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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

“Home is a safe haven from the worries of the world”. This is how we considered
the houses we lived in, for it is where our hearts belong. This is the place where we tend to
find comfort and feel secured. But things have gotten into something alarming as the time
passes by. This is so because of the increasing crime rate that didn’t pass even our own
residences.

According to the current U.S. Department of State Travel Advisory in the survey
they had conducted last March 03, 2018, our country, the Philippines had been assessed as
level 2 in Crime and Safety. This means that our country exercises increased caution. This
simply means that Filipinos had been so wary when it comes to their safety primarily
because of the escalation of crime where are adobe were not an exemption.
(manila.usembassy.gov, 2018)

With this regards, Filipino should augment their level of awareness on how to
possibly protect their family from the treat of being the victim of the swelling crime rate.
But beyond being knowledgeable on doing it, taking some actions in doing such would be
a good step. And that of course should begin at home since it is the very place where we
should firstly feel comfortable and serene. And since we are presently living in the
indulging life of present technology, it is but proper to use it in our advantage as what we
all do. We can possibly engage technology to assure our own places’ welfare.

Many had been trying to think of ways on how they can possibly utilize the power
of technological advancement so as to uplift the mode of living of us, men. Included in this
context is the concern of security among the communities particularly in each residence.
And since almost all individual are using mobile phones, taking at it as a necessity rather
than demand, we are looking into that point of using mobile phones as the best tool as a
powerful aid to uplift the security level among houses.

According to the statistical survey conducted by Statista Company in Technology


and Communication, the number of Filipino mobile phone users from 2014 to present had
already reached 70.9 million which clearly shows that 68% of Philippine population was
forecasted to be mobile phone user. With this, we could possibly say that indeed cellular
phones are part of our daily living. On that note, it is but a clear manifestation of reality in
the life of technology, that it is the mobile phone that strongly influence the majority of the
people particularly us Filipinos.( Statista, 2014)
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And this is the main core why this project of putting up an application that will aid
Filipino families to strengthen the security level at home came into mind. That technology
at its best can be of goo d help to this present dilemma our country is facing. That we,
Filipinos can benefit from it as far as our homes’ security is concern.

Statement of the Problem

The general problem of the study is: " How will make a security system that does not need
to husstle looking for traditional keys?"The research tried to answer the following
questions:

1. How technology could serve as an aid to increase the security level in our own homes?

2. Who can afford to avail the home security application?

3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the home security application?

4. How accurate and reliable the home security application is?

Significance of the Study

This study had been beneficial to all the members of the society given the fact that family
is its basic unit. With the pursuance of this device, the security level among houses will
strengthen, thus making every users achieve more level of serenity and assurance as far as
security concern.

It will also give benefit to some telecommunication companies as they will be in demand
once the study achieved its high success.

To the home owners - The study can provide maximum security as this device will only
allow people to enter by using the even without the use of the traditional keys thus, this
prevents the burglars or someone from breaking it.

To the future researchers - The study can help the future researches as their reference

for their study related on this topic.

To the security personnel - The study will help them to respond quickly or unwanted

incidents which may happen to buildings / establishment and homes.

To the proponents - The study will help them in applying their knowledge in software
development.
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Scope and Delimitation

The microcontroller sent signal which controlled several functions such as locking,
unlocking and removing of authorities to enter the house, as well as series of relays that
controlled the motor of the mechanical part of the lock. The purpose of this study focused
into the possibility of using microcontrollers in wireless lock system application.

The project will only be limited to uses such as utilizing the existing Wi-Fi for ranges
communication with the automated lock system embedded on the doors of the house and
RFID for an easy Tap-and-Unlock feature of the device exclusive for the main resident of
the house, having options for automatic locking which is relative to the user's distance from
the door, and lastly, permitting a total house lockdown. It can also warn the user and its
neighbor through the use for loudspeakers but only if it is within 20 meters. The
microcontroller base wireless home automation security warns the user through the android
application on Wi-Fi enabled android smartphones using its loudspeakers and vibrations
of only.
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CHAPTER 2

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This study is intended to furnish an even greater security for every single person
where they will need NFC cards/RFID that will used as its key to access the security system
and every time you enter or go outside it will be recorded to smartphone application. The
smartphone application can also be used to access the security system if the NFC
cards/RFID was lost and will need pin to access the security system.

Relevant theories

Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering is a subfield of mathematics that


deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineering
processes and machines. The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such
systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshooting and
ensuring control stability.

A controller with the requisite corrective behavior is required. This controller


monitors the controlled process variables and compares it with the reference or set point.
The difference of actual and desired value of the process variables called the error signal ,
is applied as feedback to generate a control action to bring the controlled process variables
to the same value as the set point. Other aspects which are also studied are controllability
an observability. On this is base the advance type of automation that revolutionized
manufacturing, aircraft, communication and other industries. this is feedback control,
which is usually continuous and involve taking measurements using a sensor and making
calculated adjustment to keep the measure variable within a set range means of a “final
control element” such as control valve.

Related literature

This topic presents the related literature that provide sufficient information to
conduct the research.

Android

One of the most widely used mobile Operating system these days is android.
Android a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and
key application. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin,
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Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White in 2003 and later Android was been acquired by
Google in 2005. After original released there have been number of updates in the original
version of Android (Google, 2015)

Smartphone

Smartphone are class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing


device. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities
and extensive mobile operating system, which facilities wider software, internet and
multimedia functionality. Smartphone typically include various sensors that can be
leveraged by their software support wireless communication protocols such as Bluetooth,
Wi-Fi, and satellite navigation. (Wikipedia)

Near - Field Communication (NFC)

NFD is a set of communication protocol that enable two electronic device, one of
which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone to establish communication by
bringing them within 4cm of each other. (Wikipedia)

The technology is simple it is a short range, low power wireless link evolved from
radio frequency identification (RFID) tech that can transfer small amount of data between
two device held a few centimeters from each other are expected to follow suit. NFD is
compatible in smartphones will be available and more stores will offer NFC card reader.
(Wikipedia, 2012)

Arduino

Arduino is an open source hardware and software company, project and user
community that design and manufactures single board microcontroller and microcontroller
kits for building digital devices and interactive object that can sense and control both
physically and digitally.

The Arduino boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output pins
that may be interface to various expansion boards or breadboard and other circuit. The
microcontroller are typically programmed using dialect of features from the programming
languages C and C++. (Wikipedia, 2019)

Related studies

This topic presents some ideas that helps to conduct a research.

Smart bus door system with passenger counter via RFID and sensor technology

An outmost congestion and accident issues caused by unruly drivers that unload
and load passengers at inappropriate place has a solution now thanks to this technology.
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The extreme traffic we encounter will be lessen and diminished in the near future. As
indicated in the title itself this will use RFID technology that will amend the poor
performance of the bus system we have today especially to the most congested roads we
have in the country.

The said system is designed to only open the bus door in it’s designed bus stop. Not
only that this study also includes a system of passenger counter in which the system will
enter and exit the bus to avoid overloading problems. The number of passengers counted
by the said counter will be show in the LCD provided by the bus itself. In some cases,
emergency pop up out of nowhere and for this cases an emergency are provided. This
emergency button needs discipline and responsibility to avoid such abuse, an alarm will
ring once it’s used to minimize it’s usage. It will only stop by the master card provided to
those who are in authority. This study was provided by Cruz on 2014.

SMS based car security system

According to Bantique Jr., 2005 in his study “SMS based car security system”
innovative security system in vehicle is the target of this project. It will send instant
message on the mobile device to the owner if there is an unauthorized person accessing the
car. It has an added feature that it can stop the car from immobilizing if just in case that the
car is already stolen because the engine is SMS based.

A microcontroller based remote engine starter and keyless entry using ZIGBEE with
security system

According to Jingel A. Tio, 2009 in his study “ A microcontroller based remote


engine starter and keyless entry using ZIGBEE with security system”. ZIGBEE is widely
used in application that involve monitoring and communication function. This thesis uses
ZIGBEE and its digital input/output capabilities to control several function of automobile
remotely. The ZIGBEE utilizes point-to-point communication similar to a remote control
in car locks. The ZIGBEE is connected to a microcontroller which reads the digital input
fed by the ZIGBEE receiver. The microcontroller send signals which controls several
function like unlock ,lock, and disarm of an alarm system as well as a series of relays that
controls the engine starter of an automobile.

Wireless security car using RFID system

The wireless security car using RFID will prevent the car from being stolen. It
remind the user whenever the car door and the car bonnet is properly lock with use of the
said study, car theft problem will lessen and will be unknown in the future. This system
maneuvers when the acquiescent RFID tag is placed near the RFID reader. A radio
frequency received via antenna inside the RFID tag itself. After converting the radio
frequency into electrical power that enables the RFID tag to transmit back the data. The
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reader will send tag ID of the car owner to PICI6F84 microcontroller. The PIC
microcontroller process tag ID and also control car motor, alarms and car lock. This study
was proposed by Sulaiman on 2010.

Door automation system using Bluetooth based android for mobile phone

the study by Lia Kamelia on 2014 is invented to be affordable, scalable so that new
device can easily be integrated into the system , it also aims to be a user friendly
technology. This project gave rudimentary concepts on how to control home security for
smart home, emphasizing the door key locks. For indoor and outdoor key system it needs
a solenoid lock system that will provide as it’s prototype. To make this system possible
and successful, a Bluetooth which we mistakenly think to be limited for sharing data only
is necessary. Bluetooth will serve as command agent, Arduino microcontroller as controller
center and solenoid as door output. This technology can be used to monitor, alert, and
execute according to the desired function. This study aims to diminish thieveries among
houses.

Smart door lock

According to Rafid Karim’s study on 2013 “Smart door lock” has NFC, a wireless
technology that enables to transport minimal data between two NFC device devices in a
short distance. The main objective of this system is o make it easier for the owner of the
building to access fast using their NFC equipped smartphones or NFC smartcard inside the
house, room or in any NFC based system places. In building smart door lock, it is necessary
to have some knowledge about NFC technology and network that is set up through the
door. Knowledge in microcontroller how door lock will troubleshoot and analysis if the
packet contained what is expected and were send and received when to be participated.

Conceptual Framework

The inputs identifies the knowledge and materials needed to conduct the research to
develop the Microcontroller base wireless home automation security.

The process explains the different stages the problem identification, gathering of related
theories, literature and studies, software application, hardware application, combination of
software and hardware application and after that will have several testing.

The output presents the result of the study which is Microcontroller base wireless home
automation security.
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Input Process Output

Theoretical Problem Identification


Framework
identifying the problem
 Relevant to made the device.
theories
Gathering of related
 Related theories, literature and
literature studies
 Related
The theories, literature
studies
and studies that will
Software knowledge contribute to conduct the
research.
 Programming
Software application
in C language
Programming the
Hardware knowledge Arduino UNO and making
Android application.
 RFID card “Microcontroller
 RFID reader Hardware application base wireless home
 Arduino UNO Collecting of hardware automation security”
 Android materials that will help to
 Wi-Fi router made the research.

Software and hardware


application

Combining the hardware


and software to produce
the device.

Testing

Series of test during the


development of the device
after the development of
the device the evaluation
follows

Figure2.1 Project conceptual framework


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Hypothesis of the study

The purpose of this research is to develop and create a security system for our home
that could help to monitor the house and determine whether there is any problem and
intruders trying to access the home security. Using a security system it easy to monitor our
house and there is no hustle to find the key. This study will provide an effective security
system will help to avoid hazardous accident and to protect our home with the intruders.

Operational definition

Android - Android is a mobile operating system develop by Google. It is based on a


modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and is designed
primary for touchscreen mobile device such as smartphone and tablets. The function of
Android is to store data that transmit by Arduino and monitor who is going inside or outside
the house. Moreover, Android application can be a spare key where you can access the
home security when RFID lost.

Arduino - Arduino is an open source hardware and software company, project and user
community that design and manufactures single board microcontroller and microcontroller
kits for building digital devices and interactive object that can sense and control both
physically and digitally. It process the personal data and transmit the data to the Android
application.

Near Field communication (NFC) - A technology for digitally transmitting information


over short distances usually between a smartphone and another device using radio waves.

RFID – A form of wireless communication that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or


electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to
uniquely identify an object, animal or person. The RFID will be the key to access the home
security.

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) – A facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices


to connect to the Internet or Communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular
area. The Wi-Fi serve as communication line that transfer the data to android application.
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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

To provide the users the maximum security among their houses through a digital
door lock system controlled by Android application in smart phones via secured wireless
link is the main feature of this project. This project enables the users to have a temporary
digital access code that will allow them to have a door unlock code. The users can manage
to control the set access code through changing or removing it from time to time to assure
that no leakage will occur.

The set code will be sent directly to the lock system through Wi-Fi link which will
make the communicating device embedded on the door to be effortlessly unlocked through
tapping the door using a secured near-field communicating tag (NFC) or by means of
Android application using Wi-Fi.

What is good about this device is that the users can set the alarm whenever
strangers try to break it lock. It will create a tumultuous sound that will definitely catch the
residents’ attention.

Methods and Technique of the Study

This study will be use the descriptive method of the survey type of research which
describe and interpret data and characteristics about the population and phenomenon being
studied. It involves some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to discover
relationship between existing and previous problems. Descriptive research, also known as
statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon
being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and
how. Moreover, it describes the descriptive research as fact-finding methodology with
adequate interpretation. He further claims that the descriptive method is something more
and beyond just data gathering. He believes that the discussions of those data are carried
up to the level of adequate interpretation. The data must be subjected to terms and ordered
reasoning.

Home security is obscure, but the techniques for protecting the household, such as
the use of locks and barred windows, are very ancient. As civilizations developed, the
distinction between passive and active security was recognized, and responsibility for
active security measures was vested in police and fire-fighting agencies. Home security
systems are becoming increasingly automated, particularly in sensing and communicating
hazards and vulnerabilities. Advances in miniaturization and electronics are reflected in
security equipment that is smaller, more reliable, and easily to installed and maintained.

Population and Sample of the Study


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The purposive sampling will be used in the selection of the respondents only in
bulacan State University (Malolos, Bulacan) will be utilized to answer the questionnaires.

In this regard, emphasized that purposive sampling was based on certain criteria
laid down by the research such that the respondents within the population have meaning
for the data that will be gathered.

The respondents of the study will be the students and employees of Bulacan State
University.

Research Instrument

Arduino Uno

Arduino/Genuino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers.


The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may
be interfaced to various expansion boards or breadboards and other circuits. The boards
feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some
models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. Arduino is a
microcontroller board and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive
objects that can sense and control both physically and digitally. You can welded your
arduino uno without worrying too much about doing something wrong, worst scenario
you can replace the chip for lesser amount and start over again.

Figure 3.1 Arduino Uno


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Arduino Uno Wi-Fi Shield

The Arduino Wi-Fi Shield connects your Arduino to the internet wirelessly.
Connect it to your wireless network by following a few simple instructions to start
controlling your world through the internet. As always with Arduino, every element of the
platform – hardware, software and documentation – is freely available and open-source.
This means you can learn exactly how it's made and use its design as the starting point for
your own circuits.

Figure 3.2 Arduino Uno Wi-Fi Shield


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Schematic Diagram

Figure 3.3 Arduino UNO circuit diagram

Figure 3.4 Arduino Wi-Fi shield circuit diagram

PCB LAY-OUT
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Figure 3.5 Arduino UNO module copper pattern

Figure 3.6 Arduino Wi-Fi shield copper pattern

Tools and Equipment

Breadboard
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A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. Breadboards are


one of the most fundamental pieces when learning how to build circuits.

Figure 3.7 Breadboard

Connecting Wires

A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are
used to bear mechanical or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire comes in solid
core, stranded, or braided forms.

Figure 3.8 Connecting Wires

Soldering Iron

A soldering iron is a hand tool used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt solder so
that it can flow into the joint between two work pieces. A soldering iron is composed of a
heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often achieved electrically, by passing
an electric current (supplied through an electrical cord or battery cables) through a resistive
heating element. Soldering irons are most often used for installation, repairs, and limited
production work in electronics assembly.
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Figure 3.9 Soldering Iron

Solder

Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal work
pieces. Solder must first be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together
after cooling, which requires that an alloy suitable for use as solder have a lower melting
point than the pieces being joined. Solder used in making electrical connections also needs
to have favourable electrical characteristics.

Figure 3.10 Solder

Pliers

Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, possibly developed from tongs
used to handle hot metal in Bronze Age Europe. They are also useful for bending and
compressing a wide range of materials. The jaws can also be used to manipulate objects
too small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers. There are many kinds of pliers
made for various general and specific purposes.
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Figure 3.11 Pliers

Screwdriver

A screwdriver is a tool, manual or powered, for screwing and unscrewing (inserting


and removing) screws. A typical simple screwdriver has a handle and a shaft, ending in a
tip the user puts into the screw head before turning the handle. The shaft is usually made
of tough steel to resist bending or twisting. A screwdriver is classified by its tip, which is
shaped to fit the driving surfaces—slots, grooves, recesses, etc. - on the corresponding
screw head. Proper use requires that the screwdriver's tip engage the head of a screw of the
same size and type designation as the screwdriver tip.

Figure 3.12 Screwdriver

Printed Board Circuit

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects


electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other
features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between
sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the
simplest electronic products.
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Figure 3.13 Printed Board Circuit

Multimeter or Multitester

Multimeter or a Multitester, also known as a VOM, is an electronic measuring


instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter
can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters uses a microammeter
with a moving pointer to display readings. Digital multimeters have a numeric display, and
may also show a graphical bar representing the measured value.

Figure 3.14 Multimeter or Multitester

Data Processing Procedure

The researcher will provide the questionnaires to students who enrolled and
employees in Bulacan State University because of their involvement in this study. After
which, the researcher will go to school under study to personally distribute the
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questionnaire to the students and employees who has a knowledge or familiarity about
home security. The questionnaire will be scored, tallied and tabulated.

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment

To interpret the date effectively, the researcher will employ the following statistical
treatment manually and with the aid of computer to precise the interpretation of the results.
The Percentage, Weighted Mean and T-test are the tools use to interpret data.

1. Percentage

This will employ to determine the frequency counts and percentage distribution of

personal related variables of the respondents.


𝐹
Formula: % = 𝑁 × 100

% is the percentage

F is the Frequency

N is the total number of respondents

100 is a constant value

2. Average Weighted Mean

This will be use to determine the assessment of the respondents with regards to their

personal profiles.
𝐹𝑥
Formula: 𝑋 = 𝑁

X is the weighted mean

F is the frequency

x is the weight of each item


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N is the number of cases

NOTES

http://circuitscheme.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/arduino-uno-schematic.jpg

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arduino_Uno_-_R3.jpg

https://www.google.com/Fblog.arduino.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:400_points_breadboard.jpg

https://www.google.com/.sparkfun.com8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Soldering_gun.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solder_on_spool.jpeg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tool-pliers.jpg

https://www.google.com/en.wikipedia.org/Screwdriver.jpg7

https://www.google.com/Nuat-Thai1556471928412538

https://images.app.goo.gl/on9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:YX360TRF(Sanwa).JPG
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https://easyeda.com/normal/Arduino_WiFi_Shield-LMGAuoGAS.png

https://farm3.static.flickr.com/2749/4241185004_39ae28b57b.jpg

https://www.google.com/.arduino.the-arduino-wifi-shield-8

https://images.app.goo.gl/a7