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Curriculum Implementation : Teacher’s Integration of Subject Matters, Pedagogy &

Learning environment

By Dr. Umi Kalsum Mohd Salleh

1. Curriculum
Latin : Running course
Must have objective.

Curriculum is a design of plan for learning that requires the purposeful and
proactive organisation, sequencing and management of the interaction among
the teacher, the students and the content knowledge we want students to

Types of curriculum

a) Written curriculum
- Appears in document
- Mostly made by curriculum experts with the participation of teachers

b) Taught curriculum
- What the teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms
- Refers to the different planned activities which are put into action in the
- Varies according to the learning styles of students and teaching styles of

c) Supported curriculum
- Refers to resources that support or help in the implementation of th
- Includes material resources such as textbooks, computers, audio-visual
materials, laboratory equipment,

d) Assessed curriculum
- Refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum
- Series of evaluation are being done by teachers to determine the extent of
teaching or if the students are progressing.
- Ex. Pencil-and paper test , state test, district
e) Learned curriculum
- Is the bottom-line curriculum
- Refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the student
- Indicated by the result of the tests and changes in behaviour - cognitive,
affective and psychomotor

d) Hidden curriculum
- Is the unintended curriculum
- Is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning
- Factors: school environment , physical condition, peer influence ,
teacher-learner interaction , mood of teachers etc.

Curriculum as process is what actually happens in the classroom; it’s the

preparation the teaching, the learning and the evaluation
Roles of a teacher
- The teacher prepares activities for the students to do
- The teachers address the goals and needs interests of learners by creating
experiences from where the students can learn
- The teacher designs, enriches and modifies the curriculum to suit the learners’s

A teacher is a curriculum maker, lesson plan daily, prepare activities and deliver the

What is pedagogy?
Is how learning happen
Is how teachers teach
Is the science & arts of teaching

Science - the knowledge of theories of learning & instructional strategies of teaching

Arts - correctly putting theories into practise & building up teaching experiences.
Pedagogical​ Content ​Knowledge​ (​PCK​)
= Knowledge + Content

Teaching methods
- Comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student
- These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly
by the nature of the learner
Rapport & Trust