© All Rights Reserved

0 views

© All Rights Reserved

- FLUID MECHANICS AND PIPE FLOW: TURBULENCE, SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS
- viscous incompressible flow.
- PredictionOfSandErosionInProcess_tcm60-8476
- Fluid Mechanics (experiment)
- 2010 Hydrodynamic Slugging
- 13390 Lund Paper
- Radyadour_Kh._Zeytounian_auth._Navier-Stokes-Fourier_Equations_A_Rational_Asymptotic_Modelling_Point_of_View.pdf
- Lecture_no3_Turbulent_flow_Modelling.pdf
- Mandorle
- Heat transfer and friction behaviors in rectangular Duct with Two Different Ribs
- BFM-Ch5
- V001T01A043-87-GT-148
- Siemens-SITRANS-FUP1010-man-A5E02951522rAC-2013-01.pdf
- k18490en
- CFD SIMULATIONS OF BENZENE –TOLUENE SYSTEM OVER SIEVE TRAY
- 2016-01-8099
- Protech Bearing Isolator Seal Theory
- Temperature Modelling for Nodal Analysis_M.sc_thesis_R.sharifian
- Ggjfg
- j124 Cmame Card

You are on page 1of 11

Chapter 17 Page 2 of 11

Problem 2.

∆p = f (L, a, ρ, µ, ω, U )

[∆p] = M L−1 t−2 , [L] = L, [a] = L, [ρ] = M L−3 , [µ] = M L−1 t−1 , [ω] = t−1 , [U ] = Lt−1 .

Π1 ≡ a C 1 ρ C 2 U C 3 L C 4

≡ LC1 (M L−3 )C2 (Lt−1 )C3 LC4

Therefore,

L : C1 − 3C2 + C3 + C4 = 0

M: C2 =0

t: −3C3 =0

C 4

L

Π1 ≡ . (1)

a

Next,

Π 2 ≡ aC 5 ρ C 6 U C 7 µ C 8

C8

≡ LC5 (M L−3 )C6 (Lt−1 )C7 M L−1 t−1

Therefore,

L : C5 − 3C6 + C7 − C8 = 0

M: C6 + C8 =0

t: −C7 − C8 =0

C 8

µ

Π2 ≡ . (2)

aρU

2

Chapter 17 Page 3 of 11

Next,

C12

≡ LC9 (M L−3 )C10 (Lt−1 )C11 t−1

Therefore,

L : C9 − 3C10 + C11 = 0

M: C10 =0

t: −C11 − C12 =0

aω C9

Π3 ≡ . (3)

U

Next,

1

≡ LC13 (M L−3 )C14 (Lt−1 )C15 M L−1 t−2

Therefore,

M: C14 + 1 =0

t: −C15 − 2 =0

∆p

Π4 ≡ . (4)

ρU 2

C4 C 8

∆p L µ aω C9

≡C . (5)

ρU 2 a aρU U

where, C, C4 , C8 , C9 are constants.

C2

∆p L

= C1 (Re)C3 (St)C4 . (6)

ρU 2 a

where, C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 are constants.

3

Chapter 17 Page 4 of 11

Problem 3.

Morgan and Young invoke the following assumptions: (1). A collar-like stenosis may be

approximated by a smooth, rigid, axisymmetric constriction in a long straight tube, (2).

The effect of the stenosis geometry is dominant and any influence of wall distensibility is

negligible, (3). Blood can be treated as a Newtonian fluid at the flow rates encountered

in the large arteries where stenosis commonly occur, (4). Blood flow is laminar, and (5).

Steady flow assumption is acceptable although the arterial blood flow is pulsatile.

The stenosis is shown in the following figure: The dimensional variables are designated by

ˆ. The axial coordinate and velocity are ẑ and û. Û is the centerline velocity. The radial

coordinate is r̂ and the corresponding velocity component is v̂. The dimensionless variables

2

are: r = r̂/R0 , z = ẑ/R0 , R = R̂/R0 , u = û/Ū0 , v = v̂/Ū0 , U = Û /Ū0 , and p = p̂/ρŪ0 ,

where, Ū0 is the average velocity in the unobstructed tube, and p̂ is the pressure and ρ is

the density.

The usual continuity, axial momentum, and radial momentum equations for axisymmetric

flow in a tube are considered. The dimensionless momentum equations involve the Reynolds

number, Re = 2R0 Ū0 ρ/µ, where µ is the fluid viscosity. By integrating the axial momentum

equation over the cross section of the tube and by invoking the no slip condition, u = v = 0 at

the wall of the vessel, the integral momentum equation is developed. Next, by multiplying

the axial momentum equation by ru, and integrating over the cross section, the integral

energy equation is developed. It is now noted that in these two equations, the terms due to

the viscous component of the normal stress in the axial direction (∂ 2 u/∂z 2 ) are negligible.

Next, an important observation is made in regard to the pressure gradient ∂p/∂z. It is

noted that the pressure gradient ∂p/∂z is independent of the radial coordinate r for flow in

a straight tube, whereas for flow in a constricted tube the pressure gradient will, in general,

vary over the cross section. However, if the integral energy equation is multiplied by R2 the

resulting integral involving the pressure gradient is equal to the corresponding integral in

the integral momentum equation for two special cases: (i) ∂p/∂z is independent of r; (ii) the

velocity u is independent of r. Since these two conditions are approached in a constriction,

i.e. in the gradually varying initial portion of the constriction the pressure gradient is nearly

constant and in the rapidly converging portion the velocity profile tends to become flattened,

we may let, Z R Z R

∂p 2 ∂p

r dr ≈ R ru dr. (1)

0 ∂z 0 ∂z

4

Chapter 17 Page 5 of 11

This approximation would enable the elimination of the pressure gradient term in both the

integral momentum and integral energy equations. Then it is possible to combine the integral

momentum and energy equations into a single equation in terms of axial velocity:

Z R Z R " Z 2 #

R

1 2∂ ∂ 2 ∂u ∂u

R ru3 dr − ru2 dr = − R2 r dr + R . (2)

2 ∂z 0 ∂z 0 Re 0 ∂r ∂r R

r = 0; (iv) ∂ 3 u/∂r3 = 0 at r = 0; and, (v) the condition that the net flow through any cross

section must be the same for any incompressible fluid which may be expressed by:

Z R

1

r u dr = . (3)

0 2

In the above, the condition (iii) is derived from a consideration of the forces on a cylindrical

element having its axis along the tube centerline. If the pressure and the inertial forces

are to be finite as the radius of the element approaches zero, the viscous force, which is

proportional to ∂u/∂r, must approach zero. The condition (iv) is developed by eliminating

the pressure between the axial momentum and radial momentum equations and considering

the resulting equation as r approaches zero.

Next, it is noted that at high Reynolds numbers, the profile must allow a thin region of

high shear near the wall in the converging section with a relatively flat profile in the core.

To accommodate these requirements, Morgan and Young construct a polynomial fit which

permits the shear near the wall to become large while maintaining a flat core flow. This fit

is given by,

r r 2 r 4 r

u = U for 0 ≤ ≤ λ, and, u = a + b +c for λ ≤ ≤ 1, (4)

R R R R

where a, b, and c are unknown coefficients and λ is the value of (r/R) at the juncture sepa-

rating the flat and polynomial parts of the profile. The unknown coefficients are determined

from the no slip condition along with two compatibility conditions u = U and ∂u/∂r = 0

at (r/R) = λ. The constraint (v) enables expressing λ in terms of R and U . Thus the

polynomial fit profile for u is entirely in terms of U , r, and R. The profile is now introduced

into the equation (2). The resulting first order, non-linear ordinary differential equation is

numerically solved by assuming that Poiseuille flow prevails far upstream of the stenosis.

The solution provides the desired velocity profiles. These are plotted by Morgan and Young.

The wall shear stress is evaluated from

2

∂ û

τ̂w = µ 1 + R̂0 , (5)

∂r̂

R̂

where R̂0 is the slope dR̂/dẑ of the wall. The results are included in the paper by Morgan

and Young.

5

Chapter 17 Page 6 of 11

Problem 4.

In a pure pressure-gravity flow, the effects of friction are negligible compared with the effects

due to changes of the external pressure and the elevation in the gravity field. Lengthwise al-

terations of speed, pressure, area, etc., are brought about by changes in pe and z. Changes in

pe may be brought about by : (i) active muscle tone; (ii) elastic constrictions, or sphincters,

as where veins pass from the abdominal cavity to the thoracic cavity, and in the pulmonary

system; (iii) weights, (iv) pressurizing cuffs, and (v) clamps etc.,. Changes in z are important

because (i) in the vertical position of a human being, the hydrostatic pressure exceeds the

venous and arterial pressure levels;(ii) during aircraft maneuvers; and, (iiI) during certain

phases of space flight when effective g may be greatly increased.

Retaining only the terms in d(pe + ρgz) in the table of influence coefficients for the tube law,

3

−P ≈ α−n − 1, and, n = , (1)

2

the governing equations of a pure pressure-gravity flow are written as,

1 dα 2 3 dΠ

1 − S2 = − α2 , (2)

α dx 3 dx

and,

1 dS 2 1 3 dΠ

1 − S2 = + α2 , (3)

S 2 dx 3 dx

where,

(pe + ρgz)

Π= . (4)

Kp

Dividing equation (3) by equation (2) and integrating, for a pure pressure-gravity flow we

have,

α A u −1

= = = S −4 , (5)

α∗ A∗ u∗

where, ∗ denotes the value of the quantity at S = 1. For the tube law given by equation (1),

the wave speed is known to be,

1

nKp α−n 2

3

c= , n= . (6)

ρ 2

From equations(5) and (6),

c α − 43

= = S 3. (7)

c∗ α∗

Also, from Bernoulli’s theorem,

(p − p∗ ) 8 g (z ∗ − z)

1 = 1 − S + . (8)

2

ρc∗ 2 c∗ 2

With equation (8), and by the elimination of α from equation (3) using equation (5), Shapiro

develops,

1 ∗ 23

α dΠ = S 4 (1 − S 2 )dS 2 . (9)

3

6

Chapter 17 Page 7 of 11

1 ∗ 32 1 6 1 8

α (Π − Π∗ ) =

S −1 − S −1 . (10)

3 3 4

Shapiro provides graphs of equation(10). The graphs show that increasing values of Π drive

S towards unity and decreasing values of Π drive S away from unity. From these, it is

concluded that: (i) Choking occurs when the value of Π continually increases with either

S < 1 or S > 1; (ii) Continuous transition through S = 1 may be achieved by means of an

increase in Π until S = 1 is reached, with dΠ/dx becoming zero exactly at S = 1 followed

then by a decrease of Π.

7

Chapter 17 Page 8 of 11

Problem 5.

To determine the volume flux for the flow with the Power-law model, consider an annu-

lar volume element of length L and thickness dr in the flow, as shown in the figure below:

a

dr

r

Let there be a constant pressure gradient, −∆p/L, across the element of length L.

∆p

Force due to pressure gradient on the annular element = + (2πrL) dr. (1)

L

This must be balanced by shear force which is given by,

d

Shear force = (2πdr) L (rτ ). (2)

dr

Therefore,

d ∆p

(rτ ) = r (3)

dr L

∆p r c

τ = + (4)

L 2 2

where c is a constant. The stress is finite at axis r = 0. Therefore c = 0 and hence, from 4,

∆p r

τ= . (5)

L 2

For a power-law fluid,

τ = µγ̇ n . (6)

1

∆p r n

Therefore γ̇ = . (7)

L 2µ

In this problem, since velocity is a function of r only,

du

γ̇ = − . (8)

dr

8

Chapter 17 Page 9 of 11

From equations 7 and 8,

1

du ∆p r n

=− . (9)

dr L 2µ

The no-slip condition at the wall requires that

u = 0 at r = a. (10)

1/n

∆p n n+1 n+1

u= a n −r n . (11)

2µL n+1

Z R

Q= 2πrudr. (12)

0

Z a

2 du

Q=π r − dr. (13)

0 dr

Z a 1/n

2 ∆p r

Q = π r dr (14)

0 L 2µ

1/n

∆p nπ 3n+1

= a n (15)

2µL 3n + 1

When n = 1,

∆p π 4

Q = a (16)

2µL 4

4

πa ∆p 3n+1

= a n

8µ L

9

Chapter 17 Page 10 of 11

Problem 6.

To determine the volume flux for the flow with Herschel-Bulkley model, we first note that

τ = µγ̇ n + τ0 , τ ≥ τ0

and γ̇ = 0 , τ < τ0 (1)

There is yield stress and as a consequence the flow region includes plug flow in the core as

shown in figure Let the radius of the plug flow region be rp .

rp

Core region

Velocity profile

Therefore in the core, γ̇ = 0. (3)

du

Therefore in the core, = 0. (4)

dr

Therefore,

u = constant (5)

= up (say) (6)

(7)

For a constant pressure gradient, − (∆p/L), across an element of length L in the core of

region, from a force balance,

∆p

2πrp Lτ0 = πrp 2 L (8)

L

2τ0

Thus, rp = (9)

(∆p/L)

∆p rp

τ0 = (10)

L 2

Outside the core region, with u = u(r), just as in problem 5,

1

du ∆p n 1

=− (r − rp ) n . (11)

dr 2µL

10

Chapter 17 Page 11 of 11

By integration,

1/n

∆p n n+1

u=− (r − rp ) n + C. (12)

2µL n+1

where C is a constant of integration.

Now, at r = a, u = 0 (no-slip condition). Therefore,

1/n

∆p n n+1 n+1

u= (a − rp ) n − (r − rp ) n . (13)

2µL n+1

We can also calculate the plug velocity by setting r = rp in equation 12. Thus,

1/n

∆p n n+1

up = (a − rp ) n . (14)

2µL n+1

Z a

2

Q = πrp up + 2πrudr. (15)

rp

1/n

∆p nπ 3n+1 h 2 n+1 2n+1

Q = a n ξ (1 − ξ) n + (1 + ξ)(1 − ξ) n

2µL n+1

2n 3n+1 2n 2n+1

− (1 − ξ) n − ξ(1 − ξ) n (17)

3n + 1 2n + 1

When τ0 = 0, the Herschel-Bulkley model reduces to the Power-law model. Therefore, with

τ0 = 0 and ξ = 0, equation 17 reduces to the result of problem 5.

11

- FLUID MECHANICS AND PIPE FLOW: TURBULENCE, SIMULATION AND DYNAMICSUploaded bydobie_e_martin
- viscous incompressible flow.Uploaded bymustafaleeds
- PredictionOfSandErosionInProcess_tcm60-8476Uploaded byMelvin Leong
- Fluid Mechanics (experiment)Uploaded bysimple-CE-stud
- 2010 Hydrodynamic SluggingUploaded bywiwiz2000
- 13390 Lund PaperUploaded byFelliolLlallacachi
- Radyadour_Kh._Zeytounian_auth._Navier-Stokes-Fourier_Equations_A_Rational_Asymptotic_Modelling_Point_of_View.pdfUploaded byFakg
- Lecture_no3_Turbulent_flow_Modelling.pdfUploaded byBayu Deni Ardiya
- MandorleUploaded byimana nushif
- Heat transfer and friction behaviors in rectangular Duct with Two Different RibsUploaded byIJSTE
- BFM-Ch5Uploaded byVignesh Ram
- V001T01A043-87-GT-148Uploaded bymiguel
- Siemens-SITRANS-FUP1010-man-A5E02951522rAC-2013-01.pdfUploaded byrcorinto
- k18490enUploaded byapi-3759223
- CFD SIMULATIONS OF BENZENE –TOLUENE SYSTEM OVER SIEVE TRAYUploaded byLucas Wilson
- 2016-01-8099Uploaded byParitosh Parashar
- Protech Bearing Isolator Seal TheoryUploaded bySanjoy Kr. Dey
- Temperature Modelling for Nodal Analysis_M.sc_thesis_R.sharifianUploaded byAnonymous Vbv8SHv0b
- GgjfgUploaded byashu070390
- j124 Cmame CardUploaded bymkb
- Fluid Flow TerminologyUploaded byboxe80
- Acta Mechanica Volume 33 issue 3 1979 [doi 10.1007_bf01175916] S. S. Bishay Hanna -- On the unsteady flow of viscous fluid between two plates.pdfUploaded bySrinivas Jangili
- The Haemodynamic Effects of the Perioperative Terlipressin Infusion in Living Donor Liver Transplantation_ a Randomised Controlled StudyUploaded byAbimael Cardenas
- Wellbore Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in the Doublet of Enhanced Geothermal System-20160422-160701528Uploaded byGisell Chu
- BCs_Fluent-v6.3.04Uploaded byplabon
- FM OldUploaded byRavi Malik
- 0000409Uploaded byField Marshal Thebe Hanyane
- Spielman.pdfUploaded byDaniel Chiriac
- Frictional Resistance of a Forest EdgeUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- 10. Internal ForcedConvection ChannelFlowUploaded byEn Csak

- Food Storage Calculator SpreadsheetUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- AE221_L4_T2-2Uploaded byAnmol Kumar
- DLE 120 User ManualUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- fvdUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- End Semester Question Paper With Model SolutionUploaded bySwapnil Rahane
- LicenseUploaded bydeenurathor
- Yadav 2013Uploaded byAnmol Kumar
- pptUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- csdscsadccdsUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- ASIO4ALL v2 Instruction ManualUploaded byAndrew Dprssn GavriLuv
- Registration2 FormUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Wikipedia OrgUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 5.26 (1)Uploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 5.41Uploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 4.9Uploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 1-s2.0-S0735193306000121-mainUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 26_ParallelPlateUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- AMP1.pptUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- 06-PT11-Axial Flow Compressors [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byAshok Kumar Yalamanchili
- control assignment 3.pdfUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Orr-Sommerfeld Equation DerivationPDFFUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Chapter 3Uploaded bysamik4u
- Assignment 4madrassUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Assignment-1_iit madrass_cht.pdfUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Assignment-1_iit madrass_cht.pdfUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Assignment-1.pdfUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Prand Bach TheorumUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- VShankar Stability IntroUploaded byAndrea Cn

- Flash drum designUploaded byUmi Hikari
- Perkembangan Teori CahayaUploaded bykojo_87
- Shade SelectionUploaded bydr_gaurav6891
- Alshaiban AhmadUploaded byNhan Nguyen Van
- FRAME (Metric)Uploaded byRicardo Vázquez
- Lecture 12 - Enzyme Kinetics IUploaded byThomas Jones
- Fundamentals of Microwave SuperconductivityUploaded bybmsprague
- 03 Process Equipment Design - BasicsUploaded byshashi
- Effects of EarthquakesUploaded byRobin Bedi
- WJ_1980_06_s170Uploaded byabraham silva hernandez
- Micro MillingUploaded byBhushan Chhatre
- 013106 Digital Image RustUploaded byCristian Cisternas
- FOTOELASTICIDAD - C 1279Uploaded byErick Sánchez
- EGE15B6Uploaded byJhonny Rafael Blanco Caura
- 3 Properties of SteelUploaded byVijay Salke
- Lecture 4. FEMUploaded byRaul Pozo
- Review of design philosophy.docxUploaded byNambiyanna Davanagere
- Falling Head MethodUploaded byYash PersÌe
- Pipette CalibrationUploaded bybalajivangaru
- ChiiUploaded byRam Kumar
- 3LPE Coating Specs.docUploaded byRudra Pandit
- Choi_Dissertation.pdfUploaded bySudarshan Sridharan
- Cive1400 Problem Sheet 200607 SolutionsUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- Waves & OscillationsUploaded byDewan Olin Chotepadae
- 21-03-advdifflsgUploaded byjacobus_vanthoff
- 38291130-inst-lab-1Uploaded byMowaten Masry
- Bonding PacketUploaded byrajaijah
- McQuay AHUUploaded byJustine Morris Arcayna Refuerzo
- Bitsat 2014 Syllabus for ChemistryUploaded byNiranjan Savarirajalu
- Understanding the Effectiveness of Polycarboxylates as Grinding Aids.pdfUploaded byTran Huynh Nam