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ANSI/FCI 70-2-2013

Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.


Cleveland, Ohio 44115-2851
CONTROL VALVE SEAT LEAKAGE

1300 Sumner Ave


Sponsor:
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.


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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
Control Valve Seat Leakage

ii
Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.
ANSI/FCI 70-2-2013

Sponsor
Copyrighted material licensed to Emerson Process Management (network license) by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com). This copy downloaded on 2013-04-24 15:41:44 -0500 by authorized user Jamie Hosek.
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American National Standard implies a consensus of those
American substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An
National American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid
the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public.
Standard The existence of an American National Standard does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved
the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing,
purchasing or using products, processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standard. American National Standards
are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to
obtain the latest editions.

CAUTION NOTICE:
This American National Standard may be revised or
withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American
National Standards Institute require that action be taken to
reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five
years from the date of publication. Purchasers of American
National Standards may receive current information on all
standards by calling or writing the American National
Standards Institute.

Sponsored and published by:


FLUID CONTROLS INSTITUTE, INC.
1300 Sumner Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44115-2851
Phn: 216/241-7333
Fax: 216/241-0105
E-Mail: fci@fluidcontrolsinstitute.org
URL: www.fluidcontrolsinstitute.org

Copyright © 2013, 2006, 1998, 1968 by Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.


All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an


electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome.
They should be sent to the Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America

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CONTENTS PAGE

Foreword .............................................................................................................................. v

1. Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 1

2. Scope and Limitations .................................................................................................. 1

3. Definitions ..................................................................................................................... 1

4. Leakage Specifications and Classes .............................................................................. 1-2

5. Test Procedures .............................................................................................................. 2-4

6. References ...................................................................................................................... 4

Tables

Table 1 .................................................................................................................................. 2

Table 2 .................................................................................................................................. 3

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Foreword (This foreword is included for information only and is not part of ANSI/FCI 70-2-2013, Control Valve Seat
Leakage.)

This voluntary standard has been compiled and issued in the public interest. It is intended to
eliminate present misunderstandings and to assist and guide those people involved in the
specification, use or manufacture of control valves.

This standard, formerly known as ASME B16.104, was originally adopted on November 24,
1970 as FCI 70-2.

The standard has been revised several times through the years to stay current as the industry and
its products have evolved and advanced. The standard was revised by the FCI Control Valve
Section in 1998 in order to maintain consistency with the appropriate IEC Standards (IEC 534-4,
currently IEC 60534-4).

The standard was revised in 2003 to add the option to permit low pressure gas testing to
determine Class V leakage. During the canvass of the 2003 version, one respondent asked for
the standard to be modified to specifically exclude on/off valves used for tight shut-off. The FCI
Control Valve and Regulator Section notes that FCI 70-2 has been intended to apply to control
valve seat leakage. If line isolation and/or absolute tight shut-off is a normal expectation of the
valve application, the FCI Control Valve and Regulator Sections recommend specifying another
standard, such as API 598, “Valve Test and Inspection.”

The 2013 revision consisted of clarifications and editorial changes.

The existence of a Fluid Controls Institute (FCI) standard does not in any respect preclude any
member or non-member from manufacturing or selling products not conforming to this standard
nor is the FCI responsible for its use.

FCI recognizes the need to periodically review and update this standard. Suggestions for
improvement should be forwarded to the Fluid Controls Institute, Inc., 1300 Sumner Avenue,
Cleveland, Ohio, 44115-2851. All constructive suggestions for expansion and revision of this
standard are welcome.

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ANSI/FCI 70-2-2013
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
Control Valve Seat Leakage

1. PURPOSE 3.6 Nominal Seat Diameter. Basic diameter


used to determine maximum allowable seat leakage
1.1 This standard establishes a series of seat (Leakage Classes V and VI). This is also referred to
leakage classes for control valves and defines as port diameter or orifice diameter (of the seat ring).
production test procedures. It should be noted that this is not the same as NPS.

2. SCOPE & LIMITATIONS 4. LEAKAGE SPECIFICATIONS & CLASSES

2.1 Selection of a leakage class is not restricted as 4.1 The maximum allowable seat leakage as
to valve design, but acceptable values for various specified for each class shall not exceed the seat
commercially available designs are suggested for leakage in Table 1 or Table 2 using the test procedure
each class under Section 4. as defined in Section 5. For Classes II through VI
each and every valve shall be tested.
2.2 This standard applies to production tests and
cannot be used as a basis for predicting leakage at 4.2 Leakage Classes
conditions other than those specified and does not
apply to valves with a Cv value less than 0.1. 4.2.1 CLASS I. A modification of any Class II,
III or IV valve where design intent is the same as the
2.3 This standard is similar to IEC 60534-4, basic class, but by agreement between user and
except that no provision is made for Class IV-S1. supplier, no test is required.

3. DEFINITIONS 4.2.2 CLASS II. This class establishes the


maximum permissible leakage generally associated
3.1 Control Valve with commercial double-seat control valves or
balanced single-seat control valves with a piston ring
3.1.1 A valve with a power positioning actuator seal and metal-to-metal seats. Use test procedure
for moving a closure member to any position relative Type A.
to a valve seat or seats in response to and in
proportion to an external signal. The energy for a 4.2.3 CLASS III. This class establishes the
control valve actuator is derived from an independent maximum permissible leakage generally associated
source. with Class II (4.2.2), but with a higher degree of seat
and seal tightness. Use test procedure Type A.
3.1.2 Control valve body subassemblies on
which an actuator is to be mounted at some later date 4.2.4 CLASS IV. This class establishes the
are within the intent of this definition. maximum permissible leakage generally associated
with commercial unbalanced single-seat control
3.2 Cv- An experimentally determined valve sizing valves and balanced single-seat control valves with
coefficient. (Ref. ISA S75.01 and ISA S75.02). extra tight piston rings or other sealing means and
metal-to-metal seats. Use test procedure Type A.
3.3 Rated Valve Capacity. The quantity of test
fluid (air or water) that would pass through the valve 4.2.5 CLASS V. This class is usually specified
at rated travel under the stated pressure conditions as for critical applications where the control valve may
determined by the appropriate equations and be required to be closed, without a blocking valve.
manufacturer's ratings. This class is generally associated with metal seat,
unbalanced single-seat control valves or balanced
3.4 Rated Travel. The valve travel at which the single-seat designs with exceptional seat and seal
manufacturer's rating is established. tightness. Use test procedure Type B using water at
the maximum operating differential pressure or Type
3.5 Seat Leakage. The quantity of test fluid B1 by using air at the specified conditions.
passing through an assembled valve in the closed
position under the test conditions as defined.

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TABLE 1

Leakage Class Maximum Seat Leakage Test Procedure


Class I
See Paragraph 4.2.1 None
(See 4.2.1)
Class II Type A
0.5% of rated valve capacity
(See 4.2.2) (See 5.1)
Class III Type A
0.1% of rated valve capacity
(See 4.2.3) (See 5.1)
Class IV Type A
0.01% of rated valve capacity
(See 4.2.4) (See 5.1)
5 x 10-4 ml per minute of water
Class V Type B
per inch of seat diameter per psi
(See 4.2.5) (See 5.2)
differential
5 x 10-12 m3 per second of water
Type B
per mm of seat diameter per bar
(See 5.2)
differential
4.7 standard ml per minute of air Type B1
per inch of seat diameter (See 5.3)
11.1 x 10-6 standard m3 per hour Type B1
of air per mm of seat diameter (See 5.3)
Class VI Leakage per Paragraph 5.4.4 as Type C
(See 4.2.6) specified in Table 2 (See 5.4)

5.1.4 The actuator shall be adjusted to meet the


4.2.6 CLASS VI. This class establishes the operating conditions specified. The full normal
maximum permissible seat leakage generally closing thrust as applied by air pressure, a spring, or
associated with resilient seating control valves either other means shall then be applied. No allowance or
unbalanced or balanced single-seat with "O" rings or adjustment shall be made to compensate for any
similar gapless seals. Use test procedure Type C. increase in seat load obtained when the test
differential is less than the maximum valve operating
5. TEST PROCEDURES differential pressure.

Warning: Provisions should be made to avoid over 5.1.5 On valve body assemblies made for stock,
pressuring of measuring devices resulting from tested without the actuator, a test fixture should be
inadvertent opening of the valve plug. utilized which applies a net seat load not exceeding
the manufacturer's normal expected load under
The following production tests may be conducted maximum service conditions.
under ambient conditions. Pressure inputs and
leakage flow rate measurements shall be accurate to 5.1.6 On water test, care shall be taken to
+/- 10 percent of reading. eliminate air pockets in the valve body and piping.

5.1 Test Procedure Type A 5.1.7 The leakage rate thus obtained can then be
compared to the calculated values for Classes II, III
5.1.1 Test medium shall be clean air or water at and IV. See Table 1.
10-51ºC (50-125ºF).
5.2 Test Procedure Type B
5.1.2 Pressure of test medium shall be 3-4 barg
(45-60 psig) or within +/- 5 percent of the maximum 5.2.1 Test fluid shall be clean water at 10-52ºC
operating differential pressure, whichever is less. (50-125ºF).

5.1.3 The test fluid shall be applied to the


normal or specified valve body inlet. The valve body
outlet may be open to atmosphere or connected to a
low headloss measuring device.

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5.2.2 The water test differential pressure shall 5.2.6 The leakage rate thus obtained shall not be
be within +/- 5 percent of the maximum service greater than the value calculated from the definition
pressure drop across the valve plug, not exceeding of maximum seat leakage for Class V as shown in
the maximum operating pressure at room temperature Table 1.
as determined by ANSI B16.1, B16.5, or B16.34, or
some lesser pressure by individual agreement. 5.3 Test Procedure Type B1

5.2.3 The fluid shall be applied to the normal 5.3.1 Test medium shall be clean air or nitrogen
specified inlet of the valve body. The valve plug gas at 10-52ºC (50-125ºF).
shall be opened and the valve body assembly filled
completely with water, including outlet portion and 5.3.2 Inlet pressure of test medium shall be 3.5
any downstream connecting piping, and then stroked barg, (50 psig).
closed.
5.3.3 The test fluid shall be applied to the
5.2.4 The water test differential pressure as normal or specified valve body inlet, and the outlet
specified in 5.2.2 is then applied with the actuator connected to a suitable measuring device.
adjusted to meet the operating conditions specified.
The net actuator thrust shall be the specified 5.3.4 The leakage rate thus obtained shall not be
maximum. Net actuator thrust above the specified greater than the value calculated from the definition
maximum is not to be used. of maximum seat leakage for Class V as shown in
Table 1.
5.2.5 When leakage flow is stabilized, the
quantity should be observed over a period of time
sufficient to obtain the accuracy under paragraph 5.

TABLE 2
Class V I
Nominal Seat Diameter (See 3.6)** Maximum Seat Leakage
Millimeters (Inches) ml per Minute Bubbles per Minute*
< 25 (< 1) 0.15 1
38 (1.5) 0.30 2
51 (2) 0.45 3
64 (2.5) 0.60 4
76 (3) 0.90 6
102 (4) 1.70 11
152 (6) 4.00 27
203 (8) 6.75 45
250 (10) 11.1 -
300 (12) 16.0 -
350 (14) 21.6 -
400 (16) 28.4 -

*Bubbles per minute as tabulated are a suggested alternative based on a suitable calibrated measuring device, in this
case, a 6 mm (0.25 inch) O.D. x 1 mm (0.032 inch) wall tube submerged in water to a depth of from 3 to 6 mm
(0.125 to 0.25 inch). The tube end shall be cut square and smooth with no chamfers or burrs and the tube axis shall
be perpendicular to the surface of the water. Other apparatus may be constructed and the number of bubbles per
minute may differ from those shown as long as they correctly indicate the flow in ml per minute.

**If the valve seat diameter differs by more than 2 mm (0.08 inch) from one of the values listed, the leakage rate
may be obtained by interpolation assuming that the leakage rate varies as the square of the seat diameter.

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5.4 Test Procedure Type C - Class VI

5.4.1 Test medium shall be air or nitrogen gas at


10-52ºC (50-125ºF).

5.4.2 Pressure of the test medium shall be the


maximum rated differential pressure across the valve
plug or 3.5 bar (50 psig) whichever is the least.

5.4.3 The test fluid shall be applied to the


normal or specified valve body inlet, and the outlet
connected to a suitable measuring device.

5.4.4 With the control valve adjusted to meet


the operating conditions specified (see paragraphs
5.1.5 and 5.1.6) and with sufficient time allowance
for stabilizing flow, the leak rate shall not exceed the
values in Table 2.

6. REFERENCES

6.1 “International Electrical Commission (IEC)


Standard 60534-4, Industrial Process Control Valves
– Inspection and Routine Testing.”