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In the Motions sheet you will find the list of motions set by the members of the CA-team of Athens EUDC from April 2018 to April 2019 (in the BP format)
The motions are not presented in a particular order
We hope the list is exaustive however reckon we may have forgotten to include a few competitions or the exact wording of some motions; however, we are confident we capture most of the motions we have set within the last year
Motion Infoslide
THBT the United States should disengage from Syria
THS an aggressive new “Space Race” with the eventual aim of colonizing extra-terrestrial planets (e.g.
national governments sponsoring manned missions to Mars).
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish
ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within areas of what the international community call the Palestinian
territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War. Israel’s government recently
approved the establishment of a new settlement in the West Bank for the first time in more than two
THBT it is not in Israel's interest to approve of any further Israeli expansion of settlements (existing or new) decades.
THBT developing countries should privatize their State-Owned Enterprises (such as airlines, railways, utility
"Porn 2.0" refers to pornographic websites featuring user-generated content. Such sites may feature social
networking features such as user-based categorizing, webcam hosting, blogs and comments. This is in
THO the rise of Porn 2.0. contrast to the less interactive, more static content offered by "Web 1.0" porn sites.

THBT the West should covertly fund pro-independece parties and movements in Hong Kong
THBT, for India, more voting rights within US-backed lending institutions (e.g. World Bank, ADB, etc.) is
better than participation in the Belt and Road Initiative
NEOM is a Saudi project to build a 'Smart' and tourist city on the Red Sea close to the borders of Egypt,
Israel, and Jordan. The project aims to attract international investment partly by offering a more competitive
and tolerant legal system and environment than the rest of Saudi Arabia. It has been described as an
attempt to create an international hub-city such as Dubai or Doha in Saudi. Last week Saudis human rights
abuses have been highlighted by the (presumed) brutal assassination of Saudi 'Washington Post' columnist
THBT the western companies and investors should pull out of the Saudi Arabia's Neom project Jamal Khashoggi within the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
In Western Thrace there is a large Muslim minority preserving some Ottoman-Muslim traditions. This
includes many voluntarily agreeing to have their civil disputes (eg family, property) adjudicated under Sharia
THBT Greece should ban Sharia law in West Thrace Law.
THBT the international courts should hold states liable for the actions of paramilitary forces that support their
cause (e.g. Pro-Russian paramilitaries in Ukraine, Pro-Serbian paramilitaries during Yugoslav wars, Right
wing militias in Colombia etc.)
A Social Media Influencer is a user on social media who has established credibility in a specific industry. A
social media influencer has access to a large audience and can persuade others by virtue of their
THO rise of social media influencers authenticity and reach. e.g. Kylie Jenner, Chiara Ferragni, Jake Paul etc.
THBT schools should teach in the language spoken by the majority of students regardless of the offical state
TH Prefers a World in Which It is Commonly Believed that People are Inherently Altruistic Rather than
Inherently Selfish

THBT NATO should expel members that do not meet the organisation's defence spending target

THP a world in which the prevailing norm is one of serial monogomy rather than monogamy Serial monogamy is a mating practice in which individuals may engage in sequential monogamous pairings.

THR the glorification of genius in western culture

In countries where compulsory military service for men exists, THBT feminists should advocate for the
conscription of women.
THBT former colonies, when creating the culture of national identity (anthems, street names, holidays, flags,
etc.) should prioritise pre-colonial history and indigeneity over themes of anti-colonial resistance

THW require all schools that teach religion to discuss atheism at an equal footing with all major religions.

THW Prefer a World Where All Religions Portray Their Gods as Flawed Instead of Infallible

THS a one time erasure of the criminal records of African Americans who have committed non-violent crimes
THBT universities should make the spread of knowledge to the general public (e.g. through interviews,
newspaper articles, popular books) a general prerequisite for promotion at universities

THW severly limit smoking areas and ban selling cigarettes in all IDF bases
Computational Creativity' is a scientific field researching AI models that simulate or replicate human
creativity. Projects in the field include but are not limited to using AI to script films, compose music, write
THS the rise of computational creativity poetry, and paint.
Demonization refers to a simplistic characterization of an individual which exclusively focuses on their
THR the demonization of Donald Trump negative qualities and ignores any positive qualities.
Citizen journalism is the collection, dissemination, and analysis of news and information by the general
public (as opposed to professional journalists), especially by means of the Internet (ex. live blogging of
THR the rise of citizen journalism events, self-produced documentaries and news websites, etc.)
TH, as a coalition of Brazil, Colombia and Guyana, would provide financial and military sponsorship to the
Venezuelan opposition.
In post-colonial societies, THW require all international media corporations to employ solely domestic
journalists in reporting on national news.

THR the Disney Princess

THW allow parliament to impeach an MP with a 90 vote majority (the impeached MP is then replaced by a
different member of his party)
The EPP is the conservative-Christian parliamentary group in the European Parliament that includes national
European parties (such as: the CDU in Germany, Fine Gael in Ireland and the Austrian Peoples' Party). It
has been the largest group in the European Parliament since 1999. Fidesz is the current ruling political party
TH as the EPP would expel Fidesz in Hungary.

TH regrets the rise of ride-sharing services

THBT developing countries should adopt policies that heavily disincentive urbanisation
Given the choice, THBT US Supreme Court Justices should be elected by a vote amongst federal judges
rather than a popular vote
THBT progressive social movements should emphasise personal reponsibility in addressing social problems,
at the expense of emphasising the need for structural change
(for example encouraging women to be assertive in the workplace more than advocating for anti-
discrimination policies; encouraging young people in minority communities achieve academic success more
than challenge broader social and economic discrimination)
THS governments significantly increasing their use of data-based predictive models in decision-making to Context slide: Recently, there has been an increased use of big data and sophisticated algorithms in making
replace human judgements (e.g. criminal justice policy, allocation of healthcare resources, housing various policy judgements. As technology in machine learning and artificial intelligence advances, it is
development) becoming more feasible to apply such methods to more government decision making processes.
THBT the interests of the Chinese people would be better served by a peaceful transition into a democracy,
rather than a continuation of the one party rule
THW implement substantial measures to impose long-termism in corporate investment culture (e.g. minimum
holding periods for shares, yearly rather than quarterly financial reporting, long-term executive compensation
THW allow schools with a majority of pupils from marginalized groups to reject children who do not belong to
their group from attending the schools

THBT music streaming services (e.g.Spotify, Apple etc.) do more harm than good
Given a way to accurately measure an individual’s empathy, THW only allow individuals with high levels of
empathy for people beyond their immediate circles, to vote in elections
THW make the weight of votes proportional to a person’s expected remaining lifespan (i.e. younger
individuals' votes carry more weight_
THBT universities should use ideological quotas* for academic staff *i.e. hire a certain number of staff
according to the ideology they adopt in their teaching or research

TH, as Imran Khan*, W attempt to significantly decrease the influence of the military over Pakistan's politics *Imran Khan, the newly elected prime minister of Pakistan.
The Ludvico technique permanently conditions patients to experience severe sickness when engaging in, or
THW Force Violent Offenders to Undergo the Ludvigo Technique even thinking about comitting, violence. It thus creates an aversion to violent behaviour.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards what society believes
are meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which
argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Moral nihilists assert that there is no
THR the increasing presence of nihilism in popular culture (eg. BoJack Horseman, Rick and Morty etc.) inherent morality, and that accepted moral values are abstract.
Non-governmental initiatives aimed at informing North Koreans on the outside world include but are not
THBT initiatives aimed at informing North Koreans on their oppression are not in the interest of the citizens of limited to: smuggling South Korean TV and American movies, leaflets negating the propaganda of
North Korea Pyongyang, and flash drives carrying information on the wealth of other states
States grant refugee status for individuals with well founded fear of persecution or violence in home
THBT the general approach of states should be to repatriate refugees once they don't longer have a well countries. In general, once individuals are granted refugee status, they cannot be forced to return to their
founded fear of persecution or violence. country of origin.

THP a world in which people can't lie

TH, as the Kremlin, would assassinate traitors, even if they are overseas.
*e.g. violation of drug, violance, prostitution laws that is committed at night will be met with a harsher
THW treat nightime* as an aggravating factor in crimes committed in the public sphere punishment
THW, as a journalist, prioritise what they believe to be maximising public interests, over verification of
reporting (e.g. double sourcing information, fact-checking reporting).

THBT the protagonist of the next Grand Theft Auto (GTA) game should be a woman
Given the dichotomy THBT animal rights activists should focus on enviromental impacts of meat
consumption rather than empathy for animals in their campagins

TH, as Serbia, would develop closer ties with Russia and Turkey at the expense of ties with the EU

THO the norm that romantic love should be the primary source of fulfilment in a person's life

THBT universities should never ban free speech on campus

When police are put on trial for alleged instances of a violent wrongdoing, THW decrease the burden of proof The "balance of probabilities" is a burden of proof in which an individual is found guilty of a crime if it is
to the Balance of Probabilities determined to be more likely than not that the individual committed the crime
THS granting megacities* autonomous control over their economic and social policy (e.g. immigration,
health, criminal justice) with national taxation policy remaining under the control of the federal government *Megacities are cities with a population of over 10 million people
THW would allow victims (and families of deceased) of gun violence to sue the sellers of the gun used in the
act for compensation

Intelligence includes the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge,
In a world in which gene editing to improve intelligence has become viable (without any negative side effects reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving. More generally, it can be described as the ability to
and at a cost comparable to other routine medical procedures), THW require all citizens to edit their genes to perceive or infer information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within
improve intelligence and fully state-fund the treatment an environment or context.
North Sentinel Island is part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and under Indian control. The island is
home to a hunter-gatherers Sentinelese tribe. The tribe has next to no contact with the outside. In November
THW prosecute members of the Sentinelese tribe for murder 2018, an American missionary was killed by Islanders when attempting to visit the island.

TH as the EU would significantly increase sanctions on Russia as opposed to lifting them

This House supports the US's use of economic warfare (eg. tariffs, targeted sanctions, etc.) against China in
order to force compliance with the rules of the global economic order (eg. opening up its economy, protecting
intellectual property, not engaging in currency manipulation, etc.)
TH opposes the attempts by the feminist movement to redefine roles and behaviours traditionally associated
with women (e.g. wanting to be a housewife, wearing make-up and heels) as empowering
THBT feminists should attempt to mobilize masculinity in service of feminist goals (e.g. "real men respect
women") rather than attempt to deconstruct it (e.g. raising awareness to the issue of toxic masculinity)

THR the popularisation of online social activism

THBT the American involvement in Panama benefits the Panamian people, *military presence, cultural
influence, close economic ties

THBT mass media outlets should not report on suicides of public figures.
This House believes that Tech Giants (e.g. Google, Amazon, Facebook) should NOT be permitted to sue for
patent infringement

THW allow communities to reduce the amount of policing employed within their neighborhoods

THBT feminists should oppose RuPaul's Drag Race

THS individuals publicizing the identity of people who attend far right protests and gtherings in the USA to
their communities (employers, coworkers, friends, family, etc.)

Assuming the technology exists to do so safely, THW allow individuals to selectively erase memories

THBT it is in China's interest to not retalitate to the imposition of tariffs by the Trump Administration

THBT hook-up focused apps (e.g. Tinder, Grindr etc.) have done more harm than good

This House Would support the rise of panslavic nationalism

The One Belt One Road (OBOR) is a Chinese state backed project that involves building a network of
THBT the IMF should not bail out countries that have taken significant loans from China as part of its OBOR roadways, railways, maritime ports, power grids, oil and gas pipelines and associated infrastructure projects
project across 78 countries to boost connectivity.
THW pool donations for specific charity causes and redistribute them to charities according to evidence-
based assessment of the efficacy of these charities within the sector (for example, if I donate to treating
malaria, the money will go to the charities that are proven to be most effective at combatting it)
This house believes that leaders of minority religions in Europe should strongly encourage their
congregations to refrain from public displays of their faith.

THS the decline of American influence in East Asia* *for the purpose of this debate, east asia includes both northeqst and southeast asia
THBT the EU should cut structural funds to member states that undermine civil and political rights (e.g.
restrict court independence, reduce media and academic freedom, etc.)

THBT the criminal justice system should not consider retribution as a factor in sentencing
For the purposes of this debate, "Political Expansionism" is an approach to international relations which
involves exerting pressure over and intervening in the internal affairs of other states. It seeks to spread
THBT an approach of Political Expansionism on the part of the Chinese state is in the interests of the ideology and exercise influence over the political and information environments of targeted countries through
Chinese people channels such as economic investment and backing political groups.
In Ecuador, the constitution enshrines nature with the "right to exist, persist, maintain and regenerate its vital
THS countries granting rights to nature cycles". It allows people to bring forward lawsuits on behalf of nature.

THS the dominance of non-representational art within the contemporary artistic canon.
THBT the World Trade Organisation should allow developing countries to place tarrifs on imports from
developed countries
A recall election is a referendum by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct
vote before that official's term has ended. They are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition. A recall
THS recall elections for national leaders (i.e. presidents, prime-ministers, ministers) ballot consists of two questions: 1. should this person be recalled. 2. who should be their replacement
THW allow workers to sell their rights in exchange for higher pay (e.g. health and safety protections, right to
maternity/paternity leave etc.)

THW select 51% of the legislature by public lottery

Actually, THW rather see one innocent man go to jail than see 100 guilty men walk free
THBT the WHO should adopt a convention which bans the sale of drugs with high resistance tendencies (e.
g. antibiotics) to countries which do not comply with WHO guidelines regarding their medical and agricultural The World Health Organisation has adopted conventions on various health topics, which can impose binding
use regulations on member states.

THBT Hollywood studios should significantly increase the number of female main villains in their movies
TH regrets the Westernisation of the elites in post-colonial societies. (e.g. speaking predominantly in English,
wearing western clothing, going to schools and/or universities in the West, consuming predominantly
Western media)

THR the narrative that women can have it all (a succesful career, a fulfilling home life, and a rich social life).
THBT it is immoral for individuals who have met their basic needs to not donate any excess wealth to utility For the purposes of this debate, "basic needs" refer to access to food, shelter, medical care, education,
maximising causes rights, etc.
THBT the US should not make complete nucelar disarmement a condition of meaningful sanction relief on
North Korea
For the purposes of this debate, operational fossil fuel projects (e.g. oil wells, coal mines) could supply the
THW ban any new fossil fuel extraction projects. world’s need for another 10 years.

TH as the Pope, would abolish the concept of hell

THBT it is NOT legitimate to shame public figures for non-criminal actions they did when they were young
(eg. partying, alcohol consumption, soft drugs use, political views etc.)
The Orthodox Church is organized around several churches including the Moscow Patriarch, Serbian
Patriarch, Greek Patriarch. Each church is given the supremacy to decide over dogma, church policy etc.
Constantinople Patriarch is the "first one amongst equals" but in practice they have limited power over the
TH prefers a world where the Orthodox Church is centralized around the Constantinople Patriarchy other churches
"A 'youthocratic' voting system grants more weighting to votes cast by the youth (e.g. the weighting assigned
THBT WLDs should introduce 'youthocratic' voting. " to a vote is inversely proportional to the age of the individuals).
THBT developing countries should prioritize economic growth over environmental protection (e.g. reducing
regulations on pollution to attract businesses)
Where resources are significantly limited, THBT states should actively promote religion in areas of high
In areas of chronically low academic attainment, THBT the general approach of educational charities should
be to focus resources on maximising the potential of exceptional students, over helping the lowest achieving

Assuming the existence of empathy enhancement drugs, THW ban such drugs*

THW privatize NASA

The super-rich are categorized as those with more than $10m in assets. A million more people joined the
TH prefers to live in a world where no one can become super-rich ranks of the global super-rich last year.
THBT European countries should change school syllabuses to disproportionally emphasis Arab and Islamic
contributions to European culture.

THS heads of universities not giving academic positions to people who vocally deny climate change.

THBT US foreign policy should seek to significantly restrict Iran's influence over Syria

Thbt the state of Israel should cease using the Holocaust as a core justification for its existence

THR the primarily competitive nature of university debate

THBT the general educational approach in schools should be to discourage children from assessing their
achievements in comparison to their peers
The National Pension Service of Korea is a public pension fund in South Korea. It is the third largest in the
world with hundreds of billions in assets. it is the largest investor in South Korea holding majority stakes in
THBT South Korea should privatise the National Pensions Service many private companies

TH as the EU would significantly speed up the admission of Serbia to the EU

THW ban private military contractors

THBT the current condition of humanity is preferable to its condition in 100 years time

THW prefer a world where wealth is seen as shameful

THBT policies that may have significant environmental consequences should be subject to a veto by a
committee of scientific experts
THO the narrative that history inevitably moves towards a particular end (e.g. Fukuyama's "end of history",
Marx's "global revolution")

THO the portrayal of criminal lifestyle as "cool" in popular entertainment (e.g. narcos, breaking bad, scarface)
THW, as a billionaire who opposes Artificial Intelligence, fund violent and destructive action against
companies that aim to create strong Artificial Intelligence

THW consider senior politicians under oath when making public statements on political issues* *thus making them criminally liable for perjury if they lie

THR Kazahstan's constiutional ban on religous political parties

Uncontacted peoples' are are communities who live without significant contact with modern civilization. It is
estimated that there are more than 100 uncontacted tribes around the world, mostly in South America,
Central Africa, and New Guinea. Knowledge of these groups comes mostly from infrequent, sometimes
THW make contact with 'uncontacted peoples' violent encounters with neighbouring tribes or criminal groups, and from aerial footage.

THBT religious leaders (e.g. Pope, Patriarch) should be appointed by the free election of all believers
THBT nations should hold the Catholic Church financially liable for Catholic HIV/Aids patients in areas where
the church has strongly campaigned against condom use
THBT parents should teach morality to their underage children through religious context (e.g. “it is a sin to
lie”; "help thy neighbour" etc.)

THS the creation of a global citizenship market A global citizenship market would allow individuals to sell their citizenship and purchase a new one

THBT shrinking cities should be allowed to impose an "exit tax" on leaving businesses
THBT environmental advocacy groups should prioritise individual-centric actions (e.g. recycling, not eating
meat etc.) at the expense of policy-level changes
This house believes that states formerly under the rule of the Soviet Union should NOT emphasise their
history of struggle against Russian imperialism in constructing their national identity
Club 27 represents musicians, artists, and actors who died when they were 27 years old, most often as a
consequence of alcohol, sex and drug abuse. Some of the most prominent examples include Kurt Cobain,
This House would rather be a part of the "Club 27" than live an average anonymous life Amy Winehouse, Jimmy Hendrix etc.
A search engine algorithm is a code which determines what results are returned for specific keywords
entered into the search engine, and the order of the results returned. Depending on the creator, the
algorithm can prioritise different factors such as assessed trustworthiness, advertising, and gearing the
THW require Google to make their search engine algorithms public results for the individual user depending on available data.
THBT progressive candidates (Ocasio-Cortez, Sanders, Zephyr Teachout and co.) should break away from
the Democratic Party and form a separate Progressive Party.
THBT historically oppressed communities should heavily prioritise teaching values of individualism to their

THW subsidize art that glorifies the working class

Assuming the US Democrats win the house in midterm elections, TH, as the US Democrats, would move to The US House of Representatives can vote to impeach a sitting president by simple majority; the Senate
impeach Donald Trump then conducts a trial, which can remove the president from office by a two-third majority
THS state attempts to help their citizens find and sustain love (e.g. subsidizing subscriptions to matching
agencies such as, significant funding for research on what makes a relationship last, creating
courses on how to woo and keep a spouse)

THW heavily tax unused, privately-owned land and property,

There is a medicine that temporarily prevents a person from acting in a socially unacceptable behavior (e.g.
THW allow parents to give this medicine to their underage children irrespective of the children's consent drinking while underage, using drugs, stealing, skipping school, bullying)
THBT major awards of meritocratic distinction (e.g. the Nobel Prize, the Pulitzer Prize) should include a
moral clause* *a provision that allows the honoree to receive, or hold, the award only in the cast they meet a
behavioral standard set by the awarding panel
THBT in times of public health crises in developing countries, all domestic medical reporting should be
conducted by external, non-governmental media organisations.
THBT states without the death penalty should never extradite individuals to countries where they may face
the death penalty (info slide: extradition)
THP a world where space exploration and colonisation is carried out exclusively by the private sector, as
opposed to national governments.
Voluntary Combatants are individuals who are not authorized by the state or serve as a part of the state's
THBT International Courts Should Hold States Liable for the Actions of Voluntary Combatants Fighting for military, but nonetheless fight in support of that state's cause. Prominent examples include: pro-Russian
the State's Cause militias in eastern Ukraine, militia groups fighting during the Yugoslav wars.
THBT the LGBTQ+ movement should actively normalize behaviors stereotypically applied to the community
(e.g. promiscuity, flamboyance, polygamy etc.) rather than dispute the applicability of those stereotypes

THBT democracy should be defined as a human right

THW ban religious institutions from asking for donations from their followers.
An "Opinio-system" of education is one in which twice a year students can vote to replace a teacher by a
THS an Opinio System of Education different teacher.
Sci-Hub is a pirated database of academic papers, which legally the access to them is through payment and
THS Sci-Hub the copyrights are owned by the academic journals
Special economic zones commonly offer investors greater investment incentives and fewer restrictions than
available in the country hosting the zone. Individuals or companies holding the lease on the land are usually
THBT a pursuit of long-term SEZs is in the interest of the Communist govenrment of Vietnam. granted a high degree of autonomy that is ceded from the central government.
Sin City is an urban area that caters to various vices. These vices may be legal (depending on area) or
illegal activities which are tolerated. Examples of vices include sex-related services (prostitution, strip clubs,
sex shops, etc.), gambling (casinos, betting shops, etc.), or drug use (alcohol, marijuana, etc. consumption).
THW make areas that have been poor for a long time into Sin cities Prominent examples of "Sin Cities" include Las Vegas, Macau, Amsterdam etc.

THP that children be raised by communes than by traditional nuclear families

THW anonymize art the funding, display, and sale of art

For the purposes of this debate, a charter city is where a developing country grants a long term lease on a
city to a developed country. The developed country receives a siginificant autonomy to govern the city for the
THBT developing countries should pursue the establishment of charter cities time of the lease
The Goldwater rule is a law in the United States that states it is unethical for mental health proffesionals to
give a professional opinion about public figures they have not examined in person and from whom they have
not obtained consent. Thus, it opens them for libel if they give a public psychiatric competence analysis on
THR the Goldwater rule non consenting public figures.

This House Believes That states should strongly incentivize highly educated individuals to have children

THW allow only women to be heads of political parties

THW let children choose to take an e-sports (competitive gaming) class, as an alternative to sports class at
Given a way to accurately measure an individual’s empathy, THW only allow individuals with high levels of
empathy for people beyond their immediate circles, to vote in elections
THBT the state should not fund any works of art or performances that the average citizen would not
recognize as having artistic merit

THW create an international court to prosecute any leader for adopting disastrous economic policies

THR the heavy prioritization of STEM* subjects in Asian elementary schools *Science, Technology, Engineering, Math
TH as the Democratic Party would prioritize investigating the background and actions of Donald Trump (eg.
taxes) over attempts of co-operating with the Republicans regarding policy
There exists programs which can be installed on workers computers and which analyze all texts written by
the workers and determine working habits that can be used to appraise the emotional wellbeing of the
THW ban employers from using these programs worker
THBT low-income parents of multiple children should allocate most resources to the child with the most

THR the increased politizication of dating apps

Nicolàs Maduro is the current president of Venezuela. On 23 January 2019, the President of the National
THW grant Maduro and main officials of the Venezuelan regime amnesty in exchange for handing power Assembly and the leader of opposition Juan Guaidó, declared himself interim President.
over to Juan Guadio

*Consumerist Culture is a culture where consistently purchasing goods is expected and considered a marker
TH opposes Consumerist Culture* of social status
THBT the IMF should require collateral* for national bailouts

Collateral is an asset or piece of property that a borrower offers to a lender as security for a loan

TH opposes left wing media using mockery to cover the far right e.g. The Daily Show, Last Week Tonight

THBT in Western states with high rates of unemployment the state should act as an employer of last resort* *i.e. the state should directly employ people who are unable to find a job elsewhere
THBT resource rich developing nations* should distribute, as a dividend to citizens, income derived from
natural resource extraction *e.g. Nigeria, Botswana
In cities and areas with rapidly increasing housing costs, this house would tax new residents and use the
revenue to subsidize the housing costs for citizens already residing in the area
Chiang Kai-Shek is the founder of Taiwan and was the leader that ruled China before fleeing to the island of
Taiwan as a result of losing the Chinese Civil war. He founded Taiwan as an autocracy and ruled it until his
THBT Taiwan should not glorify Chiang Kai-Shek death.
China has historically been and continues to be North Korea's most important ally. There is billions of dollars
worth of trade and investment between the two countries. The majority of tensions in the region come out of
North Korea developing nuclear weapons (since 2000). China has come out in support of North Korea to
denuclearize. North Korea and South Korea recently had talks where they both committed to peace in the
region. However, since North Korea has broken it's promise in previous talks, there is no guarantee that they
TH, as China, would withdraw all support for North Korea will keep their promise.
THBT the protections of international law conventions and treaties should not apply to combatants from
terrorist organisations (e.g. prohibition on torture, prisoner of war status, guarantee of post-conflict release)
THW allow individuals to sue religious institutions in their community for propagating beliefs that cause them
significant harm
In recent weeks, President Trump announced that the US will withdraw from the nuclear agreement with Iran
and push for bringing back sanctions. The agreement is still in force between Iran and the other parties (the
EU, Russia and China). For purposes of this debate, if Iran withdraws from the agreement, they have the
TH, as Iran, would resume its military nuclear program capacity to develop a nuclear weapon in a reasonably short time frame.
THW place an additional tax on all products, proportionate to the amount of animal suffering involved in any
stage of production

Assuming land and resources are available, THW establish an independent state for women
TH prefers a world in which media outlets strive to adopt a balanced portrayal in their reporting, as opposed
to one where outlets have clear biases.

This House believes that the open immigration policy is not good for Germany
For the purpouses of this debate managing the criminal justice system includes managing police, courrts,
prison system and setting the lenght and the type of punishmen for criminal offense. This does NOT include
THW outsource the managment of criminal justice system to technocrats instead of elected representatives defining what constitutes a criminal offense.
THBT leaders of minority religions in China should strongly encourage their congregations to refrain from
public displays of their faith
For the purposes of this debate there exists a global genetic database, containing DNA from every living
human. Rather than being conceived from their biological parents' DNA, children can instead be conceived
TH prefers a world in which all children are conceived with DNA from a global genetic database from random combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes taken from this database.
Emotional service providers are paid by clients to provide emotional intimacy similar to family members,
TH opposes the buying and selling of emotional services friends, or romantic partners; these services are non-sexual in nature
This house would require companies to hire a significant percentage of employees without university
degrees across all levels of their organisation
THBT miltary doctors that have conducted, or supervised on, methods aimed to extort information from
prisoners should be barred by medical associations from practicing medicine in the civil sphere
In countries with widespread homophobia, THBT LGBTQIA+ rights organisations should encourage people
to enter into mock marriages.

THBT athletes should not be permitted to express political views during major sporting events

TH, as the UK conservative party, would hold a second Brexit referendum

THBT developing countries should sell their custodian rights over wildlife within their territories to private
THBT the Obama administration should have prioritized affordable tertiary education over affordable
League of Legends is one of the most popular game in the world surpasing traditional sports like NBA, NFL,
baseball in viewership of their eSport events. The game includes 5 players in each team battling against
each other in a virtual arena. Currently there is no female player in any of the teams competing in major
This House would introduce quotas for women in League of Legends Esports teams League of Legends competitions.
THBT criminal justice policy should be outsourced to technocrats instead of elected representatives (for
example the parliament/government)
You are a scientist. Whilst working alone in the lab, you discover that Doomsday is going to happen in
exactly one year, and that this is completely inevitable. As the only expert in the world in this particular
THW NOT publish this information subject, you are very certain no one else is going to uncover this information.
The Socrates machine accurately determines your potential for a range of attributes (e.g. physical strength,
TH prefers a world in which the Socrates machine exists. intelligence, empathy, charisma, diligence). All individuals are tested and their results are on public record.
THW prefer a world where there exists quotas for individuals who are clearly deemed aesthetically
unattractive by prevailing social standards (e.g. severe acne or cleft lip)

THS a norm of embracing anger in public discourse rather than one of aspiring to dispassionate objectivity
*a child who is born with the purpose of providing an organ or cell transplant to a sibling that is affected with
THW Allow the Creation of Saviour Sibilings* a fatal disease
It is a consensus among intelligence agencies that in the 2016 US election the Russian government
THBT the EU should employ similar tactics to those Russia used in the 2016 US election in order to employed various tactics to affect the result. Those included hacking the servers of the Democratic National
undermine the Trump administration Committee and releasing damaging emails, and vast spreading of pro-Trump misinformation through social
In regions with severe, widespread violence against women, THS women and their allies foregoing legal
remedies and engaging in acts of vigilante justice in response to gendered assaults.

THP a world in which universities charged tuition based on student earnings after graduation

THBT Trump's foregin policy does more harm than good for Israel

THW nationalise all housing in the greater Dublin area

THBT it is unjustified for collaborators to assist evil regimes in systematically persecuting members of their
identity group in order to mitigate and moderate the regime's abuses (e.g. Israel Kasztner in Nazi-controlled
Hungary, Wang Jingwei in Japan-occupied China)

THBT states should incentivise inter-faith and inter-ethnic marriages

THW raise their child to prefer being single

THW ban religious primary and secondary schools

THP to be alone in the Universe *In both scenarios humanity is aware that we are or aren' alone. "Either we are alone in the Universe or we are not. Both are equally terrifying." Athur C. Clarke "
THBT religious organisations should deny religious services (e.g. communion, confession, last rites, baptism)
to current members of criminal organisations
THBT Democrats in the 2018 Midterm Elections should heavily prioritise focussing on anti-Trump rhetoric in
their campaigns, as opposed to broader policy-centric platforms.
In the lead up to the 1994 negotiated settlement in South Africa, THBT the ANC should have demanded
further concessions (e.g. removing the amnesty provision of the TRC, greater land and economic rights)
even at the expense of prolonging the conflict
The Chemical X is a potion which if taken, temporarily permits only socially acceptable behaviour. Eg
THW allow parents to give this medicine to their underage children irrespective of the children's consent obedience, attendance at school, good manners, following the law, refraining from drugs and alcohol etc.

THW cut developmental aid to countries that neglect to combat terrorism (e.g. Pakistan, Sudan, Lebanon)

THBT feminist organizations should actively recruit female religious leaders

THBT the LGBT movement should ban corporate presence and sponsorship of its major public events (e.g.
Pride Parades, Mardi Gras)

THW open all borders

THR the “meme-ification” (the use of memes to express, rebut, offend) of modern political discourse

THBT all war monuments and commemorations should memorialise deaths on both sides of the war
THBT the educational system should portray drug use in an objective way (with all pros and cons), rather
than in a solely negative way.
THBT social media platforms should aggresively priortise content from the mainstream media over less
established media outlets
You are an average debater from this region (ex Yugoslavia xD). Big part of your life you dedicated to
debating and training for tournaments. Up to this point you haven't gotten any big achievement in
international debating torunament. One of the main goals in your life currently is to get an achievement at a
big international competition. Few weeks before Novi Sad EUDC you accidentally on the internet (via link)
stumble upon the final motion list that the CA team is planning to set at EUDC. These are 100% real and you
THW use the motions to achive success at EUDC are the only one to find them.

THW not allow unvaccinated children to attend public schools

Lay judges' are members of the public who act as judges in minor legal issues, e.g. petty theft, vandalism,
criminal damage and drink driving. They are not required to have any formal legal training but are required to
THS the use of local lay judges in minor legal cases be from the local community, to be of good character, to have good communication skills. and to be reliable.
THO art with excessive depiction of female suffering and subjugation, even as a means of critique. (e.g. A
Handsmaid's Tale, A Clockwork Orange)

THW allow people to sue partners who cheated on them

Les Emergents is a political party founded by Jacline Mouraud, one of the early instigators of the Yellow Vest
movement which plans to run for office in the established political structures in the European and French
TH as a Yellow Vest, supports attempts by Les Emergents to run for elections in European and French parliaments

1. In the status quo, financial institutions use the money deposited by customers (e.g. in a bank account) to
make loans and investments. Deposits could alternatively be used to buy government-backed safe assets
(e.g. Treasury bonds), which tend to have the lowest risk of default of all assets. 2. In this debate, an "equity
account" would be an account where the financial institution can use deposits for loans and investments.
The value of an equity account fluctuates based on the value of its underlying assets. 3. A "narrow banking"
regulation is the requirement that all financial institutions back up all deposits with an equivalent value of
THW impose a narrow banking regulation government-backed safe assets, unless customers choose to deposit their money in an "equity account".
THBT states should substantially increase restrictions on the gig economy (e.g. increase in guaranteed
minimum working hours, increase in mandatory minimum length of contracts etc.).
Decolonization refers to the process of critiquing and moving away from value systems and influences that
were imposed on countries during colonialism. Some examples include: removing statutes of colonial figures
THBT the ongoing process of decolonisation should include actively disempowering religions that were e.g. Cecil Rhodes, prioritizing indigenous narratives of history over colonial narratives, replacing colonial
imposed on the country during colonialism authors with local authors in curricula

THW permit police forces to use entrapment techniques

THBT feminist movements should integrate religious messages and institutions into their advocacy

THBT the bands should disband after the death of an important member (e.g. Queen, Metallica)

TH prefers a world without the attitude of regret.

Western Balkan countries not part of the European Union are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

Each of these countries aims to be part of the future enlargement of the European Union and reach
THS the further enlargment of the EU into the Western Balkans democracy and transmission scores.
THW, as feminists in the developed world, heavily prioritise allocation of resources and attention to women in
the developing world.
THW exclusively allow human gene editing aiming to cure disease, and disallow editing aimed at human
enhancement (e.g. intelligence, enhanced brain functions, and enhanced physical ability)
THR the westernization of the elites in post-colonial countries (e.g. speaking predominately in English, going
to schools/universities in the west, consuming predominantly western media)

THW remove all sin taxes

TH, as South Africa, would forcibly break up exclusive Afrikaner* enclaves * Afrikaners are a white South African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers.

THR the rise of no-platforming movements at universities

Honjok Culture is one in which individuals regularly undertake traditionally communal activities alone (eg.
eating, drinking, travelling, playing, etc.). The term is associated with South Korea, however it is on the rise
TH supports a glorification of the Honjok culture in various countries in which the numbers of one person households have increased.

TH prefers that philantropists donate directly to the state rather than to charitable foundations
The Belt and Road initiative (BRI), also known as "The new silk road', is a Chinese led development project
that aims to create new international trade routes, both land-based and maritime, encompassing several
regions in Asia, Africa and Europe. The project includes massive investment in infrastructure (roads, bridges,
THS the Belt and Road Initiative gas pipelines, ports, railways, and power plants) across more than 60 countries.

This House believes that the world was better 10 years ago #tenyearchallenge
‘Statistical risk assessment’ uses computer algorithms that process past incarceration data to estimate
someone’s likeliness to reoffend based on their easily accessible characteristics (ex: income, race, religion,
THW prohibit the use of statistical risk assessments when criminal courts are making sentencing decisions age)

THW ban the research, production and use of lethal autonomous weapons.
*the phenomenon of people primarily entering relationships and building families with those of similar social
THBT the state should curb assortative mating* and economic characteristics
Assuming that a technology exists that can accurately measure and transfer intelligence This House would
radically redistribute intelligence among the population

TH Prefers a world in which everyone has Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory* When an individual has an extraordinary ability to recall their past experiences and activities in great detail
In SQ, each EU country negotiates its energy contracts independently. Energy infrastructures are not
integrated on an EU level; and unlike other commodities, countries can subject energy to tariffs and other
limitations. An integrated energy market would allow EU member states to freely trade energy resources and
THS an integrated energy market within the EU electricity across borders.
Rabbi Joseph Klaner is a respect Rabbi in the Zionist-Religous community and a teacher in the pre-millitary
academy "Sons of David". During classes that were filmed and posted on the academy's website, Rabbi
Klaner called gays "sick", women who served in the army "mutants" and claimed that anyone who does not
abide by the Torah and it's commandments a "traitor".
Pre-Millitary academies which are recognized by the state are awarded meaningful government funding and
THW renounce governmental recognition of the "Sons of David" academy untill the firing of Rabbi Klaner permission for their students to delay military service.

THBT NATO should end all political, economic, and military support for the Russian Commonwealth.

THBT Brazil should fully privatize Petrobras

THBT that Western countries should revoke the citizenship of individuals that traveled to the Middle East to
join Jihadi terrorist groups, even if they were minors at the time of their departure
Boycott, divestment and sanction (BDS) is a global campaign promoting various forms of boycott against
Israel until it agees to withdraw from the occupied territories, remove the separation barrier in the West
Bank, grant full equality for Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel, and expand the right of return to Palestinians.
THBT the BDS movement reduces the likelihood of a two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

TH as the UK conservative party would hold a second Brexit referendum

THS countries withdrawing from the International Criminal Court in order to create their own regional
replacements (e.g. an African Criminal Court, an InterAmerican Criminal Court)
Technology X is an advanced form of virtual reality, that allows individuals to have absolute control over
events, people and surroundings in a virtual world. Once technology X is used a person can't go back to
Assuming the technology existed, THW allow the use of technology X. reality.

THBT the IMF should not make financial support conditional on recipient states adopting austerity measures
THBT the Democrats should use 'dirty tactics' (e.g. refusing to grant Trump's Supreme Court nominees
confirmation hearings, granting statehood to Puerto Rico and Guam, breaking up California into multiple
states ) It is November 2018. The Democrats have won a majority in both Houses.
Croatian Democratic Party (HDZ) is the right wing party that is currently ruling in Crotia. It is the first
democratically elected party after the break-up of Yugoslavia that also actively participated in the Yugoslav
THBT Croatian Democratic Party (HDZ) should dissasociate from Thompson including but not limited to not wars. Marko Perkovic Thompson is the popural Croatian singer/songwriter that sings about croatian national
playing his songs on their rallies, making public appearence at their rallies etc. identity, ethnic conflict, religious sectarianism etc.
"Decapitation" refers to the strategy of targeting a leader of a criminal organization for assassination.
Transnational criminal organizations participate in the international crime that includes but it's not limited to
human trafficking, drug smuggling and illegal weapons trade. Prominent examples Cartels in Latin America,
THS the strategy of "decapitation" in fighting transnational criminal organizations Jakuza in Japan, Russian Mafia etc.
given the tehnology, THW require decision makers to dream, frequently, that they are the weakest people
that their decisions influence* *e,g, a PM dreaming that they are extremly poor
Drag queens are people, usually gay males, who dress in women's clothing and often act with exaggerated
This House regrets mainstream media's popularization of Western drag culture femininity and in feminine gender roles with a primarily entertaining purpose.
The original meaning theory is the view that interpretation of a written constitution or law should be based on
THB that Supreme Court justices should adopt 'original meaning' theories when interpreting constitutions what reasonable persons living at the time of its adoption would have understood the text to mean.

TH opposes teaching children that moral behaviors lead to good outcomes for themselves.

THBT the LGBT movement should embrace the message that sexuality is a choice

THW prohibit athletes from expressing all political views during major sporting events
The concept of a sleeping God is one that assumed that God has gone to sleep after creating the world and
This House prefers a world where everybody believes in the concept of a sleeping God rather than an active is non interventionist in human action. The concept of an active God is one that uses divine intervention in
God. the real world.
In the status quo, the EU is both an economic and political union, which means that EU institutions enact
legislation in justice and home affairs, as well as maintain common laws and foreign policy. An economic
union is composed of a common market with a customs union. This means that, for example: i) countries
share common policies on product regulation, freedom of movement of goods, services, capital, and
THBT the European Union should transition into a purely economic union. employees; ii) they have a common external trade policy.
TH prefers a world where the default societal attitude in liberal democracies towards the state is one of
skepticism, as opposed to acceptance.
THW make teachers' pay conditional on the performance of their students in independently run standardised

THW redirect all public and private funding aimed at rebuilding Notre Dame to humanitarian causes.

THR the glorification of hard work

THBT Pope Francis should take radical action to convinvce Catholics to vote only for political parties and
candidates with economically redistributive policies (e.g. declaring it a mortal sin to do otherwise, instruct the
clergy to preach this message, send missions and go on a speaking tour)

THW introduce maximum rent in densely-populated metropolitan areas

THBT the Nobel should make representation an important factor in deciding all prize winners

THBT former colonial powers should drastically increase the number of immigrants from their ex-colonies.
For the purposes of this debate, a 'Future Generations Commission' is an independent body mandated with
THW give legislative veto power to a Future Generations Commission mapping the long-term impacts of governmental policy on the young, or unborn generations.
The "Intellectual Dark Web" is a term describing a group of academics and intellectuals (e.g. Jordan
Peterson, Sam Harris) who promote 'politically incorrect' views, such as the significance of biological
differences between sexes, the failings of multiculturalism, and defenses of colonialism. They have promoted
their views mainly via YouTube and social media. As of late, they have been increasingly given more
This house supports the increased presence of "the intellectual dark web" on mainstream media mainstream platforms.

THW ban ethnicity-based political parties in post-conflict states

THW bar any individial credibly accused of corruption from running for political office
THBT liberal states should sponsor the hacking of infrastructure designed to limit freedom of speech in
authoritarian states.

THS a world where karmic balance is widely believed to be true.

TH regrets the rise of online video streaming websites eg Netflix, Amazon Video, etc.

THW mandate by law that all couples must equally share domestic work
In disaster-prone areas, THW replace all state rebuilding and reconstruction efforts with direct cash transfers
to affected citizens
THW prohibit busniesses from adopting a public position on social justice issues (e.g. LGBTQIA+, racial
relations, abortion, etc)
in countries with proportional representation, THS founding political parties that exclusively represents
women's interests
This House would allow people raised in isolated communities (e.g. the Amish, Hasidic Jews) to sue their
communities for harms caused by their lifestyle
THW hold the Catholic Church legally responsible for sexual abuse, harrasment and grooming committed by
clergy members

This House believes that the West should impose an arms embargo on Saudi Arabia
For the purposes of this debate, a person’s “natural expiration date” is the date at which they will certainly
This house prefers a world in which, upon childhood, all people intuitively come to know their natural die from natural causes (i.e. they can still die earlier by non-natural causes like murder, accidents etc). The
expiration date. natural experiation date is always accurate and cannot be changed.

From behind a veil of ignorance, TH would choose to not be born

THBT minority journalists should choose to work in special interest media outlets which target their identity
group, rather than in mainstream media.
The Revival Process was the official name of the forceful assimilation of Bulgaria's Muslim minority (900,000
people or 10% of the population). Muslim Turks were forced to change their Turkish and Arabic names to
Bulgarian names and were forbidden from the exercise of their customs, religion and language. It was
enacted between 1984 and 1989 under the communist government of Todor Zhivkov. Those who refused
THBT the Bulgarian government should pay reparations to all those who were subjected to the Revival were subjected to persecution, including imprisonment. Despite this Bulgarian Muslims represent (on
process average) a comparatively wealthy group in Bulgarian society.
THBT governments should prioritize the economic improvement of minority communities over the
preservation of their culture
TH, as a parent, would encourage their female child to adopt traditionally masculine traits (e.g.
assertiveness, competitiveness, and self-prioritisation)
"Decapitation" refers to the strategy of targeting a leader of a criminal organization for assassination or
capture. Transnational criminal organizations participate in international crime that includes but is not limited
to human trafficking, drug smuggling and illegal weapons trading. Prominent examples of transnational
criminal organisations include: drug cartels in Latin America, the Jakuza in Japan, the Russian Mafia and the
THS the strategy of "decapitation" in fighting transnational criminal organizations Triads in China etc.
THR that the entire legal proceedings against Elaor Azaria (investigation and trial) was not managed behind
closed doors
THBT developing countries should heavily disincentivice young professionals (e.g. doctors, lawyers, IT
professionals) from migrating to the west
An Artificial Intelligence machine (such as a robot) passes the “Extended Turing Test” if through extended
THW grant human rights to any machine that passes the “Extended Turing Test” conversation a human being cannot distinguish between the machine and an actual human.
Libertinism is an inhibition free attitude approach for sex, that sees purpose in gratification and nothing more.
Libertine-erotic work explore sexuality when non constrained by religion, morality or law. They are glorified
as such that investigate the human soul, but at the same time condemened by giving a voice and shape to
THR the creation, and preservation, of libertine art its darkets pits. Some libertine art was, or still is, banned in a wide variety of states.
The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is an economic union of Eastern European and Central & Northern
Asian states. The EAEU consists of an integrated single market, and comes with free movement of goods,
capital, services, and people; as well as providing common policies for trade, transport, and industry. Current
members are Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan. In the future, the EAEU is aiming to
THBT membership of the EAEU is in the interest of Central Asian states have a single currency and greater integration, as well as to include new members.
Twitch is the most popular live streaming gaming platform globally. Recently Twitch banned sexually
TH opposes Twitch's decision to ban sexually suggestive content on their platform suggestive content (e.g. attire, behaviour, language etc.) on their platform
THBT states should not prosecute members of terrorist organisations (e.g. ISIS, Al-Qaeda) who surrender to
those states.
THW allow workers to give up rights (for example union membership, working hours, safety conditions,
benefits) in exchange for higher pay
In recent years Saudi Arabia and their leader Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman have been involved in
controversy for crackdowns on government criticism. They are currently under the spotlight for the alleged
THS the West withdrawing support from Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman murder of a Saudi born American based journalist Jamal Khashoggi who had been vocally critical against
the regime
When responding to civilian casualties, THBT the military action taken does not have to meet the principle of The principle of proportionality asserts that an act of war is just in bellu if and only if the harm caused by it is
proportionality proportionate to the harm intended to be inflicted by the opposing warring party.

THW place term limits on supreme court justices

TH prefers to be an averagely intelligent person to a genius

Under the status quo US Supreme Court Justices are Appointed by the President, subject to cross
examination on their legal record and approval by a majority vote of the Senate. They serve until death or
The majority of state justices are elected by popular vote simultaneous with other state elections and serve
for fixed terms. They need to be members of the state bar (qualified to practice law) to run.
THW prefer that US Supreme Court Justices were elected by popular vote

THBT Western governments should subsidise newspapers

Facebook has a new policy of ranking news publications according to trustworthiness. Facebook does so by
asking users if they have heard of various news publications and if they trust them. The data is put into a
THBT social media sites should rank news organizations by trustworthiness system and is used to boost some sites and suppress other sites.
Political consumerism is the act of buying or boycotting products or services from comopanies due to
political reasons, or encouraging others to do so.
For instance boycotting Apple due to it's pro-choice stance, or boycotting chick-fil-a due to it's anti-gay
TH opposes the rise of political consumerism stance.

TH prefers a world where there is no fear of death.

You are an up and coming journalist who is writing a biography on a prominent politician/social activist who
is currently pushing for significant positive changes to your society, which will help the minorities. However,
you discover that they committed human rights abuses previously during their career. You have the evidence
to prove that this is 100% true. You are the only person that has access to this information. If you do not
THW leave this information out of the book. reveal this information, no one will know.

THBT Putin is good for Russian power on the international stage

THBT corporations with persistent records of human rights abuse should not be allowed to contribute to
social justice initiatives

THW end all public financial support (funding, tax breaks) to religious institutions
THW ban the ownership and management of public services (e.g. schools and hospitals) by religious
TH Opposes the Belt and Road Initiative.
In states with high rates of violent crime This House supports assassination of individuals credibly accused of
participating in organized crime
THW allow individuals to sell their right to sue in civil court cases, shifting all potential benefits and losses to Civil court cases are legal disputes between two parties where one sues the other for compensation. If the
the buyer. case is decided in their favour, they could receive a substantial amount of money from the other party.
Given the technology was available, THW allow the sale of personality traits and characteristics (such as IQ,
musicality and determination).

THR the narrative that forgiveness is a virtue

*The criterion asserting that it is justified to go to war only if there is a reasonable probability of success of
THBT ’probability of success’* should be removed from the Just War Criteria achieving the aim of the war
THBT prominent individuals outside politics (e.g. business leaders, celebrities) from developing countries
should emphasize the positive aspects of their country, rather than the negative aspects when speaking on
an international platform
THBT the Indian feminist movement should campaign for equal inclusion (50-50) in all frontline positions in
the armed forces.
In most legal systems, in order to initiate legal proceedings, potential plaintiffs must demonstrate that they
are directly involved in the issues of a case in a way that is distinct from general members of the public. This
means that an ordinary citizen cannot challenge a law as unconstitutional if they cannot prove that it has, or
is imminently likely to, directly affect them. A doctrine of open standing would allow anyone to initiate legal
proceedings in court. Plaintiffs would still need to demonstrate a valid legal argument. 3. For example, under
TH would grant individuals and organisations open standing to challenge the constitutionality of laws enacted the status quo, new healthcare legislation which may increase many people's premiums could not be
by their government challenged by a general member of the public. Under a doctrine of open standing it could be.
THBT liberal states should fund the hacking of infrastructure designed to limit freedom of speech in
authoritarian states
THW actively encourage women not to have children
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organisation that
promotes cooperation and facilitates integration between its members. Some of the membership rights
include (but are not limited to) reduced trade barriers, visa-free travel, and voting rights in decision ASEAN
TH, as ASEAN, would suspend the membership rights of Myanmar makes.
THP a world in which Social Media sites would have been founded on a subscription based revenue model
rather than an ad based revenue model* *i.e. one in which most of the revenue comes from paying
customers and not ads

THBT Trump's adminstration has been better for Israel then Obama's.
THW allow the unlimited use of force against housebreakers (eg. use of fire arms, setting up booby traps,
use of phisical violence etc.)
THBT successful members of oppressed groups should adopt a narrative that predominantly attributes their
successes to chance as opposed to merit.

This House regrets the societal expectation of going to the University

THBT schools should avoid instilling a sense of patriotism

The 27 club is a term that refers to a group of musicians that have lived a life of "sex, drugs and Rock n Roll"
and have died aged 27, mostly from substance abuse. Prominent examples include, but are not limited to,
THW rather join the 27 club than live an average anonymous life Jim Morrison, Amy Winehouse, Jimi Hendrix, and Janis Joplin.
THBT the international community should provide asylum to high-ranking Venezuelan governmental officials
in exchange for them stepping down from office
Countries with declining populations should abandon policies that aim to increase the birth rate (ex.
incentivising citizens to marry and have children)
THBT platforms like Netflix and Spotify should take down the work of artists accused of committing / who
have committed immoral acts
Operation Car Wash' is a broad investigation conducted in Brazil that revealed extensive corruption. As a
result of the operation, the left-leaning Workers' Party have lost power, and far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro
THR 'Operation Car Wash' has been elected president.

THW actively move towards a cashless economy

In cases where a governmentt official is accused of corruption, THW reduce the burden of proof to the *The "balance of probabilities" is a burden of proof in which an individual is found guilty of a crime if it is
balance of probabilities* rather than beyond a reasonable doubt determined to be more likely than not that the individual committed the crime.
TH, as the US Democrats, would give funding for the border wall in order to definitively end the government

Assuming it is possible to accurately measure and transfer happiness, THW redistribute happiness