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Prepared by: Nadia

South Asia
Course Outline

GEOG-431 South Asia** 3(3-0)

Regional study of Geog. 420-432 shall be carried out under

the following heads:
I. Politico-historic Background.
II. Environmental Setting.
III. Resource Base.
i. Land and Water Resources.
ii. Minerals and Mineral Fuels Industries.
IV. Special Features and Problems of the Region.
V. Role of the Region in the World.
VI. Detailed Regional Study.

 An area of the earth throughout which there are
similarities of conditions of relief, temperature,
rainfall, vegetation and human activities.
 It can be an area with common characteristics that set
it off from other areas. It can be a part of a city,
country, state, province, nation, or the world.
Introduction of South Asia

 South Asia comprises of
seven countries, i.e.
1. Nepal,
2. Bhutan,
3. Pakistan,
4. India,
5. Bangladesh,
6. Sri Lanka,
7. Maldives.
Introduction of South Asia

 It occupies approximately 3 percent of the world's
land area.
 It holds more then 24 percent of the world's
 It ranks the third major concentration of human
beings in the world.
Introduction of South Asia

 This area has a great variety of lands and different types
of people.
 The people belongs to many different races and religions,
speaking about 180 languages including fourteen major
 Most parts of South Asia have the continental type of
climate, while there are places where heavy to the
heaviest rainfall is received.
 The whole area is rich in resources, including ores and
farmlands, through most of them have not been
sufficiently developed.
Location of South Asia

 Extend: 1° S to 37° N latitude
 62° E to 97° E longitude
 The tropic of cancer passes through the heart of the
South Asia, so that roughly half of the South Asia
lies outside the tropics, in the temperate zone.
 The distance from west to east is more then 2100
miles (3,379 km), and
 from north to south is approximately the same.

Location of South Asia

 South Asia is bounded in the north by China, a
narrow arm of Afghanistan (Wakhan), separate
it from Russian Turkistan on the north east.
 On the west lies Afghanistan and Iran.
 On the east is Burma.
 In the south lies the Indian Ocean with its two
arm going northward on both sides of the
peninsular India,
 the eastern one is called the Bay of Bengal, and
 western one is the Arabian Sea.
Geo-strategic Location

 Geo-strategic location means the importance of a
country as by feature of its geographical location.
 South Asia is very important because of geostrategic
location not only among the major powers but also
important location wise for each other for trade
Geo-strategic Location

 South Asia lies on the mid-way
junction between South East Asia
and Western Asia.
 Russia and China communist
alliance is in the north.
 On the south western side of
South Asia, it provides an access
to the Persian Gulf.
 On the south eastern side it
provides an access of Malaccan
Contiguity of Borders

 Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri
Lanka and Maldives have a geographical
compactness, providing contiguity of border.
 That's why they have a common history, race,
religion, language, and cultural backgrounds which
make them unique from other neighboring regions.
Importance of South Asia

 SAARC (South Asia Association for Regional
Cooperation) was established on 25th November 1980.
 The formal Inauguration took place on December 1985.
 SAARC was established for the strategic, political,
economical , social and cultural uplift of the countries
of this region.
 Its seven founding members are Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
 Afghanistan joined later on 3rd April 2007.
(South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation)

Importance of South Asia

 Pakistan is near Central Asian Republics(CARs),
which are landlocked states and need a corridor for
export their energy resources(oil, gas) and transit
route for trade and commerce.
 China finds way to Indian Ocean and Arabian sea
through Karakorum. China is economic power,
rapidly growing, to maintain the china needs to
access to other states.
 Pakistan Gwadar port provide China trade route for
western region.
Importance of South

 Location of Bangladesh also very Important due to
connection with China, Myanmar, Seven states of India,
which is landlocked, short route through Bangladesh.
 China enjoy access to the Bay of Bengal through Myanmar.
 Nepal-Bhutan both have energy resources connected with
India and export 70% its hydroelectricity to India.
 Nepal-Bhutan also important for Bangladesh regarding
 Nepal-Bhutan-Bangladesh depend upon India for import
 Nepal is sandwich between two major powers India and
Importance of South

 South Asia lies between the sea routes of Indian ocean and
land routes of central Asia connecting Europe to the east.
 This region has the large reservoir of natural and human
 Prime destination for capital,
 Market for trade,
 Sources of cheap raw material,
 Rich in oil, gas, rubber, tea, jute, copper, gold, cotton and
 South Asia is a region of both abundance and scarcity of
water. It is fed by the Hindu Kush, Karakorum and
Himalayan mountain system which is one of the largest
storehouses of freshwater in the world.
Interests of external powers in
South Asian sub-Continent

 In 1990s, South Asia became more significant after India
and Pakistan declared their nuclear status.
 Nuclear weapons in South Asia will not only create
a balance of power in the region, but it is also alarming
for the rest of world.
 Nuclear weapons enhance the importance of the region.
 Super powers like USA started taking interest in South
Asian region.
Interests of external powers in
South Asian sub-Continent

 India got importance for being the world's largest
democracy and having vast potential for economic
establishment and cooperation.
 Pakistan still maintains its importance because of its
strategic location and the first and only Muslim state
that possesses nuclear weapons.
Interests of external powers in
South Asian sub-Continent

 The US govt. started to flourish its relations with India
because of economic stability, trade investment and
anti-Pakistani foreign policies.
 Pakistan is supported by China, and by many other
countries of Middle East.
 The "global war on terror ” has a horrible impact on
South Asia.
Interests of external powers in
South Asian sub-Continent

 South Asia has been considered as the most
dangerous place in the world.
 The region has become more insecure and unstable.
 Super powers always used South Asia when they
needed it and India and Pakistan which represent
whole South Asia have always helped them in
fulfilling their interests economic and strategic
 US always try to impose its will on weaker states of
South Asia like India, Pakistan, etc.

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