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CHAPTER 15 Networking Concepts

1. What is networking? (1)


A network is interconnection of independent computing devices for
sharing information over a shared network medium

2. List (Explain) the goals of networking. (2)


Resource Sharing: Information and devices are made available to
all even from remote places since they are interconnected.
Redundant: Resources are available in more than one system
Cost effective: Sharing of resources means a reduction in the
(hardware/Software) cost
Speed: Network allows communicating, sending files to people
from any part of world in seconds.
Flexible Access: Files stored on any system can be accessed
if there is a network.

3. Explain the types of networking. (3)


Based on the geographical area covered, networks can be classified as
• LAN (Local Area Network): It covers a small geographical area like a
single building, college campus, or home. Data transmission speed is
higher, errors are less and is usually owned by single organizations
• WAN (Wide Area Network): combines multiple LANs that are
geographically separate. Here Data transmission speed is less, error
rate is more. It is not owned by single organization.
• MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): The geographical area covered is
larger than LAN and smaller than WAN. It has importance when it
comes to connecting two offices or organization remotely.
4. List the differences between LAN and WAN (3)
Criteria LAN WAN
Definition Area covered is Area covered is
small large

Speed High Speed Less Speed


Data transfer High Low
rate
Error rate Less High

5. What do you mean by transmission modes? (2)


It gives information on how data flows between communication
devices depending on the media used. It tells the direction of data flow
whether one way or two way. The different modes of communications
are Simplex, Half duplex and Full Duplex.

6. List the differences between simplex, half duplex and full duplex
(3)
Simplex Half Duplex Full Duplex
Communication is Communication is Communication is
unidirectional bidirectional but not bidirectional and
simultaneous. simultaneous.

Only one of the two When one device is Both stations can
devices can transmit, sending, the other can transmit and receive
the other can only only receive and vice simultaneously.
receive. versa
e.g.: Keyboard e.g. Walkie-talkie e.g. Telephone
Network

7. What is a server? (1)


It is a network computer that contains resources that are shared with
other computers within the network.
8. What is a client? (1)
It is a network computer that takes services from the server.
9. Classify and explain servers. (3)
A server is a network computer that contains resources that are
shared with other computers within the network.
Servers can be classified as dedicated and non dedicated
servers.
Non dedicated servers are used in smaller networks where one
system is not dedicated for serving requests. They facilitate
resource sharing but can act as workstations also. Such
networks are usually called Peer- Peer network
Dedicated servers: They are used in bigger networks where one
system is dedicated for the purpose of serving requests which
does not act as a work station. Such networks are called Client
Server networks. Based on exclusive tasks performed they can
be divided into File Server, Print Server, Database server etc.

10. What is Topology? (1)


It refers to the description of the arrangement of a network, including
its nodes and connecting lines
11. What is topology? Explain in detail. (5)
It refers to the description of the arrangement of a network, including
its nodes and connecting lines

Topology Bus
Description 1. All systems are connected to a single long run
cable called Bus
2. Message from the source is broadcasted. Only
intended Nodes accept the message and the
rest discard it.

Diagram

Advantages Easy to install


Uses less cabling than mesh or star
Disadvantages Collision control required.
If Bus breaks, entire network halts.
Not suitable for heavy traffic
We cannot send secured messages

Topology Star
Description 1. All nodes are connected to a central device
like a hub or switch via cables.
2. Performance of the network is dependent on
the capacity of central hub.
Diagram

Advantages Easy to connect or disconnect new nodes


Centralized management helps in monitoring
the network
Disadvantages If the central device fails, whole network goes
down.
The central device is costly
Topology Mesh
Description 1. Every device is interconnected to one another
2. It is an extension to peer to peer network
Diagram

Advantages • Data can be transmitted from different devices


simultaneously.
• It can withstand high traffic
Disadvantages Overall cost of this network is too high as
compared to other network topologies.
Set-up, maintenance and administration of
this topology are very difficult.

Topology Ring
Description 1. Each device is connected to two adjacent
neighbours
2. Sending and receiving of data takes place by
the help of TOKEN
Diagram

Advantages Reduced collision.


Additional components do not affect the
performance of the network.
Disadvantages Slow transmission
If one workstation goes down, entire network
gets affected.
Topology Tree
Description 1. It integrates the characteristics of Star and Bus
Topology.
2. Number of Star networks is connected using
Bus. (Expanded Star Topology)
Diagram

Advantages Expansion of Network is possible and easy.


If one segment is damaged, other segments are
not affected.
Disadvantages As more and more nodes and segments are
added, the maintenance becomes difficult.
12. Explain the different types of cables used in transmission? (3)
Guided media can be classified into a. Twisted Pair b. Co-axial
Cables c. Fiber Optics
Twisted Pair:
Each cable has four pair of wires inside a jacket
Each pair is twisted with different number of twists per inch
The twists help to reduce interference.
They can be further classified into Unshielded Twisted Pair
(UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Co-axial Cables:
A kind of copper cable most commonly used by cable TV
companies.
They carry signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted pair.
It has a central core conductor enclosed in an insulating
covering which in turn is encased in an outer conductor of metal
foil. This outer conductor is covered by a plastic cover.
They can be further classified into ThickNet and ThinNet Co-
axial Cables.
Fiber Optics cables:
It uses the technology of Total internal Reflection.
Data is transmitted at higher speeds and higher bandwidths than
other cables.
They are less prone to interference.

13. Which are the switching technologies used? (2)


Circuit Switching, Message Switching, Packet Switching
14. Explain various networking devices used. (5)
Various networking devices are
a. Workstations: All user computers connected to network which
take services from the server are called workstations. Their
computing capacity is quite less but can contain additional
software on their own disk.
b. Hub: It is a network device used to connect several computers
together. They are commonly used in Star topologies. Its job is
to transmit messages coming in from one port to all other ports.
c. Switch: It is similar to hub but an intelligent hub. They learn the
location of the devices almost instantaneously and hence
messages reach the intended port rather than all ports.
d. Repeater: It is a network device used to regenerate/amplify
signals for long distance transmission.
e. Bridge: They are network devices that join segments of LANs
or divide a network to isolate network traffic problems.
f. Routers: They join multiple networks. Routers can filter traffic
based on IP address. They maintain routing tables and can
handle different protocols.
15. What is gateway? Explain. (5)
It serves as entry and exit point of a network.
All data inward or outward must pass through the gateway to
use the paths.
It is implemented at the boundary of a network.
It manages all data communication that is routed internally or
externally from that network.
If a node wants to communicate with a foreign network, it
passes the data packet to the gateway which then routes to the
destination using best possible route.
16. What is a SIM card? (2)
Subscriber identity module is a microchip that gives the device
its unique phone number.
It has memory, processor and the ability to interact with the
user.
17. What are the advantages of EDGE? (2)
Enhanced Data rates for GSM evolution is a faster version of
GSM.
It is a high speed 3G technology built on GSM.
They deliver multimedia applications at a high speed.
18. Explain the applications of networking. (3).
Wi-Fi:
It is a type of networking that allows devices to communicate without
cables.
It is the most popular means of communication within a fixed
location.
Instant Messaging: It is the transmission of text messages between
phones or IP addresses
Video Conferencing: People are able to communicate with each other
similar to face to face communication with the help of network.
19. What is chatting? (1)
It is a text based communication tool for effective communication
over internet
20. What is network security? (2)
It refers to securing the computer systems and information from
unauthorized access, natural calamities, and any external or internal
threats.
It includes activities to protect the usability, reliability, integrity and
safety of the network.
21. Explain network Security in detail. (5).
It refers to securing the computer systems and information from
unauthorized access, natural calamities, and any external or internal
threats.
Most common threats include
o Physical security: This is where individuals gain unauthorized
physical access and damage files.
o Software Security: The most common software threats include
virus, worms, Trojans, Spyware, DoS attacks, hacker attacks
etc.
The Protection methods include
o Authentication: It provides the way for identifying the user by
having valid user name and password.
o Authorization: It determines whether the user has the authority
to perform some activities.
o Accounting: It gives an account of the resources user has used.
o Firewall: It is a method to prevent unauthorized access to or
from a private network. It can be implemented in both hardware
and software.
22. What is a virus? (1)
They are small software programs that are designed to spread from
system to system and to interfere with the user operations deliberately.
23. Give the measures for preventing Virus. (5)
Virus can be prevented by the following measures
 Use antivirus: Install the latest version of the antivirus.
 Update the antivirus files frequently: Antivirus should be
updated frequently to have protection from the latest virus.
 Update Patches: Turn on the automatic updates in the
Operating system so that it advices on the security issues.
 Scan devices: Always scan the external storage devices
before using
 Install spywares and adware: This prevents and notifies the
user when downloading any harmful contents.
 Always use licensed software.
24. What is cyber law? (1)
Cyber law provides legal recognition for governing cyberspace.
(Cyberspace includes networks, computers, software, data storage
devices, internet and even electronic devices like cell phones, ATM)
25. What are cookies? (1)
They are small encrypted text files located in browser directories.
26. What are hackers? (1)
It refers to any individual who tries to manipulate the normal
behaviour of the network to steal or damage the information.
27. Explain the working of OSI reference model (5)
OSI is a reference Model of how applications can communicate over a
network. It defines a framework using seven layers. They are
• Application Layer: (End User Layer)
– Layer 7 is the only layer to have direct interface with the user.
• Presentation Layer : (Syntax Layer)
– It translates messages from application to network format and
Vice versa by performing Encryption, decryption etc
• Session Layer:
– It is responsible for Establishing, Managing and terminating
sessions
• Transport Layer:
– It ensures reliable data transfer by error checking and data flow
control mechanism
• Network Layer
– Decides which path the data should take based on network
conditions, priority of service, and other factors.
• Data Link Layer
– Responsible for physically identifying devices
• Physical Layer
– Provides hardware means for sending and receiving data on a
carrier.
28. Explain the working of TCP/IP model.
TCP/IP is a reference Model of how applications can communicate
over a network. It defines a framework using four layers. They are

Application Layer: It is the only layer that provides user interface.


This is where client applications are run. Protocols like HTTP, FTP,
and Telnet are present here

Transport Layer: It provides reliable connection oriented


transportation of data. It manages error control and data flow control.
Protocols that work in this layer are TCP, UDP and IP.

Internet Layer: Provides connectionless communication across


networks. It is responsible for breaking data into packets, addressing
and routing.

Network Access Layer: It is responsible for physically transmitting the


data over the medium.
Internet and Open Source
1. What are browsers? (1)
It is client software that navigates through the web server to display web pages.
2. Name some web browsers. (1)
Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google chrome, Netscape navigator.
3. What is URL? (1)
The universal resource locator is an address of a file on internet
4. Write a note on URL. (3)
 It is an address of a file on the internet.
 The address of a website on the internet combines protocols, domain name
with the file path syntax
 URLs should be accurate. Missing even a letter or domain may take to other
websites.
 Example: http://www.csfoundation.in/questionbank/2puc.html

Protocol Domain Directory File name

5. What is http? (1)


It is a protocol used by the World Wide Web for the exchange of information found
on the webpage.
6. What is www? (1)
World Wide Web consists of all public websites connected to the internet.
7. What are the advantages of www? (3)
 Availability of free information
 The same protocol (http) of communication can be used for all services
 Facilitates rapid interactive communication.
 Information is available from anywhere.
 Facilitates exchange of huge volume of data.
8. What are web servers? (3)
It is any internet server that responds to http requests.
It consists of a physical server, server operating system and software used to help
http communication.
The http requests are sent to the web server through web browsers.
9. Name any one web browser. (1)
Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome
10. What is domain? (1)
A domain is a unique name that identifies a website.
11. How do you register a domain? (3)
 Domain names under .biz, .com, .info, .net, .org can be registered through
registrars
 After selecting a domain name, submit the registration request to the
registrar.
 Once the information is furnished, registrar will initiate registration
process.
 Once the information is verified and files are added to master servers, the
domain is considered registered.
12. What is domain affiliation? (1)
The host name has to be registered under some 1st level domain. This process is
domain affiliation
13. What do you mean by web hosting? (1)
Hosting a website means making a website available to public access.
14. What are the steps in web hosting? (3)
 Register the domain name
 Host the web site
 Configure DNS
 Setup Web host manager accounts
 Access Control Panel account
 Add client’s website
15. Expand: (1)
a. FTP: File Transfer Protocol
b. TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
c. HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
d. POP: Post Office Protocol
e. SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
16. What is Telnet? (1 / 3)
 It is a protocol that enables a user to connect to a
remote host or device.
 Using telnet client software, we can connect to a remote host.
 Once the telnet connection is established, the client becomes a virtual
terminal for communicating with remote host.
 In most cases, we need to log in to remote host using account details.
17. What is a webpage? / What is the use of web page? (1)
It is a document written using hyper text mark up language that can be accessed
using a browser.
18. What is a website? (1)
Website is a collection of web pages.
19. Define e-commerce. (1)
It is the paperless exchange of business information using electronic data
interchange (EDI) and related technologies.
20. List the services used in e-commerce. (1/2/3).
 EDI- This includes transfer of business information (like purchase orders,
invoices, account information) through computers.
 EFT: Electronic Fund transfer: It is the process of transferring funds from
customer’s bank account to business entity.
 Internet banking: Consists of advertising practices done by business online..
 Online transaction Processing: Process by which payments are collected via
debit or credit cards.
21. Write advantages of e-commerce. (3)
 Expands marketplace to national and international markets
 Enables customer to shop from any location and 365 days.
 Provides customers with more choices.
 Allows customers to do quick comparisons based on reviews.
22. Explain the types of e-commerce. (3).
 Business –to –Business (B2B): It is the exchange of products, services or
information between businesses. E.g.: Automobile manufacturing
 Business-to-Consumer (B2C): Any business organization that sells their
products, services to consumers over the internet. E.g.: amazon.com
 Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C): It covers transactions between consumers.
E.g OLX
 Consumer-to-Business (C2B): Consumers posts his requirement and
business organization contact consumers to get the deal.
23. How e-commerce works? (3).
 The customer places an order through online.
 Web server sends orders to order manager
 The order manager confirms whether the items are in stock or not.
 If not present, order manager places an order with manufacturer
 If present in the stock, it gives an estimated delivery date and communicates
with merchant system for payment.
 After confirming to have sufficient funds, payment authorization is made.
 After digital transfer of money, order manager requests for despatch of
goods from warehouse.
 Finally goods are delivered to customers digitally or physically.
24. Expand IPR. (1)
Intellectual Property Rights
25. Explain IPR in India. (3)
 The innovative and creative capacity is protected under Intellectual
property system of WTO(World Trade Organization)
 India has consented the agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property
Rights.
 As per the agreement all member countries have to abide to the norms and
standards.
 Accordingly India has setup an intellectual property right administration
which is WTO compatible and very well established at all levels.
 IPR related issues like patents, copyrights, and trademarks are governed by
many acts and rules.
26. Expand WIPO. (1)
World Intellectual Property Organization.

27. Write a note on WIPO. (3).


 World Intellectual Property Organization is a global forum for intellectual
property services, policy and information.
 It is a self funding agency of the United Nations
 Its mission is to lead the development of effective intellectual property
systems.
 It should enable innovation and creativity for the benefit of all.
28. What is Open source software? (1)
Software whose source code is available to view, copy, learn, alter or share
with others is called open source software.
29. Write a note on Open source. (3)
 Open source software is software whose source code is available for view,
copy, learn, alter and sharing.
 Users must accept the terms of a license to use open source software but the
license promote collaboration and sharing.
 It is a combined effort where programmers improve upon the source code
and share the changes within the community so that other members can
help improve it further.
30. What is free software? (1)
Software that ensures that the end users have freedom in using, studying,
sharing and modifying that software
31. Explain free software. (3)
Software is said to be free software if it satisfies the following
 Freedom to run the program for any purpose.
 Freedom to study how the program works.
 Freedom to redistribute copies.
 Freedom to distribute copies of the modified versions.
Free software does not mean just free of cost but refers to availability of free
source code.
32. What is OSS and FLOSS?
Open Source Software whose source code is available to others who would
like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, alter it, or share it.
FLOSS,” meaning “Free/Libre and Open Source Software
33. Expand
a. FLOSS : Free/ Libre and Open Source Software
b. OSS : Open Source Software
c. W3C : World Wide Web Consortium
d. FSF : Free Software Foundation
34. What is FSF? (3)
 The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit
organization founded to support the free software movement.
 It promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and
modify computer software
 It advocates free software movement and acts as agent for several free
software licences.
35. What is W3C?
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community
working to develop web standards.
36. What is OSI?
Open source initiative is an organization dedicated to cause of promoting
open source software. OSI specifies the criteria for open source software and
properly defines the terms and specifications of open source software.
37. List the OSS and FLOSS
Apache HTTP Server, GNOME, MySQL, Firefox are OSS
38. What is freeware?
Freeware is software that can be downloaded, passed around, and distributed
without any initial payment but it is copyrighted. E.g. VLC player, Skype
39. What is shareware?
Shareware follows “Try before you buy”. It lets us try the program for given period of
time and to continue after that users are expected to purchase. E.g. WinZip, Norton
40. What is Proprietary software?
Software whose source code cannot be modified by anyone but the person,
team, or organization that created it and maintains exclusive control over it
is called proprietary software. E.g. Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Word.
.
Web Designing

One Mark Questions


1. What is HTML?
Hypertext Mark up Language is the language used to write web pages.
2. What will be the extension of hypertext mark-up language file?
.htm or .html
3. What is the use of webpage
It is a document written using hyper text mark up language that can be accessed
using a browser
4. What do you mean by domain?
The name of the website is called domain.
5. What do you mean by web hosting?
Making the website available for public over the internet by saving the page on a
web server is called web hosting.
6. What is XML?
Extensible Markup Language is a flexible way to create information formats and
share over internet.
7. What is web scripting?
Web script is a computer programming language for adding dynamic capabilities to
World Wide Web pages.
8. What is DHTML?
Dynamic HTML is a collection of technologies used to create interactive and
animated websites.
9. What is a form?
Html forms are part of the web document used to edit and send data to a server
10. Mention the use of HTML.
HTML is the language used to design the web pages.
11. Give the purpose of TH tag.
It is used to give table heading in a table.
12. What is the purpose of anchor tag?
Anchor tag is used to create hyper text link
13. What is the use of Netscape?
Netscape navigator is a browser used to open web pages.
Two Mark Questions
1. What are text files?
Files which have the extension .txt and that can be edited using a text editor is
called text editor.
2. With the help of syntax include images in web page
<img src = “C:\abc.jpeg” width =”50” height =”25”>
3. Write the steps for creating web page.
Step1: Open any text editor
Step2: Type the html code
Step3: Save the file with .html extension
The webpage is now created.

Three mark questions


1. Explain any three text formatting tags in html.
<b> Defines a text in bold.
<i> Defines the text in italics
<sub> Defines the text in subscripted form
<sup> Defines the text in superscript form
<u> </u> The text in between is underlined.
<center> Displays the text in the centre of the line.
</center>
2. What is web scripting?
 Web script is a computer programming language for adding dynamic
capabilities to World Wide Web pages.
 It uses small programs that are executed based on user interaction
with a web page. Scripting is widely used as part of web development
which includes web design, web content development and network
security configuration. Web scripts can run in one of two places: the
client side also called the front-end, and the server side, also called
the back-end.
3. What is the use of PHP files?
 PHP is an acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor"
 PHP is a widely-used, open source scripting language
 PHP scripts are executed on the server
 PHP is not limited to output HTML, it can output images, text, such as
XHTML and XML PDF files, and even Flash movies..
 PHP runs on various platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X,
etc.)
 PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.)
 PHP supports a wide range of databases

4. Give the features of XM L.


 XML stands for Extensible Mark-up Language.
 XML is designed to carry data - with focus on what data is
 XML tags are not predefined like HTML tags.
 the author must define both the tags and the document structure
 XML is case sensitive
5. Give the features of DHTML.
a. Dynamic HTML give more control over the HTML elements and
allows them to change at any time,
b. Using DHTML we can change the tags and their properties.
c. It is used for Real-time positioning.
d. It is used to generate dynamic fonts
e. It is used for Data binding
6. Write the differences between client side scripts and server side scripting.
 Client side scripts are executed on the local computer after loading
the web page. Server side scripts are executed on the server before the
web page is downloaded by a client.
 The client-side environment used to run scripts is usually a browser.
 Server-side environment that runs a scripting language is a web
server.
 Server side scripting is used to create dynamic pages based a number
of conditions when the users browser makes a request to the server.
Client side scripting is used when the user’s browser already has all
the code and the page is altered on the basis of the users input.
7. Explain the structure of html page.
<html> Marks the beginning of html
<head> Shows the heading section
<title> Gives the title to html document
</title> Closing of title tag
</head> Closing of head tag
<body> defines the body of an html document
</body> Closing of body tag
</html> Defines the end of html document
8. What are the advantages of web designing?
 The organization can put their information on World Wide Web for view
by public
 By putting information on the web, the company is open for more
commercial opportunities.
 Very efficient for electronic trading.
9. Explain any three tags used with forms.
a. <form> defines an HTML form

<form>
form elements
</form>

b. <input> it is used to provide input. It has many variations,


depending on the type attribute
c. Radio Button Input
<input type="radio"> defines a radio button. Radio buttons let a user
select ONE of a limited number of choices
<form>
<input type="radio" name="gender" value="male" > Male<br>
<input type="radio" name="gender" value="female"> Female<br>
</form>
10. What is web hosting? Mention different types of web hosting. (Mention the services
of web hosting).
Making the website available to public worldwide is called webhosting. The
different types of web hosting are
a. Free hosting
b. Virtual or shared hosting
c. Dedicated hosting
d. Collocation hosting
11. Explain any three features of html.
a. It can be easily understood and modified.
b. Effective presentations can be made with the HTML with all
formatting tags.
c. HTML provides more flexible way to deign web pages along with the
text.
d. Links can also be added to the web pages
e. HTML documents can be displayed on any platforms such as
Macintosh, Windows and Linux etc.
f. Graphics, videos and sounds can also be added to the web pages
12. Mention the advantages of XML.
a. Extensibility
There is no fixed set of tags. New tags can be created as they are
needed.
b. Separates content from presentation
XML tags describe meaning not presentation. Multiple views or
presentations of the same content are easily rendered.
c. Can embed multiple data types
XML documents can contain any possible data type — from
multimedia data (image, sound, video) to active components (Java
applets, ActiveX).
d. Self-description
XML tag can possess an unlimited number of attributes