speech, wove baskets, manufacture linen and pottery
„ Designed weapons and jewelry from copper, bronze and gold
„ Built towns and villages and developed patterns of rule and subservience
„ Jericho (8000 B.C.) – world’s oldest known settlement
„ Anatolia – Hittite Empire
„ Settled near crop fields and animal pastures in the Fertile Crescent in houses
made of bricks, wood or reed





„ Agriculture spread throughout E Europe, W Mediterranean, from Anatolia to
Pakistan to Aegean area
„ Developed small villages and farmsteads


III. EARLY URBANIZATION

„ 6000 B.C. to 500 A.D.
„ Static urban settlements
„ Rise of civilization
„ First cities in human history
„ Cities of the Ancient World

A. SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION

„ Mesopotamia (4000 BC) – first cities appeared in the Tigris and Euphrates
Valleys – the Cradle of Civilization
„ City-states came about
„ Earliest cities were Eridu, Erech, Ur, Babylon and Nineveh – trading centers
„ Cities were built around temples called Ziggurats
„ Cities were built out of clay (fire-baked cricks)
„ Responsible for early urban culture:
„ Cuneiform writing
„ Invented the wheel
„ Irrigated fields with canals
„ Built temples and palaces
„ Ruled by Babylonians, Assyrians and Chaldeans
„ Barter between cities or a city with a food producer (clothes, potter for
dishes, fine metal works, jewelry and stone curving)
„ Fertile crescent means land between rivers
„ Scope of the Tigris and Euphrates



„ Water as source of living and a basis of urban development

Mesopotamia

„ The most famous and important building in the Sumerian city was the temple
dedicated to the gods and goddesses of the city.
„ The temple was called a Ziggurat and was built atop a massive stepped tower
„ Housing were built by sun-dried bricks
„ A small portion of buildings were made by stone or wood
„ Sumeria was one of the early centers of social and economic activities
„ 15-city-states created
„ Religion was power

B. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION

„ Nile Valley (3200 BC)
„ Built cities such as Thebes (city with a population of 225,000 in 1600 BC) and
Memphis
„ Cities were accentuated with tombs, temples and pyramids
„ Pyramids of Giza
„ Developed first writing material (papyrus) in 2800 B.C., hieroglyphic writing,
first 365-day calendar
„ Medical knowledge including surgery and antiseptics

Note: Civilization in Egypt is earlier than the pyramids

„ Religion still powerful: Ancient Egyptians worshipped kings as gods
„ Once buried, they live forever
„ Pyramids constructed in capital cities
„ Cities of the dead (Necropolis)

C. AEGEAN CIVILIZATION

„ Basin of the Aegean Sea (3000 BC to 1200 BC)
„ Two cultures: Minoan in Crete; Mycenaean in the mainland Greece
„ Crete: trading center – wheat, wine, linen, olive oil and cypress timber to
other goods in Syria, Egypt and Italy
„ Built of Greek City-States
„ Established and developed city-states (particularly after 1000 BC)
„ Athens – most renowned city-state (known for its Acropolis and the
Parthenon)
„ Built the cities of Troy and Mycenae
„ Hippodamus of Miletus (a name to remember in planning)
„ Birth place of great artists and athletes
„ Lovers of knowledge and wisdom (Hypocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle):
some of their ideas are related to planning


HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS
498-408 BC

„ Inventor/father of formal city planning
„ Introduced the Hippodamian Plan or the grid city to maximize winds in the
summer and minimize the effect of winter
„ The Plan has a geometric, arranged style in design
„ Also worked on the Piraeus Port and Alexandria

PLATO
428-347 BC

„ Introduced the principle of polluter pays

“if anyone intentionally pollutes the water of another, whether the water of a
spring, or collected in reservoirs, either by poisonous substances, or by digging,
or by theft, let the injured party bring the cause before the wardens of the city,
and claim in writing the value of the loss; if the accused be found guilty of
injuring the water by deleterious substances, let him not only pay damages, but
purify the stream or the cistern which contains the water, in such manner as
the laws… or der the purification to be made by the offender in each case.”

The Environmental Code (PD 1152)

“It shall be the responsibility of the polluter to contain, remove, and clean-up
water pollution incidents at his own expense. In case of his failure to do so, the
government agencies concerned shall undertake containment, removal, and
clean-up operations and expenses incurred in said operations shall be against
the persons and/or entities responsible for such pollution.”

ARISTOTLE
384-322 BC

„ Provided the foundation for the concept of intergenerational equity
„ For our children’s children

“Human well-being is realized only partly by satisfying whatever people’s
preferences happen to be at a particular time; it is also necessary for successive
generations to leave behind sufficient resources so that future generations are
not constrained in their preferences.”

D. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

„ The earliest in S Asia (2500 BC – 1500 BC)
„ The Dravidians built two cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro



„ Known as the masters of urban planning - laid out streets in rectangular
pattern, provided water through clay pipes, toilets and a sewage system
„ Developed a written language, still spoken in India

E. CHINESE CIVILIZATION

„ Huang He Valley: walled city states (2000 BC – 1000 BC)
„ Shang Dynasty left first written record in 1600 BC)
„ Unique culture
„ Written language of more than 2,000 characters

F. OLMEC CIVILIZATION

„ Along the coasts of Mexico (1200 BC – 300 BC)
„ Mexico, the oldest city in America
„ Noted sculptors, hieroglyphic writing

G. RISE OF ROME

„ 753 BC
„ Rome conquered Italy in 265 BC and ruled up to 14 AD and the lands around
Mediterranean
„ For many years, Rome ruled a great empire (including Egypt and Greece)
„ Fortified cities – Rome, Jerusalem, Ephesus, Massilia, Lutetia, London
„ Romans were excellent builders and engineers
„ World’s first paved streets
„ Tagus River Bridge up to Spain
„ Aqueducts – to transport water to the fortified cities
„ Colosseum: could accommodate 45,000 people to watch spectacular
events such as gladiators, chariot races, etc.
„ Pantheon – the huge dome
„ Fall of the roman empire (393 AD)
„ Socio-political events resulted to religious divisions, absence of
military discipline and citizen unrest
„ Moral decay led to the fall of Rome
„ Vikings destroyed the Aqueduct

H. MAYAN CIVILIZATION

„ Guatemala (300 BC – 900 AD)
„ Had a system of writing
„ Concept of zero
„ A calendar





I. TOETIHUACAN CIVILIZATION

„ Valley of Mexico ( 100 – 750 AD)

IV. MIDDLE AGES

„ From 500 AD – 1500 AD
„ When Rome fell to Germanic invaders in the AD 400s, the order of the
Western World crumbled and trade diminished; marked the effective end of
early civilization
„ By 1100s, trade around monasteries and abbeys began to revive
„ Trade increased the wealth and powers of kings as well as of the churches
„ Some old cities revived, particularly those located for commerce such as
Paris, Florence, London and Frankfurt
„ The cities helped the trade revival and also provided military protection (the
fortified city)
„ For that reason, they were laid out within walls and protected by fortresses
„ The importance of religion during this period meant that each city had as its
most important or prominent building – a cathedral or any church structure
„ Usually, the cathedral faced a square where markets and trade fairs were
held
„ In Asia, Middle East and Africa, cities continued to serve vital functions even
as empires waxed and waned, e.g., Changan, China and Kyoto, Japan
„ Advent of Western colonialism threatened traditional societies and had a
profound impact on the historical pattern of urban development

V. Medieval period
(5th – 15th Century AD)

„ The church and monasticism
„ Rise of Islam
„ Byzantine empire
„ State power
„ The Crusaders
„ Carolingian dynasty

The Cathedral Cities
„ Cathedral, castles or monuments as a focal point of the city
„ Radial growth (from the center)
„ Retained the walled city from Roman practice
„ Enclosure caused problems such as epidemics and limited resources


VI. Renaissance
(14th to 17th Century AD)



„ Commerce as a major driving factor
„ Called for accessibility and mobility
„ Like Medieval Period, has a radial growth pattern
„ Plans began to follow the topography of an area

Leon Battista Alberti
(1404 – 1472)

„ One of Renaissance reformists
„ Wrote the De Re Aedificatoria: Ten books of planning and design principles
„ Urban layout and growth design with star-like shape


THE EARLY MODERN CITIES:
HOW THEY SHAPED EARLY THOUGHTS ON PLANNING

THE BAROQUE ERA
(17th & 18th Century AD)

„ The greatest flowering of formal town planning
„ Large-scale structural designs
„ Expressions of regal and papal power (the new style of warfare)
„ Aristocracy and new merchant class dominated the growth of cities

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
(1500-1800 AD)

„ Started in London
„ Inventions in textiles or in iron-making (developed between 1700 and 1780)
dispersed industries out of the existing towns and into open countryside
„ Cities in Europe continued to grow after the middle ages. The appearances of
cities slowly began to change as new methods of building construction and
warfare were invented.
„ Technological improvements in stone construction made possible Gothic
cathedral structures
„ Invention of portland cements, carbon steel and electric elevator paved the
construction of high-rise buildings
„ Importation of gunpowder (from China) made city walls impractical,
obsolete and no longer useful
„ 1700, industrial revolution began in England and it quickly spread to other
countries (the locomotive)
„ Limitations of cities became apparent

SIGNIFICANT SHIFT IN DEVELOPMENT



„ Typical industrial landscapes consisted of small industrial hamlets across an
area that was fundamentally rural (not only the 19th century but even the
early part of the 20th century)

THE CULPRITS

1. COAL:
„ Principal raw material of industry
„ Industries concentrated in areas where coal was abundant
2. STEAM-DRIVEN RAIL WAY:
„ Location of industries was freer (but then the location pattern was already
fixed)


A NEW PHENOMENON

„ New industrial towns – developed almost from nothing
„ Near enough to coal fields
„ Near navigable waters
„ Railway junctions
„ Port towns and pure towns were equally important in industrialization for
exchange of finished products
„ Other existing towns stagnated (those neither port nor on coalfields)

EFFECTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF
THE NEW PHENOMENON

„ Increase in population due to migration (towns doubled their population in a
period of 50 years)
„ Social arrangements in towns were quite incapable of meeting people’s
needs
„ Overcrowding
„ Shelter
„ Water supplies
„ Waste disposal

INITIAL INTERVENTIONS

„ Several acts were passed focusing on public services, sanitary controls, water
supplies, public health and building standards (e.g., Local Boards of Health,
Nuisance Removal Act, Sanitary Act and the Torrens Act)
„ The Sanitary Districts
„ By-law Housing
„ Prescribed density: 124 houses per hectare (50 per acre)

THE PHENOMENON OF URBAN SPREAD




„ Before 1870, were increasing in densities within 3 miles (4.8 kms) radius
from the center
„ Between 1870 and 1914, cities spread rapidly beyond the 3-mile radius limit
(the phenomenon of suburban growth and decentralization
„ Contributory factors:
„ Economic
„ Social
„ Technology
„ Expansion Forms: tentacular, circular, and “blobs”

PROBLEMS ON URBAN SPREAD

„ Rural lands were being used up
„ Houses were decentralized, but not jobs
„ Traffic congestions
„ Ribbon development

SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT

„ The formation of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England in 1925,
by Patrick Abercrombie (founder and professor of Planning at the University
of London)

CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
(1800S – 1900S)

„ Emphasized beauty and aesthetics
„ Monuments, grand buildings, parks, perfect landscapes, lakes, and circular
road systems


EARLY PLANNERS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROFESSION OF
PLANNING

TWO GROUPS OF EARLY THINKERS

„ The Anglo-American Tradition
„ London, Scotland and neighbors
„ American cities (New York, Boston and Chicago)
„ The Continental European Tradition
„ Rome
„ Paris, etc…

THE ANGLO-AMERICAN TRADITION


DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM
(1846-1912)

„ Father of American City Planning
„ Together with Frederick Law Olmstead and John Wellborn Root, designed
the World’s Columbian Exposition, the first comprehensive planning
document in the US - 1893
„ “Make no little plans”
„ “Make big plans; aim high in hope and work”
„ “…a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are
gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency…”
„ “Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things that would
stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon, beauty.”
„ Greatest feat was the Plan of Chicago (called Paris on Prairie); other plans
include Manila, Baguio, Cleveland, and San Francisco

Sir EBENEZER HOWARD
(1850-1928)

„ Most influential in London Planning
„ Wrote the book: Garden Cities of Tomorrow (first published in 1898 under
the title Tomorrow, and republished in 1902)
„ Conceptualized the so-called garden city (or in modern parlance, new town)
movement
„ Not a professional planner; a shorthand writer in the law courts but a private
individual who liked to speculate, write and organize
„ The book: Garden Cities of Tomorrow:
„ The three magnets: town, country, town-country
„ Planned decentralization of workers and their place of employment
„ New town to be created deliberately outside the old city
„ The Garden City (a new type of settlement: Town-Country)
„ Advantages of the town by way of accessibility
„ Advantages of the country by way of environment
„ Without any of the disadvantages of either (internalizing the
externalities)
„ Description of the Garden City
„ Outside normal commuter range of the old city
„ 30,000 people
„ 6,000 acre in size; 5,000 of which would be left for greenbelt
„ High residential density (15 houses per acre or 37/hectare)
„ 80-90 people per acre (200-220/hectare)
„ Not static; rather very dynamic – polycentric settlements (the Social
Cities) would be created once a city reaches the population limit.
„ Examples of garden cities:
„ Letchworth in northern Hertfordshire (1903)
„ Welwyn Garden City a few miles south of Letchworth (1920)


„ Not completed due to financial troubles and the vision of private-enterprise
new towns on a large scale was never realized.
„ Despite insistent and effective propaganda from the Town and Country
Planning Association, government failed to respond to the call for public new
towns.

RAYMUND UNWIN (1863-1940)
BARRY PARKER (1867-1947)

„ Architects who designed the Letchworth Garden City
„ Built in 1905-09 the Hampstead Garden Suburb at Golden Green (north-west
of London)
„ The third was not a garden city but a dormitory suburb; condemned by many
garden city supporters; yet it introduced the concept of socially mixed
community
„ Developed some modifications of the original idea of Howard
„ Parker developed (1930) a new design in Wythenshawe (south of
Manchester) with all the elements of the Garden City, but compromised on
the principle of self-containment (jobs were held in the city, subsidized
transport was provided)
„ Published in 1912: Nothing Gained by Overcrowding!
„ Unwin argued for lower densities than were then common – 12 houses to the
acre (30/hectare) or 50-60 people to the acre (124-150 per hectare)
„ Always argued to Howard principle of generous greenbelts around new
communities
„ Parker introduced the division of the town into clearly articulated
neighborhood units

CLARENCE PERRY (1872-1944)
CLARENCE STEIN (1882-1975)
H. ALKER TRIPP (1883-1954)

„ Took off from Howard’s idea – dividing the town into “wards” of about 5,000
people, Perry developed the idea of neighborhood units not only as a
pragmatic device but a deliberate piece of social engineering which could
help the people achieve a sense of identity with the community and with the
place
„ Stein (working in New York) took the neighborhood concept further and
grasped the principle that in local residential areas the need above all was to
segregate the pedestrian routes used for local journeys from the routes used
by car traffic
„ Stein designed the Radburn (New Jersey, 1933)
„ Pedestrian lane (back door and through open spaces)
„ Vehicle streets in a hierarchical system
„ Green belts
„ The cul-de-sac


„ Tripp published the book: Town Planning and Traffic
„ Suggested that British cities should be reconstructed on the basis of Precincts
(applied in London’s East End)
„ Hierarchy of roads
„ Free of direct frontage development
„ High-capacity, free-flow highways would define large blocks
„ Tripp’s precinctual principle adopted by Abercrombie and J.H. Forshaw in
the reconstruction and design of London
„ Such was realized through the Abercrombie’s Bloomsbury Precinct (the
County of London Plan, 1943)
„ Applied to the areas around the British Museum and the University of
London

PATRICK GEDDES (1854-1932)
PATRICK ABERCROMBIE (1879-1957)

„ Patrick Geddes – a Scots Biologist – developed the concept of human ecology:
the relationship between man and environment; studied in a systematic way
the forces shaping growth and changes in the city (Folk-Work-Place)
„ Wrote the Cities in Evolution: a study of reality: close analysis of settlement
patterns and local economic environment
„ Went out from the conventional limits of the city and stressed the natural
region
„ Patrick Geddes – put flesh into human ecology (as already practiced in
France) and regional planning
„ Analyzed cities in evolution: identified factors leading to suburban
decentralization and urban spread, explained the effect of economies of scale
and agglomeration, in industry
„ Birth of the sequence of planning (S-A-P)
„ Explained the tendency for the towns to coalesce into giant urban
agglomerations or conurbation
„ Patrick Geddes’ follower, Lewis Mumford (1938) wrote The Culture of Cities
which became the bible of the regional planning movement
„ It was also during this time that Unwin was commissioned to prepare an
advisory plan for London and its region, taking off from Howard’s idea of
large-scale decentralization of people and jobs. Thus, the idea of satellite
towns came about.
„ Patrick Abercrombie weld the complex ideas from Howard through Geddes
to Unwin and turn them into a graphic blueprint for the future development
of a great region
„ Region – centered on the metropolis but extending for 30 miles (50 kms)
around it in every direction and encompassing over 10 million people
„ Applied the method of Geddes – the SAP, in a very cartoon-like clarity!

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (1869-1959)



„ Best-known monuments: individual buildings
„ Main ideas: preserve independent rural life; planned dispersion; low density
urban spread.
„ Concept: The Broadacre City
• Each home would be surrounded by an acre of land, enough to grow
crops on
• Homes would be connected to the super highways
• Along highways, a planned roadside development (the petrol would
become the emporium)

THE CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN TRADITION

GEORGES-EUGENE HAUSSMANN
(1809-1891)

„ Spearheaded planning and renovation of Paris
„ Radiating growth from the Arc de Triomphe
„ Unified façade of buildings along major roads leading to the Arc
„ Avenues generously lined with trees and open parks

DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA
(1844-1920)

„ In 1882, he developed the idea of a linear city (La Ciudad lineal) – a city to be
developed along an axis of high-speed, high-intensity transportation from an
existing city
„ He considered greatly the effect of mass transportation; concluded that cities
were tending to assume such a linear form as they grew
„ Proposed the linear city running across Europe- from Cadiz to St. Peterburg –
1,800 miles
„ The concept of parkways

TONY GARNIER (1869-1948)
ERNST MAY (1886-1970)

„ Like Howard, Garnier published a book “Cite Industrielle” – a city was to be a
self-contained new settlement with its own industries and housing close by
„ Elongated town, developed on a linear grid, single-family houses in their own
gardens
„ Houses made full use of new techniques of concrete construction
„ In Germany, the concept of Garden City evolved with city planner Ernst May
developing a series of satellite towns (Trabantenstadte) on open land outside
the built-up limits and separate from the city proper by a green belt; but no
decentralization of jobs



„ May combined the uncompromising use of the then new functional style of
architecture with a free use of low-rise apartment blocks, all set in a park
landscape.

LE CORBUSIER (1887-1965)

„ Swiss-born architect: Charles Edouard Jeanneret
„ Wrote The Radiant City (1933) and The City of Tomorrow (1922)
„ Ideas:
„ Traditional cities are becoming obsolete due to increasing size and
congestion
„ Urban mass grows through concentric addition
„ Paradox that increasing density would cure congestion
„ Tall buildings but with high proportion of ground space
„ Distribution of densities around the city
„ Transport system as a significant element

ELEMENTS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

CONSTANTINE DOXIADIS
(1913-1975)

„ Lead architect of Islamabad (capital of Pakistan)
„ Father of Ekistics (1942)
„ Ekistics - concerns the science of human settlements, including regional, city,
community planning and dwelling design.
„ The Ekistics involves every kind of human settlement, with particular
attention to geography, ecology, human psychology, anthropology, culture,
politics, and occasionally aesthetics.
„ The elements of settlements:



„ Basic principles of Ekistics:




„ Levels of Settlements (according to number of person/s – by Doxiadis)

• Anthropos – 1
• room – 2
• house – 5
• House group (hamlet) – 40
• small neighborhood (village) – 250
• neighborhood – 1,500
• small polis (town) – 10,000
• polis (city) – 75,000
• small metropolis – 500,000
• metropolis – 4 million
• small megalopolis – 25 million
• megalopolis – 150 million
• small eperopolis – 750 million
• eperopolis – 7.5 billion
• Ecumenopolis – 50 billion


CONCLUSIONS ON EARLY PLANNERS

„ Planners were concerned about plans and blueprints; statement of end-state
„ Utopian ideas; visionaries
„ Fixated with their visions
„ Physical in character


POST-MODERN PLANNERS AND PLANNING CONCEPTS





ANDRE DUANY (1949-PRESENT)
ELIZABETH PLATER-ZYBERK (1950-PRESENT)

„ Founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism
„ Observed mixed-use streetscapes with corner shops, front porches, and a
diversity of well-crafted housing while living in one of the Victorian
neighborhoods of New Haven, Connecticut
„ New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes
environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods
containing a wide range of housing and job types.
„ It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually influenced
many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, and municipal
land-use strategies.
„ New Urbanists support: regional planning for open space; context-
appropriate architecture and planning; adequate provision of infrastructure
such as sporting facilities, libraries and community centres; and the balanced
development of jobs and housing.
„ They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion by encouraging
the population to ride bikes, walk, or take the train.


PIETER BALLON

„ Writer of the Smart Cities
„ A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data
collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and
resources efficiently.
„ This includes data collected from citizens, devices, and assets that is
processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation
systems, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law



enforcement, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other
community services.
„ The smart city concept integrates information and communication
technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the network (the
Internet of things or IoT) to optimize the efficiency of city operations and
services and connect to citizens.
„ Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both
community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the
city and how the city is evolving.
„ Other terms: cyberville, digital city, electronic communities, flexicity,
information city, intelligent city, knowledge-based city, MESH city, telecity,
teletopia, Ubiquitous city, wired city.


SOME BASIC AND GENERAL CONCEPTS IN PLANNING

PLANNING is….

„ government intervention
„ architecture in large scale
„ concerned with man and environment
„ the art and science of ordering the use of the land and the character and
siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure the maximum
practicable degree of autonomy, convenience, and beauty. (Lewis Keebles)
„ a control and guidance system
„ A universal human activity, a basic survival skill involving the consideration
of outcomes before choosing among alternatives.
„ A deliberate, organized and continuous process of identifying different
elements and aspects of the environment (social, economic, physical,
political), determining their present state and interaction, projecting them in
concert throughout a period of time in the future, and formulating and
programming a set of actions and plans to attain desired results.
„ According to Friedmann, a way of thinking about social and economic
problems, is oriented predominantly towards the future, is deeply concerned
with the relation of goals to collective decisions, and strives for
comprehensiveness in policy and programs.
„ A continuous series of controls over the development of an area, aided by
devices which seek to simulate or model the process of development so that
this control can be applied.
„ The making of an orderly sequence of action that will lead to the
achievement of a stated goal or goals. (Peter Hall)
„ An attempt to formulate the principles that should guide us in creating a
civilized physical background for human life whose main impetus is
foreseeing and guiding change. (Thomas Sharp and Brian McLoughlin)
„ Concerned with providing the right site, at the right time, in the right place,
for the right people. (John Ratcliffe)


Rationale for Town Planning

„ To respond to problems of inequality, deprivation, and squalor caused by the
interplay of free market or laissez faire forces and lack of special concern
prevalent during the Industrial Revolution and the 19th century.
„ To deal with problems arising with regard to the use of spaces or land
occupied by an increasingly mobile population that should lead to promoting
livability.
„ To balance private needs and communal or collective demands.
„ To balance the interplay of physical and cultural elements in human
habitations, e.g., the interaction between environmental and economic
concerns.
„ To direct and control the nature of the built environment in the interest of
society as a whole. (John Stuart Mill)

Rationale for Town and Country Planning

„ It would avoid unnecessary implementation expenditures in terms of money,
effort and time that will possibly come about in planning process that follows
a trial and error method.
„ It would enable the area to have a rational and sound basis for reclassifying
land uses that are consistent with legal, environmental, sociological, political
and economic considerations that ensure its smooth passage and approval by
concerned national and local agencies.
„ It would serve as the basis for enacting a zoning ordinance to ensure a more
balanced and orderly spatial development.
„ It allows the introduction of new trends in planning and management of
territories that are dynamic and responsive to the needs of the place.
„ It ensures that development would take a sustainable path, which means the
future generation can benefit from the resource base.
„ The plan will facilitate the sourcing of funds for the implementation of
recommended programs and projects.

BASIC FEATURES OF MODERN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

„ Urban and regional planning is concerned primarily with public issues
involving a broadly defined group of clients with diverse interests.
„ It is a deliberate, self-conscious activity that usually involves persons trained
professionally as planners.
„ Its goals and objectives, as well as the means of achieving them, are often
highly uncertain.
„ Urban and regional planners themselves seldom make decisions, rather, by
themselves, they lay our major alternatives and recommendations for those
selected or appointed to make such decisions.
„ Urban and regional planners employ a variety of specialized tools and
methods in analyzing and presenting alternatives.


„ The results of most planning activities are discernible only 5 to 20 years after
the decision has been made, making feedback and corrective measures
difficult.

CATEGORIES AND CONCEPTS OF PLANNING

„ Physical planning – concerned with the spatial qualities and relationships of
development.
„ Economic planning – facilitates the working of the market.
„ Allocative planning – also known as regulatory planning, concerned with
coordination and resolution of conflicts.
„ Innovative planning – also known as development planning, concerned with
improving or developing the system as a whole.
„ Indicative planning – lays down general guidelines; advisory in nature.
„ Imperative planning – otherwise called command planning, involves specific
directives.
„ Multi-objective planning – comprehensive
„ Sing-objective planning – muddling through; incremental planning
„ Normative planning – otherwise called utopian planning, concerned with
how planners ought to rationally proceed in an ideal world; uses rational and
deductive means towards comprehensive planning.
„ Behavioral planning – otherwise called reformist planning; focuses on actual
limitations that circumscribe the pursuit and achievement of rational action;
proposes piece meal “disjointed incrementalist” approach to societal change,
that planning is able only to adopt a series of limited disjointed or “muddling
through” actions. (C.E. Lindboom)

THE PRACTICE AND PROBLEMS OF A TOWN PLANNER

„ He is often faced with situations where he is both master with his planning
prescriptions and servant to the wishes of stakeholders.
„ He has the attributes of being both a generalist and a specialist at the same
time.
„ He has to reconcile long-term social problems with short-term financial and
political expediency.
„ He is often faced with the challenge of bridging the “gulf” between the arts
and the sciences.
„ He is often portrayed as articulate or a good communicator, on one hand, and
esoteric theoretician with a penchant for jargons, on the other.


PHILIPPINE HUMAN SETTLEMENTS DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING

TIMELINE IN PHILIPPINE PLANNING: SELECTED HIGHLIGHTS

„ Pre-Spanish Period (15th century and earlier)


„ Spanish Time (16th – 19th Century)
„ American Period (early 1900s)
„ Early Post War Period (1940s – 1960s)
„ Pre-Martial Law Period (1965-1972)
„ Martial Law Period (1972-1986)
„ New Democracy: PCCA Administration (1986-1992)
„ PFVR Administration (1992 – 1998)
„ PJEE and PGMA Administration (1998-2010)
„ Pnoy Administration (2010-2016)

PRE-SPANISH PERIOD
(15TH Century and Earlier)

„ General pattern of settlements:
„ Permanent scattered communities of people engaged in swidden
agriculture
„ Impermanent communities of a few families engaged in swidden
agriculture
„ Migratory groups engaged in hunting and gathering
„ Linear pattern (except for the Igorots who moved in clusters
„ Along coastal areas
„ Barangays – small dispersed communities consisting of 30 to 100 families
each; sizes varied (smaller ones with 20 to 30 people; larger ones with 2,000
people, e.g. Manila and Cebu
„ Muslim coastal settlements – Jolo (seat of Sultan of Sulu)
„ Trading activities among villages and externally with China, Brunei and Japan

SPANISH COLONIAL ERA – MERCHANTILISM

„ Difficult to conquer because of dispersed settlements and extremely
decentralized
„ The subsistence economy resulted to acute rice shortage
„ Non productive consumers (Spaniards and Chinese)
„ Resettlement of people – scattered barangays were consolidated into
compact communities (2,400-5,000 people each)
„ Reduccion
„ Cabeceras
„ Bajo de las campanas
„ July 3, 1573, King Phillip II issued a royal decree (Laws of the Indies)
regarding the structure of towns to be constructed in colonies; a Spanish
town planning influenced by the Romans and the piazza planning of Italian
Renaissance
„ The plaza complex
„ Grid around the complex
„ Comun (a strip to farm)
„ Manila became a primate city in Southeast Asia (early 1600s)


„ The walled city
„ Regional centers – ciudades and villas
„ Cabeceras (poblaciones)
„ Visitas (barrios)
„ 1855, ports of Iloilo, Sual and Zamboanga were opened to foreigners,
followed by Cebu in 1860, and Legaspi and Tacloban in 1873
„ Forestland were converted into haciendas
„ 1870, Manila’s position had hardly been challenged: population – 190,000 in
1898 with more than 750 poblaciones
„ Commercial economic activities were imminent
„ Tobacco
„ Rice
„ Inter-island trade was good
„ Export activities proliferated
„ Decentralized residential pattern for Spaniards

AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD

„ 1890 – Railroad built linking Manila to Central Luzon
„ Some areas (such as Guagua, Bulacan, Sual, Pangasinan) lost their
hinterlands
„ Rail terminals flourished into commercial center (Dagupan)
„ Other port cities continued to become regional urban centers (Iloilo,
Cebu, Legazpi)
„ 1903 – City of Manila was incorporated covering Intramuros and 12 fast-
growing suburban towns
„ 1905 – Manila and Baguio Plans of Daniel H. Burnham: introduced the City
Beautiful, a western type of town planning
„ The Burnham Plan – location of civic centers, wide radial boulevards,
landscape parks and pleasant vistas.
„ The Plan sought to provide:
„ Development of waterfront and location of parks and parkways
„ Street system securing direct and easy communication
„ Location of building sites
„ Development of waterways for transportation
„ Summer resorts
„ 1910 – Rebuilding of settlements complete with hygiene and sanitary
facilities and drainage systems called sanitary barrios
„ 1920s – Barrio Obrero or the working class district evolved as government
response to the needs of low income labor families in urban areas
„ 1928 – Zoning ordinance for Manila promulgated but took effect only in 1940
„ 1928 – The Revised Administrative Code or Republic Act 3842 was amended.
It provided that the Director of the Public Works should prepare general
plans for adoption by municipal and provincial government
„ 1933 – housing committee was created to clear slums and carry out housing
projects for the poor


„ 1935 – Commonwealth Act 2 – created the National Economic Council; gave
birth to economic planning; tasked to formulate plans
„ 1938 – the People’s Homesite Corporation was created for urban planning
and development
„ 1941 – CA# 468 – National Housing Commission was created for urban
planning and housing

POST-WAR PERIOD

„ 1946 – EO 98 was issued creating the National Urban Planning Commission;
tasked to rebuild the cities
„ The NUPC was also tasked to adopt general plans and control the location of
public improvements; and implement zoning ordinances, building and
subdivision regulation for urban areas
„ 1947 – EO 93, created the People’s Homesite and Housing Corporation – a
merger of PHC and NHC
„ July 12,1947 – AO 29 was issued, creating the Real Property Board
„ 1948 - RA 333 designated Quezon City as new Capital and master planning it
by the Capital City Planning Commission (CCPC)
„ 1950 – RA 422 (Reorganization Act of 1950) and abolished the NUPC, the
CCPC, and the Real Property Board
„ Nov. 11, 1950 - EO 367 reinforced RA 422 and created the National Planning
Commission to enact zoning and subdivision regulations.
„ 1954 – RA 997 created the Government Survey and Reorganization
Commission which later on proposed a Reorganization Plan (53-A) dividing
the Philippines into 8 regions
„ 1956 – EO 156 created the Presidential Assistant on Community
Development – CD councils organized at the provincial, local and barangay
levels
„ 1959 – RA 2264 (Local Autonomy Act of 1959) – granting cities and
municipalities the power to enact zoning ordinances and subdivision
regulations
„ 1959 – RA 2370 (Autonomy to the Barrios or Barrio Charter) granting
powers to barrios to tax and enact ordinances through an elective barrio
council
„ 1961 – RA 3034 – created the Mindanao Development Authority
„ 1961 – RA 3054 – created the Central Luzon-Cagayan Valley Authority

PRE-MARTIAL LAW PERIOD

„ 1962 – AO 31 directed municipal boards and city councils to form planning
boards; enjoined the boards to harmonize all public improvements with the
duly approved town or city plans
„ By this time, the NEC, the highest economic planning body, continually lost
its influence, power and functions



„ Corollarily, the Program Implementation Agency (PIA) was created as a
technical agency tasked with the conduct of high level analytical researches
in operational planning, project prioritization and day-to-day economic
decision making
„ 1964 – RA 4071 created the Mountain Province Development Authority
„ May 6, 1965 – AO 123 created the Committee on Regional Planning as a
technical arm of the President for matters relating to regional planning and
provide updates on the activities of RDAs
„ October 1965 – RA 4341 created the Institute of Planning at UP Diliman,
established to create a pool of planners and declared a national policy on
comprehensive planning of human settlements and their environment
„ 1966 – RA 4690 created the Bicol Development Company
„ 1966 – RA 4950 created the Laguna Lake Development Authority
„ February 1, 1966 – The Presidential Economic Staff was created with
broader responsibilities on matters pertaining to regional and local
development in addition to the responsibilities formerly assumed by the
NEC.
„ 1967 – RA 5185 (Decentralization Act of 1967) – greater freedom and ampler
means for LGUs to respond to the needs of their people and enabled the
people to participate
„ 1968 – RA 5435 created the Presidential Commission on Reorganization
which later on, produced the Integrated Reorganization Plan
„ February 26, 1968 – EO 121 created the Provincial Development Committees
headed by provincial development coordinators – tasked to prepare
provincial development plans and coordinate private and public investments
„ Physical Planning Act of 1968 - to produce a comprehensive and workable
planning act; to remedy the many defects of planning and to introduce an
effective and efficient planning system

MARTIAL LAW PERIOD

„ September 24, 1972 – PD 1 (Integrated Reorganization Plan) – delineated the
country into 11 administrative regions with regional capitals, created the
Regional Development Councils; created the National Economic Development
Authority as the highest economic planning body
„ January 24, 1973 – the 1973 Constitution was ratified which, among others,
mandated the creation of the National Economic and Development Authority
„ September 19, 1973 – EO 419 – the Task Force on Human Settlements was
created to conduct a competent study on the nature, policies, issues and
strategies related to comprehensive and integrative human settlements
program in the Philippines; to formulate an overall framework plan for the
nation
„ January 24, 1974 – PD 107 - established and mandated the NEDA to handle
social and economic development planning activities
„ May 17, 1974 – PD 461 created the Department of Natural Resources



„ Nov. 7, 1974 – PD 824 created the Metro Manila Commission – a first in
metropolitan planning and governance
„ July 31, 1975 – PD 757 created the National Housing Authority
„ May 13, 1976 – PD 933 – elevated TFHS to Human Settlements Commission
to serve as a planning, regulatory, implementing and coordinating body
„ August 12 and 18, 1976 – LOIs 447 and 448 – strengthening the
administrative capacity of the regional offices by ordering the delegation of
substantive and administrative authority to the regional offices
„ February 18, 1977 – LOI 511 created the National Coordinating Council for
Town Planning, Housing and Zoning (NCCTPHZ) to hasten the preparation of
town plans and zoning ordinances throughout the country
„ March 2, 1978 – PD 1308 – provided the regulation for the practice of
planning (the birth of Environmental Planning profession)
„ June 2, 1978 – PD 1396 – created the Ministry of Human Settlements to
promulgate national standards and guidelines for human settlements,
environmental management, regulatory system for zoning, subdivision; and
prepare a national multi-year Human Settlement Plan
„ PD 1396 – renamed the HSC to Human Settlement Regulatory Commission
and was assigned as the regulatory arm of MHS
„ 1978 – LOI 729 directed the MHS to prepare land use plans and zoning plans
(still being enforced by HLRB)
„ 1978 – EO 90 created the National Shelter Program

POST-MARTIAL LAW PERIOD

„ June 25, 1979 – PD 1618 created the Autonomous Regions IX and XII
„ February 7, 1981- EO 648 reorganized the HSRC with the task to provide full
support to the government policies and programs on human settlements
through effective land use and development control measures by
strengthening the regulatory arm
„ The HSRC has the authority to oversee the exercise of zoning powers in the
enforcement of zoning ordinance; empowered to review and act on all
proposed major amendments or revision to the zoning plans and ordinances
„ September 25, 1982 – BP 220 (Low-Income Subdivision Development)
„ August 2, 1983 – LOI 1350 created the National Land Use Committee (NLUC)
to serve as the coordinative mechanism in physical planning
„ 1984 – PD 1567 established 1 day-care center in every barangay for aged 6
and below
„ PD 957 – Residential Condominium and Subdivision
„ PD 1216 – Redefining 30% open space as used in PD 957
„ PD 1096 – Building Code of the Philippines

NEW DEMOCRACY: PCCA

„ December 17, 1986 – EO 90 abolished MHS and transfer its functions to the
HSRC and renaming it as HLURB; and creating the HUDCC to coordinate and


supervise the activities of key housing agencies in the implementation of the
National Shelter Program
„ February 2, 1987 – the 1987 Constitution was ratified, calls for the creation
of autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordillera, the
formulation of local government code, creation of special metropolitan
subdivision, creation of the RDCs and NEDA as an independent planning
agency.
„ June 10, 1988 – RA 6657 (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law) declared
that all agricultural lands are covered by agrarian reform
„ August 1, 1989 – RA 6734 provided the creation of Cordillera Administrative
Region and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
„ October 10, 1991 – RA 7160 (Local Government Code) provides the
devolution of powers and functions of the national government to local
government units; increases the responsibilities of LGUs in the management
and development of their resources
„ March 24, 1992 – RA 7279 (Urban Development and Housing Act) was
enacted which replaces the Urban Land Reform Act
„ July 1, 1992 – RA 7586 (Network of Protected Areas System) was passed.
„ July 17, 1992 – Malacanang MC 2 – directing all government departments,
offices and instrumentalities, including LGUs to formulate their medium-
term plans and public investment programs (1993-1998)
„ March 25, 1993 – Malacanang EO 72 mandated the city and municipal
development councils to initiate the formulation or updating their land use
plans, in consultation with the concerned sectors in the community.

PFVR ADMINISTRATION
„ The IPRA Law
„ SRA – social reform agenda and convergence effort
„ PEZA law (ecozones, industrial estates, tourism areas)
„ BOT arrangements (variants of joint venture)
„ Sustainable Development (PCSD and the Philippine Agenda 21)
„ Minimum Basic Needs
„ Mining Act

PJEE and PGMA ADMINISTRATIONS

„ Angat Pinoy – housing for the poor
„ PGMA – trabaho, pagkain, eskwela and bahay
„ Maharlika Highway and RORO – strengthening the link among islands of
Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
„ National Framework for Physical Planning; RFPPs; PPFPs; CLUPs
„ National Urban Policy Agenda: National Dispersion thru Regional
Concentration

PNOY ADMINISTRATION



„ PPP projects that further made conurbations more attractive and centers of
social and economic activities
„ May 27, 2013 – RA 10587, repealing PD 1308 series of 1978