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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
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1.1 INTRODUCTION
Stress management refers to a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies
aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for
the purpose of improving everybody functioning.In context, the term ‘stress’ refers
only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology
advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls eustress, a stress whose
consequences are helpful or otherwise positive.

Stress produces numerous symptoms, which vary according to persons, situations, and
severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. According
to the St. Louis Psychologists and Counseling Information and Referral, the process
of stress management is one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern
society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle,
stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain
overall well being.

Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience , level of stress are
readily measurable, using various psychological tests, similar to those using in
polygraphs.Stress is the way human beings react both physically and mentally to
changes, events, and situations in their lives. People experience stress in different
ways and for different reasons. The reaction is based on your perception of an event
or situation. If you view a situation negatively, you will likely feel distressed—
overwhelmed, oppressed, or out of control.

Distress is the more familiar form of stress. The other form, eustress, results from a
“positive” view of an event or situation, which is why it is also called “good stress.”
Eustress helps you rise to a challenge and can be an antidote to boredom because it
engages focused energy. That energy can easily turn to distress, however, if
something causes you to view the situation as unmanageable or out of control. Many
people regard public speaking or airplane flights as very stressful—causing physical
reactions such as an increased heart rate and a loss of appetite—while others look
forward to the event. It’s often a question of perception: A positive stressor for one
person can be a negative stressor for another.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research problem in this project is stress management of workers. It is the process
related with controlling a person’s level of stress for the purpose of improving day to
day functioning of workers. Stress is defined as an adaptive response to an external
situation that results in physical, psychological and behavioral deviations for
organizational participants.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


This particular study about Work Stress Management is restricted within the
organization. The study is conducted on the employees of the organization. This is not
because of non-availability of resources but the nature of the study itself restricts it. It
studies the existence or non – existence of stress among the employees in the
organization and identifies the factors which are contributing for stress (If any). It also
provides the various steps adopted by the organization for managing the work
stress of the employees, which can be used as future reference for decision-
making and policy making with regard to the employees. This study reveals the
morale of the employees.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES
• To study the nature of stress perceived and experienced by employees.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES
• The objective of study is to identify the existence of work stress in
the organization and to analyze the stress among workers.
• To find environmental, organizational and individual factors that cause stress.
• To study whether employees want the organization to take up measures to
reduce stress or they handle by themselves.
• To study effectiveness of present stress management practices in organization
and to put faith suggestion to cope with stress.
• To study the impact and usefulness of work stress management

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1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


RESEARCH DEFINITION

“Research is an active systematic process of enquiry in order to discover, interpret or


revise facts, events, behaviours, theories or make practical application with the help
such the facts laws of theories. The term research is also used to describe the
collection in information about particular subjects.”Research is a process of
systematic and depth study of any particular topic subject of investigation backed by
collection, completion, presentation and interpretation or relevant details or datable
deals with application and utilization of data.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a science. It is a method that can be used to solve research


problems. It helps in studying how research is done scientifically. The scope of the
research methodology is wider than research methods. It explains why we are using a
particular method and being evaluated either by research or by other. It also explains
why a research has been undertaken, how the research problems has been defined.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem, and the
type of data collected, methods used for collecting analyzing the data.

RESEARCH

Research means search for knowledge. It aims at discovering the truth. It is an


essential and powerful tool in leading men towards progress. It is an original
contribution to the existing stock of knowledge. It is undertaken to discover answer to
questions of applying scientific method. It is the search for knowledge through
objective and systematic method of finding solution to problems. Therefore research
is a process of systematic and in-depth study or search of any particular topic, subject
or area of investigation backed by collection, computation, presentation and
interpretation of relevant data.

Research is necessary to examine the extent of the validity of the old conclusion or to
find out some new facts and generating new ideas in connection with the existing
ones. The purpose of the research is to unfold the truth by systematic methods. It may
involve the manipulation of concepts in order to correct the existing knowledge. As a

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result it may establish new empirical generalization and falsify the old ones. Thus new
theories are constructed.
According to Clifford Woody “research comprises of defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis, collecting, organizing, and evaluating data, making
deductions and research conclusion and at last carefully testing conclusion to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.”

STEPS INVOLVE IN A RESEARCH

• Problem definition: it is the first step in research process is to define problems


for investigation.
• Research design: research design is the basic frame work which provides
guidelines for the research process.
• Field work: next step of research is to conduct the actual field analyzing.
• Data collecting and interpretation: the data are edited, coded and collected for
analyzing them. Finally the conclusion, summary and interpretation of
research are based on statistical analysis and inferences drown.
• Report presentation: the final step of research process. A specifically designed
format must be for research report and report presentation.

METHODS OF RESEARCH

A research method means all those techniques and methods used for conducting
research. There are various methods in research process, they are as follows;

• Case study method


• Survey method
• Experimental method
• Statistical method or historical method

1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is the specification of method and procedures for acquiring the
information needed. The research design is a comprehensive master plan of the
research to be under taken.The research done is for academic purpose. Therefore
design adopted to Descriptive Research.

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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

In descriptive research, researcher presents a description of the state of affairs as it


exists in the present. The main characteristic of this type of research is that the
researcher has no control over the variables. He can only report what has happened or
what is happening. Descriptive Research includes survey and fact finding enquiries of
different kinds.

1.5.2 UNIVERSE OR POPULATION

• The group of individuals under study is known as population or universe.


Therefore universe is the aggregate of all the units to be studied in any field of
enquiry.
• Here, population or universe comprises of all employees working in the
company. The study on " stress management adopted by Hanna Polymers
pvt.ltd" was undertaken at 150 employees of Hanna Polymers as universe.

1.5.3 SAMPLE SIZE


The number of sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the
sample.

The sample size of this study is 50 employees . Each respondent is treated as a case of
detailed analysis. Various data were collected by means of questionnaire, interview
and observation i.e., primary and secondary data are considered for the purpose of
analysis.

SAMPLE

A finite subset of a population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its
properties is called a sample of that population. A sample is a representative part of
the population.

SAMPLING

It is the duty of a researcher to decide whether information should be collected from


every units of population or portion of the population will be used. If the information
is collected from every unit of population is called census. Whereas the information is
collected only from a few minutes of population, it is called sampling method. For
this project the researched adopted sampling method.

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METHODS OF SAMPLING

Sampling methods can be classified into two;

• Probability sampling
• Non probability sampling

Probability sampling: it is also known as random sampling. Under this method each
items or number of the population have a chance of being selected.

Non probability sampling: it is that sampling procedure which does not afford any
basis for estimating the probability for each item to be included in the sample.

The sampling technique used for this study is random sampling under non
probability sampling.

Random sampling: in this method the sampling units are chosen primarily on a
random basis.

1.5.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The researcher has used random sampling method as the sampling technique.

This is due to large population involved in the study.

SAMPLING PERIOD

Sampling period is the time taken to complete the study. Here sampling period
is 7 days.

1.5.5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD


Collection of data is the most important step in research of any topic. Data
collection includes both primary and secondary data.

TYPES OF DATA

1. PRIMARY DATA

Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time and thus happen to
be original in character.

There are several methods of collecting primary data, they are as follows;

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• Observation method: under this method the information needed by the


researcher is obtained by merely observing the consumers behaviours without
asking them.
• Interview method: the interview method involves the collection of data
through personnel interviews, telephone calls etc., and in personnel interview
methods the interviewer asks questions in a face to face conversation to the
other person. Telephone interview method of collecting information consisted
in contacting respondents on telephone itself.
• Questionnaire method: questionnaire is a printed list of questions sent to the
respondent. The success of this method depends on the proper drafting of
questions.

2. SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data are those data which have been collected by some other person for
his purpose and published. Secondary data are usually in the shape of finished
products. It is second hand information ,Secondary data was collected from books,
magazines, company websites, other websites etc.

DATA ANALYSIS

The data collected has been tabulated and the percentage of the respondent for each
factor has been calculated by using swing tally mark operation. Percentage analysis
was done to draw meaningful conclusion from the data collected.

PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS

Percentage refers to a special kind of rate. Percentage is used in making comparison


between two or more series of data. This case and simplicity of calculation and the
universal application of this method has made this a widely used and standardized
tool in research. The percentage analysis is conducted by dividing the number of
respondents with total population of the sample.

1.5.6 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF THE STUDY

Analysis tools: Percentage Analysis


Software tools: MS Excel, Microsoft Word.
Data collection: Questionnaire method, interview method

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Presentation tools: Tables, graphs and diagrams.

1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY


To study and to understand organization and people in a better way.

To study the stress management in the organization and to study the working
condition of the people.

1.7 LIMITATIONS
• The research is being carried out in a short span of time.

• Most of the information is collected by questionnaire method there is a


possibility to get wrong answer from the respondents.

• As the workers had shift duty it is difficult to interview everyone.

• Lack of cooperation from some employees due to their heavy workload.

• The sample size was small; it is limited because the number of persons cope
surveyed is limited up to 50 out of large number of population.

• The opinions, behavior and attitudes of the respondents reflected in this study
are restricted to the duration of the research and are subject to
change with the passage of time.

The number of respondents selected is less and hence, it cannot be universally


accepted.

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CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW
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2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

STRESS MANAGEMENT IN A WORKING CAPITAL

Stress is a perceptional phenomenon resulting from a comparison between the


demand on a person and his ability to cope. An imbalance in this mechanism, when
coping is important, gives rise to the experience of stress, and to the stress response
(Cox, 1978:25). This transactional view highlights the importance of perception and
the relationship of the individual to the environment (i.e., work setting). If there is an
improper fit between the individual and the environment, the individual experience
stress. There are different causes of stress as Greenberg (2003) concluded that
workplace stress comes in many forms. Stress may be caused by occupational
demands, role ambiguity, role conflict or role judging. Moreover, illness is another
major cause stress (Burns, 1990). Smith (1989) asserted that environmental factors
also could cause stress. Things such as very high altitude and very cold climates can
be stressful. Stress affects in numerous ways and can result in poor attendance,
excessive use of alcohol or other drugs, poor job performance or even overall poor
health (Mondy , Noe & Peneaux , 2002). High level of stress results in high levels of
employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, and turnover, low levels of
productivity and as a consequence difficulty in providing high quality service to
customers (Organ& Bateman, 1989; Matteson & Ivancevich, 1987). Turner (2002)
indicated that stress chemicals that stay in the body obstruct the digestive and immune
systems and also deplete human energy. Different strategies can be followed to
overcome stress. Peterson (2003) found the visualization, progressive muscle
relaxation, spiritual growth and managing the worry time as techniques for dealing
with stress. Cryer , McCrathy and Chidre.

Deshmukh N.H. (2009), Stress and life satisfaction among working and non working
women from similar levels of socio economic status of the society, resulted that there
was no significant difference in physical and family stress among working and non
working women. Role stress was significantly higher among working than non
working women. Life satisfaction was better in working

Nithya Chandrasekaran, a consultant physician for many IT companies in the city.


Post-recession, employees feel pressured to perform well. Regular occupational

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problems such as wrist problems due to constant handling of the mouse, slip disc and
eye fatigue are common now, but handling stress that arises owing to fear of losing
job or to cope with the increasing competition, affects the employee's performance,
eventually, taking a major toll on his health, doctors explain. As if to acknowledge the
prevalence of high levels of stress among employees, many IT companies have
―help hotlines‖ that provide counseling intervention to their employees who face
stress or psychological fatigue. Companies are also trying to help employees combat
stress better. Companies such as Infosys, Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant and
Wipro have regular ―stress breaks‖ intended to help the employees strike a healthy
balance between work and fun.

2003) suggested four steps that they argue should reduce employees stress, first is to
recognize.

Stress is a term used by many, is somewhat misunderstand, and often used to describe
a negative condition or emotional state. People experience various forms of stress at
home, work, in social settings, and when engaged in activities to simply have fun.
Police officer's experience stresses the same as others, but also in ways much different
than the average citizen. The dangers, violence, and tragedy seen by officer's result in
added levels of stress not experienced by the general population.

What is stress? Stress is not a new phenomenon; it has been experienced throughout
history. Stress is a biological response to some stimulus. Fear, panic, anger, tragedy
and especially pressure can cause it Stress can result in the competitiveness needed to
succeed in business. relationships, sports, and education. Is stress bad or good? It is
both. Good stress is manageable stress an actually heighten your performance in
certain situations. Bad stress is unmanageable stress and lessens your performance
because it's too much to bare.

In order to inform the design of the work directed stress management intervention
(Workpackage 05), a literature review was conducted to identify best practice in terms
of interventions and assessment tools (Deliverable 16). Necessary supports for the
establishment of work directed programs were also identified for this review. Section
2.1 will discuss the criteria for selecting studies for inclusion in this review. The
search strategy for the identification of studies will be outlined in Section 2.2. Section
2.3 presents a review of the causes and nature of stress in the organizational

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environment, including stress amongst care health professionals and specifically to


those who work in the mental health profession. Section 2.4 will provide discussion
on the organization as the "generator" of stress. Literature which focuses on
organizational level interventions will be presented in Section 2.5. Section 2.6 will
consider a problem-solving approach for the management of stress. A risk assessment
approach for the reduction and elimination of stress will be reviewed in Section 2.7.
Training and support as a stress management intervention will be discussed in Section
2.8. A common feature of work directed interventions was the issue of control, and
this will be examined in Section 2.9. Section 2.10 will examine the environmental
assessment tools which were identified in the literature. Finally, literature identifying
supports for implementation of stress management interventions will be presented in
Section 2.11.

Previous reviews which have been conducted have been largely generic, and although
some have focused on the area of mental health, there has been a paucity of research
on specialist areas in mental health (Rees & Smith, 1991), such as the vocational and
rehabilitation sector. Therefore, literature across all health care settings, with specific
emphasis on studies which were conducted among mental health professionals were
included in this review.

The review was conducted utilizing the Cochrane review on preventing occupational
stress in health care workers, and by examining other reviews conducted among
health care professionals to identify the most effective stress management techniques
for the organizational environment, and the most relevant environmental assessment
tools (van der Hek & Plomp, 1997; Mimura & Griffiths, 2002; Marine et al., 2006;
Edwards & Burnard, 2003; Edwards et al., 2002; Michie & Williams, 2002; Fothergill
et al., 2004) (see Appendix 2 for Criteria for considering studies for this review).
Although there a large number of studies on the management of stress, studies
evaluating the effectiveness of these stress management programs are notable by their
absence (van der Hek & Plomp). This review will not only evaluate effective work-
directed interventions to manage stress, but will also review the nature and causes of
organizational stress, and the effect this has on the employee and the organization. In
order to implement stress management techniques in the workplace, it is necessary to
identify the organizational hazards1 that contribute to stress.

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2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL HAZARDS

The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (Cox et al., 2000) identified
both physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace as being linked to stress.
Physical hazards include factors such as noise and poor physical work environments.
Literature suggests that physical hazards do not only interact with one another in
producing their effects, they may also interact with psychosocial hazards (Melamed et
al., 1999; Schrijvers et al., 1998). For instance, Broadbent (1971) described how noise
and sleep loss might interact in relation to task performance. The International Labour
Organization (ILO) (1986) defines psychosocial hazards in terms of the interactions
among job content, work organisation and management, environmental and
organizational conditions, as well as the employees competencies and needs. Those
interactions which may prove hazardous influence employees‟ health 1“ A hazard is
defined as „the intrinsic property or ability of something (e.g. work materials, work
equipment, work methods and practices) with the potential to cause harm‟ (European
Commission, 1996)”

Through their perceptions and experiences (ILO, 1986). Whilst this definition is
consistent with transactional models of stress, it strongly associates exposure to
psychosocial stressors with experience of stress. It may be argued that psychosocial
hazards may have direct effects on the person, effects which are not mediated by the
experience of stress. Cox & Griffiths (1995) provide an alternative definition of
psychosocial hazards. They define psychosocial hazards as “those aspects of work
design and the organization and management of work, and their social and
environmental contexts, which have the potential for causing psychological, social or
physical harm” (Cox & Griffiths, 1995). With the emergence of psychosocial work
environment research and occupational psychology in the 1960‟s (Johnson & Hall,
1996) the focus of interest has moved away from the traditional individual perspective
and towards considering the impact of certain aspects of the work environment on
health. There is now a large body of evidence (e.g. Cox, 1993; Landy et al., 1994;
Kasl, 1987, 1990) that identifies of common set of work characteristics as potentially
hazardous. There is consensus among the various attempts to review literature on
those psychosocial hazards of work which are experienced as stressful and/or
otherwise carry the potential for harm (Baker, 1985; Blohmke & Reimer, 1980;
Cooper & Marshall, 1976; Cox, 1978, 1985; Cox & Cox, 1993; Franken hauser &

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Gardell, 1976; Karasek & Theorell, 1990; Kasl, 1992; Levi, 1972, 1984; Levi et al.,
1986; Loher et al., 1985; Marmot & Madge, 1987; National Institute, 1988; Sauter et
al., 1992; Sharit & Salvendy, 1982; Szabo et al., 1983; Warr, 1987, 1992). This
consensus is summarized in ten difference categories of job characteristics, work
environments and organizations which may be hazardous, and these categories relate
to either the work context or the work content (Cox et al., 2000). These include:
organizational culture and function; role in organization; career development;
decision latitude/control; interpersonal relationships at work; home-work interface;
work environment and work equipment; task design; workload/ workpace; and work
schedule .

2.2 OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN THE HEALTH CARE PROFESSION

A literature review conducted by Michie & Williams in 2002, indicated that key work
factors associated with psychological ill health and sickness absence in staff were
long 6 hours worked, work overload and pressure, and the effects of these on personal
lives (Driscoll et al., 1995; Frone et al., 1995; Karasek, 1979; Niedhammer et al.,
1998; Payne & Fletcher, 1983; Reifman et al., 1991; Stansfeld et al., 1995);
conflicting demands (Stansfeld et al., 1995); lack of control over work and lack of
participation in decision making (Frone et al., 1995; Karasek, 1979; Karasek, 1990;
Niedhammer et al., 1998; Payne and Fletcher, 1983; Sparks & Cooper, 1999;
Stansfeld et al., 1995, 1998); poor social support at work (Driscoll et al., 1995; Frese,
1999; Fusilier et al., 1987; LaRocco et al., 1980; Niedhammer et al., 1998; Reifman et
al., 1991; Stansfeld et al., 1995, 1998); unclear management and work role
(Bacharach et al., 1991; Carayon et al., 1995; Frone et al., 1995; LaRocco et al., 1990;
Reifman et al., 1991); interpersonal conflict (Sparks & Cooper, 1999; Romanov et al.,
1996); and conflict between work and family demands (Sparks & Cooper, 1999)

Several explanations have been put forward in the literature for the high levels of ill
health in the health care environment, including the nature of the work, organisational
changes, and the large amounts and pressure of work (Cox 1995). Commonly
identified sources of stress are workload, patient care, interpersonal relationships with
colleagues, knowledge of nursing and nursing skills, type of nursing, and
bureaucratic-political constraints (Bailey, 1985).

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A comparison across UK hospitals in the public sector found that rates of


psychological ill health varied from 17% to 33% with lower rate in hospitals
characterized by smaller size, greater cooperation, better communication, more
performance monitoring, a stronger emphasis on training, and allowing staff more
control and flexibility in their work (Wall, 1997). This supports the notion that
organizational factors may contribute to the level of psychological ill health
experienced by staff.

According to a study conducted by McGrath and colleagues (2003) amongst 171


nurses, on occupational stress in nursing, the most commonly cited stressor by nurses
was too little time to perform duties to the person's satisfaction and rationing of scarce
resources or services. Nearly half of the respondents mentioned the meeting of
imposed deadlines 7 as a source of stress, and over a third found counteracting,
unhelpful views others held of their job a cause of stress. A significant finding from
this study was that nurses tried to alleviate stress in their jobs through avoidance
behaviours. The study clearly suggests that nurses are avoiding the emotional
demands of patients as evidenced by 27% who report this as a cause of stress. It is
suggested that a coping mechanism specific to nursing may be that nurses
unconsciously reduce stress in their job by setting nursing objectives as physical
objectives in their job

In the context of the transnational nature of the ROSE project, Michie & Williams
(2002) review on reducing work related psychological ill health and sickness absence
was particularly significant, as it provided an assessment of whether associations
between work factors and psychological ill health were similar across sector and
across countries. In the UK factors associated with psychological distress, emotional
exhaustion, anxiety and depression in doctors, from junior to senior grades, were long
working hours (Baldwin et al., 1997), high workload and pressure at work (Agius et
al., 1996; Deary et al., 1996; Sutherland and Cooper, 1993), and lack of role clarity
(Heyworth et al., 1993). In a study conducted with 4 dentists, pressure at work was
found to be associated with poor mental health (Cooper et al., 1988). In a study
carried out amongst family doctors, the issues were interruptions during and outside
surgery hours and patients demands (Sutherland and Cooper, 1993). Among UK
nurses the most frequently reported source of psychological distress was workload
pressures (Tyler and Cushway, 1992). In a study conducted amongst 164 student

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nurses, low involvement in decision making and use of skills, and low social support
at work were found to be associated with anxiety, depression and sickness absence
(Parkes, 1982). Two studies looked at absence from work, one study found a negative
association with job demands (Parkes, 1982), while the other found no association
with control over work (Rees & Cooper, 1992). Similar factors were associated with
psychological ill health in health care workers in the rest of Europe, the USA, and
Australia. The one study of doctors found an association between work control and
social support and psychological distress (Johnson et al., 1995). Among nurses, lack
of co-worker support (Marshall & Barnett, 1992; Pisarski et al., 1998), job influence
(Petterson et al., 1995), and organization climate and role ambiguity 8 (Revicki &
May, 1989) were associated with psychological distress. Among other hospital
workers, work overload and pressure, role ambiguity, lack of control over work, and
lack of participation in decision making were all found to be associated with distress
(Arsenault et al., 1991; Estryn-Behar et al., 1990; Martin, 1984). Sickness absence
was associated with work pressures and lack of training (Landeweerd & Boumans,
1992), unsupportive management style (Gray-Toft & Anderson, 1985), role
ambiguity, tolerance of absenteeism and low pay (Brooke & Price, 1989).

The studies show that, while level of psychological ill health associations between
work factors and psychological ill health are higher in health care than in non-health
care workers (Wall, 1997), the associations between work factors and psychological
ill health are similar. They are also similar across continents. This review suggests
that a generic approach to reducing work related psychological ill-health may be
appropriate. The findings from this review are also consistent with the demand-
control model of job strain (Karasek, 1979). They highlight the 6 key areas of work
design that commonly lead to stress (i.e. control, demands, support, relationships, role
and change).

2.3 OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

There have been a number of studies which have looked at the issue of stress for
mental health professionals (see Table 1.2). As we can see from Table 1.2, stress-
related research is frequently based on a theoretical model, such as the 3 levels of the
stress process (i.e. stressors, moderators and outcomes) proposed in the model
developed by Carson and Kuipers (1998). Research indicates that mental health

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professionals experience high levels of „burnout‟ and poor mental health as compared
with other occupational populations (Carson et al., 1995; Onyett et al., 1995; Prosser
et al., 1996; Wykes et al., 1997). Moore and Cooper (1996) presented a theoretical
overview of this subject. Findings indicate that although mental health professionals
are subjected to similar organizational stressors as other workers, they experience
additional emotional strain by the very nature of their professions in dealing with
troubled persons often over extended periods of time (Nolan et al., 1995). Similar
findings are reported in a later study by Jenkins & Elliott (2004), who found that
although many of the stressors 9 experienced by mental health professionals are
similar to other health care specialities, a number of demands relate specifically to the
mental health profession. These include the intense nature of interaction between the
client/mental health professional relationship (Cronin-Stubbs & Brophy, 1985),
dealing with difficult and challenging behaviour on a regular basis (Sullivan, 1993),
and service changes in the mental health profession.

Fagen et al. (1996) also identified recent service changes in the mental health
profession as being a significant cause of stress amongst mental health nurses. There
has been a transition from the traditional hospital based setting to the delivery of care
in the community setting. Research indicates that community mental health nurses
experience significantly higher level of stress than their ward based counterparts
(Carson et al., 1995; Fagin et al., 1995). Other major sources of stress amongst mental
health professional identified in the literature include, administrative and
organizational factors and lack of consultation over work-related changes (Dawkin et
al., 1985), inadequate staffing levels (Carson et al., 1995; Cushway et al., 1996), and
dealing with potentially violent and / or suicidal clients (Sullivan,1993). However, the
empirical evidence indicates that it is the administrative and organizational factors
which cause most stress in psychiatric nursing (Cronin-Stubbs & Brophy,1984;
Dawkins et al., 1985; Jones et al., 1987)

A number of reviews have focused on literature in the area of stress in mental health
nurses (Jones, 1987; Sullivan, 1993; Dunn & Ritter, 1995; Edwards & Burnard,
2003), and amongst other mental health professionals (Carson & Fagin, 1996;
Fothergill et al., 2004; Hannigan et al., 2004;). Edwards and Burnard (2003) found
that the most frequently reported sources of stress amongst mental health nurses were
administrative and organizational concerns, client-related issues, heavy workload,

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interpersonal conflict, financial and resource issues, professional self-doubt,


home/work conflict, staffing levels, changes in the health service, maintenance of
standards and poor supervision. Findings from a systematic review on occupational
stress in psychiatrists (Fothergill et al., 2004) indicate that psychiatrists also
experience significant levels of stress. Specific stressors 10 included overwork,
management and resource issues, personal stresses, lack of time, organizational
changes, lack of administrative support and low pay.

A number of studies have also been carried out amongst community mental health
teams (Harper & Minghella, 1997; Oliver & Kuipers, 1996; Onyett et al., 1997;
Parkes & von Rabenall, 1993; Prosser et al., 1996, 1997, 1999; Reid et al., 1999,
1996; Wykes et al., 1997). Evidence indicated that stressors included increased
workload and administration, working structures, lack of resources, management
problems and managing crises alone. Studies also suggest that particularly high levels
of the „emotional exhaustion‟ component of „burnout‟ have been reported among
staff based in a community rather than a hospital setting (Carson et al., 1995; Prosser
et al., 1996)

These findings are particularly significant because they suggest the workplace
adversely affects the psychological well-being of staff working in the mental health
profession. This is particularly significant as the delivery of high quality mental health
services and the rehabilitation and recovery of people with mental health problems is
dependent on the availability of experienced personnel. There is a need for more
interventions for the prevention and management of stress in the mental health
profession, particularly in the areas such as the vocational and rehabilitation sector
where interventions have not yet been implemented. There is also a need for more
studies on stress in specialist areas in mental health. Although there have been a large
number of studies conducted on workplace stress, particularly in the health care
setting, Rees and Smith (1991) indicated that there is a paucity of research on
comparatives of stressors experienced by different mental health professionals, for
instance, those working in areas such as mental health rehabilitation. This is
particularly significant as the literature reports increasingly high levels of stress and
burnout among mental health professionals, and there are now increasing demands on
specialist areas in mental health such as mental health rehabilitation. This is a result of
mental health policy and an increased emphasis on the recovery model in the mental

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health services where employment is highlighted as important in rehabilitation and


recovery (European 11 Commission, 2005; Mental Health Commission, 2006;
European Parliament, 2008). It is projected that there will be increased demands for
vocational and rehabilitation services for the future of social inclusion of people with
mental health problems. This may result in increased pressure on staff. Current
literature focusing on stressors in specialist areas in mental health is notable by its
absence.

2.4 THE ORGANIZATION AS THE ‘GENERATOR’ OF STRESS

Traditionally, the focus of stress-related research has been on employees‟ adaptation


to their work and work environments, and individual differences in the process of
adaptation and coping (Gardell, 1982). However in recent years there has been a shift
in interest (Johnson & Hall, 1996) from how individual employees cope with stress
towards concern for the design and management of their work of one source of their
problems (Cox et al., 2000). The organization has been identified in the literature as a
„generator‟ of stress related illness (Cox et al., 2007). However, there is evidence to
suggest that organizational level interventions are the least common and that few have
been evaluated as effective (Cox et al., 2007).

Occupational health and safety legislation at national and EU level and EU policy
documents has identified factors in the work environment as contributing to stress.
Legislation has been broadened to include psychosocial hazards as a contributor to
stress. The European Parliament Draft Report on Mental Health (2008) has identified
the work environment as a contributor to stress. The European Parliament calls on
employers to promote a healthy working climate, paying attention to work-related
stress, the underlying causes of mental disorder at the workplace, and tackling those
causes. It encourages employers, as part of their health and safety at work strategies,
to adopt programs to promote the emotional and mental wellbeing of their workers
and calls on the Commission to disseminate positive models by publishing such
programs on the internet.

2.5 ORGANIZATIONAL-LEVEL INTERVENTIONS

A review of the literature that focuses on organizational-level interventions was


conducted in order to identity best practice in terms of interventions and assessment

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include interventions directed at factors at work, or work-directed interventions


containing measures to change the working environment, work tasks or working
methods included interventions aimed at decreasing workload or changing the
organization of the work (see Table 1.3, for a summary of studies that focus on
organizational level 19 interventions). Models identifying 3 distinct sets of objectives
have been adopted by organizations in the management of work-related stress (Cox et
al., 1990; Dollard & Winefield, 1998). Objectives include prevention (control of
hazards and exposure to hazards by design and worker training to reduce likelihood of
those workers experiencing stress; timely reaction (based on management and group
problem solving); and rehabilitation (offering support to help workers cope with and
recover from problems which exist) (Cox et al., 2000). Cox and colleagues (2000)
suggest that the reduction of stress through the elimination and control of hazards
appears to be the most promising area for intervention. This is often achieved through
adoption of a problem-solving approach which is a form of risk management. This
view is also reflected by Murphy and colleagues (1992), who conclude that “job
redesign and organizational change remain the referred approaches to stress
management because they focus on reducing or eliminating the sources of the
problem in the work environment”. Van der Hek & Plomp (1997) also concluded that
“there is some evidence that organization-wide-approaches show the best results on
individual, individual-organizational interface and organizational parameters
(outcome measures); these comprehensive programs have a strong impact on the
entire organization, and require the full support of management”. Edwards & Burnard
(2003) suggest that the first step in managing stress effectively is to eliminate or
minimize the stressors themselves. However, in order to achieve this, management
strategies must be proactive rather than reactive with respect to the organizational
environment, and there is a lack of research into interventions at organizational level.

Many reviews have found that most stress management techniques are individual
focused, and attempt to change the worker as opposed to the organization. For
example, Murphy and colleagues (1984) reviewed thirteen published and unpublished
studies on personal stress management. Of the 32 outcome measures used in the
thirteen studies, 27 related to the individual and only 3 to the organisation.
Williamson (1994) found that out of 24 evaluative studies of stress interventions, 21
focused on the individual, and only 3 focused on change at organisational level. A

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Cochrane review on review on preventing occupational stress in health care workers


included 19 studies, 13 on which were focused on person-directed interventions and 6
on interventions which focused on the 20 organisation (Marine et al., 2009). Work-
directed interventions included in the review focused on attitude change and
communication, support from colleagues and participatory problem solving and
decision-making, and changes in work organisation. However, most of the studies
included in the review were small and of poor quality. The general absence of
literature on stress management interventions which focus on the organisation reflects
a generalised gap in the literature. It is unlikely that individual directed interventions
will lead to a long term reduction in stress amongst employees unless organisational
procedures are also in place to reduce or prevent environmental stressors (Kenny,
2005)

Other studies indicate that work-directed interventions consist of selection and


placement, training and education, interpersonal skill development in managers, work
environment changes, and job redesign and restructuring (Giga et al., 2003; Kenny &
McIntyre, 2004; Morrison & Payne, 2003). Cotton and Hart (2003) argue that
workplaces can address organisational factors impacting on morale through provision
of supportive organisational climate and appropriate leadership behaviours. The
ROSE project will include guidelines for the manager on effective leadership,
outlining the different leadership styles, allowing the manager to identify their own
leadership style. They will be able to access and assessment tool to assess their own
behaviour to see how effective they are in preventing and reducing stress in the
workplace.

Delvaux (2004) and Razavi (1993) used psychological training programmes with
theory, role playing and experimental exchanges intended to improve attitudes,
communication skills and occupational stress. Heaney (1995) ran a training program
about mobilizing support from colleagues and about learning participatory problem
solving and decision making skills. Melchior (1996), Proctor (1998) and
Schrijnemaekers (2003) employed interventions that introduced innovations in
nursing delivery via changes in work organisation, knowledge and skills training and
support and advice from supervisors.

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2.6 A PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH

A problem-solving approach has been advocated in the literature as an effective


organisational stress management intervention (Cox et al., 2007; Rowe, 1999;
Golembiewski et al., 1987; Heaney, 1995; Jones et al., 1988). A study conducted in
the US involved all members of the organisation in the diagnosis and solution of
problems (Golembiewski et al., 1987). Findings indicated a reduction of burnout and
group properties and turnover rates following implementation of the problem-solving
intervention. A similar intervention involving employee feedback and the subsequent
development of action plans to manage stress were found to be effective in the
reduction of medical errors in a health care setting (Jones et al., 1988). Murphy &
Hurrell (1987) described the development of a worker-management „stress reduction
committee‟ as stress management intervention. The committee used the results of an
employee survey to review and prioritize the identified sources of stress. They
planned organisational interventions designed to address identified hazards and
presented them to management, recommending an annual audit. Such approaches
acknowledge the importance of involvement of employees. The ROSE project
website will include a section on participatory problem solving and ways to actively
involve employees in problem-solving and in the decision-making process.

2.7 RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH

A risk-management approach, utilizing evidence based problem solving, has been


identified as a necessary organisational intervention for work-related stress (Cox et
al., 2000; Cox et al., 2007), and has been found to inform subsequent risk reduction
(Cox et al., 2000). The emphasis of this approach is on primary prevention, and its
strength lies in that is adopts a proactive rather that a reactive approach to the
management of organisational stress. The approach is largely consistent with issues of
work design and management, and their social and organisational contexts (Cox et al.,
2000). It is also consistent with occupational health and safety law at EU level and
with legislative provisions of EU partner countries in the ROSE project. The work-
directed programme will include information for managers on carrying out a risk
assessment, providing them with information on why they should carry out a risk
assessment (e.g. it is a proactive 27 approach to the management of work-related
stress, consistent with obligations under occupational health and safety law and EU

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policy regarding work-related stress, promotes a health work environment, positive


effects on levels of absenteeism and productivity); a step by step guide on how to
conduct a risk assessment including, identification of hazards, proposing solutions to
identified problems, developing action plans, monitoring and re-assessing the work
environment. The website will also provide managers with information on how to
conduct focus groups with employees so that they can adopt a participatory approach
to problem-solving and risk reduction.

2.8 TRAINING AND SUPPORT

The literature suggests that provision of training and support among employees can
impact positively on stress levels. Studies which provide training and education often
lead to innovations which bring about changes in work organisation (Proctor et al.,
1998; Melchior et al., 1996; Schrijnemaekers, 2003). A study conducted to assess the
impact of psychological training programmes on health care professionals stress
found that trained nurses reported positive changes in their stress levels (Delvaux,
2004). However findings also suggested a need for amplifying the transfer of learned
skills to clinical practice. Similar findings were reported by Ewers and colleagues
(2005) who found that a group of forensic mental health nurses experienced a
significant decrease in burnout rates following the provision of psychosocial
intervention training. A study conducted in the Netherlands among 300 professional
care givers in homes for elderly persons found that emotion-orientated care training,
clinical lessons and supervision meeting resulted in job satisfaction among
participants (Schrijnemaekers, 2003).

However, the evidence supporting the effectiveness of social support interventions


over other programmes is weak. For example, a study conducted in the UK among
mental health nurses which evaluated a social support based intervention found that
the programme offered no significant advantage over a feedback programme (Carson
et al., 1998). The ROSE project website will provide information for the manager on
the provision of a supportive working environment. Information will be provided on
teamwork and the provision of feedback from managers.

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2.9 CONTROL

Murphy (1988) conducted a review of several interventions which addressed the


nature and design of the work environment (Jackson, 1983; Wall & Clegg, 1981;
Pierce & Newstrom, 1983). The issue of control emerged as a dominant theme
throughout the literature included in the review. For instance, a study conducted by
Wall & Clegg (1981) manipulated worker control over significant aspects of the work
process. Manipulation of the work environment in a study carried out by Jackson
(1983) produced modest increases in worker control. Pierce & Newstrom (1983)
introduced flexi-time systems into their workplace which increased worker control
over some aspects of their work. All 3 studies demonstrated how manipulation of the
work environment to increase worker control led to a reduction in the experience of
stress amongst employees.

Jackson (1983) carried out a study amongst staff working in 25 outpatient clinics in
hospital across the UK to test the hypotheses that, „increased participation in decision
making would decrease the experience of role problems‟. Clinical supervisors were
given appropriate training on participation and the number of staff meeting held in the
clinic were increased. Findings included significant reductions in role ambiguity and
role conflict in the intervention clinics after 6 months follow up. Control emerged
from the literature as a significant factor in the reduction of stress and is a feature of
many effective work-directed stress management interventions. The ROSE project
website will provide information on how the manager can manipulate the work
environment to increase control amongst employees. Information will be provided on
role ambiguity so that the managers can ensure that roles within their organisation are
clearly defined. Other methods of increasing control through work redesign will be
proposed, for instance, the introduction of flexi-time systems, etc. Information
regarding the introduction of "change" to areas of the work environment will be
provided and guidelines on how to manage change within the workplace. Models and
tools for managing change will be provided to inform the manager.

2.10 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

The Work Environment Scales (Moos, 1981) was identified as a potential instrument
for use in the ROSE project. It measures work site features and consists of 60 items
including 10 dimensions. Dimensions include involvement, peer cohesion, supervisor

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support, autonomy, task orientation, clarity, control, innovation and physical comfort.
. The Occupational Stress Indicator (Cooper, Sloan & Williams, 1988) was also
reviewed as a potential measure for use in the ROSE project. However it required 35
minutes for completion. It was deemed too time consuming for use on the website.
The Work Organisation Assessment (EEF/I-WHO) was reviewed and was deemed
suitable for use on the work-directed programme. Permission to use the tool was
sought from the copyright holders. However, permission could not be granted to
access the tool, as EEF are a membership organization.

2.11 SUPPORTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF STRESS MANAGEMENT


INTERVENTIONS

Current research evaluating stress management interventions has identified key


variables related to support for the implementation of interventions. Variables include
the nature of managerial control for those interventions, and those affected by them,
employees‟ readiness for and acceptance for the need for change, their motivation and
their willingness and ability to participate, their role in the decision-making process,
the resources available to support change, and the quality of social relations and trust
within the organisation (Cox et al., 2007; Nielsen et al., 2007; Nytro et al., 1998;
Nytro et al., 2000; Taris et al., 2003). These variables reflect the management of the
implementation of the intervention process, and the organisational context for that
intervention in term of the organisational and social processes in which it is embedded
(Cox et al., 2007).

There is a large body of evidence to suggest that the management of the


implementation of any intervention is key its success (Cox et al., 2007; Kompier et
al., 2000; Mikkelsen et al., 2000; Nytro et al., 2000; Parker & Wall, 1998; Randell et
al., 2007; Saksvik et al., 2007). Karsh and colleagues (2001) have argued that “the
study of the implementation process is crucial both for our understanding of future
research results and for understanding the variance in outcomes” (p. 89). It has also
been suggested that 30 variability in macro processes in the wider organizational,
social and socio-economic, and political contexts may explain why some
interventions are successful and others are not (Goldenhar & Schulte, 1994).

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CONCLUSION

A review of existing literature indicates that organisational interventions or


interventions that target the organisation as well as the individual, are most effective
in stress reduction. However, this review indicates that most interventions target the
individual and not the organisation, and few evaluation studies have been conducted
to test the effectiveness of such interventions. The limited literature that is available
suggests that organisational interventions that aim to reduce or control the hazards
within the workplace are most effective, and indicates that an approach that combines
interventions that target the organisation as well as the individual represent the best
way forward.

The ROSE project will develop a work-directed stress management programme for
staff working in vocational training centers. The interventions which will form the
programme content will be based upon the 6 areas of work design which emerged
from the literature and from the focus groups as commonly contributing to stress (i.e.
demands, control. support, relationships, role, change). The content of the programme
has therefore been developed based on this literature review to identify the most
effective techniques and from the baseline data gathered from the focus groups
conducted in 5 EU partner countries. However, the ROSE project has the added
benefit as it will combine both person and work-directed stress management
techniques, which is advocated in the literature as the most effective approach in
stress reduction.

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CHAPTER-3

INDUSTRY PROFILE

AND

COMPANY PROFILE
St.Paul’s College

3.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE


PLASTIC INDUSTRY

The plastic industry manufactures polymers materials – called plastic – and Offers
services in phases important to a range of industries, including packages of the
chemical industry. In addition, as mineral oil is the major constitution of plastics, it is
regarded a part of the petrochemical industry. Besides plastics production, plastics
engineering is an important part of the industry sector. The latter field is dominated by
engineering plastic as raw material because of its better mechanical and thermal
properties than the more widely used commodity plastic.
There’s a list of major plastic companies located worldwide. This list includes
companies with products such as Plastic Hose System Solution, Plastic Raw material
Manufacturing, Plastic Raw Material Trading, Plastic Film Extrusion, Plastic Film
Flexographic Printing, Plastic Slitting Plastic Lamination, Plastic Injection Molding,
Plastic Blow Molding, Plastic Film Rotogravure Printing, Plastic Sealing. According
to plastic Europe, the top three markets for plastic are packaging, building and
construction and automotive. Plastics production grows globally. The numbers
include thermoplastics and polyurethanes, as well as thermo sets, adhesives, coatings
and sealants and pp-fibers.

PLASTINDIA

Plastic – one of the growing industries in India has a very vital role to play in the
India has a economy. The next two decades will witness an unprecedented, explosive
growth in all sector of plastic industry. The long-term constructive goals and a time
bound action program Plastindia Foundation is the apex body of major Association,
Organization, and Institutions connected with plastics, with common objectives to
promote, the development of plastics industry and to assist the growth of plastic and
related materials and their products. The FOUNDATION is dedicated to the national
progress through plastics. It is also supported by Ministry Of chemicals and fertilizers,
Government of India with connected with plastics. Plastindia Exhibition and
Conference is held every three years. It is usually organized in the first or second
week of February. Plastindia Foundation’s Objective is to promote the development
of plastic industry and to assist the growth of plastic and related products. The

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foundation focuses on helping India to becoming the proffered sources base of plastic
products around the world and also concentrates on its vision and believes that they
will be facilitating the export led growth of the Indian plastic industry. It also helps
boost export business volumes and revenue. Plastindia follows an internationally
recognized organization devoted to promoting excellent in the field of plastics and
making India a preferred sourcing base for plastics products for the world. It will
support and encourage development of outstanding institutions committed to
education and research with emphasis on achieving the highest standards of quality in
plastics products and developing effective techniques for their recycling. It will build
awareness of the significant contribution made by plastics to society and the
environment.The mission of plastindia are to enhance the image and the growth of
Indian Plastics Industry by holding world- class exhibition in India., at regular
intervals and to encourage theme-based exhibition in India It also aims to provide
opportunities to demonstrate the industry’s capabilities, participate in international
exhibition, and at the same time to educate the benefits of plastics to all segments of
society, either directly or through association some other missions are to act as the
catalyst for growth to the plastics industry and prepare plans and actions for up
gradation of quality, environment- friendliness and recycling within the plastics
industry, to create a positive policy framework with all statutory entities and increase
per capital consumption of plastics, encourage exports thereby significantly
contributing to national growth and to be a flexible, vibrant and proactive body.

Besides its vision and mission, Plastinida sets the following as their objectives;

• To organize and participate in international exhibition held abroad with the


aim of showcasing Indian plastic to the world in order to promote and boost its
exports business volumes and revenue.
• Help promote R&D activities, standardization, quality control and testing
facilities.
• Undertake and assist man-power development programs.
• Help conserve energy, scarce material and natural resources and protect the
environment
• Assist improving and widen the usage of plastics materials.
• Promote scientific recycling of plastics.

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• Encourage co-operation amongst the various organization and institutions


connected with the plastics industry.

POLYMERS
A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecules, composed of many repeated
subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural
polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from
familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both
natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known
as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecules
compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity,
and tendency to form glasses and semi crystalline structures rather than crystals.

POLYMER INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Polymers account for around 70% of petrochemicals and that is the reason that are
the most important chemical industry. Polymers are essentially used in the
manufacture of various plastic products. In the consumption of the basic
petrochemicals, polymers from the bulk of demand with a share of around 55%. The
share of polymers in the product mix in India for various crackers ranges from 60%
to 90%. The segment of polymers have registered a growth of 18% while there have
been an increasing of 26% in the capacities CAGR. The various by- products f
polymers are polystyrene, PVC Polypropylene, LDPE/LLDPE, HDPE. Polystyrene,
a by- product of polymers has Rs 432 crore market size. Its market price was around
Rs 42.5 per kg in 1999. The major companies involved in the production of a
polystyrene are Rajasthan Polymers, Mc Dowell & Co, and supreme Petrochem.
PVC, a polymer by product, is in demand in the Indian market at 554,00 tons per
annum. This segment has been growing at the rate of 15% yearly. Around 54% of
PVC is used in the production of cable sheathing. The cost of PVC was Rs 44.95 per
kg in 1999. The main companies involved in the production of PVC are ICPL and
RIL. These are the main companies involved in the making of PVC. Polypropylene
is a very light weight polymer and that is the main Reason why it is used as a
substitute for various other polymers. During 1997-1998, around 11,000 tons of poly
propylene was imported. Over the last 3 years, the demand for this product has

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increased by 38% and now stands at 595000 tons. The price of polypropylene was
Rs 47.50 per kg in 1999. In India, low density polythene (LDPE) and linear low-
density polythene (LLDPE) are also widely used polymers. This segment of
polymers is growing at the rate of 12% per year. More than 50% of LDPE/LLPE are
used by the packaging industry and they were priced at around Rs 54.25 per kg in
1999. The companies which make LDPE/LLDPE are Oswal, RIL, and IPCL. The
second most used polymer in India is HDPE, with a share of 22%. The value of its
domestic consumption is Rs 2,123 crore and it is growing at the rate of 15% per
year. It cost around Rs 50 per kg in 1999. HDPE is used in the manufacturing of
raffia, blow molding, injection molding, and in the paper industry as well. The
companies involved in the production of HDPE ARE NOCIL, RIL, and IPCL,
polymers form an important constituent of the Indian petrochemical industry. So,
efforts must be taken by the industry and the government of India, so that production
and quality of polymers remain top class. Ever since 1975, the plastic industry in
India has made significant achievements as it made a modest but promising
beginning by commencing production of polystyrene. The potential Indian market
has motivated the entrepreneurs in the country to acquire technical expertise,
achieve high quality standards and build capacity in various facets of the booming
plastic industry. The phenomenal developments in the plastic machinery sector is
coupled with the developments in the petrochemical sector, both of which support
the plastic processing sector. The Indian plastic industry made a promising
beginning in 1957 with the production of polystyrene. Thereafter, significant
progress has been made, and the industry has grown and diversified rapidly. The
industry spans the country and hosts more than 2,000 exporters. It employs about 4
million people and comprise more than 30,000 processing units, 85-9- percent of
which are small and medium sized enterprises. Exports of plastic products from
India stood at US$ 7.64 billion in FY 2015-16. During 2015-16, major importers
Indian plastic products were US (US$ 898.45 MILLION), China (US$ 489.25
million), UAE (US$ 422.74 million), (US$ 290.03 million), UK (US$
287.68million), Italy (US$ 286.9), Turkey (US$ 286.9 million), Bangladesh (US$
184.33 million), Saudi Arabia (US$ 169.1 million), and Nepal (US$ 161.09 million)
Domestic consumption of plastic is expected to touch 20 million Metric Tonnes by
2020.

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The India plastics industry produces and exports a wide range of raw materials,
plastic moulded extruded goods, polyester films, moulded/ soft luggage items,
writing instruments, plastic woven sacks and bags, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), leather
cloth and sheeting, packaging, consumer goods, sanitary fitting, electrical
accessories, laboratory/ medical surgical ware, tarpaulins, laminates, fishnets, travel
ware and others. The Indian plastics industry offers excellent potential in terms of
capacity, infrastructure and skilled manpower. It is supported by a large number of
polymer producers, and plastic process machinery and mould manufacturers in the
country. Among the industry’s major strengths is the availability of raw materials in
the country. Thus, plastic processors do not have to depend on imports. These raw
materials, including polypropylene, high – density polyethylene, low density
polyethylene and PVC, are manufactured domestically plastic industry also called as
‘sunrise industry’ is a post -war phenomenon in the country. The total invested in
the processing industry in 1991 was estimated at Rs 1,000 crores. This is expected to
grow to Rs4,500 crores by 2,000 AD. Owing to its easy moulding, non- corrosive
and moisture-resistant qualities plastics have a variety of use in packaging industry,
manufacture of household goods, building and construction materials, industrial
goods, agricultural goods, electrical goods, imitation jewellery, etc. the plastic
industry has two distinct phases: (1) production of raw materials, and (2) moulding
and fabrication of plastic good.

PRODUCTION OF PLASTIC OF RAW MATERIALS

This include polymer manufacturing industry supplying polyethylene (low and high
density), polyvinyl chlorine (PVC), polypropylene, polystyrene and acrylics. The
benzene. Mumbai is the largest centre for the production of polymer. The feed stocks
of these materials are mostly naphtha, alcohol, calcium, carbide, phenol and benzene.
Other centres include Barauni, Pimpri (Pune), Durgapur, Rishra (Kolkata),
SahupuramMettur, Bongaigaon, Hazira and Vadodara. The plastic raw material
consumption in India during1990 was a little over nine lakh tones which exceeded 1.5
million tons by 1995. By 2,000 AD, the demand is likely to exceed 2.5 million tons.
In spite of the rapid growth of the petrochemicals industry in recent years, the de-
mand – supply gap is likely exceeded a million tons by 2005. between 1990-2000 an
investment of about $ 10,400 million has been in setting up new petrochemical
complex. Of these at Nagothane (Maharashtra) and Hazira (Gujarat) have been

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commissioned. Nine more at Auraiya, Vishakhapatnam, Gandhar, Haldiaqnd


Maharashtra are nearing completion.

PLASTIC CONVERTING INDUSTRY


It involves the moulding and fabrication of plastic goods using polymer. These goods
are manufactured both by big companies like flex industries, GuratPropack, Askar
and Sharp etc. as well as by small scale enterprises. Manufactured products include
packaging, house hold goods, building and construction materials, industrial goods
and agricultural materials. Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Vadodara, Vapi
(Gujarat), Kanpur, Amritsar, Coimbatore and Chennai are the important centres for
the manufacture of plastic goods. Plastic recycling is another aspect of plastic goods
industry. In India about 45 TO 50 per cent recycling of plastics is done from post
consumers waste.

TRADE

India imports plastic polymers from West European countries, Japan and the United
states. It also exports plastic goods to neighbouring Asian and African countries. Our
main competitors are china, Thailand, Indonesia, kore and Malaysia. Plastic industry
besides facing the shortage of raw materials and competition from abroad is facing
stiff opposition from environmentalists. This needs a comprehensive “public
education campaign” and waste recycling policy to tide over the situation plastics, the
material of the new generation, have been catching up faster than was expected since
the 1980s. with restriction on the use of wood to conserve forests, its importance has
grown phenomenally. Because of its light weight, ease in maintenance and natural
sparkles, it is substituting not only wood but also metal and glass. The automobile
industry, the white and brown goods and the packaging industries, all offer expanding
prospects.Plastic polymers are classified into thermoplastic and thermo settings.
Thermoplastics include elastomers (unvulcanised), polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyurethane (PU), and resins. Thermo setting
include elastomers (vulcanized), polyethylene (cross linked), phenolics, alkyds,
polyester.The product variation includes PVC 21%, HDPE 25%, LDPE 5%, PS 5%,
PP 33%, LLDPE 8%, and 8% and ABS 3%. Major players in this sector includes
Reliance 32%, IPCL 22%, DCM Sriram 4%, Finolex 5%, Chemplast 3%, DCW 3%,

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etc. the industry has expansion along with expansion of diverse applications. Such as
packaging, extrusions, blow mouldings and industrial mouldings for automobiles,
telecommunication, and white goods. User segments are electrical appliances,
domestic ware, leatherite, decorative laminates, fittings and fixtures, extrusions for
construction industry, automobile components, machinery and equipment, water
tanks, pipes and fittings, drink bottles, medical appliances, weather protection. The
opportunities are also opening up with the expansion and sophistication of food
processing, automobiles, entertainment electronics appliances. Besides these,
industry’s contributions have vital in areas of rural electrification, telecommunication,
horticulture, Medicare, apart from a perceptible change in living styles and standard.
Polymers have found uses in all spheres of life with demand for better materials,
greater functional use, more economical packaging and versatile and durable all-
weather products. The per capita consumption of polymers in India is around 5kg.
The average per capita global consumption of polymers is estimated to be about 17kg.
The plastic and polymer industry has been expanding at a rate of 11% a year.
Presently the consumption/demand is envisaged to estimated at around 5.5 million
tonnes. The demand estimates for all polymers including engineering polymers is
increase from 1.8 million tonnes in 20009-10. It is projected at close to 14 million
tonnes in 2014-15. India is one of the fastest growing polymers market in the world,
and is expected to become the world’s third largest polymers market, after US and
China, within a decades. The significant domestic demand growth is expected from
the user industries such as telecom, food and beverages, packaging, transportation and
consumer durables, and from continues substitution of traditional materials like wood,
metal, glass.The economic reforms initiated in 1991 laid the foundation for achieving
higher economic growth. Consequently, Indian polymer industry has emerged as one
of the fastest growing sectors in the last decade. Products made from plastics are
widely used in packaging, Agriculture, Automobiles, Teletronics, roads and building,
medical applications etc. because of its functionality, cheaper and economical,
aesthetics appeal, inert to chemicals, light in weight etc. these are widely used for
various domestic and industrial applications. New polymers have been developed,
from the different products were produced and with specified quality and
specifications. Continuous innovation has led to use of plastics which has helped to
improve quality and specifications. Continuous innovation has led to use of plastics
which has helped to improve quality of life through internet, globalization increased

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speed of communication, electronic entertainment, Nano technology, space


technology, faster means of transport, advanced surgical equipment etc. with the use
of plastic in bulk quantity, the lifestyle is changing at a much faster rate. The present
per capita consumption of plastic in our country is around 4kg. which is very less, as
compared to global average consumption of 24kg. It is expected that India would be
ranked third just behind USA and China consumption around 125 lakhs. Tons of
plastics by 2010. Thus, the plastic industry has very good future and great
opportunities to do business in the newer products apart from the traditional items.
The major suppliers of LDPE/HDPE/HMDPE& PP are RIL. GAIL, Haldia etc. The
present installed capacity for various polymers is around 45.00 lakhs Tones, which is
likely to increase to 67.00 lakhs Tones by 2010 and 85.00 lakh Tons by
2015.However,the demand at present is around 70.00 lakh tons, which will be
increased to 125.00 lakh tons by 2010 and 220 lakh tons by 2015. In our country
around 15 companies supply various polymers. There are around 25,000 polymer
processing units all over the country with around 75% in the extrusion sector; 18% in
injection moulding,5% in blow molding and rest in Rotomoulding etc. The industry
provide employment to 30 lakhs persons directly andindirectly with the change in the
material substitution, changing in the consumption pattern, plastic have very good
potential for the future.

PLASTIC FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

The usage of plastic have been in all sectors during the last few years. We drive cars
with plastic product, we wear eye glasses with plastic lenses, we sip water from
plastic bottles, connect/talk with friends/family by cell phones, entertain our self with
electronic media etc. plastic is now entering in conductive plastics, which means
plastics can be made of conduct electric current. New efforts and development is
going to use conducting polymers as diverse as paper thin television, and Sensor for
chemical weapon detectors. The new development could propel the production of
light weight, durable, roll up computer monitors. If they could be made cheaper
enough, they can even become our daily newspaper. The consumption of plastic is
likely to grow 5 to 6 times between 2002 to 2030 which means tremendous
opportunities for new entrepreneurs for setting up industry and providing lot of job
opportunities thereby enhancing living standard in the country. Entrepreneurs can
think of blow moulded bottles up to 1 litres. Capacity of packaging of various

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pharmaceuticals/cosmetic products. Similarly they can think of blow moulded


Container from 5 ltr. to 220 ltr.cap.for packaging of oils, chemicals powder etc., With
the help of heavy duty injection moulding machines items like buckets, chairs/stools,
luggage, Moulded crates, Dust Bin etc. could be manufactured. nay, Electronic
Components, Air tight containers, Automobile, Electrical household components, etc.
can also manufactured by smaller type of injection moulding machine. With the help
of Extruder Machine, single/6two/three/five-layer films, stretch/cling films, laminated
sheets, cast film. Woven fabric/sacks etc. can be thought6 of similarly,
HDPE/LDPE/PVC pipes of smaller diametric to large Diameter could be
manufactured by plastic Extrusion Machinery. Other products like Box strapping,
Monofilament Yarn, profile, sheets etc. can also be manufactured by extrusion
machine. Based on various polymers available in the market, hundreds of plastic
product could be manufactured which have demand all over the country.

Plastic and various products are an integral part of the modern world. Different kinds
of plastic products are used by the civilized man in all areas of the daily life. Plastic is
a very important invention of the 20th centuries having far reaching impact on human
welfare. plastic is used in storing, packing, waterproofing and its application can be
seen in agriculture, industry, household, medical and health care and in-service sector.
There will be at least a little bit of plastic in each household irrespective of their
purchasing power. Kerala is a state blessed by abundant rain in the monsoon which
make it difficult for the rubber planter to tap the rubber trees in the most yielding
season. More than 30% of agricultural land in Kerala is used for rubber plantation
with more than 800000 planters spread all over the state. It is therefore only natural
that there is ready market for plastic firms in Kerala for rain guarding purpose.

PLASTICS EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL

The plastic export promotion council (PLEXCOUNCIL) is the apex government body
responsible for the promotion of plastic exports. PLEXCOUNCIL members comprise
scale manufactures and exporters. The council supports exporters by participating in
international trade fairs, exploring new markets, organizing buyer-seller meets both in
India overseas, and engaging in various other promotion and need-based activities.
Total export of plastic products stood at US$ 7.64 billion in DY 2015.

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3.2 COMPANY PROFILE

3.2.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE COMPANY

Hanna polymers Private Limited was incorporated 21 years ago on Friday 20 October
1995 and it is registered at Roc-Ernakulam as Private company Ltd by Shares having
its authorized share capital of Rs.2000000 and paid up capital of
Rs.2000000.According to Hanna polymers as per the information it has reported to
register of companies in Ernakulam its last annual general meeting (AGM) was held
on Wednesday 30 September 2015 and its balance sheet was last filed on Tuesday 31
March 2015.There are over 4 Directors/Officers that hold positions at Hanna
polymers Private Limited. It is categorized as Company Limited shares and an Indian
Non-Government company. Hanna polymers Private Limited’s Corporate
Identification Number(CIN) is U24134KL1995PTC009560 and Registration
Number is 009560.

HANNA POLYMERS PRIVATE LIMITED 3CI SCORE

3CI SCORE FOR Hanna polymers Private Limited is 41 out of 100 which is
considered Average in industry. Hanna polymers Private Limited is also 217 the best
company in India which is involved in natural polymers and modified natural polymer
in primary forms, while there are 130 companies rated inferior than Hanna polymers
Private Limited. The organization is 48th best company in Kerala which is involved in
manufacture of natural polymers and modified natural polymer in primary forms,
while there are 28 companies inferior than Hanna polymers Private Limited. This
company is ranked 578 out of 916 in India for its parent line of business (manufacture
of plastics in primary forms and of synthetic rubber.) this company is ranked 6342 out
of 10918 in India for its top line of business (Manufacture of plastic is primary forms
synthetic rubber.) Score is calculated using the 3Ci score. 1.0 model, this score ranges
from 0 to 100 and measures overall strength of corporation. Scores are calculated
using customer satisfaction index, popularity and various publicity available data. The
various competitors of Hanna polymers Ltd are Kovai polymers Private Ltd, Hi
Range polymers Private Ltd, Haima polymers private Ltd, Ficus polymers Ltd.

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HANNA POLYMERS PRIVATE LIMITED AGE ANALYSIS

Hanna polymers Private Limited started in 1995 i.e., company is 20-year-old. average
age for main line of business (manufacture of natural polymers and modified natural
polymer in primary forms) is 20 years i.e., this company is about same age to its main
industry. Average age for parent line of business(manufacture of plastic in primary
forms and of synthetic rubber.) is 20 i.e., Hanna polymers Pvt.Ltd.is about same age
to its parent industry. Average age for top line of business(Manufacture of basic
chemicals) is 90 years i.e., this company is 1 year older than its tolevel industry. Out
of 347 companies, Hanna polymers Private Limited is 132 and oldest company which
is primarily involved in manufacture of natural polymers and modified natural
polymers in primary forms in India. Out of 76 companies, Hanna polymers Private
Limited is 36th oldest company which is primarily involved in manufacture of natural
polymers and modified natural polymer in primary forms in Kerala.

HANNA POLYMERS PRIVATE LIMITED CAPITAL ANALYSIS

Authorized capital and paid up capital for Hanna polymers Private Limited is
2000000 and 2000000 respectively i.e., for 100 % of authorized capital company has
received payment. Average authorized capital and paid up capital for main line of
business(Manufacture of natural polymers and modified natural polymer in primary
forms) is 8295622 and 5464868 respectively i.e., this company has 24% authorized
and 34% paid up capital in compare to its main industry. average authorized capital
and paid up capital for parent line of business(Manufacture of plastic in primary
forms and of synthetic rubber) is1287359 and 8516370 respectively i.e., this company
has 16% authorized and 23% paid up capital in compare to its parent industry.
Average authorized capital and paid up capital for top line of business (Manufacture
of basic chemicals) is 26445435 and 13983993 respectively i.e., this company has 8%
authorized and 14% paid up capital in compared to its top industry. Hanna polymers
Private Limited is a sister concern of Trinity polymer Distributors. the products from
Hanna polymers are: printed covers for industrial use and food products, packing
covers and sheets, plain covers and sheets in PP,HDPE, and LDPE. Hanna polymers
also deal with textile bags. tea bag liners, nursery bags(black and white) and packing
covers up to 50inch width.

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CLASSIFICATION OF INVENTORY

The inventory can be broad categorized as raw materials, work in progress, packaging
material and finished products. But under these inventory groups there are inventory
items. Under the category of raw material, the items are
polypropylene(PP),Polyethylene (LDPE), HPPE/HM, HDPE, LLDPE, pigment or
color under the work-in progress category the items include tube and rolls. As the
packing material the various items bags, plastic covers and other related items. The
different item of finished products are printed covers, Havai cover, bakery cover, rain
guarding films, necessary bags, crump covers, plain sheets and liners. These
mentioned are the different inventory groups and the items under these groups.

3.2.2 MISSION OF THE COMPANY


Our mission is to enable empower and pave way for every MSME to grow ,succeed
and scale without any geographical or technological limitations ,by making global
trade safe & easy and prepare them to compete with large enterprises locally as well
as globally.

3.2.3 VISION OF THE COMPANY

To be the most trusted global trade platform for MSMEs to effectively promote &
grow their business. Our primary purpose being to serve the unmet needs of SMEs
and provide complete end-to-end solution for overseas business to easily and
effectively connect with Indian SMEs.

3.2.4 OBJECTIVES

-Strengthening competitive position.

-Maximizing space and infrastructure utilization.

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3.2.5 ORGANIZATION CHART

MANAGING DIRECTORS

ADMINISTRATIVE
OFFICER

DEPARTMENTS

Purchase dept Production Marketing dept Accounts Personnel dept


dept dept

Purchase Works Marketing Accounts Officer


Manager Manager Manager Manager

Staff Employees Staff Assistant Assistant

Figure - 3.1: Showing the organization chart

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ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Hanna polymers Pvt. Ltd., has been, managed by a group of four talented people from
different avenues of life. Their rich experience in business agriculture and industries
has benefited lot to the company in achieving its goals. The main object for which the
company is established for the manufacture and marketing of plastic sheets and covers
and polythene bags etc. Mr. Tom J Kallarackal, managing Director, with his
charismatic personality leads the company along with three other Directors himself is
an experienced business man, Industrialist and graduate who has passed I.C.W.A.I.
examination. He is also a director of Pala Chits and Finance Pvt. Ltd. and M/S
agrochemicals Pala. Mr. Sojan Jacob, whole time Director of Hanna Polymers Pvt.
Ltd is also a director of Pala Chits and Finance Pvt.Ltd. He is a commerce graduate
Mr. Sunny Jacob and Mr. Sabu J Kallarakal are other managers.

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3.2.6 DEPARTMENT DETAILS

FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENT

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

Administrative Structure Of Purchase Department

General Manager

Purchase Officer

Assistants

Figure - 3.2 : Showing the administrative structure of purchase department

Purchase department is the key department of HANNA POLYMERS.


Purchasing departments consists of the general managers, purchasing officers and
assistants. Any decisions in the purchase department are taken by the general
managers. In case of absence of general managers the secretary is in charge.

FUNCTIONS OF PURCHASE DEPARTMENTS ARE-

• Purchase of raw materials as per the requirements of the production department.

• Formulate purchase committee of the purchase of materials.

• Selection the optimum cost for purchase.

• Avoiding the time lag between the ordering and purchase of materials.

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PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

Structure of Production Department

General Manager

Production

Administrative Officer

Assistants

Figure - 3.3 : Showing the structure of production department

The major activities of production and planning departments are to monitor the
progress of production and advice the factories to produce product according to the
estimates. Production and planning department includes one Administrative Officer
two chemists and assistant.

The production is headed by the General Manager (Production). He is also in


charge of some other activities of HANNA POLYMERS. Followed by the GM, and
administrative officer and two senior chemist are working. HANNA POLYMERS
planning and production department has its own office in each organisation.

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SALES AND MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Structure of Marketing Department

General Manager Sales

Sales Officer

Assistants

Figure - 3.4 : Showing the structure of marketing department

The Sales Department is headed by a manager called General Manager for


Commerce. All the activities of sales department are to be approved by the managing
director of HANNA. Sales department HANNA. includes, in addition to the General
Manager for sales officer, two assistants. The sales and marketing department of
HANNA plays a very vital in the efficient running of the organization.

Success of every organization depends up on its sales and marketing department.


The profitability of the corporation depends up on the efficiency of its sales
department.

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ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT

Structure of Finance & Accounts Department

General Manager (F & A)

Manager (F & A) Manager

Administrative Officer

Assistants

Accountants

Figure - 3.5 : Showing the structure of finance and accounts department

This department takes care of the various financial transactions of HANNA, thus
acting as the life of the organization. The department is headed by a General Manager
(F&A) and assisted by two manager’s one in accounts section and other in the cost
section. The finance department is divided in two sections. Account section is
managed by accounts manager and cost section is managed by cost manager. An
administrative officer is working for both sections.

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ACCOUNTING SECTION :-

The accounting section is guided by the accounts manager. One administrative officer
and two assistants and four accountants are working for both accounting section and
cost section.

THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF THE ACCOUNTING SECTION INCLUDES-

• Annual report generation .


• Fund management .
• Interaction with bankers .
• Keeping general accounts of HANNA .
• Preparation of various financial statements of the company.
• Maintaining of payrolls and cash register .
• Coordinating accounting transactions of different factories .
• Taxation .
• Budgeting and expense research .
• Maintenance of internal control system .
• Interaction with external and internal audits.

COSTING SECTION:-

The costing section of HANNA POLYMERS is headed by the manager (cost). It


gives the guidelines to the company about the cost of the products and services. It is a
sub division of finance department. It helps in the budgetary control and forecasting
purpose.
THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF THE COSTING SECTION INCLUDES-

• Maintenance of the cost accounting records as per statutory rules.

• Finding of total cost and per unit cost of various products.

• Stock evaluation of factories on the basis of its category of products.

• Preparation of budgets and budgetary control.

• Advising the top management in case of make or buy decisions.

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QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENTS

Quality control is a procedure or set of procedure intended to ensure that a


manufactured product or performed service adheres to defined set of quality criteria or
meets the requirements of the client or customer. Quality control is similar to, but not
identical with, quality assurance.

PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT

General Manager of personnel &


Administration

Personnel Officer

Administrative Officer

Assistant

Figure - 3.6 : Showing the structure of personnel and administration department

Personnel department is a key department of HANNA, Personal department consists


of the General Manager, Personnel officer & Administrative Officer and one assistant.
It is divided into two Human resources section and Administrative section. The
department is headed by the general manger. The personnel officer is in charge of
personnel section. The department has an administrative officer and 3 assistants.

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ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION :

The main function of administrative section is to maintain the records and


accounts of the company administration. Administration section deals with the overall
administration of each estate and factory. The queries from the estates and factories
are processed through the administrative section. It has the direct link with M.D and
BOD.

The order from other departments are processed through the administrative
department, for e.g. order from the purchase department for the purchase of materials.
All the orders should be sent to the concerned party through the dispatching section.
The dispatching officer will check the paper and issue the papers to the required place.
Administrative section has separate records regarding the details of each estate and
factory. Whenever the details are needed by the management, the administrative
department has the responsibility to provide the sufficient data. Administrative section
has the responsibility to inform all the departments about the meetings and the other
procedures.

MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE DEOARTMENTS ARE –

• Taking care of all related functions needed for the smooth functioning of the
corporation including regular payments of rent, bills, taxes, etc, public
relations.

• Giving necessary guidelines and support to students and others who visit the
corporation for various activities.

• Matters associated with various committees like arbitration, grievance,


disciplinary and defaults.

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3.2.7 PRODUCT DETAILS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

The manufacturing process of plastic films and plastic cover involves the following
stages: -

• Purchase and storing of plastic granules;


The basic raw materials for manufacturing plastic bag and cover is purchases of
granules. Plastic granules are mostly imported in those days. Now they are being
produced in India. Main producers in India are Reliance Industries Ltd. And
IPCL.

• Feeding plastic granules to the hopper;


plastic granules are fed at the hopper of the extrusion plant. Pigment are used if
coloring is necessary.

• Melting with heater;


plastic granules are melted with the help of heater fitted in screw and barrel in
the main plant. This process is autocratic.

• Parson stage
At the stage dye is used. Plastic is used the required size and thickness is formed
here.This stage is automatic.

• Tube stage;
Air is blow in to the parson to make plastic into tube form. After this stage two
parallel process are been adopted for making rain guarding sheet and plastic
diagram.

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PROCESS FLOW CHART

process raw
materials(plastic
granules)

feeding to the
0
hopper

melting the heater

parison (dye) rolls

lowing air (air cutting and


compressor) sealing

tube form

cutting with blade

finished products finished products

packing and
storage

dispatch

Figure - 3.7 : Flow chart showing the process of production.

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CHAPTER-4

DATA ANALYSIS

AND

INTERPRETATION
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Table - 4.1: showing the experience of respondents

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Below 5 years 5 10%
5-10 years 10 20%
10-15 years 25 50%
Above 15 years 10 20%

20% 10%
Below 5
20% years
5-10 years
50%

Figure - 4.1 : Showing the experience of respondents

Interpretation

50% of the respondents are experienced 10-15 years. 20% experienced above 15
years. 20% of the respondents are experienced 5-10 years. Remaining 10% below 5
years.

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Table - 4.2 : Showing compulsion at workplace

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents

Occasionally 5 10%

Sometimes 10 20%

Never 20 40%

Frequently 15 30%
Total 50 100%

10% Occasionall
y
30% Sometimes
20%

40% Never

Figure - 4.2: Showing compulsion at workplace

Interpretation

40% respondents says that there is no compulsion at work place. 30% says that
frequently, 20% says sometimes, other 10% says occasionally.

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Table - 4.3 : Showing the nature of work

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents

Part time - -

Full time 40 80%

over time 10 20%

Total 50 100%

20% 0%
Part time
Full time
over time
80%

Figure - 4.3 : Showing the nature of work

Interpretation

80% respondents work usually full time. Remaining 20% work over time earn money
and also for completing their work.

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Table - 4.4: Showing stress related to work

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents

Yes 5 10%

No 45 90%

Total 50 100%

10%

Yes
No

90%

Figure - 4.4 : Showing stress related to work

Interpretation

90% respondents have the opinion that, they have no stress related to
work. other 10% says they have stress related to work.

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Table - 4.5 : Showing the difficulty in interfacing with superiors

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Occasionally 15 30%

Frequently 35 70%

Never - 0%

Total 50 100%

0% 30%

30% Occasionally
Frequently

70%%

Figure - 4.5 : Showing the difficulty in interfacing with superiors

Interpretation

70% respondents feel difficulty in interacting with superiors frequently. Remaining


30% feel occasionally.

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Table - 4.6 : Showing whether stress affects performance

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents

Sometimes 10 20&

Never 25 50%

Frequently 15 30%

Total 50 100%

20%

30%

50%

Figure - 4.6 : Showing whether stress affects performance

Interpretation

50% respondents reported that stress never affect their performance . 30%
respondents affect stress on their performance frequently. Remaining 20% reported
that sometimes they are also affected by stress.

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Table - 4.7: Showing the taking of physical exercise

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Occasionally 20 40%

Sometimes 15 30%
Frequently 10 20%
Never 5 10%
Total 50 100%

10% 0
Occasionally
20% 40% Sometimes
Never
Frequently
30%

Figure - 4.7: Showing the taking of physical exercise

Interpretation

40% respondents take their physical exercise occasionally. 30% take sometimes.10%
take frequently. Remaining 20% never take physical exercise.

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Table - 4.8 : Showing the respondents spending of their free time

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
With family 30 60%
With friends 10 20%
In club 10 20%
Never 5 10%
Total 50 100%

20%
With family
60% With friends
20% In club

Figure - 4.8: Showing the respondents spending of their free time

Interpretation

60% respondents spent their free time with family. 20% respondents with friends.

Remaining 20% in club.

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Table - 4.9 : Showing whether work stress affects their family life

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Yes 5 10%
No 30 60%

Sometimes 15 30%

Total 50 100%

10%
30% yes
no
60% sometimes

Figure - 4.9 : Showing whether work stress affects their family life

Interpretation

60% respondents reported that stress at work never affect their interface in family life.
30% reported sometimes they are affected. Remaining 10% says it affect in family
life.

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Table - 4.10 : Showing the availability of break time in a day

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Once 20 40%

Twice - 0%
Thrice 30 60%

Total 50 100%

40%
Yes
60%
Total

Figure - 4.10 : Showing the availability of break time in a day

Interpretation

60% of the respondents get break at work place thrice. Remaining 40% get only once
break time in a day.

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Table - 4.11 : Showing whether respondents work with their own


interest

No. of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Yes 50 100%
No - 0%
Total 50 100%

0%

yes
no

100%

Figure - 4.11: Showing whether respondents work with their own interest

Interpretation

100% of the respondents work with own interest.

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Table - 4.12 : Showing the problem related to work place stress

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Yes 10 20%

No 40 80%

Total 50% 100%

20%
Yes
No
80%

Figure - 4.12 : Showing the problem related to work place stress

Interpretation

80% of respondents reported that they have no problem related to work place stress.
Remaining 20% of the respondents have problem related to work place stress.

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Table - 4.13 :Showing the type of stress

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Physiological stress 15 30%
Behavioural stress 5 10%
Psychological stress 30 60%
Total 50 100%

Psysiologic
30% al stress
Behavioura
60% l stress
10%
Psychologic
al stress

Figure - 4.13 : Showing the type of stress

Interpretation

60% of the respondents have psychological stress. 30% have physiological stress.
Remaining 10% have behavioural stress.

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Table - 4.14 :Showing the nature of physiological problem

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Increased blood pressure 15 30%
High cholesterol _ 0%
Heart diseases 5 10%
Burn out 30 60%
Total 50 100%

Increased
blood
30% preasure
High
60% 0% cholesterol

10%
Heart
diseases

Figure - 4.14 : Showing the nature of physiological problem

Interpretation

60% of the respondents are burn out. 30% respondents have increased blood
pressure. 10% have heart diseases.

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Table - 4.15 : showing the nature of behavioural problem

Particulars No.of Percentage


Respondents
Absenteeism 25 50%
Lack of job satisfaction 15 30%
Low performance 10 20%
All the above 0 0%
Total 50 100%

0%
Absentism
20%
50% Lack of job
30%
satisfaction
Low
performance

Figure - 4.15 : Showing the nature of behavioural problem

Interpretation

50% have absenteeism. 30% have lack of job satisfaction. 20% have low
performance.

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Table - 4.16 : Showing the nature of psychological problem.

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Poor decision making 10 20%
Lack of concentration 15 30%
Forget fullness 25 50%
All the above 0 0%
Total 50 100%

0 20% Poor decision


making
50% Lack of
30% concentration
Forget
fullness

Figure - 4.16 : Showing the nature of psychological problem.

Interpretation

50% are having the problem of forget fullness. 30% are having the problem of lack of
concentration. Remaining 20% having the problem of poor decision making.

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Table - 4.17: Showing the stress management techniques adopted by


the organization.

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
Physical fitness
programme 0 0%
Counseling 35 70%
Relaxation 15 30%
Total 50 100%

0% Physical fitness
programmme
30%
Counseling
70%

Relaxation

Figure - 4.17 : Showing the stress management techniques adopted by the


organization.

Interpretation

70% of the respondents choose counseling and 30% of the respondents choose
relaxation.

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Table - 4.18 : Showing the extent of effectiveness in stress


management strategies.

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
To a great extent 35 70%
To a small extent 10 20%
Not at all 5 10%
Total 50 100%

10%
To a great
extent
20% To a small
extent
70%
Not at all

Figure - 4.18 : Showing the extent of effectiveness in stress management


strategies.

Interpretation

70% of the respondents are getting techniques effective to great extent.20% to a small
extent.10% respondents get nothing at all.

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Table - 4.19 : Showing the reason for stress

No.of
Particulars Percentage
Respondents
work load 25 50%
Inter personal relations 10 20%
Job condition 10 20%
Aggressive of superiors 5 10%
Total 50 100%

10%
work load
20%
50%
Inter personal
20% relations
Job concition

Figure - 4.19 : Showing the reason for stress

Interpretation

50%of the respondents get stress because of work load.20% get stress because of inter
personal relations. Another 20% get stress because of job conditions.10% get stress
because of aggressive of superiors.

67
CHAPTER-5

FINDINGS

SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION


St.Paul’s College

5.1 FINDINGS

• Most of the respondents are experienced.

• Most of the respondents agree that there is no any compulsion at work place.

• Most of the respondents work for full time.

• Most of the respondents spent their free time with family.

• All the respondents work with their own interest.

• Most of the respondents are suffering from stress because of workload.

• Majority of the respondents get improvement by practicing stress

management.

• Most of respondents prefer counseling for the retrieval from the stress.

• Most of the respondents have psychological problem because of stress.

68
St.Paul’s College

5.2 SUGGESTIONS

A Small percentage of the employees did have high stress. Person facing stress at the
organizational level of lot of psychological problems in the form of decreased
motivation, absenteeism low productivity targets not being achieving etc. as a reedy
for the above said employees facing stress are advised to attend stress management
courses which will help them to build coping strategies and cause out their stress. The
stress management course comprise of a package program consisting of:

• Relaxation.
• Positive outlook towards works / responsibilities.
• Self analysis through personality type testes.
• Inter personal skill development.
• Protection yoga cum meditation.
• Time management.
• At the individual level the employees could practice a relaxing holiday
(where in quality time is spent with the family) every fortnight or
mouth.
• Realize excessive use of tea / coffee cigarette is not answer to stress.
• Try to get 6-7 hrs of continuous sleep per day.

• Broadened study must be done to understand about stress and its causatives
• Give awareness about the after effects of stress.
• Give them relaxation techniques like yoga, counseling, etc. From their
workplace itself
• Employees must be given at least 2 days off in a week.
• Give public awareness sections to make the employees aware the importance
of stress management in their life.
• . Increase the number of staff members, so that work load can be reduced to
great extend and thereby employees are relieved from tensions.

69
St.Paul’s College

5.3 CONCLUSION

The present study was conducted at “HANNA POLYMERS PRIVATE


LIMITED,THODUPUZHA ”. The aim was to find the stress levels, personality type
of the employees. This was done using a detailed questionnaire. The study revealed
that fall under low stress category only a small percentage is highly stressed & needed
prevailing in the organization to some extent. The process of stress management is
named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society.

At the end of the study, we can conclude that through there are signs of stress among
the employees and such stress is affecting their behaviors, it can be controlled and
reduced effectively.

This can be done by giving counseling and incorporating the suggestions given here
in at individual and organization level.

70
BIBILIOGRAPHY
BOOKS:

• KOTTER PHILIP, MARKETTING MANAGEMENT- PRENCICE HALL


OF INDIA Pvt. Ltd.

• Potty .LR, Research Methodology, Thiruvananthapuram, Yamuna


Publications.
• Motzer SA, Hertig V (2004). Stress, stress response and health.
• Anspaugh DJ, et al. (2011). Coping with and managing stress.

WEBSITES
• http://www.nhai.org/
• http://www.weforum.org/
• http://www.wikipedia.com/
• http://www.etintelligence.com/
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE

A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT ADOPTED BY HANNA POLYMERS


PRIVATE LIMITED

Name :

Age :

Designation :

Gender :

Department :

Service :

1. How many years of experience do you have?

□ Below 5 years
□ 5-10 years
□ 10-15 years
□ Above 15 years

2.Do you have any compulsion at your work place?

□ Occasionally
□ Sometimes
□ Never
□ Frequently
3.What is the nature of your work usually?

□ Overtime
□ Full time
□ Part time

4.Do you have any stress related to your work?

□ Yes
□ No

5.Did you ever felt any difficulty in affecting with superiors?

□ Occasionally
□ Frequently
□ Never

6. Did you feel that stress affect your performance at any time?

□ Sometimes
□ Frequently
□ Never

7. How often do you take physical exercise?

□ Occasionally
□ Sometimes
□ Frequently
□ Never

8. How do you spent your free time?

□ With family
□ With friends
□ In club
9. Did stress at work interfere in family life?

□ Yes
□ No
□ Sometimes

10. How many times you get break at your workplace?

□ Once
□ Twice
□ Thrice

11. Do you work with your own interest?

□ Yes
□ No

12.Do you face any problem related to work place stress?

□ Yes
□ No

13.lf yes what type of problem?

□ Physiological stress
□ Behavioural stress
□ Psychological stress

14. What type of physiological problem?

□ Increased blood pressure


□ High cholesterol
□ Heart diseases
□ Burn out
15. What type of behavioural problems?

□ Absenteeism
□ Lack of job satisfaction
□ Low performance
□ All the above

16. What type of psychological problems

□ Poor decision making


□ Lack of concentration
□ Forget fullness

17.Specify the stress management techniques adopted by the organization?

□ Physical fitness program


□ Counselling
□ Relaxation

18.To what extent these techniques are effective in managing stress?

□ To get extent
□ To a small extent
□ Not at all

19.Lack of communication causes stress?

□ Strongly agree
□ Agree
□ Cannot say
□ Disagree
□ Strongly disagree

20.To you what are the reasons for stress?

□ Workload
□ Inter personal relations
□ Aggressive of superiors
□ Job conditions