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𝑏 4
In Problems 70–73, use Figure 5.46 to find limits 𝑎 and 𝑏 in 70. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is largest 71. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is smallest
the interval [0, 5] with 𝑎 < 𝑏 satisfying the given condition. ∫0 ∫𝑎
𝑏 𝑏
72. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is largest 73. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is smallest
∫𝑎 ∫𝑎

1 2 3 4 5

𝑓 (𝑥)

Figure 5.46

Strengthen Your Understanding

In Problems 74–76, explain what is wrong with the state- 80. A 4-term left-hand Riemann sum approximation cannot
ment. give the exact value of a definite integral.
74. For any function, ∫1 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is the area between the the 81. If 𝑓 (𝑥) is decreasing and 𝑔(𝑥) is increasing, then
𝑏 𝑏
graph of 𝑓 and the 𝑥-axis on 1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 3. ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ≠ ∫𝑎 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
75. The left-hand sum with 10 subdivisions for the integral
2 In Problems 82–84, is the statement true for all continuous
∫1 sin(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is
functions 𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥)? Explain your answer.
0.1 (sin(1) + sin(1.1) + ⋯ + sin(2)) .
2 3
82. ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ≤ ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
2 2
76. 𝑒𝑥 ln(𝑥2 + cos(𝑥2 )) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 ln 2. 83. ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ∫0 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.
6 6
84. If ∫2 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ≤ ∫2 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥, then 𝑓 (𝑥) ≤ 𝑔(𝑥) for
In Problems 77–78, give an example of:
2 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 6.
77. A function 𝑓 and an interval [𝑎, 𝑏] such that ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
is negative. In Problems 85–86, graph a continuous function 𝑓 (𝑥) ≥ 0
3 2 on [0, 10] with the given properties.
78. A function 𝑓 such that ∫1 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 < ∫1 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.

In Problems 79–81 decide whether the statement is true or 85. The maximum value taken on by 𝑓 (𝑥) for 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 10
false. Justify your answer. is 1. In addition ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 5.

79. On the interval 𝑎 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑏, the integral of the velocity is 86. The maximum value taken on by 𝑓 (𝑥) for 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 10
the total distance traveled from 𝑡 = 𝑎 to 𝑡 = 𝑏. is 5. In addition ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 1.


The Notation and Units for the Definite Integral

Just as the Leibniz notation 𝑑𝑦∕𝑑𝑥 for the derivative reminds us that the derivative is the limit of
a ratio of differences, the notation for the definite integral recalls the meaning of the integral. The
𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
reminds us that an integral is a limit of sums of terms of the form “𝑓 (𝑥) times a small difference in
𝑥.” Officially, 𝑑𝑥 is not a separate entity, but a part of the whole integral symbol. Just as one thinks of
𝑑∕𝑑𝑥 as a single symbol meaning “the derivative with respect to 𝑥 of… ,” one can think of ∫𝑎 … 𝑑𝑥
as a single symbol meaning “the integral of … with respect to 𝑥.”
However, many scientists and mathematicians informally think of 𝑑𝑥 as an “infinitesimally”
small bit of 𝑥 multiplied by 𝑓 (𝑥). This viewpoint is often the key to interpreting the meaning of a
definite integral.

For example, if 𝑓 (𝑡) is the velocity of a moving particle at time 𝑡, then 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 may be thought of
informally as velocity × time, giving the distance traveled by the particle during a small bit of time
𝑑𝑡. The integral ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 may then be thought of as the sum of all these small distances, giving the
net change in position of the particle between 𝑡 = 𝑎 and 𝑡 = 𝑏. The notation for the integral suggests
units for the value of the integral. Since the terms being added up are products of the form “𝑓 (𝑥)
times a difference in 𝑥,” the unit of measurement for ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is the product of the units for 𝑓 (𝑥)
and the units for 𝑥. For example, if 𝑓 (𝑡) is velocity in meters/second and 𝑡 is time in seconds, then
𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
has units of (meters/sec) ×( sec) = meters. This is what we expect, since the value of this integral
represents change in position.
As another example, graph 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) with the same units of measurement of length along the
𝑥- and 𝑦-axes, say cm. Then 𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑥 are measured in the same units, so
𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
is measured in square units of cm × cm = cm2 . Again, this is what we would expect since in this
context the integral represents an area.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

We have seen that change in position can be calculated as the limit of Riemann sums of the velocity
function 𝑣 = 𝑓 (𝑡). Thus, change in position is given by the definite integral ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡. If we let 𝐹 (𝑡)
denote the position function, then the change in position can also be written as 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎). Thus
we have:
Change in position from
𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = = 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎)
∫𝑎 𝑡 = 𝑎 to 𝑡 = 𝑏
We also know that the position 𝐹 and velocity 𝑓 are related using derivatives: 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑡).
Thus, we have uncovered a connection between the integral and derivative, which is so important
that it is called the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. It applies to any function 𝐹 with a continuous
derivative 𝑓 = 𝐹 ′ .

Theorem 5.1: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus2

If 𝑓 is continuous on the interval [𝑎, 𝑏] and 𝑓 (𝑡) = 𝐹 ′ (𝑡), then
𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎).

To understand the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, think of 𝑓 (𝑡) = 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) as the rate of change
of the quantity 𝐹 (𝑡). To calculate the total change in 𝐹 (𝑡) between times 𝑡 = 𝑎 and 𝑡 = 𝑏, we divide
the interval 𝑎 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑏 into 𝑛 subintervals, each of length Δ𝑡. For each small interval, we estimate the
change in 𝐹 (𝑡), written Δ𝐹 , and add these. In each subinterval we assume the rate of change of 𝐹 (𝑡)
is approximately constant, so that we can say
Δ𝐹 ≈ Rate of change of 𝐹 × Time elapsed.
For the first subinterval, from 𝑡0 to 𝑡1 , the rate of change of 𝐹 (𝑡) is approximately 𝐹 ′ (𝑡0 ), so
Δ𝐹 ≈ 𝐹 ′ 𝑡0 Δ𝑡.
( )

Similarly, for the second interval

Δ𝐹 ≈ 𝐹 ′ 𝑡1 Δ𝑡.
( )

2 This result is sometimes called the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, to distinguish it from the Second Fundamental

Theorem of Calculus discussed in Section 6.4.


Summing over all the subintervals, we get

𝑛−1 𝑛−1
Total change in 𝐹 (𝑡) ∑ ∑
𝐹 ′ 𝑡𝑖 Δ𝑡.
( )
= Δ𝐹 ≈
between 𝑡 = 𝑎 and 𝑡 = 𝑏 𝑖=0 𝑖=0
We have approximated the change in 𝐹 (𝑡) as a left-hand sum.
However, the total change in 𝐹 (𝑡) between the times 𝑡 = 𝑎 and 𝑡 = 𝑏 is simply 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎).
Taking the limit as 𝑛 goes to infinity converts the Riemann sum to a definite integral and suggests
the following interpretation of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus:3

Total change in 𝐹 (𝑡)
𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎) = = 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.
between 𝑡 = 𝑎 and 𝑡 = 𝑏 ∫𝑎

In words, the definite integral of a rate of change gives the total change.

This argument does not, however, constitute a proof of the Fundamental Theorem. The errors
in the various approximations must be investigated using the definition of limit. A proof is given in
Section 6.4 where we learn how to construct antiderivatives using the Second Fundamental Theorem
of Calculus.

Example 1 If 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑡) and 𝑓 (𝑡) is velocity in miles∕hour, with 𝑡 in hours, what are the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
and 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎)?
Solution Since the units of 𝑓 (𝑡) are miles∕hour and the units of 𝑡 are hours, the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 are
(miles∕hour) × hours = miles. Since 𝐹 measures change in position, the units of 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎)
are miles. As expected, the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 and 𝐹 (𝑏) − 𝐹 (𝑎) are the same.

The Definite Integral of a Rate of Change: Applications of the Fundamental Theorem

Many applications are based on the Fundamental Theorem, which tells us that the definite integral
of a rate of change gives the total change.

Example 2 Let 𝐹 (𝑡) represent a bacteria population which is 5 million at time 𝑡 = 0. After 𝑡 hours, the population
is growing at an instantaneous rate of 2𝑡 million bacteria per hour. Estimate the total increase in the
bacteria population during the first hour, and the population at 𝑡 = 1.

Solution Since the rate at which the population is growing is 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) = 2𝑡 , we have
Change in population = 𝐹 (1) − 𝐹 (0) = 2𝑡 𝑑𝑡.

Using a calculator to evaluate the integral, we find

Change in population = 2𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 1.44 million bacteria.

Since 𝐹 (0) = 5, the population at 𝑡 = 1 is given by

Population = 𝐹 (1) = 𝐹 (0) + 2𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 5 + 1.44 = 6.44 million.

3 We could equally well have used a right-hand sum, since the definite integral is their common limit.

The following example uses the fact that the definite integral of the velocity gives the change in
position, or, if the velocity is positive, the total distance traveled.

Example 3 Two cars start from rest at a traffic light and accelerate for several minutes. Figure 5.47 shows their
velocities as a function of time.
(a) Which car is ahead after one minute? (b) Which car is ahead after two minutes?
𝑣 (ft/min)
Car 2

3000 Car 1

𝑡 (min)
1 2
Figure 5.47: Velocities of two cars in Example 3. Which is ahead when?
Solution (a) For the first minute car 1 goes faster than car 2, and therefore car 1 must be ahead at the end of
one minute.
(b) At the end of two minutes the situation is less clear, since car 1 was going faster for the first
minute and car 2 for the second. However, if 𝑣 = 𝑓 (𝑡) is the velocity of a car after 𝑡 minutes,
then, since the integral of velocity is distance traveled, we know that
Distance traveled in two minutes = 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡,
This definite integral may also be interpreted as the area under the graph of 𝑓 between 0 and 2.
Since the area in Figure 5.47 representing the distance traveled by car 2 is clearly larger than the
area for car 1, we know that car 2 has traveled farther than car 1.

Example 4 Biological activity in water is reflected in the rate at which carbon dioxide, CO2 , is added or removed.
Plants take CO2 out of the water during the day for photosynthesis and put CO2 into the water at
night. Animals put CO2 into the water all the time as they breathe. Figure 5.48 shows the rate of
change of the CO2 level in a pond.4 At dawn, there were 2.600 mmol of CO2 per liter of water.
(a) At what time was the CO2 level lowest? Highest?
(b) Estimate how much CO2 enters the pond during the night (𝑡 = 12 to 𝑡 = 24).
(c) Estimate the CO2 level at dusk (twelve hours after dawn).
(d) Does the CO2 level appear to be approximately in equilibrium?
(mmol/liter per hour)
0 𝑡 (hours)
6 12 18 24
Time (hours past dawn)

Figure 5.48: Rate at which CO2 enters a pond over a 24-hour period

4 Data from R. J. Beyers, The Pattern of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Laboratory Microsystems (Mem. 1st. Ital.

Idrobiol., 1965).

Solution Let 𝑓 (𝑡) be the rate at which CO2 is entering the water at time 𝑡 and let 𝐹 (𝑡) be the concentration of
CO2 in the water at time 𝑡, so 𝐹 ′ (𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑡).
(a) From Figure 5.48, we see 𝑓 (𝑡) is negative for 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 12, so the CO2 level is decreasing during
this interval (daytime). Since 𝑓 (𝑡) is positive for 12 < 𝑡 < 24, the CO2 level is increasing during
this interval (night). The CO2 is lowest at 𝑡 = 12 (dusk) and highest at 𝑡 = 0 and 𝑡 = 24 (dawn).
(b) We want to calculate the total change in the CO2 level in the pond, 𝐹 (24) − 𝐹 (12). By the
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,
𝐹 (24) − 𝐹 (12) = 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.

We use values of 𝑓 (𝑡) from the graph (displayed in Table 5.10) to construct a left Riemann sum
approximation to this integral with 𝑛 = 6, Δ𝑡 = 2:
𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 ≈ 𝑓 (12) ⋅ 2 + 𝑓 (14) ⋅ 2 + 𝑓 (16) ⋅ 2 + ⋯ + 𝑓 (22) ⋅ 2
≈ (0.000)2 + (0.045)2 + (0.035)2 + ⋯ + (0.012)2 = 0.278.

Thus, between 𝑡 = 12 and 𝑡 = 24,

Change in CO2 level = 𝐹 (24) − 𝐹 (12) = 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 ≈ 0.278 mmol/liter.

(c) To find the CO2 level at 𝑡 = 12, we use the Fundamental Theorem to estimate the change in CO2
level during the day:
𝐹 (12) − 𝐹 (0) = 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
Using a left Riemann sum as in part (b), we have
𝐹 (12) − 𝐹 (0) = 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 ≈ −0.328.

Since initially there were 𝐹 (0) = 2.600 mmol/liter, we have

𝐹 (12) = 𝐹 (0) − 0.328 = 2.272 mmol/liter.

(d) The amount of CO2 removed during the day is represented by the area of the region below the
𝑡-axis; the amount of CO2 added during the night is represented by the area above the 𝑡-axis.
These areas look approximately equal, so the CO2 level is approximately in equilibrium.
Using Riemann sums to estimate these areas, we find that about 0.278 mmol∕l of CO2 was
released into the pond during the night and about 0.328 mmol∕l of CO2 was absorbed from the
pond during the day. These quantities are sufficiently close that the difference could be due to
measurement error, or to errors from the Riemann sum approximation.

Table 5.10 Rate, 𝑓 (𝑡), at which 𝐶𝑂2 is entering or leaving water (read from Figure 5.48)

𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑡 𝑓 (𝑡)

0 0.000 4 −0.039 8 −0.026 12 0.000 16 0.035 20 0.020
2 −0.044 6 −0.035 10 −0.020 14 0.045 18 0.027 22 0.012

Calculating Definite Integrals: Computational Use of the Fundamental Theorem

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus owes its name to its central role in linking rates of change
(derivatives) to total change. However, the Fundamental Theorem also provides an exact way of
computing certain definite integrals.

Example 5 Compute 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 by two different methods.

Solution Using left- and right-hand sums, we can approximate this integral as accurately as we want. With
𝑛 = 100, for example, the left-sum is 7.96 and the right sum is 8.04. Using 𝑛 = 500 we learn
7.992 < 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 < 8.008.

The Fundamental Theorem, on the other hand, allows us to compute the integral exactly. We take
𝑓 (𝑥) = 2𝑥. We know that if 𝐹 (𝑥) = 𝑥2 , then 𝐹 ′ (𝑥) = 2𝑥. So we use 𝑓 (𝑥) = 2𝑥 and 𝐹 (𝑥) = 𝑥2 and
2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 (3) − 𝐹 (1) = 32 − 12 = 8.

Notice that to use the Fundamental Theorem to calculate a definite integral, we need to know
the antiderivative, 𝐹 . Chapter 6 discusses how antiderivatives are computed.
Exercises and Problems for Section 5.3 Online Resource: Additional Problems for Section 5.3
1. If 𝑓 (𝑡) is measured in dollars per year and 𝑡 is measured 8. For the two cars in Example 3, page 295, estimate:
in years, what are the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡?
(a) The distances moved by car 1 and car 2 during the
2. If 𝑓 (𝑡) is measured in meters/second2 and 𝑡 is measured first minute.
in seconds, what are the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡? (b) The time at which the two cars have gone the same
3. If 𝑓 (𝑥) is measured in pounds and 𝑥 is measured in feet, distance.
what are the units of ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥?
In Exercises 9–14, let 𝑓 (𝑡) = 𝐹 ′ (𝑡). Write the integral
In Exercises 4–7, explain in words what the integral repre- 𝑏
∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 and evaluate it using the Fundamental Theorem
sents and give units.
of Calculus.
4. ∫1 𝑣(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡, where 𝑣(𝑡) is velocity in meters/sec and 𝑡 is
time in seconds. 9. 𝐹 (𝑡) = 𝑡2 ; 𝑎 = 1, 𝑏 = 3
5. ∫0 𝑎(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡, where 𝑎(𝑡) is acceleration in km/hr2 and 𝑡 is 10. 𝐹 (𝑡) = 3𝑡2 + 4𝑡; 𝑎 = 2, 𝑏 = 5
time in hours.
2011 11. 𝐹 (𝑡) = ln 𝑡; 𝑎 = 1, 𝑏 = 5
6. ∫2005 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡, where 𝑓 (𝑡) is the rate at which world pop-
ulation is growing in year 𝑡, in billion people per year. 12. 𝐹 (𝑡) = sin 𝑡; 𝑎 = 0, 𝑏 = 𝜋∕2
7. ∫0 𝑠(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥, where 𝑠(𝑥) is rate of change of salinity 13. 𝐹 (𝑡) = 7 ⋅ 4𝑡 ; 𝑎 = 2, 𝑏 = 3
(salt concentration) in gm/liter per cm in sea water, and
where 𝑥 is depth below the surface of the water in cm. 14. 𝐹 (𝑡) = tan 𝑡; 𝑎 = −𝜋∕4, 𝑏 = 𝜋∕4


15. (a) Differentiate 𝑥3 + 𝑥. 16. (a) What is the derivative of sin 𝑡?

(b) Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find (b) The velocity of a particle at time 𝑡 is 𝑣(𝑡) = cos 𝑡.
Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find
(3𝑥2 + 1) 𝑑𝑥.
∫0 the total distance traveled by the particle between
𝑡 = 0 and 𝑡 = 𝜋∕2.

17. (a) If 𝐹 (𝑡) = 2
sin2 𝑡, find 𝐹 ′ (𝑡). 24. As coal deposits are depleted, it becomes necessary to
0.4 strip-mine larger areas for each ton of coal. Figure 5.50
(b) Find sin 𝑡 cos 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 two ways: shows the number of acres of land per million tons of
(i) Numerically. coal that will be defaced during strip-mining as a func-
tion of the number of million tons removed, starting
(ii) Using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
from the present day.
18. (a) If 𝐹 (𝑥) = 𝑒𝑥 , find 𝐹 ′ (𝑥). (a) Estimate the total number of acres defaced in ex-
(b) Find 2𝑥𝑒𝑥 𝑑𝑥 two ways: tracting the next 4 million tons of coal (measured
∫0 from the present day). Draw four rectangles under
(i) Numerically. the curve, and compute their area.
(ii) Using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. (b) Re-estimate the number of acres defaced using
rectangles above the curve.
In Problems 19–20, find the area under the graph of 𝑓 (𝑡) for (c) Use your answers to parts (a) and (b) to get a better
0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 5 using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. estimate of the actual number of acres defaced.
Compare your answer with what you get using areas of tri-
angles. acres defaced
per million tons

19. 𝑓 (𝑡) = 6𝑡 20. 𝑓 (𝑡) = 10 − 2𝑡 4

21. Pollution is removed from a lake at a rate of 𝑓 (𝑡) kg∕day
on day 𝑡. 2
million tons of
(a) Explain the meaning of the statement 𝑓 (12) = 500. 1 coal extracted
(b) If ∫5 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = 4000, give the units of the 5, the from present
0.2 day)
15, and the 4000. 1 2 3 4 5
(c) Give the meaning of ∫5 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = 4000.
Figure 5.50
22. Oil leaks out of a tanker at a rate of 𝑟 = 𝑓 (𝑡) gallons per
minute, where 𝑡 is in minutes. Write a definite integral
expressing the total quantity of oil which leaks out of
the tanker in the first hour. 25. The rate at which the world’s oil is consumed (in bil-
lions of barrels per year) is given by 𝑟 = 𝑓 (𝑡), where 𝑡
23. Water is leaking out of a tank at a rate of 𝑅(𝑡) gal- is in years and 𝑡 = 0 is the start of 2004.
lons/hour, where 𝑡 is measured in hours.
(a) Write a definite integral representing the total
(a) Write a definite integral that expresses the total
quantity of oil consumed between the start of 2004
amount of water that leaks out in the first two
and the start of 2009.
(b) Between 2004 and 2009, the rate was modeled by
(b) In Figure 5.49, shade the region whose area repre-
𝑟 = 32𝑒0.05𝑡 . Using a left-hand sum with five sub-
sents the total amount of water that leaks out in the
divisions, find an approximate value for the total
first two hours.
quantity of oil consumed between the start of 2004
(c) Give an upper and lower estimate of the total
and the start of 2009.
amount of water that leaks out in the first two
(c) Interpret each of the five terms in the sum from
part (b) in terms of oil consumption.

26. A bungee jumper leaps off the starting platform at time

2 𝑡 = 0 and rebounds once during the first 5 seconds.
With velocity measured downward, for 𝑡 in seconds and
0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 5, the jumper’s velocity is approximated5 by
1 𝑣(𝑡) = −4𝑡2 + 16𝑡 meters/sec.
(a) How many meters does the jumper travel during
𝑡 the first five seconds?
1 2 (b) Where is the jumper relative to the starting position
at the end of the five seconds?
Figure 5.49 5
(c) What does ∫0 𝑣(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 represent in terms of the
5 Based on Accessed February 12, 2012.

27. The table gives annual US emissions, 𝐻(𝑡), of hydroflu- 33. Figure 5.52 shows solar radiation, in watts per square
orocarbons, or “super greenhouse gases,” in millions of meter (w/m2 ), in Santa Rosa, California, throughout a
metric tons of carbon-dioxide equivalent. Let 𝑡 be in typical January day.8 Estimate the daily energy pro-
years since 2000.6 duced, in kwh, by a 20-square-meter solar array located
12 in Santa Rosa if it converts 18% of solar radiation into
(a) What are the units and meaning of ∫0 𝐻(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡?
(b) Estimate ∫0 𝐻(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.

Year 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 solar radiation (w/m2 )
𝐻(𝑡) 158.9 154.4 152.1 153.9 162.7 167.0 173.6 400
28. An old rowboat has sprung a leak. Water is flowing into
the boat at a rate, 𝑟(𝑡), given in the table.
(a) Compute upper and lower estimates for the volume time (hrs past midnight)
of water that has flowed into the boat during the 15 4 8 12 16 20
(b) Draw a graph to illustrate the lower estimate. Figure 5.52

𝑡 minutes 0 5 10 15
𝑟(𝑡) liters/min 12 20 24 16 34. A warehouse charges its customers $5 per day for ev-
ery 10 cubic feet of space used for storage. Figure 5.53
29. Annual coal production in the US (in billion tons per records the storage used by one company over a month.
year) is given in the table.7 Estimate the total amount How much will the company have to pay?
of coal produced in the US between 1997 and 2009. If
𝑟 = 𝑓 (𝑡) is the rate of coal production 𝑡 years since
1997, write an integral to represent the 1997–2009 coal cubic feet
production. 30,000

Year 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 20,000

Rate 1.090 1.094 1.121 1.072 1.132 1.147 1.073 10,000

30. The amount of waste a company produces, 𝑊 , in tons days

10 20 30
per week, is approximated by 𝑊 = 3.75𝑒−0.008𝑡 , where
𝑡 is in weeks since January 1, 2016. Waste removal for Figure 5.53
the company costs $150∕ton. How much did the com-
pany pay for waste removal during the year 2016?
31. A two-day environmental cleanup started at 9 am on the 35. A cup of coffee at 90◦ C is put into a 20◦ C room when
first day. The number of workers fluctuated as shown in 𝑡 = 0. The coffee’s temperature is changing at a rate of
Figure 5.51. If the workers were paid $10 per hour, how 𝑟(𝑡) = −7𝑒−0.1𝑡 ◦ C per minute, with 𝑡 in minutes. Esti-
much was the total personnel cost of the cleanup? mate the coffee’s temperature when 𝑡 = 10.
36. Water is pumped out of a holding tank at a rate of
5 − 5𝑒−0.12𝑡 liters/minute, where 𝑡 is in minutes since
40 the pump is started. If the holding tank contains 1000
30 liters of water when the pump is started, how much wa-
20 ter does it hold one hour later?
10 37. The concentration of a medication in the plasma
hours changes at a rate of ℎ(𝑡) mg/ml per hour, 𝑡 hours after
8 16 24 32 40 48 the delivery of the drug.
Figure 5.51 (a) Explain the meaning of the statement ℎ(1) = 50.
32. In Problem 31, suppose workers were paid $10 per hour (b) There is 250 mg/ml of the medication present at
for work between 9 am and 5 pm and $15 per hour for time 𝑡 = 0 and ∫0 ℎ(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = 480. What is the
work during the rest of the day. What would the total plasma concentration of the medication present
personnel costs have been under these conditions? three hours after the drug is administered?
6 Accessed April 2015.
7 Accessed May 2011.
8, accessed January 8, 2015.

(I) 𝑣 (II) 𝑣
Problems 38–39 concern the graph of 𝑓 ′ in Figure 5.54.

𝑥 𝑡 𝑡
1 2 3 4 5
𝑓 ′ (𝑥)
(III) 𝑣 (IV) 𝑣

Figure 5.54: Graph of 𝑓 , not 𝑓
𝑡 𝑡
38. Which is greater, 𝑓 (0) or 𝑓 (1)? 5

39. List the following in increasing order:

𝑓 (4) − 𝑓 (2) (V) 𝑣
, 𝑓 (3) − 𝑓 (2), 𝑓 (4) − 𝑓 (3).
40. A force 𝐹 parallel to the 𝑥-axis is given by the graph in
Figure 5.55. Estimate the work, 𝑊 , done by the force, 𝑡
16 5
where 𝑊 = ∫0 𝐹 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
force (newton)
2 𝐹 Figure 5.57
1 44. A mouse moves back and forth in a straight tunnel, at-
14 16 tracted to bits of cheddar cheese alternately introduced
𝑥 (meter)
4 8 10 to and removed from the ends (right and left) of the
tunnel. The graph of the mouse’s velocity, 𝑣, is given
−2 in Figure 5.58, with positive velocity corresponding to
Figure 5.55 motion toward the right end. Assume that the mouse
starts (𝑡 = 0) at the center of the tunnel.
(a) Use the graph to estimate the time(s) at which:
41. Let 𝑓 (1) = 7, 𝑓 ′ (𝑡) = 𝑒−𝑡 . Use left- and right-hand (i) The mouse changes direction.
sums of 5 rectangles each to estimate 𝑓 (2). (ii) The mouse is moving most rapidly to the
42. Figure 5.56 shows a continuous function 𝑓 . Rank the right; to the left.
following integrals in ascending numerical order.
(iii) The mouse is farthest to the right of center;
2 1
(i) ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 (ii) ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 farthest to the left.
2 2 (iv) The mouse’s speed (i.e., the magnitude of its
(iii) ∫0 (𝑓 (𝑥))1∕2 𝑑𝑥 (iv) ∫0 (𝑓 (𝑥))2 𝑑𝑥.
velocity) is decreasing.
100 (v) The mouse is at the center of the tunnel.
𝑓 (𝑥) (b) What is the total distance the mouse traveled?
𝑣 (cm/sec)
𝑥 20
0 1 2
Figure 5.56
0 𝑡 (sec)
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
43. The graphs in Figure 5.57 represent the velocity, 𝑣, of −20
a particle moving along the 𝑥-axis for time 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 5. −30
The vertical scales of all graphs are the same. Identify
the graph showing which particle: Figure 5.58
(a) Has a constant acceleration. In Problems 45–46, oil is pumped from a well at a rate of 𝑟(𝑡)
(b) Ends up farthest to the left of where it started. barrels per day, with 𝑡 in days. Assume 𝑟′ (𝑡) < 0 and 𝑡0 > 0.
(c) Ends up the farthest from its starting point.
(d) Experiences the greatest initial acceleration. 45. What does the value of ∫0 0 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 tell us about the oil
(e) Has the greatest average velocity. well?
(f) Has the greatest average acceleration. 46. Rank in order from least to greatest:
2𝑡0 2𝑡0 3𝑡0
𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡, 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡, 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.
∫0 ∫𝑡 0 ∫2𝑡0

47. Height velocity graphs are used by endocrinologists to 49. Table 5.11 shows the monthly change in water stored in
follow the progress of children with growth deficien- Lake Sonoma, California, from March through Novem-
cies. Figure 5.59 shows the height velocity curves of an ber 2014. The change is measured in acre-feet per
average boy and an average girl between ages 3 and 18. month.10 On March 1, the water stored was 182,566
acre-feet. Let 𝑆(𝑡) be the total water, in acre-feet, stored
(a) Which curve is for girls and which is for boys? Ex-
in month 𝑡, where 𝑡 = 0 is March.
plain how you can tell.
(b) About how much does the average boy grow be- (a) Find and interpret 𝑆(0) and 𝑆(3).
tween ages 3 and 10? (b) Approximately when do maximum and minimum
(c) The growth spurt associated with adolescence and values of 𝑆(𝑡) occur?
the onset of puberty occurs between ages 12 and 15 (c) Does 𝑆(𝑡) appear to have inflection points? If so,
for the average boy and between ages 10 and 12.5 approximately when?
for the average girl. Estimate the height gained by
each average child during this growth spurt. Table 5.11
(d) When fully grown, about how much taller is the av- Month Mar Apr May June July
erage man than the average woman? (The average
Change in water 3003 −5631 −8168 −8620 −8270
boy and girl are about the same height at age 3.)
Month Aug Sept Oct Nov
𝑦 (cm/yr)
Change in water −7489 −6245 −4593 54,743
10 Change in water in acre-feet per month

8 In Problems 50–52, evaluate the expressions using Ta-

ble 5.12. Give exact values if possible; otherwise, make the
6 best possible estimates using left-hand Riemann sums.
Table 5.12
𝑡 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
𝑓 (𝑡) 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
𝑔(𝑡) 2.0 2.9 5.1 5.1 3.9 0.8
𝑥 (years)
0.5 0.5
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
50. 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 51. 𝑔 ′ (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
∫0 ∫0.2
Figure 5.59
48. Figure 5.60 shows the rate of change in the average
52. 𝑔 (𝑓 (𝑡)) 𝑑𝑡
plasma concentration of the drug Omeprazole (in ng/ml ∫0
per hour) for six hours after the first dose is adminis-
tered using two different capsules: immediate-release
In Problems 53–55, let 𝐶(𝑛) be a city’s cost, in millions of
and delayed-release.9
dollars, for plowing the roads when 𝑛 inches of snow have
(a) Which graph corresponds to which capsule? fallen. Let 𝑐(𝑛) = 𝐶 ′ (𝑛). Evaluate the expressions and in-
(b) Do the two capsules provide the same maximum terpret your answers in terms of the cost of plowing snow,
concentration? If not, which provides the larger given
maximum concentration? 15

rate (ng/mL per hour)

𝑐 ′ (𝑛) < 0, 𝑐(𝑛) 𝑑𝑛 = 7.5, 𝑐(15) = 0.7,
𝑐(24) = 0.4, 𝐶(15) = 8, 𝐶(24) = 13.

2000 𝐴

1000 53. 𝑐(𝑛) 𝑑𝑛 54. 𝐶(0)

𝐵 ∫15
𝑡 (hours)
1 2 3 4 5 6 24
−1000 55. 𝑐(15) + 𝑐 ′ (𝑛) 𝑑𝑛
Figure 5.60
9 Data
adapted from C. W. Howden, “Review article: immediate-release proton-pump inhibitor therapy—potential advan-
tages", Aliment Pharmacol Ther. (2005).
10 Date from, accessed June, 2015. An acre-foot is the

amount of water it takes to cover one acre of area with 1 foot of water.

Problems 56–58 refer to a May 2, 2010, article:11 58. Give a reasonable overestimate of 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.
“The crisis began around 10 am yesterday when a ∫0
10-foot wide pipe in Weston sprang a leak, which
In Problems 59–61, list the expressions (I)–(III) in order
worsened throughout the afternoon and eventually
from smallest to largest, where 𝑟(𝑡) is the hourly rate that an
cut off Greater Boston from the Quabbin Reservoir,
animal burns calories and 𝑅(𝑡) is the total number of calo-
where most of its water supply is stored. . . Before
ries burned since time 𝑡 = 0. Assume 𝑟(𝑡) > 0 and 𝑟′ (𝑡) < 0
water was shut off to the ruptured pipe [at 6:40
for 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 12.
pm], brown water had been roaring from a mas-
sive crater [at a rate of] 8 million gallons an hour 59. Letting 𝑡0 = 0, 𝑡100 = 12:
rushing into the nearby Charles River.”
99 100 12
Let 𝑟(𝑡) be the rate in gallons/hr that water flowed from the ∑ ( ) ∑ ( )
I. 𝑟 𝑡𝑖 Δ𝑡 II. 𝑟 𝑡𝑖 Δ𝑡 III. 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
pipe 𝑡 hours after it sprang its leak. 𝑖=0 𝑖=1
2 4
56. Which is larger: 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 or 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡? 60. I. 𝑅(10) II. 𝑅(12) III. 𝑅(10)+𝑟(10)⋅2
∫0 ∫2
8 11
61. I. 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 II. 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 III. 𝑅(12)−𝑅(9)
57. Which is larger: 𝑟(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 or 4𝑟(4)? ∫5 ∫8

Strengthen Your Understanding

In Problems 62–63, explain what is wrong with the state- In Problems 64–65, give an example of:
64. A function 𝑓 (𝑥) and limits of integration 𝑎 and 𝑏 such
62. If 𝑓 (𝑡) represents the rate, in lbs per year, at which a 𝑏
4 that ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒4 − 𝑒2 .
dog gains weight 𝑡 years after it is born, then ∫0 𝑓 (𝑡)𝑑𝑡
represents the weight of the dog when the dog is four 65. The graph of a velocity function of a car that travels 200
years old. miles in 4 hours.

63. If 𝑓 (𝑥) = 𝑥 the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 66. True or False? The units for an integral of a function
√ √
states that ∫4 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 9 − 4. 𝑓 (𝑥) are the same as the units for 𝑓 (𝑥).


Properties of the Definite Integral

For the definite integral ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥, we have so far only considered the case 𝑎 < 𝑏. We now allow
We still set 𝑥0 = 𝑎, 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏, and Δ𝑥 = (𝑏 − 𝑎)∕𝑛. As before, we have ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥 =
𝑎 ≥ 𝑏. ∑
lim𝑛→∞ 𝑛𝑖=1 𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥.

Theorem 5.2: Properties of Limits of Integration

If 𝑎, 𝑏, and 𝑐 are any numbers and 𝑓 is a continuous function, then
𝑎 𝑏
1. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
∫𝑏 ∫𝑎
𝑐 𝑏 𝑏
2. 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 =
𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
∫𝑎 ∫𝑐 ∫𝑎
In words:
1. The integral from 𝑏 to 𝑎 is the negative of the integral from 𝑎 to 𝑏.
2. The integral from 𝑎 to 𝑐 plus the integral from 𝑐 to 𝑏 is the integral from 𝑎 to 𝑏.

By interpreting the integrals as areas, we can justify these results for 𝑓 ≥ 0. In fact, they are
true for all functions for which the integrals make sense.
11 “A catastrophic rupture hits region’s water system,” The Boston Globe, May 2, 2010.

𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑓 (𝑥)

𝑥 𝑥
𝑎 𝑐 𝑏 𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
Figure 5.61: Additivity of the definite Figure 5.62: Additivity of the definite
integral (𝑎 < 𝑐 < 𝑏) integral (𝑎 < 𝑏 < 𝑐)

Why is ∫𝒃𝒂 𝒇 (𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = − ∫𝒂𝒃 𝒇 (𝒙) 𝒅𝒙?

By definition, both integrals are approximated by sums of the form 𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥. The only difference
𝑎 𝑏
in the sums for ∫𝑏 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 and ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is that in the first Δ𝑥 = (𝑎 − 𝑏)∕𝑛 = −(𝑏 − 𝑎)∕𝑛 and
in the second Δ𝑥 = (𝑏 − 𝑎)∕𝑛. Since everything else about the sums is the same, we must have
𝑎 𝑏
∫𝑏 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.

Why is ∫𝒂𝒄 𝒇 (𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 + ∫𝒄𝒃 𝒇 (𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒂𝒃 𝒇 (𝒙) 𝒅𝒙?

𝑐 𝑏 𝑏
Suppose 𝑎 < 𝑐 < 𝑏. Figure 5.61 suggests that ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + ∫𝑐 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 since the area
under 𝑓 from 𝑎 to 𝑐 plus the area under 𝑓 from 𝑐 to 𝑏 together make up the whole area under 𝑓 from
𝑎 to 𝑏.
This property holds for all numbers 𝑎, 𝑏, and 𝑐, not just those satisfying 𝑎 < 𝑐 < 𝑏. (See
Figure 5.62.) For example, the area under 𝑓 from 3 to 6 is equal to the area from 3 to 8 minus the
area from 6 to 8, so
6 8 8 8 6
𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
∫3 ∫3 ∫6 ∫3 ∫8

1.25 1
Example 1 Given that ∫0 cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.98 and ∫0 cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.90, what are the values of the following
integrals? (See Figure 5.63.)
1.25 1 −1
(a) cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 (b) cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 (c) cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥
∫1 ∫−1 ∫1.25

✻ 1 ✻
−1.25 1.25

Figure 5.63: Graph of 𝑓 (𝑥) = cos(𝑥2 )

Solution (a) Since, by the additivity property,

1.25 1 1.25
cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 + cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥,
∫0 ∫0 ∫1

we get
0.98 = 0.90 + cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥,

cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.08.
(b) By the additivity property, we have
1 0 1
cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 + cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥.
∫−1 ∫−1 ∫0

By the symmetry of cos(𝑥2 ) about the 𝑦-axis,

0 1
cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.90.
∫−1 ∫0

cos(𝑥2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.90 + 0.90 = 1.80.
(c) Using both properties in Theorem 5.2, we have
( )
−1 1.25 0 1.25
2 2 2 2
cos(𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥 = − cos(𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥 = − cos(𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥 + cos(𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥
∫1.25 ∫−1 ∫−1 ∫0
= −(0.90 + 0.98) = −1.88.

Theorem 5.3: Properties of Sums and Constant Multiples of the Integrand

Let 𝑓 and 𝑔 be continuous functions and let 𝑐 be a constant.
𝑏 𝑏 𝑏
1. (𝑓 (𝑥) ± 𝑔(𝑥)) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ± 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
∫𝑎 ∫𝑎 ∫𝑎
𝑏 𝑏
2. 𝑐𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑐
𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥.
∫𝑎 ∫𝑎
In words:
1. The integral of the sum (or difference) of two functions is the sum (or difference) of their
2. The integral of a constant times a function is that constant times the integral of the func-

Why Do These Properties Hold?

Both can be visualized by thinking of the definite integral as the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles.
For property 1, suppose that 𝑓 and 𝑔 are positive on the interval [𝑎, 𝑏] so that the area under
𝑓 (𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥) is approximated by the sum of the areas of rectangles like the one shaded in Figure 5.64.
The area of this rectangle is
(𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 ) + 𝑔(𝑥𝑖 ))Δ𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥.
Since 𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥 is the area of a rectangle under the graph of 𝑓 , and 𝑔(𝑥𝑖 )Δ𝑥 is the area of a rectangle
under the graph of 𝑔, the area under 𝑓 (𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥) is the sum of the areas under 𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥).
For property 2, notice that multiplying a function by 𝑐 stretches or shrinks the graph in the
vertical direction by a factor of 𝑐. Thus, it stretches or shrinks the height of each approximating
rectangle by 𝑐, and hence multiplies the area by 𝑐.

✻ 𝑓 (𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥)
𝑔(𝑥𝑖 )

✻ 𝑓 (𝑥)
𝑓 (𝑥𝑖 )

❄ 𝑥
✲ ✛
𝑎 Δ𝑥 𝑏
𝑏 𝑏 𝑏
Figure 5.64: Area = ∫𝑎 [𝑓 (𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥)] 𝑑𝑥 = ∫𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + ∫𝑎 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥

Example 2 Evaluate the definite integral (1 + 3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 exactly.

Solution We can break this integral up as follows:

2 2 2 2 2
(1 + 3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 1 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 1 𝑑𝑥 + 3 𝑥 𝑑𝑥.
∫0 ∫0 ∫0 ∫0 ∫0

From Figures 5.65 and 5.66 and the area interpretation of the integral, we see that
2 2
Area of Area of 1
1 𝑑𝑥 = =2 and 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = = ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 2.
∫0 rectangle ∫0 triangle 2

2 2 2
(1 + 3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 1 𝑑𝑥 + 3 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 2 + 3 ⋅ 2 = 8.
∫0 ∫0 ∫0

𝑦 𝑦
2 2

𝑦=1 𝑦=𝑥
2 2
1 𝑑𝑥 = 2 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 2
∫0 ∫0
𝑥 𝑥
2 2
2 2
Figure 5.65: Area representing ∫0 1 𝑑𝑥 Figure 5.66: Area representing ∫0 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Area Between Curves

Theorem 5.3 enables us to find the area of a region between curves. We have the following result:

If the graph of 𝑓 (𝑥) lies above the graph of 𝑔(𝑥) for 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏, then
Area between 𝑓 and 𝑔
= (𝑓 (𝑥) − 𝑔(𝑥)) 𝑑𝑥.
for 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏 ∫𝑎

Example 3 Find the area of the shaded region in Figure 5.67.

𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑥2 − 4𝑥 + 5

𝑓 (𝑥) = −𝑥2 + 4𝑥 − 1
Figure 5.67: Area between two parabolas

Solution The curves cross where

𝑥2 − 4𝑥 + 5 = −𝑥2 + 4𝑥 − 1
2𝑥2 − 8𝑥 + 6 = 0
2(𝑥 − 1)(𝑥 − 3) = 0
𝑥 = 1, 3.

Since 𝑓 (𝑥) = −𝑥2 + 4𝑥 − 1 is above 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑥2 − 4𝑥 + 5 for 𝑥 between 1 and 3, we find the shaded
area by subtraction:
3 3 3
Area = 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = (𝑓 (𝑥) − 𝑔(𝑥)) 𝑑𝑥
∫1 ∫1 ∫1
= ((−𝑥2 + 4𝑥 − 1) − (𝑥2 − 4𝑥 + 5)) 𝑑𝑥
= (−2𝑥2 + 8𝑥 − 6) 𝑑𝑥 = 2.667.

Using Symmetry to Evaluate Integrals

Symmetry can be useful in evaluating definite integrals. An even function is symmetric about the
𝑦-axis. An odd function is symmetric about the origin. Figures 5.68 and 5.69 suggest the following
results for continuous functions:

𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
If 𝑓 is even, then 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 2 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥. If 𝑔 is odd, then 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 0.
∫−𝑎 ∫0 ∫−𝑎

𝑓 (𝑥)

𝑥 𝑎
−𝑎 𝑎

Figure 5.68: For an even function, Figure 5.69: For an odd function,
𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
∫−𝑎 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 2 ∫0 𝑓 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ∫−𝑎 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 0