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- A statement of national goals as limited both - Capacity to craft foreign policy because it is
absolutely and relatively by national power sovereign

Sovereignty – a state has the absolute right to do

- (FSI) set of guidelines articulated by the
within its borders what it wishes to do and the idea
government within a country to promote its
of independence in which a state is free from
national interest through the conduct of its
external control by any country is subject to
relations with other countries.
limitations imposed on state action by both
international law and the rules and sanctions of
- Task of foreign policy is to first determine
international organizations such as United Nations
its own hierarchy of interest and then to
to which the state might belong to.
examine the scale of interests manifested in
the principles or practices of other nations’ Formal Limits brought by Convention.
foreign policies.
State – a community of persons more or less
2 Approaches
numerous, permanently occupying a definite
1. Ideological Approach proportion of territory, independent of external
- Relationship based on socio-cultural, control, and possessing an organized government to
economic, and religious beliefs. which the great body of inhabitants render habitual
- Foreign policy may be classified into: obedience.
Democratic or Totalitarian
Nation – shared common language, culture, history,
Libertarian or Socialist tradition and identity
Peace-loving or Aggressive Elements of a State
- Foreign policy is considered a function of a - People
political system in action or of the - Government
preferences or convictions of political - Sovereignty
leaders who carry out the government’s - Territory
Elements of Foreign Policy (involvement in
2. Analytical Approach
- Relationship based on shared-culture, - National Interest
tradition and historiography. - Situational Factors
- Policy rests upon multiple determinants - Action
including the state’s historic traditions,
geographical locations, national interest, Procedural Aspect of the making of Foreign
purposes, security needs and so forth. Policy;

West - democratic states (America) 1) The establishment of the criteria

2) The determination of the relevant variables
East – socialist/communist (russia, china) in the situation
3) The measurement of the variables in the
4) The selection of the goal
5) the elaboration of a strategy to reach the
6) the decision to act
7) the action itself 3 Classes
8) the evaluation of the results of the action in
1) The international milleu – which state is
terms of the original criteria
NATIONAL INTERESTS 2) The specific actions taken by other states
– to which responses of one sort or
- is the standard by which situational factors
another are appropriate
are given relevance and which inspired
3) The states own capacity for action
action in the first place.
- Policies are made because of National Objective
Means a target of state action or a goal
- is perhaps the closest approximation of a
which the state wishes to reach.
constant factor that the formulation of
Foreign Policy can refer back to. Strategy
- A determinant of a Foreign Policy, to consist
State develops a strategy on how to reach
of those formulation of certain semi-
that goal and what it must do to achieve that
permanent ends and which is phrased at a
high level of generalization, the
accomplishment of which the state feels is “Chain Reaction” – unleashed to plan and execute a
necessary for its Foreign Policy
- self-preservation,
constant 1) A formula of national interest is produced by
- security and
popular traditions and official points of view
- well-being.
which are applied to some relatively long
- Ultimate criterion by which state is
ranged and fixed conditions
measured as to whether it was a failure or a
2) The formulation of what is national interest
is applied to the situational factors in the
- Good foreign policy is one which advances
middle range and evolving conditions to
the notion of national interest the inspired
arrive at precise objectives.
action and corollarily,
3) An objective is analyzed in terms of short
- A Bad foreign policy is one that fails the
range and immediate conditions which
notion of national interest.
would lead to the selection of a course of
action called Policy.
- Concept of National Interest is the Starting
point and End point of the Foreign Policy *A State Action is always deliberate and is a
Process. reaction towards a change in an internal or external
situation which it is faced with.
Two Sources
Foreign Policy is the result of some governmental
1) National Purpose – mass shared value,
action. It must be planned and executed within the
demanded by a broad consensus
limits of the system of government which
2) Practitioners of Foreign Policy – decision
formulates it.
State System
- Depends upon the state’s freedom of choice. 2) Economic Action – which is accomplished
- Depends upon the channel through which through the productive and distributive
state action is made and the limiting controls system of the State
in the state action. 3) Psychological Action – through the use of
the mass media and mass persuasion
Sovereignty confers upon that state freedom to
4) Military Action – with the use of Armed
choose what its National Interests is.
Freedom of choice is the basic requirement and this
choice is reached by internal processes and by its
constitutional processes. State Capacity
*what situational factors that impinged on the state - the capability of one state to have other
is also a matter of choice and discretion of states agree with it on a matter at issue.
individual state. It has the freedom to choose what - Is a function of time, place and situation that
policies to follow in order to accomplish the cannot be possibly attained with
objectives it seeks to achieve. mathematical precision.

*a state must view the situational factors from the Agreement – the only way by which states
point of view of its national interest and determine supposed to be equal and sovereignty.
the relative priorities to be given to different goals
2 ways to secure the agreement in pursuit of
and the establish and evaluate its own courses of
its own Foreign Policy;
*compel agreement by force either by using
*each state must devote a large portion of its
coercive or semi-coercive techniques
capability to face up with the policy moves of other
states either by resisting, cooperating, or *free consent won agreement by the parties
accommodating depending upon how its own concerned.
National Interest is affected.
- the more free consent the less it needs to force
Negotiation – when they seek the same thing in its objectives
equal measure.
- the less consent is available the greater amount
Compensation – a method used by states who are is needed
caught in this quandary. When states have come out
as rivals for the same thing and one state gains an
advantage which brings it nearer towards their
common goal, this touches off attempts on the other TANGIBLE (STABLE)
states to seek compensation by others.
1) Geography (most stable factor)
They may try to offset the gain by resistance o 2) population and man power
retaliatory action. 3) industrial and agricultural production
4) natural resources (food & raw materials)
State Action
5) military organization/preparedness and
4 Categories power-in-being (primary source of
national power)
1) Political Action – which is done through the
mechanism of its diplomatic representation INTANGIBLE (CHANGING)

1) population
2) national character *cession – may be done voluntarily by sale or
3) social structure donation of territory or involuntarily by spoils of
4) national morale (capacity of gov) war.
5) education and technology
*acquisition and subjugation – by threat or use of
6) quality of diplomacy (brain of national
force is illegal and prohibits by united nation.
7) balance of resources *accretion – natural when forces such as currents
and sea action adds to the territory of a state and by
artificial means such as by damming or reclamation
State Capacity as an element of the larger concept of land from the sea.
of Foreign Policy may be viewed in terms of
Right of Self-Defense
concentric circles of three rings.
It is an inherent right of a state to defend itself,
a) Geography and Natural resources include
much like and individual person.
minerals, food production and energy power
b) Industrial Establishment, Military Article 51 of the Charter provides for the right to
Establishment and Changes in Industrial self defense if an armed attack occurs against a
and Military capacities member of UN, until the security council has taken
c) The Human Elements or Factors the measure necessary to maintain international
1) Policy makers and leaders peace and security.
2) The role of ideology
Right of Sovereignty
3) The role of information
- To which a recognized state such as the
Philippines is entitled to.
Under I-law Fundamental Rights of State - Sovereignty and independence are attributes
(inherent rights) of a state which would enable it to determine
its own form of government, allow it to enter
1) Right to Existence, integrity and self-
into treaties and foreign relations, determine
its own national policies such as defense,
2) Right to sovereignty and independence
resources, currencies, and so forth.
3) Right to equality
4) Right to property and jurisdiction Intervention threat to sovereignty and
5) Right of legation or diplomatic intercourse independence.
Right of Existence Right of Equality
- It has the right to survive by maintaining its - “Equality before the Law” and not political
physical territorial integrity and its valid or economic equality for certainly states are
demands for expansion or the right to by their nature larger or more powerful than
acquire additional territory according to the others.
principles of international law. - Right to certain exterritorial rights and
diplomatic immunities and the right of their
*prescription – mode of acquiring territory by
heads of state, their flag and symbols and
continuous, public and adverse possession of some
coats of arms to be respected by other
other state’s territory for a reasonable length of
Right of Property and Jurisdiction
- A state has jurisdictional rights over all 3) The duty to treat all persons under its
persons and things within its boundaries jurisdiction with respect for human rights
and fundamental freedoms
4) The duty to respect the property rights and
3 categories jurisdictional processes of other states
5) Duty to settle its disputes with other states
1) The territorial domain
by peaceful means and to conduct its
2) The marital or fluvial domain
relations with other states according to
3) The aerial domain
international law.
International Law’s Exception
*Foreign Policy should be supported by the people
1) The state of being a condominium as they are final repository of sovereignty.
2) The existence of spheres of influence
*government is only the agent in the formulation
3) The state of being a colonial dependency or
and execution of Foreign Policy in people’s behalf.
colonial protectorate or a trust territory
4) The existence of easements
5) The principle of exterritoriality
6) The principle of extraterritoriality
7) the rules on the jurisdiction of treaty over British Foreign Policy
crimes committed on board foreign ships
- a study of British foreign policy would entail
inside territorial waters
an understanding of its national background,
8) the presence of a lease hold or the existence
its policy making process, the substance of
of treaty stipulations
its Foreign Policy.
Right of Legation - 94,000 sqm
- Developed and economic system of trading
- it is based on common consent by the states
manufactures for the raw materials of her
colonies and the rest of the world.
Chief of State (president) - Developed coal industry which fueled her
- the sole organ of the nation in its external
- Industrialization caused England to become
relations and is the sole representative with
largely urban and her agricultural population
foreign nations.
was greatly reduced to 5% of her entire
- Shapes and formulates Foreign Policy and
appoints diplomatic representatives abroad
- Small enough land to manage itself until she
to execute his announced policy.
had expanded into her colonies around the
State of Obligations world.

- Set of fundamental obligations which states British Educational System

must observe in their relations with other
Public schools tend to separate students according
to academic ability, and those who are better
1) Duty to respect the right of other states the
encouraged to seek higher education.
latter’s territorial existence and integrity
2) The duty to refrain from intervention on the Elite group – produces knowledge and skills
internal and external affairs of other states towards the formulation of British Foreign Policy.
British Parliament 1688 - monarch political *British Foreign Policy is also influence by non-
institution described as Liberal and Aristocratic. government entities such as the political parties
(various interest and public opinion)
Liberal in standing for liberty of both individuals
and property Major Political Parties in Britain
Aristocratic because there were only a few who  The Labor Party – affiliated with Trade
could be eligible to become members of Parliament. Unions (5M)
 The Liberal Party -
2 persistent problems
 The Conservative Party
*world-wide commercial
*Political interest
The Crown - responsible for British Foreign Policy

Politicians – the power to make or formulate

Foreign Policy

Ministers of the Crown – where the responsibility

is exercised by

British Cabinet composed of 15-20 members

(selected by the Prime Minister); members of the
Cabinet shares the responsibilities of the Executive.

British Prime Minister – selects the members of

the cabinet

British Foreign Service – instrument of

Government but does not formulate Foreign Policy.

Permanent Under-Secretary – highest position for

a career officer of Foreign Affairs in the Foreign
Service Career,
- Main adviser to the Foreign Secretary and
serves as the Administrative Head.
- His advise may be entirely disregarded by
the Foreign Secretary and there is nothing he
can do about it.

4 other non-cabinet members who occupies other

ministerial posts who deals with British Foreign
(2) ministers of state
(2) houses joint under-secretaries