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ext 1 is for questions no.

1 – 5
The Princess and the Pea
Once upon a time there was a prince he wanted to get himself a princess, but she had to be real
princess. So he traveled all over the world to find one, but in every case something was the matter.
There were lots of princess, but he could never quite make out whether they were real or not. So he
came home feeling very unhappy, for really wanted to find a true princess.
One evening a terrible storm came; lightening flashed, thunder rolled, and the rain poured down in
torrents-it was simply awful! Suddenly there was a knock at the city gate, and the old king went out to
answer it.
There was a princess standing outside, but what a sight the rain and the bad weather had made of her!
The water streamed down her hair and her clothes, and yet she said she was a real princess.
“It won’t take long to find that out,” thought the old Queen. Without saying anything, she went into bed
chamber, took off all the bedclothes, and places one pea on the bottom boards of the bed. Then she
took twenty mattresses and put them on top of the pea, and after that she put twenty feather-pillows
on top of the mattresses.
That was where the princess was to spend the night.
In the morning they asked her how she had slept.
“Oh, dreadfully! said the princess. “I hardly slept a wink all night. Whatever could have been in the bed?
I was lying on something so hard that I’m black and blue all over.”
So of course they could see that she was a real princess, since she had felt the pea through twenty
mattresses and twenty feather-pillows. No one but a real princess could have such a tender skin as that.
So the prince took her for his wife, and they lived happily ever after.

1. What kind of the text is it?


A. Report
B. Recount
C. Narrative
D. Descriptive
E. News item

2. The generic structure of the text is….


A. Orientation > Complication > Resolution > Re-Orientation
B. Orientation > Events > Re- Orientation
C. General Classification > Description
D. Identification > Description
E. Newsworthy Events > Background Events > Sources

3. What is the purpose of the text?


A. To inform about princess and the pea
B. To describe the story of the princess and the pea
C. To give information that the prince looked for the real princess
D. To amuse the reader with the story of the princess and the pea
E. To describe how the princess could feel the pea on the bottom boards of the bed

4. What is the dominant structure used in the text?


A. The simple present tense
B. The simple past tense
C. The present continuous tense
D. Passive voice
E. Imperative

5. No one but a real princess could have such a tender skin as that. The SYNONYM of ‘tender’ is ….
A. Hard
B. Light
C. Weak
D. Strong
E. Soft

Text 2 is for questions no. 6 – 9


Tabuhan is a lively unique cave
In the cave Nyi (Mrs.) Kamiyem and Ki (Mr.) Padmo sit on a stone. Nyi Kamiyem will sing a song and Ki
Padmo will beat the drum. Joining them are people called wiyogo which are drummers and other
gamelan musicians.
What makes this unique is that they mix gamelan with the sound of nature. The visitors dance,
forgetting all problems.
Many tourists go to this cave. Maybe you are interested in going there too. But you don’t know where it
is. Gua Tabuhan is located near Pacitan in east java. It is situated in a lime hill called Tapan, in Tabuhan,
Wareng village. The route is easy. Along the road there is beautiful tropical scenery to enjoy-rice fields,
coconut palms and birds.
East of the cave peddlers sell souvenirs. The drink and food peddlers are on the north. People sell agates
on the cave terraces. Somehow, it is like a fair.
It is said that the cave is the only place where nature produces sounds like the music of gamelan. Nyi
Kamiyem, the well down pesinden (traditional Javanese singer) from the village of Gabuhan, who often
sings in the cave, does not doubt it.
Gua Tabuhan did not use to welcome visitor. According to Kartowiryo (90), village elder, gua Tabuhan
used to be a hiding place for robbers. It was believed to be a sacred place. No one dared go inside.
However, Wedana (chief of a district) Kertodiprojo, went to the cave to find out what was wrong. He
found out that the cave was inhabited by the annoying evil spirits. The people chased the spirits away.
The cave is dark, so people need light, and a local guide will lead the way sometimes visitors bump their
heads against the sharp rocks on the ceiling.
Inside the cave there is a plain. Big stone which is believed to be the prayer mat of Pangeran
Diponogoro, one of the Indonesia heroes who fought against the Dutch. It is said that Pangeran
Diponegoro used to seclude himself in the cave. Some people now use the place for meditation.
There is a stream in the cave, in the east corner, which can only be seen outside. However, it can be
heard from inside.
Besides the cave, Watukarang, a beach nearby, is good to visit. By the way, want different souvenirs?
You can find them in Donorodjo village where agate craftsman work. So, have a nice journey.
6. Where is goa tabuhan located?
A. Near Pacitan in east java
B. Near Watukarang beach
C. In Donorodjo village
D. In the village of Gabuhan
E. Near Pacitan in west java
7. What did Kertodiprojo find out inside the cave?
A. Agates craftsman work
B. Annoying evil spirits.
C. Many robbers
D. The drink and food peddlers
E. Nyi Kamiyem and Ki Padmo

8. What do people need to enter the cave?


A. Light and local peddlers
B. Local musicians and agate craftsman
C. Chief of district and local guide
D. Local guide and lights
E. Lights and village elder

9. Which statement is true according to the text?


A. To reach Wareng village the visitors get troubles
B. The inside of the cave is like a fair because visitor and peddlers bring light if they come in
C. Wedana Kertodiprojo found out that the cave was inhabited by the annoying evil spirits
D. There is only one tourist resort around Wareng village
E. Pangeran Diponegoro secluded himself outside the cave

Text 3 is for questions no. 10 – 13


JAMBI: A pirate leader admitted, Wednesday, that his gang had been involved in six robberies and killed
two police officers.
Itham Guntur, told police investigators that the gang consisted of six people, all formers members of
ship crews. ”Because we are all ex crew members, we know the major shipping lanes, such as Sunda
straight and east Jambi coast very well,” he said.
Itham identified the murdered officers as Brigadier General Mulyadi from south Sumatra police and
Brigadier General Kennedy from the Jakarta police.
The pirates targeted cargo ships, fishing boats and oil tankers. Antara

10. The pronoun “he” in the second paragraph refers to?


A. Police officer
B. Itham Guntur
C. One of the ship crews
D. Ex-crew member
E. Brigadier General Mulyadi

11. The communicative purpose of the text is…


A. To tell the reader what really happened
B. To explain sequence of events
C. To amuse the readers with problematic events
D. To inform the readers about newsworthy events
E. To describe the murderers in south Sumatra

12. A person who robs the cargo ships, fishing boats or oil tankers is called a/an…
A. Robbery
B. Police officer
C. Ship crew
D. Pirate
E. Ringleader

13. The generic structure of the text is….


A. Orientation > Complication > Resolution > Re-Orientation
B. Orientation > Events > Re- Orientation
C. General Classification > Description
D. Identification > Description
E. Newsworthy Events > Background Events > Sources.

Text 4 is for question 14 to 19


MISNA
Once upon a time, there was an old woman who lived in a very old hut near a forest with her only
daughter. The daughter’s name is Misna. She is beautiful but she had envious heart.
One day she saw girl of her age passing by her hut. The girl was joining her father hunting. She dressed
in beautiful cloth. His father’s assistants respected her. Misna could not sleep when she was
remembering this. She was very angry with her condition. She hated her hopeless mother.
In the morning she shouted at her mother. She wanted her mother to buy the most beautiful gown in
the markets for her. Of course her mother could not afford it. Then she cried and cried. She did not want
to eat anything. Her mother was very sad. She decided to sell a piece of land, the only valuable thing
that she had. She bought her beloved daughter a very beautiful dress.
Misna admired herself. She wanted to show everybody that she was a very beautiful girl. She asked her
mother to bring her to another village. Along the way, she smiled to everyone. People in the village
thought that she was a princess. They gave her a high respect and invited her to have meal in their
house. Misna enjoyed this and told everybody that she was princess and mother was maid. Her mother
was very sad but she kept her felling deep in the heart.
On the way home Misna met a handsome prince. He was interested in her and wanted to marry her.
Misna told the prince that her mother had died and father married to another woman. She was having a
long trip with her loyal maid. Listening to this, her mother was very upset. She cried loudly Misna was
very angry to her and told her to be away from her.
Suddenly there was a heavy rain accompanied with big thunders. Everyone run away to save
themselves. Misna was very afraid. She cried. Her mother wanted to help her but she did not want to at
that time a big thunder hit her to dead.

14. When did she ask her mother a beautiful dress?


A. After she saw another girl with beautiful dress.
B. On the way home she met a handsome prince
C. After her mother sold a piece of her land
D. When a heavy rain and big thunders came
E. Since the villagers invited her to have meal in their house

15. How could her mother buy her a beautiful dress?


A. From her saving
B. By asking her relative some money
C. By robbed a bank
D. From her salary
E. By selling the only land she had

16. What made her mother cried aloud?


A. She told everyone that she was her maid
B. She told the prince that her mother had died.
C. She told the mother that she was her maid
D. She wanted her mother to buy the most beautiful gown
E. She was joining her father hunting for a long time

17. What happened at last?


A. Misna got married to a prince
B. Misna was wet in rain
C. Her mother bought her the most beautiful gown
D. A thunder hit Misna to dead.
E. She had meal in villagers house

18. She is beautiful but she had envious heart


What is the synonym of the underlined word?
A. Ambiguous
B. Jealous
C. Fierce
D. Festive
E. Humble

19. What is the orientation of this text?


A. One upon a time, there was an old woman who lived in a very old hut near a forest with her only
daughter. The daughter name is Misna. She is beautiful but she had envious heart name is Misna. She is
beautiful but she had envious heart
B. Suddenly there was a heavy rain accompanied with big thunders everyone ran away to save
themselves
C. So the way home Misna met a handsome prince. he was interested in her to marry her
D. She decided to sell a piece of land, the only valuable thing that she had. she bought her beloved
daughter a very beautiful dress
E. Misna admired herself. she wanted to show everybody that she was a very beautiful girl

Text 5 is for questions no. 20 – 22


BROWNIE
I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie.
Brownie is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the
fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Every day it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish or bread.
Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get along
well, and never fight maybe because Brownies does not bark a lot. It treats the other animals in our
house gently, and it never eats shoes. Brownie is really a sweet and friendly animal.

20. Why do the cat and brownie get along well? Because ….
A. Brownie doesn’t like bones
B. The cat is a Chinese breed
C. The cat small, fluffy and cute
D. Brownie does not bark a lot.
E. Brownie does not sleep a lot

21. What is the main idea of the paragraph 2?


A. Chinese breed dogs only eat soft food
B. Brownie my pet dog is a Chinese breed
C. A Chinese breed dog does not bark a lot
D. Brownie which is a Chinese is a sweet and friendly
E. Brownie cannot get along with other animals because he seldom barks

22. What does the cat do when the writer is in school?


A. It plays with the writers cat
B. It sleeps all day
C. It barks with writers cat
D. It eats soft food fish or bread
E. It cooks some food with the writers mom

Text 6 is for questions no. 23 – 25


JAKARTA: Seven people were killed in a collision between a bus, a car and a truck on Dipenogoro street
at 10:35 p.m. last night. The dead were all the passengers of the car. The police believed the car had
been trying to overtake the bus when it was struck by a truck coming from the opposite direction. The
driver of the car might not be using his lights, as the truck driver said he did not see the car approaching.
The police said the car should not have tried to pass the bus, since overtaking is not allowed on
Dipenogoro Street. In addition, the police report that the car, a small Japanese car, should not have
been carrying more than five people. If the passengers had brought their identity cards, the police would
have identified the names of the victim easily.

23. The text mainly reports that there was/were….


A. A small Japanese car.
B. Careless driver.
C. A car accident.
D. Victim of an accident.
E. The function of an identity card.

24. What was the cause of the collision?


A. The truck came from the opposite direction
B. The car carried more than five people
C. The truck driver didn’t use his lights
D. The truck driver didn’t see the car
E. The car tried to overtake the bus

25. “If the passengers had brought their identity cards, the police would have been easy to identify the
names of the victims.” (The last sentence)
The sentence above means…
A. It was easy for the police to identify the victims of the accidents
B. The victims’ names were not known.
C. The victims were easy to be identify
D. The passengers brought their identity cars
E. The police had no difficulty in identifying the victim the victims

26. Cisadane river : 9.478 m


Citarum river : 6.231 m
Ciliwung river :13.238 m
Choose the right sentence to the chart above….
A. Cisadane river is faster than Citarum river
B. Cisadane river is deeper than Citarum river
C. Citarum river is the shortest of all
D. Cisadane river is lower than Citarum river
E. Cisadane river is the longest of all

27. This exercise is not difficult. It’s _____________________ I expected.


Choose the right comparison to fill in the blanks.
A. More difficult than
B. The most difficult
C. Easier than.
D. The most easy
E. More easy than

28. Merlion :“My father always goes to the lake to fishing every Sunday”
Rahmi : “Your father likes fishing very much,………?”
Merlion : “Yes, he almost spends all weekend in the lake.
The right tag question to fill in the blank is….
A. Doesn’t he
B. Does he
C. Does she
D. Didn’t he
E. Is he

29. Bimo :“You spent a lot of money in the supermarket yesterday ……...?
Fajar : “You’re right. Everything is so expensive now”
The right tag question to fill in the blank is ….
A. Are you
B. Did I
C. Does he
D. Won’t you
E. Didn’t you.

30. My sister ……… me money when I ….. my homework last night.


What is the best tense to fill in the blanks?
A. Was giving – did
B. Gave – was doing
C. stole – was doing
D. was asking – did
E. Was counting – did
31. When the ambulance ………….. the patient …………..soundly last night.
What is the best tense to fill in the blanks?
A. Was arriving – slept
B. Slept – was arriving
C. Was sleeping – arrived
D. Arrived – was sleeping
E. Was arriving – was sleeping

32. The cargo ships ……… into the harbor. Many workers ……….. the goods since this morning.
Fill in the blanks with present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense
A. Have come – have been unloading
B. Has came – has been unloading
C. Have been unloading – have come
D. Have been coming – have unloaded
E. Has been coming – have been unloading

33. The mice (eat) _______ those bananas again. Look! There are several holes in them. We (set)
_______ traps, but mice are too smart.
Fill in the blanks with present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense
A. Has been setting – have eaten
B. Have eaten – have been setting.
C. Have seen – have been looking
D. Has been destroying – has come
E. Has eaten – has been setting

34. My little brother …. in her room every night


What is the suitable verb to fill in the blanks?
A. Study
B. Studied
C. Studies
D. Studyes
E. Does study

35. The children ………in the park every evening.


What is the suitable verb to fill in the blanks?
A. Played
B. Playing
C. Playes
D. Play
E. Plays

36. Mrs. Eris …. vegetable in the market every morning


What is the suitable verb to fill in the blanks?
A. Buys
B. Buies
C. Buyes
D. Buy
E. Buyed
37. My father ……. to drink tea but he ….. to drink coffee
What is the suitable verb to fill in the blanks?
A. don’t like – like
B. don’t likes - likes
C. doesn’t like - likes
D. didn’t like – doesn’t like
E. does like - likes

38. Ratih wears the blue shirt every Friday


The suitable change to the passive for the sentence is….
A. Ratih is worn by it every day
B. The blue shirt is worn by her every Friday
C. The blue shirt is being weared by her every Friday
D. The blue shirt is worn by him every friday
E. Ratih is weared by her every Friday

39. My cat catches the mouse in the kitchen every night.


The suitable change to the passive for the sentence is
A. The mouse was catched by it every night.
B. The mouse is being catched by it every night
C. The mouse is catched by it every night.
D. The mouse is caught by it every night.
E. The mouse are caught by it every night.

40. My nephew sends the letters to his friends every week


The suitable change to the passive for the sentence is
A. The letters are sent by her to her friends every week
B. My nephew is sent by it to his friend every week
C. My nephew is sent by a letter to his friend every week.
D. The letters are sended by him to his friend every week.
E. The letters are sent by him to his friends every week.

Unit I
A. Narrative
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks :
Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau khayal. Ciri naratif adalah
adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah). Jumlah masalah atau
penyelesaiannya mungkin hanya satu, mungkin juga lebih.

Struktur Teks :
 Pengenalan latar : tokoh, waktu, dan tempat;
 Pengembangan konflik;
 Penyelesaian konflik;
 Koda : perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh atau pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.
Ciri Kebahasaan
 Nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, dalam cerita, misalnya : stepsisters, housework, dsb.
 Adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya : long black hair, two red apples, dsb.
 Time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian misalnya : then, before that,
dsb.
 Adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, misalnya :
here, in the mountain, happily, ever after, dsb.
 Action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, dsb.
 Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti : said, told dan thinking verbs yang menandaio
pikiran, persanaan tokoh misalnya : thought, felt, dsb.

Read the story Underline the noun phrases Study the information.

Text I:
Beauty and the Beast
Narrative text

A narrative text is designed to entertain or to tell a story. The structure of the narrative text:

1. Orientation
Tell the reader about:
- the story’s setting
- the time in which it took place,
- who the major characters are, and
- You may begin to hint at some important details that will follow.

2. Evaluation
A stepping back to evaluate the plight.
3. Complication
This is an event or series of events that unfold and lead to a complication (problem or conflict) as
they lead to the climax of the story.
4. Resolution
This is the final part of the story were the problem or complication is solved and the loose ends
are tied up.
5. Re-orientation: optional.

Task 8
Answer these questions.

1. Who’s Belle’s father?


2. What happened to Belle’s father when he entered the forest?
3. Where did Belle find his father?
4. What was the Beast warning to Belle when she visited the castle?
5. What happened to the Beast at the end of the story?
6. Where is the setting of the story?
7. Who are the main characters in the story?

Task II:

1. This is a fable from the aboriginal people of Australia. Read it.

BLUE-TONGUE LIZARD

Blue-Tongue Lizard and his wife camped near a swamp long ago. One day Blue-Tongue
Lizard went to get some food, and while he was down at the swamp, he left his wife sitting under
a shady tree. He had not been gone very long when Taipan the Snake passed by Blue-Tongue
Lizard’s camp. Taipan saw Blue-Tongue Lizard. He made her come with him and together they
ran a long way away.
Taipan the Snake did not know that Black Bird had been watching him, and as soon as he ran
away with Blue-Tongue Lizard’s wife, Black Bird began singing out to Blue-Tongue Lizard.
Your wife s gone, Taipan has taken her away, he cried. Blue Tongue Lizard was still at the
swamp getting food when he heard Black Bird’s call. He went back to the shady tree where he
had left his wife and was full of food and made a fire. He cooked his food and after he had
finished eating it, he went to get his spears.
He found they had all been broken by Taipan. Then he found the tracks of his wife and
Taipan, and he followed them. Blue-Tongue Lizard followed their tracks until he came to a tree
in which a freshly killed emu had been hung. It had been killed by Taipan and left there to be
eaten that night. Blue-Tongue Lizard knew that Taipan and his wife must be nearby and he soon
found them near a river. When Taipan saw Blue- Tongue Lizard he ran get his spears but Blue-
Tongue Lizard had already broken them.
We can fight with our teeth, said Blue-Tongue Lizard. Taipan agreed and the two of them
fought wildly, each it trying to get a hold of the other. Until finally Blue-Tongue Lizard caught
hold of Taipan’s body in his powerful jaws, and bit him in half. With Taipan the Snake dead,
Blue-Tongue Lizard took back his wife and together they returned to the swamp.

2. Do the exercise

Next Study
1. Who are the main characters in this folktale?
2. Who are the supporting characters?
3. Write down three events in order.

a. _______________________________________________________________
b. _______________________________________________________________
c. _______________________________________________________________

4. Read the sentences.


‘Your wife is gone, Taipan has taken her away’, he cried.

One day Blue-Tongue Lizard went to get some food.

The two of them fought wildly

He cooked his food

He put down his bag which was full of food and made a fire.

5. Some sentences above show things that animals in real life don’t do. Tick the box next to the
sentences.

Reading for detail


1. Where did Blue-Tongue Lizard camp?
__________________________________________________

2. Who passed by Blue-Tongue Lizard’s camp?


__________________________________________________

3. Who was watching when Taipan took Blue-Tongue’s wife?


__________________________________________________

4. Who broken Blue-Tongue Lizard’s spears?


__________________________________________________
5. Who won the fight between Blue-Tongue Lizard and the snake?
__________________________________________________

Reading for understanding

1. Why did the Blue-Tongue Lizard want to fight with his teeth?
__________________________________________________

2. What was Blue-Tongue Lizard doing when Taipan took his wife?
__________________________________________________

3. Why do you think Taipan stole Blue-Tongue Lizard away?


__________________________________________________

4. Who informed where Blue-Tongue Lizard’s wife was?


__________________________________________________

5. Why do you think Blue-Tongue Lizard ate a meal before going to look for his wife?
__________________________________________________

At The Fair

It was the night of the fair, and the children at Tim’s school were really excited. They ran down
the path out school as fast as they could. Tim ran all the way home, and changed into his jeans
and sneakers. He ate his dinner quickly, and sat at the window waiting for his dad to come home.
He couldn’t wait for six o’clock when the fair would begin. He had been saving his pocket
money for weeks.
When Tim and his family arrived at the fair, it had just opened. Already there were crowds of
people swarming around, footstalls, display and dozens of rides. Can I buy some chips and a
drink? ‘Asked Tim.
‘Okay,’ said Tim’s dad. ‘But hang on tightly to your wallet-there’s a lot of people around’.
I’ll be fine, “said Tim impatiently.
He found a footstall, and ordered his food. When the man brought his chips and drink, without
thinking. “Tim put his wallet on the counter and picked up his food and drink. When he glanced
back, his wallet had vanished! Tim desperately looked around him, but it was no use. If only
he’d listened to his dad. All his pocket money was gone.

1. What advice did Tim’s dad give him?


2. What did Tim do instead?

3. Who is this story about?

4. When did the incident it describes take place?

5. Where did it happen?

6. What happened?

Understanding Narratives

A narrative text tells an imaginary story but the story may be based on facts. The narrative ‘At
the Fair’ in this unit may be based on a boy’s real experience. The purpose of a narrative is to
entertain the reader.

Types of Narrative Text


 short stories
 fables
 modern fantasy
 folk tales
 plays
 legends
 myths
 ballads

Features of Narratives Examples from the


model text
 Orientation
The opening of a story sets the mood by defining the setting, It was the night of the
time, main characters and other information to give the reader fair..........
an orientation or starting point.

 Sequence of Events
This is the main body of the story. It outlines an event or a When Tim and his
sequence of events that leads the character/s into a family arrived at the
complication where the normal events are upset by some form fair........
of conflict. There may be more then one complication and But hang on tightly to
this serves to frustrate the character/s in their attempts to your wallet.......
achieve what they wish. Also, this builds tension and
anticipation in the reader.

 Resolution
Everything ends up ‘happily ever after the conflicts are
resolved. In some narratives, such as ‘At the Fair’, the His wallet had
resolution may be left for the reader to decide. vanished.......

Checklist for your story


1. Use paragraph to show separate sectionsin your story. Start each paragraph on a new line.

2. Define the main characters clearly e.g.the children at Tim’s school.......

3. Write in the past tense – The incidenthas already happened E.g.Timran..... And changed.....

4. Use descriptive language, includingadjectives to describe nouns and adverbs to tell about the
verbs, to draw aclear picture in the reader’s mind, e.g.excited, quickly, tightly, desperately.

5. Use action verbs to provide excitementand emotion, e.g.couldn’t wait,swarming, vanished.

6. Give your story a title.

7. Check the spelling and punctuationmarks used in your story.

Now Get Going

Make some notes in the space below


for your own narrative
Orientation

Who:_____________________________________________________________________

When:_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Where:_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

What:_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Sequence of Events

Event/Complication 1:_________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Event/Complication II:

______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Resolution

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
oh teks Narrative:
The Boy who cried “Wolf”
There was once a shepherd-boy who kept his flock at a little distance from the village.
Once he thought he would play a trick on the villagers and have some fun at their expense. So he
ran toward the village crying out, with all his might,
“Wolf! Wolf! Come and help! The wolves are at my lambs!”
The kind villagers left their work and ran to the field to help him. But when they got there
the boy laughed at them for their pains; there was no wolf there.
Still another day the boy tried the same trick, and the villagers came running to help and
got laughed at again. Then one day a wolf did break into the fold and began killing the lambs. In
great fright, the boy ran for help. “Wolf! Wolf!” he screamed. “There is a wolf in the flock!
Help!”
The villagers heard him, but they thought it was another mean trick; no one paid the least
attention, or went near him. And the shepherd-boy lost all his sheep.

Moral value:
That is the kind of thing that happens to people who lie: even when they tell the truth no
one believes them.

——————————————————————————————————
Once there were two thin goats. Both of them were hungry. They were tied together with a
brown rope. They wanted to eat the green leaves from two separated bushes. One bush was on
the left. The other bush was on the right.
The goats thought they could do everything on their own. The first goat wanted to go to the
bush on the left, but the second goat wanted to go to the bush on the right. However, the rope
was short. They tried but they could not reach they bushes. They were sad.
Then, the goats decided to work together. First, they are the leaves of the bush on the right.
Then, ate the leaves on the left. The leaves were delicious. They were happy.
——————————————————————————————
Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and
beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee
San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in
twelve sailing junks.
When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their
journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his
cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He
noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned to it.
Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his
cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the
mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother
pulled his kite back to the ground.
The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The
emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.
Cara menentukan bagian - bagian teks Narrative.
Sebelumnya perlu kita ketahui dulu pengertian teks Narrative, yaitu teks yang berisi tentang
sebuah cerita atau dongeng dan di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti
dengan penyelesaian.
tructure : Orientation - Complication - Resolution
on berisi : Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita
ation berisi : Puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita
on : Pemecahan masalah
Unit II
A. Descriptive
Jenis Teks: Description (Deskripsi)
1. Ciri Umum:
(a) The communicative Purpose
• To Describe a particular person, place or thing
(b) The generic structure
• Identification : Identifies phenomenon to be described
• Description : Describe parts, qualities, characteristics
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan:
Menggunakan:
 nouns tertentu, misalnya teacher, house,my cat, dsb.
 simple present tense.
 detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large
open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb.
 berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, misalnya, two
strong legs, sharp white fangs, dsb.
 relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool,
It has very thick fur, dsb.
 thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang
subjek, misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, dsb.
 action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb.
 abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misalnya fast, at
the tree house, dsb.
 bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight,dsb
Text I:
Goa Tabuhan Is a Lively Unique Cave

In the cave Nyi (Mrs.) Kamiyem and Ki (Mr.) Padmo sit on a big stone. Nyi Kamiyem
will sing a song and Ki Padmo will beat the drum. Joining them are people called wiyogo which
are drummers and other gamelan musicians.
What makes this unique is that they mix gamelan with the sounds of nature. The visitors
dance, forgetting all problems.
Many tourists go to this cave. Maybe you are interested in going there too. But you don’t
know where it is. Gua Tabuhan is located near Pacitan in East Java. It is situated in a lime hill
called Tapan, in Tabuhan, Wareng village. The route is easy. Along the road there is beautiful
tropical scenery to enjoy-rice fields, coconut-palms and birds.
East of the cave peddlers sell souvenirs. The drink and food peddlers are on the north.
People sell agates on the cave terraces. Somehow, it is like a fair.
It is said that the cave is the only place where nature produces sounds like the music of
gamelan. Nyi Kamiyem, the well-known pesinden (traditional Javanese singer) from, the village
of Gabuhan, who often sings in the cave, does not doubt it.
Gua Tabuhan did not use to welcome visitors. According to Kartowiryo (90), village
elder, Gua Tabuhan used to be a hiding place for robbers. It was believed to be a sacred place.
No one dared go inside. However, Wedana (chief of a district) Kertodiprojo, went to the cave to
find out what was wrong. He found out that the cave was inhabited by the annoying evil spirits.
The people chased the spirits away.
The cave is dark, so people need lights, and a local guide will lead the way, Sometimes
visitors bump their head against the sharp rocks on the ceiling.
Inside the cave there is a plain. Big stone which is believed to be the prayer mat of
Pangeran Dipenogoro, one of the Indonesian heroes who fought against the Dutch, It is said that
Pangeran Diponegoro used to seclude himself in the cave. Some people now use the place for
meditation.
There is a stream in the cave, in the east corner, which can only be seen outside.
However, it can be heard from inside.
Besides the cave, Watukarang, a beach nearby, is good to visit. By the way, want
different souvenirs? You can find them in Donorodjo village where agate craftsman work. So,
have a nice journey.
Taken from Hello English Magazine, January 1996

A. Read the text entitled "Gua Tabuhan Is a Lively Unique Cave” And answer the
following questions.

1. What do you call people who join Mrs Kamiyem and Mr Padmo in the cave?
2. Where is Gua Tabuhan located?
3. What will you be able to see along the road to Gua Tabuhan?
4. Where can you find peddlers selling souvenirs?
5. What is Mrs Kamiyem?
6. How old is Mr Kartowiryo?
7. What did Kertodiprojo find out inside the cave?
8. What do people need to enter the cave?
9. What did Pangeran. Diponegoro use to do in the cave?
10. Can you see the stream inside the cave?

B. State whether each of the sentence is true (T) or false (F)

1. T - F You find the drink and food peddlers on the east of the cave,
2. T - F The visitors will forget all their problems when hearing the sounds of nature and
gamelan.
3. T - F To reach Wareng village the visitor get troubles.
4. T - F Mrs. Kamiyem is not the well-known pesinden.
5. T - F The inside of the cave is like a fair because visitors and peddlers bring light if
they come in.
6. T - F The cave is used for meditation.
7. T - F Visitors who visit the cave cannot find water easily,
8. T - F There is only one tourist resort around Wareng village.
9. T - F People who are in the cave can hear the stream.
10. T - F Pangeran Diponegoro secluded himself not inside the cave but outside the cave.

Contoh teks descriptive:


The Ambarawa Train Museum

The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are
stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made them
no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway station
which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.
The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive,
with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel,
the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.
A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train
Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour.
Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will
travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the world.
——————————————————————————————————
My friend, Miranda.

Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in Makasar
on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting flowers very
much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two sisters. They are
Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara. Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her older sister is in the
first year of SMA, and Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another
My Pet

I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie.


Brownie is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When
I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Every day it eats soft food like
steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school,
Brownie plays with my cat. They get along well, and never fight maybe because Brownie does
not bark a lot. It treats the other animals in our house gently, and it never eats shoes. Brownie is
really a sweet and friendly animal.

Answer the question:

1. What is the communicative purpose of the text?


2. What is the writer’s pet?
3. When I cuddle. What is the meaning the underlined word in Indonesia?
4. What does Brownie eat every day?
5. What does Brownie do when the writer is at school?
6. It has got thick brown fur. What is the antonym of the underlined word?
7. What does Brownie drink every morning?
8. Why Brownie [do] not like bone?
9. Why does brownies get along well with another writer’s pet?
10. How does Brownies treat other animals in the writer’s house?

Cara membedakan Jenis Teks (Genre)

Maret 28, 2008 by colorofme


Recount VS Narrative:
Keduanya memakai simple past tense, yang membedakan untuk recount akan ada series of
events saja yang berupa urutan kegiatan yang dilakukan, sementara dalam narrative yang ada
complication dimana disana ada konflik antar tokoh dalam cerita.
pahami isinya dulu. Nah, di dalam teks Narrative, ciri khasnya selalu ada konflik dan
penyelesaian di dalamnya. Sedangkan dalam Recount hanya berisi tentang kejadian-kejadian
yang datar. Tapi keduanya sama - sama menggunakan Past Tense
Description VS Report:
Description menggambarkan deskripsi suatu benda, binatang, orang atau tempat secara spesifik,
sedangkan report menggambarkan deskripsi benda, binatang, barang atau orang secara umum.
contoh text descriptive ” My Cat” “Mount Merapi” etc. Sedangkan contoh text report “Cat”, ”
Mountain”.
membedakan Descriptive dengan Report, terletak pada penjelasan dalam deskripsi tersebut.
Kalau benda/orang/tempat tersebut hanya satu dan dideskripsikan secara detail/spesifik, maka
dia descriptive. Sedangkan kalau deskripsinya hanya secara umum, maka dia Report.

B. IDIOM
A Note on separable Idioms.
In English, certain idioms among those of the “two-word verb” class are separable by
their direct object or complement; that is, the pronoun direct object is placed between the verb
and its accompanying prepositional particle. For example, in speaking of turning off the light, we
can say: John put them out. Less frequency among the group of separable idiom we can
similarly insert a noun direct object, as in: John put the light out. Which has the same meaning
as John put out the light. Note that the pronoun direct object never appears after the particle of
a separable idiom as it often does after a noun separable noun.
For example it is wrong to say: John put out it instead of John put it out; but we can
say the firm got rid of her, since get rid of is in separable
In essential idiom we have place the symbol (S) after the definition of those term that are
separable and have provided illustrative variations in word order.

1. to get along:

a. John is getting along very well in his study of English


b. How is Mr. Frank getting along in his new job?

2. to take out: (S)


a. William took out his handkerchief and wipes his forehead.
b. The thief suddenly took out a knife and attacked the policeman.

3. to wait on (upon) :
a. A very pleasant young woman waited on me in Indomaret’s yesterday.
b. The clerk asked, “Have you been waited on yet, sir?”

4. at least :
a. Every student should spend at least two hours on his homework every night.
b. Tina has been sick in bed for at least two months.

5. to think over : (S)


a. I shall think over your offer and give you my answer tomorrow.
b. You don’t have to decide this matter at once. You can think over and give me your decision
tomorrow.

6. to take place :
a. The meeting took place in the Constitution Hall
b. Where did the accident take place?

7. to put away : (S)


a. After finished reading the report, he put it away in his safe.
b. The mother told the child to put her toys away.
c. Put your book away: it is time for lunch.

8. to think of : (S)
a. What did you think of that movie which you saw last night?
b. I don’t think much of him as a baseball player.
9. For the time being :
a. For the time being my sister is clerking in department store.
b. We are living in a hotel for the time being, but latter we will try to find a small apartment.

10. to get over :


a. It took me more than a month to get over my cold.
b. I do not think he will get over the loss of his wife.
11. to call off : (S)
a. The game was called off on account of darkness.
b. The doctor had to call off his appointments for the day and rush to the hospital.
c. At first the workers planned to strike, but later they called it off.

12. for good :


a. Ruth has gone back to California for good. She will not return to the Texas anymore.
b. Has your friend returned to South America for good?

13. to count on :
a. We are counting on you to help us with today’s assignment.
b. Don’t count on Frank to lend you any money because he has none.

14. to make friends :


a. During the cruise William made friends with every one on the ship.
b. Patricia is a very shy girl and does not make friends easily.

15. to look over : (S)


a. I want to look over these exercises before I give them to the teacher.
b. He signed the contract without even looking it over.

16. to keep on :
a. John kept on talking although the teacher
b. They kept on playing their radio until three o’clock in the morning.

17. to put out : (S)


a. You can put out your cigarette in that ashtray.
b. The firemen worked hard but were not able to put out the fire.
c. Be sure to put out the light before you leave. Yes, I’ll put it out.

18. to take turns :


a. During the trip John and I took turn driving the car.
b. Siska and her sister take turn helping their mother each night.

19. to be in charge of :
a. Hendry is in charge of the office while Mr. Smith is away.
b. Who is in charge of the arrangements for the dance next week?

20. to look after :


a. Grandma will look after the baby while we go to the lecture
b. Who is going to look after your correspondence while you are away?

21. as the matter of fact :


a. Frank thinks he knows English well but, as a matter of fact, he speaks very poorly.
b. As a matter of fact, I prefer the Barbados Island to Florida.
22. to look forward to :
a. We are looking forward to my uncle’s visit with great pleasure.
b. He says that he has nothing to look forward to except the same monotonous work every day.

23. to take up : (S)


a. William wants to take up medicine when he goes to college.
b. What is your brother taking up at Columbia University?
c. If you want to study dentistry, why don’t you take it up?

24. to take after :


a. With her light hair and blue eyes Eris seems to take after her mother, but in her character she is
more like her father.
b. Which of your parents do you take after?

25. to think up : (S)


a. I wish I could think up a good excuse to give the teacher for my not having prepared my
homework.
b. Every day they think up some new trick to play on him.
c. That was a clever idea. Who thought it up?

Exercise 1: Substitute in place of the italicized word or words the


corresponding idiomatic expression partially indicated in parentheses

1. She and Helen alternated helping the teacher after school. (……………)
2. How is John doing in his new French class? (……………)
3. Who is responsible for that work while Mr. Stein is away? (……………)
4. Did a young man or a young woman attend to you in that store? (…………..)
5. The accident occurred in the corner of Broadway and 86th street. (………………..)
6. You ought to spend two hours as a minimum in the fresh air every day. (…………..).

7. I will consider your plan and give you an answer next week. (…………………)
8. John likes to travel and, in this, he resembles his uncle Bill. (…………………)
9. Suddenly the man removed a revolver from his pocket and began to shoot. (…………….)
10. What course do you plan to undertake in college? (…………………)

Exercise 2: Find and underline the expression given in parentheses to the


italic idiom.

1. If the meeting is call off, It is (begun, crowded, canceled, interesting).


2. To look over something is to (examine it, wait for it, look it up, purchase it)
3. For the time being means (up to now, in the near future, for the present)
4. To count on someone is to (like him, depend upon him, arrest him, doubt him)

5. To keep on something is to (stop doing it, to continue doing it, begin doing it)
6. Someone in United States for good, he is there (permanently, to do good, temporarily, to rest
well.)
7. When I put out my cigarette, I (light it, smoke it, enjoy it, and extinguish it)

Exercise 3: Find and underline the expression corresponding to the italicized


idiom above.

8. If I look forward to something, I…

a. look it over
b. anticipate it
c. look it up
9. If I look after someone, I…
a. follow him everywhere
b. take care of him
c. call on him
10. If she puts his book away, she…
a. sets it aside
b. escape it from her.
c. burns it to the ground
Unit III
A. News Item (Berita)
1. Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau
kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.
(b) Struktur Teks:
Kejadian inti;(Newsworthy events)
Latar belakang: elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian dsb.(Background
Events)
Sumber informasi: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb.(sources)
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan:
Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline
Menggunakan action verbs
Menggunakan saying verbs, misalnya say, tell, dsb.
Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world,
dsb.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Town ‘Contaminated

Kejadian Inti Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another


Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated
an entire town.

Latar belakang: Yelena Vazrshavskya was the first journalist to speak to people who
elaborasi witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of
Shkotovo – 22 km near Vladivostock.
The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl
disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town,
but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were
told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during
a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those
involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tons of
contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Sumber A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident


Informasi in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Exercise 1: Answer the question

1. What is the communicative purpose of the text?


2. …another Soviet nuclear catastrophe…

What is the synonym of the underlined word?

3. How many people who die?


4. Who was the first journalist speaking to witnessed?
5. Who was the source of the text?
6. When did the accident happen?
7. What is the dominant structure of the text?
8. …more than 600 tons of contaminated material…

What is the synonym of the underlined word?

9. What happened with the nuclear submarine at the naval base of Shkotovo?
10. Why did the official of Soviet cover the spreading of radioactive in the base and the town
nearby?

MELBOURNE, Jan 22 (UPI) — Fire authorities in four Australian states are to control bushfires
fanned by strong winds and searing temperature.
The Australian reported Sunday that blazes continued in South Australia, Tasmania,
Western Australia and Victoria, where up to six homes have destroyed. In South Australia, much
of Adelide is engulfed in thick smoke. The firefighters who are confronted by blast-furnace
winds try to bring the flames under control.
At Roberts town in the state’s mid-north, more than 2,500 acres have already burned.
Another bushfire, started by lightening, charred the earth near Mouth Flat on the southern side of
Kangaroo Island, while Ngarkat Conservation Park, in the State’s upper-southeast, is also a
blaze.
A 7,500-acre fire at Mount Agnew in Zeehan, in the state’s west, broke containment lines
Saturday afternoon, jumping a road and coming close homes.
The most serious fires were in Victoria, where up to six homes were destroyed by a fire
near the town of Anakie, 36 miles west of Melbourne.
In Tasmania, falling temperatures and patchy rain brought some relief to firefighters, who
continued to monitor 22 blazes across the state.

Answer the questions:

1. What is the text about?


2. "..., while Ngarkat Conservation Park, in the state's upper-southeast, is also a blaze.”
(Paragraph 3)

What do the underlined words mean?

3. The fires increasingly happened in some parts of Australia because of…

4. The reporter most likely got the information from…

5. How many homes were destroyed by a fire near the town of Anakie?

6. What is the communicative purpose of the text?

7. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?

8. …. homes were destroyed… (paragraph 5)

What is the synonym of the underlined word?

9. What happened in Tasmania?


10.

B. Comparative and Superlative Adjective

This type comparative implies that the entities are comparable in a greater or lesser degree. The
following rules generally apply to this type of comparative.

1. Add -er the adjective base of most one and two syllable adjective (thick – thicker, cold –
colder, quiet – quieter).
2. Use the form more + adjective for most three syllable adjectives (more beautiful, more
important, more believable).
3. Use form more + adjective or adjectives ending in the following suffixes: -ed, -gul, -ing,
and -ous (more hated, more useful, more boring, more stylish, more cautious).
4. Double the final consonant of one syllable adjective which end in a single consonant
(except, w, x, and z) and are preceded by a single vowel (big – bigger, red – redder, hot –
hotter).
5. When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, change y to I and add -er (happy – happier,
dry – drier).

Note : The -er suffix means exactly the same as more. Therefore they can never be used together. It is
not correct to say more prettier, more faster, more better.

Comparative and Superlative Adjective

Comparative Adjective indicates that something has more quality than something else. We cam
simply use

…………….. ……………..
However, we must consider the following rules.

Rule Positive Comparative


One syllable adjectives Add –er Dark Darker
and adverb Big Bigger
Long Longer
fast Faster
Two syllable adjectives -y + -er = ier Pretty Prettier
and adverbs ending in -y Sharply Shapelier
Adjectives and adverbs More + adjective Important More important
with more than one Intelligently More intelligently
syllable

Example : - Indra is 130 cm height. Duta is 150 cm height. Duta is taller than Indra.
- I got C in Math. I got B in English. Math is more difficult than English.

Superlative Adjectives indicate that something has more quality than anything of its kind. The
superlative adjectives is formed by
Adj+ est Ofall/period of time
Themost + adj In+ place/group of people

There are some rules to consider.

Rule Positive Comparative


One syllable adjectives Add –est Dark Darkest
and adverbs Big Biggest
Long Longest
Fast Fastest
Two syllable adjectives -y + -est = iest Pretty Prettiest
and adverbs ending in -y Sharply Shapeliest
Adjective and adverbs The most + Important The most
with more than one adjective Intelligently important
syllable The most
intelligently

Example : - All students got C in physics but got A. he is the smartest student in the
class/ of all.
- Every student can do almost all questions but they cannot do the question number 7. The
number 7 is the most difficult question of all.
- Zenedine Zidane is the best football player of 2002.

Irregular Forms

Positive Comparative Superlative


Good/well Better Best
Bad/badly Worse Worst
Old Older/elder Oldest/eldest
Far Farther/further Farther/furthest
Much/many More Most
Little Less Least

We form the comparative degree of one syllable adjective by adding -er


- cold - colder
- bright - brighter

We usually form the comparative degree of adjective with more than two syllables by using
more
- difficult - more difficult
- beautiful - more beautiful

Good and bad have special comparative forms


- good - better
- bad - worse

The comparative form of all adjectives is followed by than


- She is taller than her sister.
- This exercise is more difficult than that one
- This book is better than that one
Exercise
Complete these sentences by supplying the comparative form of the adjective or superlative
adjective in parentheses.
1. He is (young) _____1 I am.
2. Mr. Smith is much (old) ____2 I expected.
3. Grace is (old) _____3 girl in our class.
4. This is (expensive) ____4 book that I own.
5. Chicago is (big) _____5 Paris.
6. George (bad) _____6 student in the class.
7. The herald is (important) _____7 newspaper in the town.
8. This book is (good) _____8 the lost one we used.
9. Tokyo is (large) ______9 city in the world today.
10. The weather this winter (bad) _____10 the weather last winter.
11. This exercise is (easy) _____11 the last one.
12. This metal is (valuable) _____12 gold.
13. Eris was (attractive) _____13 girl at the party.
14. She also wore (pretty) _____14 dress.
15. John is much (clever) _____15 his brother.
16. January is (cold) _____16 month of the year.
17. This summer is (hot) _____17 last summer.
18. The pacific is (large) _____18 ocean in the world.
19. This chair is (comfortable) _____19 chair in the whole house.
20. John’s car was much (expensive) _____20 my car.
21. These exercises are (difficult) _____21 my car.
22. He is (ambitious) _____22 boy that I knew.
23. This street is even (wide) _____23 broadways.
24. Jane is (attractive) _____24 her sister.
25. The story which you told was (funny) _____25 of all.

C. The Past Continuous Tense


The past continuous tense is an action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by
another action in this case the general rule is.

S be V1 ing + S V2

 I was walking down the street when it began to rain


 He was waiting for the bus when I bet him yesterday
 She was doing her home work when her father came last night
 They were cleaning their house when I saw them last week
 We were listening to the music when he slept yesterday evening
 It was sleeping when I Wanted to feed it yesterday
 You were having dinner when Intan

In negative statement we put not after the to be (was, were).

S be not V1 ing + S V2

 Edi wasn’t doing his home work when his mother went out last night
 Abdul and Robby weren’t feeding the dog when their mother told him last week
 When I came home last night, my little sister was doing her home work

In interrogative sentence we put was/were in front of the sentence.


I was
You were
We were
They were
He was
She was
It was
Was Jenny doing her homework at 5 o’clock?
Yesterday afternoon?
Were you reading a novel when I called?
Were you last night?
Were the children playing in the garden at 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon?

Exercise one:
Add the correct past form of the verbs parentheses to form
Simple past or past continuous,

1. Jack (not feel) ………….1 I very well so he (consult) ………… 2 his doctor .
2. He (speak) ………….3 on the telephone when the waiter (bring) ………….4 his coffee
3. The doctor (ask) ………….5 whether I always (take) ………….6 my medicine.
4. I (hear) ………….7 a sound. Perhaps my elder brother (talk) ………….8 in his sleep last night
5. When the ambulance (arrive) ………….9 the patient (sleep) ………….10 soundly yesterday
6. The children (go) ………….11 swimming when we (be) ………….12 in holiday in Bali. Last
month.
7. She (wear) ………….13 her new skin when I (saw) ………….14 her at the party last night
8. Columbus (try) ………….15 to reach India when he (find) ………….16 America.
9. Peter (look) ………….17 at me as he (speak) ………….18
10. We (have) ………….19 lunch when you (contact) ………….20 me in the office yesterday
Exercise Two:
Make questions based on the underline words
Example: He was doing her homework when I came to her house yesterday afternoon.
What was she doing when you came to her house yesterday afternoon?

1. John was eating his lunch when I came to pick her this morning
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

2. We were discussing Our lesson at five o’clock yesterday afternoon


a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

3. I got a phone call from my house when I was working in the office
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

4. When she come to my house last night, we were listening to the radio
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

5. she was cleaning the kitchen while her husband was painting the house
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

6. Jack was drawing in his room when you phoned him yesterday morning
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….
7. He was eating lunch when you contacted me in the office yesterday
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

8. The students were discussing the lesson when the teacher entered the class room
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

9. Jane was reading in the library when she first met her husband .
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….
10. It was raining hard when I arrived at school yesterday morning
a. ……………………….
b. ……………………….

Exercise Three
Put the sentence in positive, negative or interrogative
1. + He was doing homework with his friend last night
- ……………………………………………………………………….
? ……………………………………………………………………….
2. + ……………………………………………………………………….
- Tina wasn’t going to take her mother to her brother’s in law last week
? ………………………………………………………………………..
3. + ………………………………………………………………………..
- ………………………………………………………………………..
? ………………………………………………………………………..
4. + My father was reading a book when I studied last night
- ………………………………………………………………………..
? ………………………………………………………………………..
5. + ………………………………………………………………………..
- We weren’t working in the garden when my sister served our lunch.
? ………………………………………………………………………..

D. Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Present perfect continuous tense adalah (waktu selesai sedang berlangsung sekarang)
menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung hingga
sekarang.
S + have/has + been + V1ing

Example:
1. I have been staying at his place this month.
2. We have been waiting for you since eight o’clock.
3. She has been studying in PB Soedirman two years.

S + have/has + not + been + V1ing

Example:
1. I have not been staying at his place this month.
2. They have not been sitting here since seven o’clock.
3. He has been thinking about changing his mayor.

Have/has + S + been + V1ing

Example:
1. Has it been raining all day?
2. He has been working at the same store for ten years?
3. Has she been sleeping on the floor lately?

Penggunaan Present Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi pada
waktu lampau, masih berlangsung sampai sekarang, dan masih akan berlangsung/diteruskan pada
waktu yang akan datang.
Example:
 She has been studying English for six month.
 They have been living in Bogor for two years.
 He has been working on the report for four hours.

2. Present perfect continuous tense juga digunakan untuk menyatakan sudah berapa lama
berlangsungnya suatu kejadian atau peristiwa.
Example:
 How long have you been waiting for me?
 Has he been waiting for me long?
 They have been watching television since this morning.
3. Present perfect continuous tense juga digunakan dengan how long, since, for, untuk
menunjukkansuatu kegiatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi berulang kali.
Example:
 How long have you been smoking cigarettes?
 My father has been smoking for ten years.
 My little sister has been collecting stamps since was still six years old.
Exercise one:
Example : The workers (work on) ______ the building for two years.
The workers have been working on the building for two years.

1. Neni (read) _______ the novel for two hours.


2. They (live) _______ in this city for seven years.
3. We (travel) _______ for five days and we are still only half way to Paris.
4. My elder brother (repair) _______ the car since this morning.
5. My sister is learning the piano. She (practice) _______ since lunch time.
6. The children (play) _______ in the garden for two hours.
7. His uncle (drive) _______ taxi for ten years.
8. My brother (paint) _______ the house since this morning.
9. The students (do) _______ their English exercise for one hour.
10. The typist (type) _______ the report for one hour.

Exercise two: Put in the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense.
Example :
They (sunbathe) _______ on the beach for more than three hours.
They (not here) ________ their lunch yet.
They have been sunbathing on the beach for more than three hours. They have not had their
lunch yet.

1. The nice (eat) _______1 those bananas again. Look! There are several holes in them. We (set)
_______2 traps, but mice are too smart.
2. Since she started working in the office, she (attend) _______3 classes to improve her shorthand.
3. He (complete) _______4 his job. He deserve at rest now.
4. The farmer (wait) _______5 for the rains to come so that he can plant his crops.
5. The cargo ships (come) ________6 into the harbor. Many workers (unload) _______7 the goods
since this morning.
6. I’m sorry (not pay) ________8 attention to you. I ________9 well lately, and I (feel) _______10
ill the whole morning.
7. He (make) _______11 a catapult and (shoot) _______12 at the birds all morning.
8. We (wait) _______13 here for an hour, but Tony (not turn) ________14 up yet.
9. The police (look) ________15 for him in vain. Everybody says they (not see) _______16 him.
10. He (lose) _______17 his wallet and (try) _______18 to find it. But he (have) _______19 no
success so far.
11. I (walk) _______20 three kilometers, but I have not seen a single house yet.

We use the present perfect tense to denote or action


Complete at the moment of speaking
S has/have V3
 I have visited this place twice
 She has left for office
 He has just bought a new motorcycle
 We have tried to contact her three times this morning
 They have met him before

In this case we often use words like already, ever, finally, recently, never etc.
In negative sentence we put not after has/have and it was followed by past participle / Verb 3.
S has/have not V3

 You have not done your report for this week


 She hasn’t cash the cheque
 Yuda hasn’t paid his installment for this month
 I haven’t met him before.

In interrogative sentence we put the auxiliary ( has/have) in front of the sentence. and it is
answered by positive short answer ( yes, …) or negative short answer (no, ….)
Have/has S V3 ?

 Have you done your home work?


Yes, I have
No, I have
 Has she talked to Mrs. Eli?
Yes, she has
No, she has not

Exercise one:
Put the present perfect tense of the verbs in the brackets.
Example: The level of the water (rise) ………… since last night
The level of water has risen since last night.

1. ……………… 1 you ( tell) …………..2 your mother about it ?


2. They ………………3 already (send) ………………4 in their subscriptions for the magazine.
3. He (not eat) ………………5 breakfast yet.
4. They (be) ………………6 in and out of court since last month. Now everything (be settled)
………………7
5. Her grandfather ………………8 just (make) ………………9 a will ………………10 she (hear)
………………11 about it?
6. The plumber (be) ………………12 here for a while already, but he (not start) ………………13
on his work yet. He says that he (forget) ………………14 to bring a few tools.
7. That house ………………15 just (be sold) ………………16 Do you know who bought it?
8. The paint work of the car (be scratched) ………………17
The front lamps (be broken) ………………18
9. She (take) ………………19 the kettle off the stove, and she (make) ………………20 some tea

Exercise two
Put the following sentence into present perfect tense and then change them into negative
and interrogative use the verbs in the parentheses!
Example: We (do) ………… our English exercises.
We have done our English exercises
We have not done our English exercise
Have we done our English exercise?

1. The two men (play) ………… table tennis since this morning
+
-
?

2. My sister (teach) ………… English in senior high school for five years
+
-
?

3. She (read) ………… novel for one hour


+
-
?

4. The mechanic (repair) ………… my car since this morning


+
-
?

5. I (try) ………… to contact him twice this morning


+
-
?

6. He (visit) ………… this place twice this year


+
-
?
7. My father (leave) ………… for office
+
-
?

8. All passengers (abandon) ………… the burning ship


+
-
?
E. Adverb of place and time
Adverbs of frequency, manner, place and time

a. We usually use an adverb or adverbial phrase of manner after the verb or its object.
 He ran swiftly to the hospital
 She spoken in a soft voice
 He greeted his guests politely
 I left the room in a hurry

b. We also use an adverb or adverbial phrase of place after the verb or its object
 Did they go there
 She went to the rail way station by taxi
 My brother drove him here
 The children played with the ball in the garden

c. An adverb or adverbial phrase of time is usually used at either and of the sentence, but not in the
middle.
 Do you want to go now ?
 I shall meet you at room tomorrow
 Soon we will have to go
 All his life he did as he wished

d. We must never put an adverb or adverbial phrase between the verb and its object is immediately
after the verb.
 She read the letter loudly (not : read loudly the letter)
 He beat the boy brutally ( not : brutally the boy)
 She shut the door angrily (not : shut angrily the door)

But we can say


 He fought bravely against the current
 She spoke softly to the weeping child
 The cat cried pitifully for milk

e. There are not fixed rules concerning the positions of two or more adverbs used in one sentence.
You can place however you like but the usual order is.
Manner + Place +Time

 She song sweetly at the concert last night


 The man walked like a drunk along the road yesterday
 They played joy fully in the field during the interval.

Exercise one:
Example: She was (at the office, by ten o’clock)
She was at the office by ten o’clock.

1. He wanted to do that (very much, all his life)


…………………………………………………………………………………………
2. She is going (on Monday, to Sandy land, for two weeks)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
3. The pupils stayed (all morning, quietly, in class)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
4. That old woman was born (in the year 1890, at four o’clock, on new years eve)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
5. He has worked (through out the week, very hard, in class)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
6. She danced (at the city Hall, last week, gracefully, in the concert)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
7. Shall I meet you (out side the cinema, on Tuesday, at noon)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
8. He spoke to us (on our way to school, suddenly, this morning)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
9. The new boy grinned when he met us (at the fucks hop, sheepishly)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
10. He swerved when he rounded the corner (to the pavement, violently)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
11. I bought a pair of shoes (last Saturday, in that shop, at the annual sale)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
12. He arrived (at the office, late, this morning)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
13. The beggar told his tale as he sat on the sidewalk (pitifully, everyday)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
14. The boy chased the goats (when he saw them eating plants, angrily, out of the garden)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
15. The runners ran (round the field, during the area, as fast as they could)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
16. He listen to the teacher (in the class, attentively, every day)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
17. The car ran over the dog while it was running cross the road (accidentally, a few minutes ago)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
18. I do my homework (always, in my room, in the afternoon)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
19. He rebuked the boy (yesterday, loudly, when he saw him bullying another boy)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
20. The robbery took place ( in the afternoon, in the galaxy goldsmith, at two o’clock)
…………………………………………………………………………………………

Review Semester 2
Choose a suitable form of the verb and complete the sentence.
1. Arman ……………… with his grand parents when he became champion

a. was living
b. is living
c. have lived
d. lives
e. lived

2. They ……………… a wedding party when it began to rain

a. is attending
b. have attended
c. were attending
d. had attended
e. has attendant

3. The students ……………… part in a football match when Abidin was injured

a. is taking
b. were taking part
c. are taking
d. will be taking part
e. was taking part

4. Soraya’s mother ……………… to bed when the phone rang


a. is going
b. was going
c. goes
d. will be going
e. have gone

5. We ……………… our neighbors when we saw a plane landing

a. was visiting
b. is visiting
c. were visiting
d. will be going
e. have visited

6. Ardi and his brother ……………… on their father’s form when lighting struck

a. were working
b. is working
c. will work
d. are working
e. will be working

7. My sister ……………… in basketball game when she injured her leg

a. are playing
b. plays
c. is playing
d. was playing
e. were playing

8. The little boy ……………… very fast when he was hit by a truck

a. is riding
b. rides
c. are riding
d. was riding
e. were riding
9. Tyo ……………… the ball when the other player hit him

a. was dribbling
b. is dribbling
c. were dribbling
d. dribbled
e. has dribbled

10. The crowd ……………… when the actors come back on stage

a. was clapped
b. is clapping
c. was clapped
d. clapped
e. are clapped

11. Eris ……………… in a seaside resort

a. growing up
b. grew
c. has grown up
d. grow
e. grows

12. My parents ……………… in the same house for twenty two years

a. are living
b. lived
c. will live
d. have lived
e. has lived

13. We ……………… our meal at this restaurant many times

a. had
b. have had
c. are having
d. has
e. have

14. Mono : Roby ……………… the household chores all her life
Roby : She is still doing it.
a. does
b. did
c. hos done
d. is doing
e. do

15. My grand parents ……………… Bandung since last year

a. have settled
b. settled
c. will settled
d. settles
e. has settled

16. The boys ……………… in the main stadium before

a. played
b. have played
c. has played
d. are played
e. will be playing

17. This tree ……………… since last December

a. has grown
b. grew
c. will grow
d. grows
e. grow

18. I ……………… the day’s marketing already

a. have done
b. will do
c. does
d. did
e. was doing

19. The ship ……………… the port of Hongkong yesterday

a. leave
b. left
c. have left
d. has left
e. leave

20. The wind ……………… down the trees in the park

a. blows
b. will blow
c. has blown
d. is blowing
e. blow

21. We ……………… about you. We ……………… the news we just heard on the radio

a. do not talk – discussed


b. didn’t talk – were discussing
c. weren’t talk – were discussing
d. wasn’t talked – discussed
e. didn’t talk – was discussing

22. While I ……………… with my uncle in green wood park. I often ……………… him on his fishing
trips

a. Stayed – accompany
b. Was staying – was accompany
c. Was staying – accompanied
d. Stayed – was accompanying
e. Stayed – accompanied

23. When I ……………… at the cinema, Richard ……………… for me

a. arrived – waited
b. arrived – was waiting
c. arrived – were waiting
d. was arriving – were waiting
e. was arriving – was waiting

24. I was studying (at School, very hard, all day yesterday)

a. I was studying all day yesterday at school very hard


b. I was studying all day yesterday very hard at school
c. I was studying all very hard at school all day yesterday
d. I was studying at school very hard all day yesterday
e. I was studying all very hard all day yesterday at school

25. She meet you (in the book store, today, at 5 o’clock)

a. She meet you at 5 o’clock in the book store today


b. She meet you in the book store today at 5 o’clock
c. She meet you today in the book store at 5 o’clock
d. She meet you in the book store today at 5 o’clock
e. She meet you today at 5 o’clock in the book store

The end