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This book has some terminologies that can help you to have information about basics in Information Technology field. These definitions are collected from famous websites.
Softphone is a software program for making telephone calls over the Internet using a general purpose computer, rather than using dedicated hardware. Often a softphone is designed to behave like a traditional telephone, sometimes appearing as an image of a phone, with a display panel and buttons with which the user can interact. A softphone is usually used with a headset (Headphones) connected to the sound card of the PC, or with a USB phone. USBphone looks like traditional phone device, but it has USB connector instead of RJ-11. It may be used with most softphones and services like Skype.
A typical application of a softphone is to make calls via an Internet telephony service provider to other softphones or to telephones. Service providers may offer PC-to-PC calls for free; PC-to-phone and phone-toPC calls are usually not free. Another type of softphone connects to a private branch exchange (PBX) ( which is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. PBXs are also referred to as: PABX - private automatic branch exchange EPABX - electronic private automatic branch exchange) through a local area network (LAN) and is used to control and dial through an existing hardware phone. This is often used in a call center environment to make calls from a central customer directory, and to "pop-up" information on the screen about which customer is calling, instantly providing the operator with details of the relationship between the caller and the company using the call center. Some countries do not allow this PBX. It's important to differentiate softphones from services based on softphones. Skype, Google Talk, and Vonage are Internet telephony service providers having their own softphones that you install on your computer. Unfortunately these three major providers are not interoperable, and you can't place a direct call between them. 3
What Kind of Equipment Do I Need? A broadband (high speed Internet) connection is required. If I have VoIP service. How VoIP / Internet Voice Works VoIP services convert your voice into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you to use VoIP service wirelessly.VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. or you may be able to call anyone who has a telephone number including local. adaptor. or are available but only for an additional fee. you will need some software and an inexpensive microphone. traditional wireline telephone service. a special VoIP phone. If you use a telephone with a VoIP adapter. or specialized phone is required. parks. You may also be able to avoid paying for both a broadband connection and a traditional telephone line. What Are Some Advantages of VoIP? Some VoIP services offer features and services that are not available with a traditional phone. mobile. It also means that people who call you may incur long distance charges depending on their area code and service. If you use your computer. wireless "hot spots" in locations such as airports. In addition. VoIP can allow you to make a call directly from a computer. Is there a difference between making a Local Call and a Long Distance Call? Some VoIP providers offer their services for free. or high speed services such as DSL or a local area network. Some VoIP services may allow you to speak with more than one person at a time. the signal is converted to a regular telephone signal before it reaches the destination. and the service provider may also provide a dial tone. while other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter. Some VoIP providers charge for a long distance call to a number outside your calling area. Special VoIP phones plug directly into your broadband connection and operate largely like a traditional telephone. Other VoIP providers permit you to call anywhere at a flat rate for a fixed number of minutes. If you are calling a regular phone number. similar to existing. This can be through a cable modem. long distance. and international numbers. 4 . you'll be able to dial just as you always have. A computer. you might be limited only to other subscribers to the service. Your VoIP provider may permit you to select an area code different from the area in which you live. If you are calling someone who has a regular analog phone. who can I call? Depending upon your service. normally only for calls to other subscribers to the service. Some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone. or a traditional phone connected to a special adapter. that person does not need any special equipment to talk to you.
Can I use my Computer While I talk on the Phone? In most cases. the phone will ring like a traditional telephone. For additional information. VoIP providers may or may not offer directory assistance/white page listings. You should always check with the VoIP service provider you choose to confirm any advantages and limitations to their service. see VoIP & 911 Advisory. For additional information. If your VoIP service requires you to make calls using your computer. Does the FCC Regulate VoIP? In June 2005 the FCC imposed 911 obligations on providers of “interconnected” VoIP services – VoIP services that allow users generally to make calls to and receive calls from the regular telephone network. In addition. Does my Computer Have to be Turned on? Only if your service requires you to make calls using your computer. Not all VoIP services connect directly to emergency services through 9-11. How Do I Know If I have a VoIP phone Call? If you have a special VoIP phone or a regular telephone connected to a VoIP adapter. that 911 calls using VoIP are handled differently than 911 calls using your regular telephone service. Aspects of these considerations may change with new developments in internet technology. Please see our consumer fact sheet on VoIP and 911 services for complete information on these differences. yes. Using a VoIP service from a new location may impact your ability to connect directly to emergency services through 9-1-1. the software supplied by your service provider will alert you when you have an incoming call. Can I Take My Phone Adapter with me When I Travel? Some VoIP service providers offer services that can be used wherever a high speed Internet connection available. You should know. however. there are some possible differences: Some VoIP services don't work during power outages and the service provider may not offer backup power. which supports communications services in high-cost areas and for income-eligible telephone subscribers. 5 . see VoIP & 911 Advisory. the FCC requires interconnected VoIP providers to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA) and to contribute to the Universal Service Fund.What Are Some disadvantages of VoIP? If you're considering replacing your traditional telephone service with VoIP. For more information about VoIP see our factsheet (pdf file). All VoIP services require your broadband Internet connection to be active.
net2Phone began offering consumer VoIP service in 1995. In the United States. Before 2003. Most ITSPs use SIP.323. H.323 use is declining) for transmitting telephone calls as IP data packets. or IAX (althoughH. many VoIP services required customers to make and receive phone calls through a personal computer. 6 .An ITSP (Internet Telephony Service Provider) offers an Internet data service for making telephone calls using VoIP (Voice over IP) technology. Customers may use traditional telephones with an analog telephony adapter (ATA) providing RJ11 to Ethernetconnection. ITSPs are also known as VSP (Voice Service Provider) or simply VoIP Providers.
etc. SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architecture for IP-based streaming multimedia services in cellular systems.private automatic branch exchange EPABX . SIP was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne and Mark Handley starting in 1996. It is a text-based protocol. In November 2000. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261 from the IETF Network Working Group. inviting more participants. streaming multimedia distribution. SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer. The modification can involve changing addresses or ports. incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and theSimple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). widely used for controlling multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). allowing for direct inspection by administrators. The SIP protocol is a TCP/IP-based Application Layer protocol. Other feasible application examples include video conferencing. as opposed to one that acommon carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions consisting of one or several media streams. PBXs are also referred to as: PABX . User Datagram Protocol (UDP). The protocol can be used for creating. a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches.electronic private automatic branch exchange In the field of telecommunications. Private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office.The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol. it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). instant messaging. adding or deleting media streams. presence information and online games. which make telephone 7 .
Common carriers typically transport persons or goods according to defined and published routes. or services and offers its services to the general public under license or authority provided by a regulatory body. manage credit cards. A common carrier must further demonstrate to the regulator that it is "fit. willing and able" to provide those services for which it is granted authority. Public airlines. the word exchange can also have the legal meaning of a local access and transport area under the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ).calls"work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. The term common carrier is of Anglo-American origin. bus lines. It is sometimes confused with other concepts of telephone geography. cruise ships. other obsolete Bell System terms includeoffice code and NXX. Any person who undertakes to transport goods is simply referred to as a carrier. or order 8 . IVR automated systems save businesses money and employee resources.. railroads. More narrowly. A common carrier holds itself out to provide service to the general public without discrimination for the "public convenience and necessity". check for store hours or locations. goods. A common carrier is a business that transports people. while making routine services and inquiries available to the public 24 hours a day. Most of us use IVR systems daily to do things like check bank balances. In the three-digit sense of the word. IVR (interactive voice response) is a telephony technology that allows users to interact with a database through phone keypad or voice commands.e. time schedules and rate tables upon the approval of regulators. in some areas it can refer to the first three digits of the local number. trucking companies) and other freight companiesgenerally operate as common carriers. The term exchange can also be used to refer to an area served by a particular switch (typically known as a wire center in the US telecommunications industry). motor carriers (i. such as NPA or area code. In Continental Europe the term is seldom used and has little or no legal implications. In the United States.
depending on the requirements of the application. the Department Of Motor Vehicles. Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) is designed for the purpose of file sharing (It is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information. such as weather. and to schedule appointments with government or state offices. Commonly. In these cases. and distribution models. the system places outgoing calls. Press 1 for yes and 2 for no. IVR systems are installed in-house. integrating it through the client's network. multi-media (audio. there are also "outsourced solution providers. or electronic books. Disadvantages may include a feature-set or template that might not fit your business model as well as you'd like. and surrendered control over critical functions deferred to the IVR system." The IVR system might have limited to extensive built-in voice recognition.prescription medicine. and an IVR-savvy staff to maintain the system. IVR systems are also used to report non-emergency problems to cable or utility services. World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents. transmission. though an option might exist to be switched to a live operator during business hours. Answers might also be directed through the phone's keypad. IVR systems can deliver dynamic information as well. for example. news. traffic or stock reports. The increasing popularity of the mp3 music format in the late 1990s led to the release and growth of Napster and other software designed to aid in the sharing of electronic files. however. These IVR providers maintain the system on their own premises. It may be implemented in a variety of storage." or "undecided. video). Obvious advantages include avoiding installation of a new IVR infrastructure. OSP solutions have advantages and disadvantages." or OSPs. pollsters and survey takers also make use of IVR systems. documents. like "yes. and the use of distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) networking. Campaigns. centralized computer file server installations on computer networks. A recorded voice asks questions and requests simple answers. such as computer programs. Common methods are manual sharing using removable media. IVR automation makes it possible to reach far more people than through actually manning phones." "no. Human interaction is not required because the IVR system only allows limited access to the database. for example. Other popular networks 9 . Integrating text-tospeech (TTS) functionality. Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) In computing.
so additional features and other improvements are still possible. It is also possible to sharemetadata about a given file with links on Web sites (such as: this file is good. and every known mature client allows the user to tweak file and user upload priorities. and BitTorrent. Gnutella2. and therefore may acquire more features or other improvements in addition to those discussed in this article. 10 . Features/Strengths In addition to being able to search by filename. some studies have suggested that file sharing is not the primary cause of declines in sales. eDonkey2000. It has recently been announced that MFTP had been used successfully in Internet2 project. and xMule has extended the credit system to facilitate in the transfer of rare files. It is still under development. this file isn't what the name may indicate). in its extended implementation. This is the communication protocol used by such clients as eMule and eDonkey and. Many file sharing programs and services have been shut down due to litigation by groups such as the RIAA and MPAA. The protocol is still under development. During the early 2000s. this file is corrupted.a.k. leech resistance) built into the protocol. MFTP is able to uniquely identify files based on their contents. although publishers and copyright holders claim economic damage. in this case. the files are identified with theirMD4 hash numbers (which are consistent) rather than their filenames (which will often vary from one computer to the next).include Gnutella. File sharing remains widespread. the nowdefunct Kazaa network. with mixed public opinion about the morality of the practice for commercial material). the fight against copyright infringement expanded into lawsuits against individual users of file sharing software. eMule uses a credit system. achieving excellent results in terms of speed and reliability when transferring or sharing files. The economic impact on media industries is disputed. It also has bandwidth management (a. There are several unique forks of the protocol: eDonkey2000 implemented what it called "hording" of sources. by theOvernet network. regardless of how they are named on each individual computer.
and communicate with the programmer via a serial protocol. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital.In-System Programming In-System Programming (abbreviated ISP) is the ability of some programmable logic devices. Other devices usually use proprietary protocols or protocols defined by older standards. allowing the entire programming and test procedure to be accomplished under the control of a single protocol. the GSM Association. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. and thus is considered a second 11 . microcontrollers. Its promoter. This may allow manufacturers to program the chips in their own system's production line instead of buying preprogrammed chips from a manufacturer or distributor. rather than requiring a separate programming stage prior to assembling the system. making it feasible to apply code or design changes in the middle of a production run. and other programmable electronic chips to be programmed while installed in a complete system. The primary advantage of this feature is that it allows manufacturers of electronic devices to integrate programming and testing into a single production phase. Typically. Most programmable logic devices use a variant of the JTAG protocol for ISP. rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system. in order to facilitate easier integration with automated testing procedures. GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. In systems complex enough to require moderately large glue logic. chips supporting ISP have internal circuitry to generate any necessary programming voltage from the system's normal supply voltage. designers may implement a JTAG-controlled programming subsystem for non-JTAG devices such as flash memory and microcontrollers.
The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (Executive Meets with India Government Official to outline Benefits of Open Standards to drive mobile phone penetration | publisher = Texas Instruments | date = July 12. as opposed to circuit switching.112. but instead those networks are being converted to 12 . that is. GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls.jhtml?prelId=sc06127 | accessdate = 2007-01-08}}</ref>). GPRS is a besteffort packet switched service. GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s. also called "text messaging"). GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. the GSM system. This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. as well as in the 3G systems. the short message service (SMS. where a certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users. Originally there was some thought to extend GPRS to cover other standards. independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state. For example. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities. a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. 2G cellular systems combined with GPRS are often described as 2. In 2G systems. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide emergency telephone number. for example.5G.com/docs/pr/pressrelease. (General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications(GSM). 2006 | url = http://focus.generation (2G) mobile phone system. It provides moderate speed data transfer. which is now supported on other mobile standards as well.ti. by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in.
GPRS was developed as a GSM response to the earlier CDPD and imode packet switched cellular technologies. so that GSM is the only kind of network where GPRS is in use.). but now by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). A new operator-restricted version of GSM. the most common mobile phone system in the world. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packetbasedwireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases. OR-GSM. The GPRS core network is the centralized part of the GPRS system. is currently under development . The GPRS core network is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem.use the GSM standard. The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook 13 . it will allow network operators greater control over their GSM networks. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). It was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It also provides support for WCDMA based 3G networks. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) system is used by GSM mobile phones. Scheduled to be released in 2010. for transmitting IP packets.
for example. this is not a prerequisite. In theory. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system.5G and 3G services. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell.. the type of terrain and the timing advance. where the cell radius could be double or even more. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station. However. as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time. a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. depending on the antenna system. along with other 2. It is also easier to make applications available to mobile users because the faster data rate means that middleware currently needed to adapt applications to the slower speed of wireless systems are no longer be needed. mobile users of virtual private networks (VPNs) have been able to access the private network continuously over wireless rather than through a rooted dial-up connection. in shopping centers or airports.computers. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator. As GPRS has become more widely available. Cellular radio network Main article: Cellular network GSM is a cellular network. There are five different celwho can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and complements existing services such circuitswitched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS). GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuitswitched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use. 14 . In GMSK.
Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. the FCC. GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify. wireless microphones. and its conformance to strict rules and regulations allocated by the US body. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for firstgeneration systems. When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset. home stereo systems. providing 125 RF channels (channel numbers 0 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. dit di-dit. such as car stereos and portable audio players. Interference with audio devices Some audio devices are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). and personal music devices. These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices. However. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). dit di-dit. dit di-dit" audio output on PAs. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. in part 15 of its rules and regulations pertaining to interference with electronic devices. computers. cordless phones. the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain act as a detector. GSM frequencies Main article: GSM frequency ranges GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). which could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. televisions. 15 .  It is a common occurrence for a nearby GSM handset to induce a "dit. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. This also depends on the handset's design.
which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels.1 kHz audio into between 5. adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900. This 'extended GSM'. named after the types of data channel they were allocated. these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio. allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec.5 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). were used. two codecs. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270. E-GSM. Finally.6 and 13 kbit/s. called Half Rate (6.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. a 12.615 ms. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). with the development of UMTS. uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink). Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel.833 kbit/s. EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband. Originally.In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Voice codecs GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3. and the frame duration is 4. Network structure 16 . In addition to being efficient with bitrates.
The SIM is a detachable smart 17 . the Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). commonly known as a SIM card. This is sometimes also just called the core network. the GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections). It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles.The structure of a GSM network The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. the Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers). all of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as voice calls and SMS. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Main article: Subscriber Identity Module One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module.
2006. and is illegal in some countries. in Belgium. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee. identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. Costa Rica. Malaysia. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air 18 . all phones are sold unlocked. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. North America and Europe many operators lock the mobiles they sell. it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. Belgium. GSM security GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. or only a SIM issued by them. utilize private services to remove the lock. though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from subscriptions. In some countries such as Bangladesh. Alternatively. This was also the case in Finland until April 1. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response.card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. and no nonrepudiation. that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security. but limited authorization capabilities. when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal. this practice is known as SIM locking. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM. some do it for free. Hong Kong and Pakistan. Indonesia. In Australia. not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). The locking applies to the handset. as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication. However. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM. or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles.
 The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. or dynamically converted to. A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries.voice privacy. WAP sites are websites written in. WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser. and in February 2008. A WAP browser provides all of the basic services of a computer based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone. Before the introduction of WAP. Interactive data applications are required to support now commonplace activities such as: Email by mobile phone Tracking of stock market prices Sports results News headlines Music downloads +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Application Environment (WAE) | +------------------------------------------+ \ 19 . Its main use is to enable access to the Mobile Web from a mobile phone or PDA. such as its smaller view screen. Inc revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States. service providers had extremely limited opportunities to offer interactive data services. Pico Computing. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack. WAP Wireless Application Protocol (commonly referred to as WAP) is an open international standard for application layer network communications in a wireless communicationenvironment.
etc. which has several "technical realizations" on top of other "data bearers" such as SMS. On native IP bearers such as GPRS. Its use is optional. WTLS provides a public-key cryptography-based security mechanism similar to TLS. or PPP on top of a circuitswitched data connection. The rationale for this was to build a single platform for competing network technologies such as GSM and IS95 (also known as CDMA) networks. WDP is considered by all the upper layers as one and the same protocol. WTP supports more effectively than TCP the problem of packet loss. Finally. 20 . USSD. but is misinterpreted by TCP as network congestion. The bottom-most protocol in the suite is the WAP Datagram Protocol (WDP). WDP is in fact exactly UDP. WSP is best thought of on first approach as a compressed version of HTTP. | Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) | +------------------------------------------+ | *** Any Wireless Data Network *** | +------------------------------------------+ | | | WAP | protocol | suite | | / Technical specifications The WAP standard describes a protocol suite that allows the interoperability of WAP equipment and software with many different network technologies. which is an adaptation layer that makes every data network look a bit like UDP to the upper layers by providing unreliable transport of data with two 16-bit port numbers (origin and destination). WTP provides transaction support (reliable request/response) that is adapted to the wireless world. UMTS packet-radio service. which is common in 2G wireless technologies in most radio conditions.
bar code scanners. the most common being the mouse. GPS receivers. the gateway translates requests into plain HTTP. contact details. Transfer of files. It can connect several devices. and traffic control devices. keyboard and printer. and reminders between devices with OBEX. 21 . creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include: Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset. calendar appointments. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. List of applications A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset. Wireless communication with PC input and output devices. overcoming problems of synchronization. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular. medical equipment.This protocol suite allows a terminal to emit requests that have an HTTP or HTTPS equivalent to a WAP gateway. Bluetooth Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment.
PlayStation 3. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other. Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. Bluetooth devices. Nintendo's Wii and Sony's PlayStation 3. PSP Go. Bluetooth exists in many products. Bluetooth devices A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range. network 22 . This makes using services easier because more of the security. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. PROFINET) networks. with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files)..g. such as telephones. For low bandwidth applications where higher [USB] bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired. Two seventh-generation game consoles. use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. discoverable. modems and headsets. Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. For controls where infrared was traditionally used. the Wii. Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a datacapable mobile phone as a modem.e. Lego Mindstorms NXT and recently in some high definition watches. Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e.
as it also provides an indication of its relative strengths and weaknesses. Wi-Fi Main article: Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a traditional Ethernet network. transmit files. Wi-Fi requires more setup but is better suited for operating full-scale networks.address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types. Wi-Fi is sometimes called "wireless Ethernet. and requires configuration to set up shared resources. Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. and better security than Bluetooth. better range from the base station. A personal computer must have a Bluetooth adapter in order to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile 23 . and to set up audio links (for example." This description is accurate. Computer requirements A typical Bluetooth USB dongle. resulting in a stronger connection. An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm). headsets and hands-free devices). but with higher power. it enables a faster connection.
To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support. The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm. miceand keyboards). others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10. Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2.0 release. entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity". the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has recently published a recommendations paper. see Bluetooth stack. see external links below to download this paper.phones. IrDA. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia.0 release. Operating system support For more details on this topic. For Microsoft platforms. which requires a separate adapter for each device. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5. Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter. 24 . Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks. Unlike its predecessor. which were not directly supported by Microsoft. BlueZ and Affix. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth adapter.2 which was released in 2002. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers. NetBSDfeatures Bluetooth support since its 4. Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth. Mobile phone requirements A mobile phone that is Bluetooth enabled is able to pair with many devices.
 The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. and is standardized by ITUT Recommendation Q. It is also known in the UK as MF4. DTMS . who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund. 1998. History In the time preceding the development of DTMF. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term TouchTone (canceled March 13. telephone systems employed a system commonly referred to as pulse (Dial Pulse or DP in the U. IBM. which 25 . Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.000 companies worldwide.Data Transformation Management System Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voicefrequency band betweentelephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. Sweden. Intel. Today it has a membership of over 11. unacknowledged. The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20. fast. 1984). DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere.23.) or loop disconnect (LD) signaling to dial numbers.S. and later joined by many other companies. It was established by Ericsson. Toshiba.Specifications and features The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson. As a method of in-band signaling. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s. and Nokia.
or to issue commands to switching systems or related telephony equipment. #. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called this same system "Tone" dialing or "DTMF. B. The exchange equipment counts those clicks or dial pulses to determine the called number. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency." or used their own registered trade names such as the "Digitone" of Northern Electric (now known as Nortel Networks). and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance (operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment. similar to flicking a light switch on and off.functions by rapidly disconnecting and connecting the calling party's telephone line. The DTMF dialing system traces its roots to a technique developed by Bell Labs in the 1940s called MF (Multi-Frequency) which was deployed within the AT&T telephone network to direct calls between switching facilities using in-band signaling. *. In the end. C. is a method for instructing a telephone switching system of the telephone number to be dialed." The consumer product was marketed by AT&T under the registered trade name Touch-Tone. AT&T described the product as "a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the voice transmission path. and D The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers. Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems.as detailed below. symbols and letters . A. sometimes called 'octothorpe' or 'pound' in this context) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A. a derivative technique was offered by AT&T through its Bell System telephone companies as a "modern" way for network customers to place calls. 105. and it was many years 26 . The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent sixteen different numbers. or DTMF. the lettered keys were dropped from most phones. B. as the dial spins. In the early 1960s. This led to the addition of thenumber sign (#. and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. In AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. The repeated connection and disconnection. sounds like a series of clicks. C and D.
before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppresscaller ID. and if all lines were in use. Immediate (C). and exclusive to network control. Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks. in their now defunct Autovon phone system. For example. before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines. it was limited to the White House Communications Agency. but using number combinations (Example: Entering 93 before a number is a priority call) rather than the separate tones and the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service has superseded Autovon for any civilian priority telco access. the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby 27 . The U. Pressing C. relabeled.S. Immediate. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. Problems listening to this file? See media help. DTMF Push-To-Talk ID Example of DTMF used as push-to-talk ID on a two-way radio system. overriding other conversations on the network. military also used the letters. with Flash Override being the highest priority. and Priority (D). Pressing one of these keys gave your call priority. cutting in over existing calls if need be. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination. it would disconnect any non-priority calls. Flash (B). Present-day uses of the A. Consequently. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A). and then any priority calls. C and D keys on telephone networks are few. Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip. B. Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority.
among other uses. terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters. C and D tones are used in amateur radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow. A DTMF can be heard on most Whelen Outdoor Warning systems.listening in on calls). DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. Keypad Main article: Telephone keypad 1209 Hz on 697 Hz to make the 1 tone The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix. control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line. Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers. The A. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send 28 . however in the USA only Bell 202 modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data. DTMF tones are also sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information. with each row representing a low frequency. B. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert. Previously. and each column representing a high frequency.
The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. The original keypads had levers inside. Event Low frequency High frequency Busy signal 480 Hz 620 Hz 29 . DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips) 1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz 697 Hz 1 2 3 A 770 Hz 4 5 6 B 852 Hz 7 8 9 C 941 Hz * 0 # D Special tone frequencies National telephone systems define additional tones to indicate the status of lines. or the result of calls with special tones. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed. presented in the following table. Such tones are standardized in each country and may consist of single or multiple frequencies.a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). so each button activated two contacts. equipment. Most European countries use a single frequency. where the United States uses a dual frequency system.
are selected such that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. developed by Symbian Ltd. In 2008 a new. which is slightly less than a whole tone. The frequencies may not vary more than ±1.8% from their nominal frequency.Ringback tone (US) 440 Hz 480 Hz Dial tone 350 Hz 440 Hz The tone frequencies. open source software. The frequencies were initially designed with a ratio of 21/19. Synonyms include multifrequency pulsing and multifrequency signaling. as defined by the Precise Tone Plan. Symbian OS and its associated user interfaces S60. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The loudness difference between the high and low frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist. independent non-profit organization called the Symbian Foundation was established and the former Symbian Software Limited was acquired by Nokia. with associated libraries. UIQ and MOAP(S) were contributed by their owners to the foundation with the objective of creating the Symbian platform as royalty-free." The minimum duration of the tone should be at least 70 ms. The process of publishing the source 30 . user interface. or the switching center will ignore the signal. Late in the 20th century most were replaced with digital signal processors. As with other multi-frequency receivers. although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The high frequencies may be the same volume or louder as the low frequencies when sent across the line. although an unreleased x86port existed. DTMF was originally decoded by tuned filter banks. No frequency is a multiple of another. DTMF can be decoded using the Goertzel algorithm. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. Symbian OS was designed for mobile devices.
and the OS itself. This is achieved through a programming idiom called active objects. This has allowed 31 . Later OS iterations diluted this approach in response to market demands. Symbian OS was created with three systems design principles in mind: the integrity and security of user data is paramount. Furthermore. EPOC's approach to multitasking was inspired by VMS and is based on asynchronous server-based events. as described in this entry. follow an object-oriented design: Model-view-controller (MVC). and all resources are scarce.g. user time must not be wasted. The OS is optimized for low-power battery-based devices and for ROM-based systems (e. The Symbian kernel (EKA2) supports sufficiently-fast real-time response to build a single-core phone around it—that is. like other operating systems (especially those created for use on desktop computers). has a request-and-callback approach to services.code under the Eclipse Public License (EPL) was slated for completion in 2010. and the CPU is switched into a low power mode when applications are not directly dealing with an event. This is a feature which is not available in Linux. a phone in which a single processor core executes both the userapplications and the signalling stack. notably with the introduction of a real-time kernel and a platform security model in versions 8 and 9. There is a strong emphasis on conserving resources which is exemplified by Symbian-specific programming idioms such as descriptors and a cleanup stack. Symbian uses a microkernel. Applications. and maintains separation between user interface and engine. There are similar techniques for conserving disk space (though the disks on Symbian devices are usually flash memory). Similarly the Symbian approach to threads and processes is driven by reducing overheads. features like XIP and re-entrancy in shared libraries). however the software itself. all Symbian programming is event-based. To best follow these principles. Symbian features pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection. The term 'Symbian OS' went out of current use with the advent of the Symbian platform. did not.
Competition Symbian is the leading OS in the "smart mobile device" market.3% (through iPhone OS). Store. It also includes the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two basic services from which a completely functional port can be created without the need for any higher layer services. but other services like networking. SavaJe and MontaVista Software. cheaper and more power efficient than their predecessors.Symbian EKA2 phones to become smaller. Other competitors include Palm OS. availability and responsiveness.memory management and device drivers. Symbian has a microkernel architecture.6% share of the smart mobile devices shipped in third quarter of 2008. Qualcomm's BREW. a PlugIn Framework which manages all plug-ins. Statistics published in November 2008 showed that Symbian OS had a 46. which means that the minimum necessary is within the kernel to maximise robustness. It contains a scheduler.3% and Microsoft having 13. it includes the File Server and User Library. Structure yers. Google Android. from top to bottom: UI Framework Layer Application Services Layer Java ME OS Services Layer generic OS services communications services multimedia and graphics services connectivity services Base Services Layer Kernel Services & Hardware Interface Layer The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by user-side operations. telephony and filesystem support are placed in the OS Services Layer or the Base 32 .5% (through Windows CE and Windows Mobile). Central Repository. RIM having 15. DBMS and cryptographic services. with Apple having 17.
SyncML. These classes create the fundamental application behaviour. This has resulted in data-dependence and associated difficulties with changes and data migration. ESOCK (EPOC sockets) and C32 (responsible for serial communication). The three major UIs . the application view. but an object-oriented persistence model was placed over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model. Each of these has a plug-in scheme. while most of the actual user interfaces were maintained by third parties. Helix Player for multimedia codecs). which has three main servers called: ETEL (EPOC telephony). The subsystem also contains code that supports short-range communication links. The remaining required functions.PRT" protocol modules to implement various networking protocol schemes. Early development of EPOC led to adopting FAT as the internal file system. All native Symbian C++ applications are built up from three framework classes defined by the application architecture: an application class. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. especially removable media file systems. Java ME providing another set of APIs on top of most of the OS and multimedia. Symbian is designed to emphasize compatibility with other devices. and this remains. data model and data interface. There is a large networking and communication subsystem.S60. Many of these are frameworks. Only the base classes and substructure were contained in Symbian OS. and vendors are expected to supply plug-ins to these frameworks from third parties (for example.were contributed to Symbian in 2009. UIQ and MOAP . This has the 33 . which has been termed a nanokernel. such as Bluetooth. are created independently and interact solely through their APIs with the other classes. contains only the most basic primitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions. There is also a large volume of user interface (UI) Code. IrDA and USB. This is no longer the case.Services Layer. Symbian also contains graphics. For example ESOCK allows different ". The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. a document class and an application user interface class. The EKA2 real-time kernel. text layout and font rendering libraries. Many other things do not yet fit into this model – for example.
Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in 2005. 2005.advantage that the APIs to such areas of functionality are the same on many phone models. Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and x64 versions of Windows Server 2003 to support the x8664 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts.1 to 4. and Sony Ericsson. and that vendors get a lot of flexibility. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32bit version. although Windows 7 does not. DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000. The Symbian platform is an open source operating system for mobile devices. 64-bit operating systems Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. On April 25. and Windows Server 2008. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. the S60. UIQ and MOAP(S) user interfaces. Symbian includes a reference user-interface called "TechView". It provides a basis for starting customisation and is the environment in which much Symbian test and example code runs. But it means that phone vendors needed to do a great deal of integration work to make a Symbian OS phone. 34 . including Symbian OS. which is referred to as IA-64. Versions of NT from 3. some of which were 64-bit processors. It is very similar to the user interface from the Psion Series 5 personal organiser and is not used for any production phone user interface. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows Vista. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture. NTT DoCoMo. It was created by merging and integrating software assets contributed by Nokia.0 variously supported PowerPC. in both Itanium and x64 editions.
though they can spread from systems that have DOS as well as OS/2 installed in separate partitions. File viruses can often spread to other files when infected programs are run in Virtual DOS Machines (VDM) within OS/2. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. simply because of differences between VDMs and DOS. IBM's OS/2 is a 32-bit operating system that lets users run DOS. Boot viruses do not generally spread from within OS/2 itself. Some file viruses are likely to not spread in VDMs. Microsoft's Windows 95 is a 32-bit operating systems that supports DOS. Recent experiments with a prerelease version of Windows 95 suggest that DOS boot viruses will not in 35 . such as OS/2 and Windows 95. or the number of bits used for single element in a data format. 32-Bit Operating Systems One of the significant environmental changes will be the transition from DOS to 32-bit operating systems for PCs. we expect that more and more systems will run 32bit operating systems in order to better use the increasing power of newer PCs. The term is often applied to the following: microprocessor: indicates the width of the registers. In environments in which OS/2 predominates over DOS. This decreases the rate at which file viruses spread in collections of OS/2 systems. Windows 3.32-Bit Operating Systems Refers to the number of bits that can be processed or transmitted in parallel. we would expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. Windows and OS/2 programs simultaneously. In the next few years. The effects of computer viruses on OS/2 systems is described elsewhere. Operating system: refers primarily to the number of bits used to represent memory addresses. which is often only as long as the infected program is running. they remain active in the system only as long as the infected VDM is active. However.1 and Windows 95 programs.
nongeneralizable. or improvised events.general spread well from Windows 95 systems. for example. Common examples are organizations. some might not. In environments in which Windows 95 predominates over DOS. These operating systems offer new facilities that viruses can use to both hide and spread. perhaps significantly. It generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task. are used when an objective needs consideration and no standing organ or committee within said organization can absorb that issue into its scope. committees. a handcrafted network protocol or a purpose-specific equation. Viruses can be written for 32-bit operating systems. ------------------------------------Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this [purpose]". such as temporary oversight of an issue. Preliminary experiments carried out at the High Integrity Computing Laboratory with a pre-release version of Windows 95 suggest that some DOS file viruses will spread as usual. Other derivatives of the Latin include AdHoc. 36 . or review of the standing rules or theconstitution of that organization. however. and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. inadequate planning. Ad hoc can also have connotations of a makeshift solution. Not all of the news is good. In other fields the term may refer. Ad hoc committee commission or organization Ad hoc organizations. to a tailor-made suit. and some might cause system problems. The transition to these newer operating systems will change the virus problem. but it will not eliminate it. we would also expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. and which cannot be adapted to other purposes. adhoc and ad-hoc. and the first few such crude viruses have already appeared . File viruses were not tested in these experiments. Usually these committees are used on a temporary basis. to include committees and private non-profit organizations.
an initial workgroup or forum may give place to a more permanent form of organization. a long-term or indefinite duration of existence. exhibitions. fairs. it has been found to correspond quite well to the theories of dark energy. These are especially popular in U. published works. and festivals are considered to be corporate bodies. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. An example of an ad hoc pronunciation would be "DIK-shuh-nair-ee". Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic ofpseudoscientific subjects. and can be used as corporate body access points. such as the MerriamWebster dictionary. Under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. This is in contrast to systems such as the International Phonetic 37 . expeditions.An ad hoc organization may have. Although he later referred to it as his "greatest blunder". ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to a theory to save it from being falsified. In these cases. ad hoc events such as athletic contests. in some cases. however. unsupported adjustments to sustain them. Much of scientific understanding relies on the modification of existing hypotheses or theories but these modifications are distinguished from ad hoc hypotheses in that the anomalies being explained propose a new means of being real. Ad hoc hypothesis Main article: Ad hoc hypothesis In science and philosophy. where the capitalization shows which syllable is stressed. Scientists are often skeptical of theories that rely on frequent. A typical example is the OSCE. Ad hoc hypotheses are not necessarily incorrect. An interesting example of an apparently supported ad hoc hypothesis was Albert Einstein's addition of the cosmological constant to general relativity in order to allow a static universe. Ad hoc pronunciation Many reference works employ ad hoc pronunciation schemas as a way of indicating how words are pronounced.S.
"ad hoc" reporting systems allow the users themselves to create specific. since they rely on the ability of the reader to already know how a large number of words are commonly pronounced. though very often neo-common simple words are used to illustrate how the IPA applies in a specific language. Data warehousing. and will have been carefully designed. Proponents of ad hoc claim that it is much easier to use than IPA. which attempt to put pronunciation schemes on a standard footing. and so examples will vary considerably according to the publication's whim. data mining and other tools. Because such reporting has the potential to severely degrade the performance of a live system. By contrast.Alphabet. In contrast. it is usually provided over a data warehouse. along with OLAP. though will often concur that this is usually only because the pronunciation is already known. Ad hoc querying/reporting is a business intelligence subtopic. pre-programmed and optimized for performance by expert programmers. there is no "standard" ad hoc schema. the IPA seeks to base pronunciation solely on vocal tract configurations and on the phonemes produced. or database schema that a programmer would have. Typically these are available via some sort of menu. Typically this would be via a userfriendly GUI-based system without the need for the in-depth knowledge of SQL. ------------------------------------------------ Wireshark 38 . Many application software systems have an underlying database which can be accessed by only a limited number of queries and reports. customized queries. Ad hoc querying Ad hoc querying is a term in information science. As its name suggests. Critics of ad hoc schemes point out that such schemes are inherently selfreferential.
2 / 2009-09-15. It is used for network troubleshooting.org/ Wireshark is a free packet analyzer computer application. software andcommunications protocol development. Originally named Ethereal.0 / 2009-09-15.wireshark. 39 . in May 2006 the project was renamed Wireshark due to trademark issues. 12 days ago Written in C Operating system Cross-platform Type Packet analyzer License GNU General Public License Website http://www. and education.3.Wireshark Wireshark on Ubuntu Developer(s) The Wireshark team Stable release 1. 12 days ago Preview release 1.2. analysis.
and is crossplatform. and many more information sorting and filtering options.Contents [hide] 1 The functionality 2 History 3 Features 4 Security 5 Ports 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links The functionality Wireshark is very similar to tcpdump. and Microsoft Windows. he released the first version around 1998. but it has a graphical front-end. because creator and lead developer Gerald Combs could not keep using the Ethereal trademark (which was then owned by his old employer. Network Integration Services) when he changed jobs. the entire list of authors is available from Wireshark's web-site. Mac OS X. Released under the terms of the GNU General Public License. running on various computer operating systemsincluding Linux. As of now there are over 500 contributing authors while Gerald continues to maintain the overall code and issues releases of new versions. Wireshark uses the cross-platform GTK+ widget toolkit. The name was changed to Wireshark in May. He still held copyright on most of the source code (and the rest was redistributable under the GNU 40 . History Out of necessity. Gerald Combs (a computer science graduate of the University of Missouri-Kansas City) started writing a program called Ethereal so that he could have a tool to capture and analyze packets. It allows the user to see all traffic being passed over the network (usually an Ethernet network but support is being added for others) by putting the network interface into promiscuous mode. 2006. Wireshark isfree software.
Network General's Sniffer. tshark. Data can be captured "from the wire" from a live network connection or read from a file that records the already-captured packets. Captured network data can be browsed via a GUI. eWEEK Labs named Wireshark one of "The Most Important OpenSource Apps of All Time" as of May 2. For this reason. Data display can be refined using a display filter. so he took theSubversion repository for Ethereal and used it as the basis for the Subversion repository of Wireshark. Taking into account the huge number of protocol dissectors. so it can read capture files from applications such as tcpdump and CA NetMaster that use that format. Thus. 2007. so it can only capture the packets on the networks supported by pcap. Features Wireshark is software that "understands" the structure of different networking protocols. Wireshark uses pcap to capture packets. such as snoop. which are called when traffic for their protocol is 41 . or via the terminal (command line) version of the utility. and an Ethereal security advisory recommended switching to Wireshark. Wireshark's native network trace file format is the libpcap format supported by libpcap and WinPcap. It can also read captures from other network analyzers. IEEE 802. and its captures can be read by applications that use libpcap or WinPcap to read capture files. and Microsoft Network Monitor. including Ethernet. Ethereal development has ceased. PPP. it is able to display the encapsulation and the fields along with their meanings of different packets specified by different networking protocols.11.GPL). and loopback. Plugins can be created for dissecting new protocols. Captured files can be programmatically edited or converted via command-line switches to the "editcap" program. Security Capturing raw network traffic from an interface requires special privileges on some platforms. Live data can be read from a number of types of network. older versions of Ethereal/Wireshark and tethereal/tshark often ran withsuperuser privileges.
timing and pitch. it is possible to use the Aircrack wireless security tools to capture IEEE 802. As of Wireshark 0. including Linux. Due to the rather large number of vulnerabilities in the past (of which many have allowed remote code execution) and developers' doubts for better future development. Modem (from modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates (Modulation is the process of varying one waveform in relation to another waveform.11 frames and read the resulting dump files with Wireshark. NetBSD. and on Microsoft Windows. OpenBSD and Mac OS X. this can pose a serious security risk given a bug in a dissector.6 release. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude ("volume").neither Wireshark nor tshark need to run with special privileges.99. and later analyze these packets by running Wireshark with restricted privileges on the packet capture dump file. all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal. 42 .7.OpenBSD removed Ethereal from its ports tree prior to its 3. itsphase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"). HPUX. Wireshark and tshark run dumpcap to do traffic capture. only dumpcap needs to be set up to run with those special privileges . In telecommunications. modulation is used to convey a message. One possible alternative is to run tcpdump. with superuser privileges to capture packets into a file. Solaris. or a musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume. or the dumpcap utility that comes with Wireshark. FreeBSD. On wireless networks. Often a high-frequency sinusoidwaveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower frequency signal.captured. Ports Wireshark runs on Unix and Unix-like systems. On platforms where special privileges are needed to capture traffic. and neither of them should be run with special privileges.
a carrier wave. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context. and other systems may also convey analog signals. the property most commonly used is voltage followed closely by frequency. Within a complex society. Such information or machine data (for example. This carrier wave is usually of much higher frequency than the input signal. A device that can do both operations is a modem (short for "Modulator-Demodulator")) an analog carrier signal (n telecommunications. hydraulic. or the words now flowing into the reader's mind) must all be part of systems existing in the physical world – either living or non-living. signal processing. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals (An Analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. The carrier must be reintroduced at the receiver by a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). Electrically. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. any set of human information or machine data can also be taken as a signal.) to encode digital information. and in electrical engineering more generally. i. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful.mechanical. In the case of single-sideband modulation (SSB) the carrier is suppressed (and in some forms of SSB eliminated). Frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) are commonly used methods to modulate the carrier. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. and charge. an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. the dots on a screen. a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity. The frequency for a given radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's center frequency. however. any quantity measurable through time or over space can be taken as a signal. In the physical world. In the fields of communications. For example. or carrier is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. 43 .A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as ademodulator (sometimes detector or demod). The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. pneumatic. the ink making up text on a paper page.e analogous to another time varying signal. current.
from driven diodes (In electronics. temperature. For example.Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal. errors can occur in the digital data stream. A comparable performing digital system is more complex and requires more bandwidth than its analog counterpart. which depends on the particular type of diode technology. in digital systems. As analog systems become more complex. In practice an analog signal is subject to noise and a finite slew rate. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner. The unidirectionality most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. or the voltage produced by a condensor microphone. a diode is a two-terminal P-N junction device (thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). both analog and digital systems are subject to limitations in resolution and bandwidth. light. sound) strike the diaphragm of a microphone which induces corresponding fluctuations in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone. it is difficult to detect when such degradation occurs. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Therefore. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block the current in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). The voltage or the current is said to be an "analog" of the sound. Thus. fluctuations in air pressure (that is to say. as digital systems become more complex. such as sound. Similarly. degradation can not only be detected but corrected as well. 44 . and is achieved using a transducer. However. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex nonlinear electrical characteristic. An analog signal has a theoretically infinite resolution. and most are used for their unidirectional electric current property. in sound recording. orpressure. In analog systems. position. effects such as non-linearity and noise ultimately degrade analog resolution to such an extent that the performance of digital systems may surpass it.). often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena.
This can bedetected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information. the binary system is used internally by all modern computers) of a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over thetelephone lines of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS) (Plain old telephone service (POTS) is the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in most parts of the world. The name is a retronym. mobile phones and VoIP. orphase.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying.Early diodes included “cat’s whisker” crystals and vacuum tube devices (also called thermionic valves). Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time.) to radio (Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves. the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. serial. The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s (The binary numeral system. 45 . or "bps". The term was dropped as telephone services were removed from the control of national post offices). the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second. More specifically. Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. frequency. such as amplitude.). Ethernet. Today most diodes are made of silicon. usually 0 and 1. or base-2 number system represents numeric values using two symbols. and is a reflection of the telephone service still available after the advent of more advanced forms of telephony such as ISDN. POTS has been available almost since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century. converts those 1s and 0s back into a form used by a USB.Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN). or network connection. normally measured in bits per second. For example. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor. the ITU V. aka tones. in a form mostly unchanged to the normal user despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing. They can also be classified by Baud. to carry 300 bit/s using 300 baud. the usualbase-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. and once received on the other side. but othersemiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. The system was originally known as the Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System in many countries.
Some microwave modems transmit more than a hundred million bits per second. Faster modems are used by Internet users every day.a number used to identify a mobile phone number internationally. IMSI is often used as a key in the HLR ("subscriber database") and MSISDN is the number normally dialed to connect a call to the mobile phone. This number includes a country 46 .000 bits (7kB) per second over the phone line.e. Narrow band radio modem is used for low data rate up to 19.e. i.22 standard allowed 1200 bit/s with 600 baud using phase-shift keying. due to number portability). most common one being "Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number". The MSISDN together with IMSI are two important numbers used to identify a mobile subscriber. it is the telephone number to the SIM card in a mobile/cellular phone. "wide band radio modems" transmit repeating frames of data at very high data rates over microwave radio links. notably cable modems and ADSL modems.2k mainly for private radio networks. Optical modems routinely have data rates in excess of a billion (1x109) bits per second.g. The former identifies the SIM. MSISDN is defined by the E. Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) . the card that is inserted into the mobile phone. a 56k modem can transfer data at up to 56. i. while the MSISDN can change in time (e. Optical modems transmit data over optical fibers. Simply put.164 numbering plan. A SIM is uniquely associated to an IMSI. The abbreviation has several interpretations. Most intercontinental data links now use optical modems transmitting over undersea optical fibers. In telecommunications.164. = MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS mobile network. different MSISDNs can be associated to the SIM. The MSISDN follows the numbering plan defined in the ITUT recommendation E. One kilobit per second (kbit/s or kb/s or kbps) as used in this article means 1000 bits per second and not 1024 bits per second. while the latter is used to route calls to the subscriber. For example.whereas the original ITU V.
 An API determines the vocabulary and calling conventions the programmer should employ to use the services. object classes. An API is typically defined in terms of the programming language used to build the application. the scope of meaning is usually determined by the person or document that communicates the information. using the syntax and elements of that language to make the API convenient to use in this context. The API initialism may sometimes be used as a reference. The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API. The related term application binary interface(ABI) is a lower level definition concerning details at the assembly language level. This is a desired feature for a servicestyle API that is not bound to a given process or system and is available as a remote procedure call. while POSIX is an API. and protocols used to communicate between the requesting software and the library. data structures. that is. not only to the full interface. An application programming interface (API) is an interface in computer science that defines the ways by which an application program may request services from libraries and/oroperating systems. or even a set of multiple APIs provided by an organization.code and a National Destination Code which identifies the subscriber's operator. Thus. 47 . For example. written in a way that means it can be called from several programming languages (typically an assembly or C interface). that is. It may include specifications for routines. An API itself is largely abstract in that it specifies an interface and controls the behavior of the objects specified in that interface. Language-independent. available only in a given programming language. but also to one function. the Linux Standard Base is an ABI. An API may be: Language-dependent.
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data is a capability of all GSM phones. It is generally associated with real-time or instant messaging type phone services. There is no store-and-forward capability, such as is typical of other short-message protocols (in other words, an SMSC is not present in the processing path). Response times for interactive USSD-based services are generally quicker than those used for SMS. USSD Phase 1, specified in GSM 02.90, only supports mobile initiated operation (pull operation). In the core network the message is delivered over MAP. USSD Phase 2, specified in GSM 03.90, supports networkinitiated operation (pulls and push operation). As an analogy, USSD is similar to telnet, while SMS is similar to mail. USSD is typically used as a 'trigger' to invoke independent calling services that don't require the overhead and additional usage costs of an SMSC, such as a callback service (e.g. cheaper phone charges while roaming), or interactive data service (e.g. stock quotes, sports results). USSD is a standard for transmitting information over GSM signaling channels. It is mostly used as a method to query the available balance and other similar information in pre-paid GSM services. The function that is triggered when sending USSD is network-dependent and depends on the specific services the operator is offering. Example USSD codes: 48
After entering a USSD code on your GSM handset, the reply from the GSM operator is displayed within a few seconds. USSD is the base of some payment methods such as SharEpay, SWAP Mobile in South Africa, Mobipay in Spain, M-Pesa in Kenya, and mPay in Poland.
What is a USSD Gateway?
A USSD Gateway routes USSD messages from the signaling network to service applications and back. "USSD gateway" and "USSD center" are synonyms. USSD Gateway is based upon the ability of the delivery agent or the source to send and receive USSD messages. As USSD is a session-based protocol unlike its siblings (SMS and MMS), therefore, the session needs to be allocated to each and every interaction.
Difference between USSD and other Gateways
The difference between USSD Gateways and other kinds of gateways is that USSD Gateways require to know what session is going on. Also, put in the locator (it locates where the MS (Mobile Station) is currently), and you have a highly dynamic session – based protocol.
Crystal Reports is a business intelligence application used to design and generate reports from a wide range of data sources. Several other applications, such as Microsoft Visual Studio, bundle an OEM version of Crystal Reports as a general purpose reporting tool. Crystal Reports became the de facto standard report writer when Microsoft released it with Visual Basic.
Java Naming and Directory Interface
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The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a Java API for a directory service that allows Java software clients to discover and look up data and objects via a name. Like all Java APIs that interface with host systems, JNDI is independent of the underlying implementation. Additionally, it specifies a service provider interface (SPI) that allows directory service implementations to be plugged into the framework. The implementations may make use of a server, a flat file, or a database; the choice is up to the vendor. The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is part of the Java platform, providing applications based on Java technology with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services. Powerful and portable directory-enabled applications can be built using this industry standard.
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An application server, is an n-tier software architecture, serves an API to expose business logic and business processes for use by third-party applications. The term can refer to:
1. the services that a server makes available 2. the computer hardware on which the services run 3. the software framework used to host the services
an application server has to have builtin redundancy. Some of the better-known Java Enterprise Edition application servers include: Tcat Server (MuleSoft) WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Application Server Community Edition (IBM) Sybase Enterprise Application Server (Sybase Inc) WebLogic Server (Oracle) JBoss (Red Hat) JRun (Adobe Systems) Apache Geronimo (Apache Software Foundation) Oracle OC4J (Oracle) Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server (based on GlassFish Application Server)(Sun Microsystems) SAP Netweaver AS (ABAP/Java) (SAP) Glassfish Application Server (open source) WebObjects (Apple Inc. the term application server sometimes refers to a J2EE or Java EE 5 application server. monitors for high-availability. Also called an appserver.Contents 1 Java application servers 2 Microsoft platform 3 Zend platform 4 Other platforms 5 Advantages of application servers 6 See also 7 External links 8 Footnotes Java application servers Following the success of the Java platform. Application servers are typically used for complex transaction-based applications. A program that handles all application operations between users and an organization's backend business applications or databases. (NEC) crop. To support high-end needs. high-performance distributed application services and support for complex database access.) NEC WebOTX. 51 .
It may be recorded with high or low granularity. fields. how it is associated. other data managed within an application or environment. group. the date it was last modified and the date the file (or indeed the metadata itself) was last accessed. a Certificate Authority (CA).). What is SSL and what are Certificates? The Secure Socket Layer protocol was created by Netscape to ensure secure transactions between web servers and browsers. (name. 2. etc) and data about data (where it is located. 52 . or documentation of. etc. Associated with every file on the storage medium is metadata that records the date the file was created. Metadata is text. or software program. such as a database schema. For example. Metadata may include descriptive information about the context. This commonly defines the structure or schema of the primary data. data type. to identify one end or both end of the transactions. metadata would document data about data elements or attributes. quality and condition. columns. voice.Metadata (meta data. This is in short how it works. etc) and data about records or data structures (length. 1. size.An item of metadata may describe an individual datum. or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data". Metadata is important because it aids in clarifying and finding the actual data. An example of metadata occurs within file systems. A browser requests a secure page (usually https://). The web server sends its public key with its certificate. or image that describes what the audience wants or needs to see or experience. or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels. of any sort in any media. 1. ownership. metadata provides information about. The audience could be a person. or content item. In data processing.2. The protocol uses a third party. or characteristics of the data.
in this case the message is not secured you have only signed it. Anybody can send you an encrypted message.2. You are the only one to have the other key pair.1. resource location or Distinguished Name (DN) which includes the Common Name (CN) (web site address or e-mail address depending of the usage) and the certificate ID of the person who certifies (signs) this information. that only you will be able to decrypt. The web server sends back the requested html document and http data encrypted with the symmetric key. 4. contains information about the owner of the certificate. to encrypt a random symmetric encryption key and sends it to the server with the encrypted URL required as well as other encrypted http data. 7. A certificate. owner's name. someone has taken great length (if they are serious) to ensure that the web site owners are who they claim to be. that the certificate is still valid and that the certificate is related to the site contacted. It contains also the public key and finally a hash to ensure that the certificate has not been tampered with. and only the associated public key will decrypt it correctly. certificate usage. The browser decrypts the http data and html document using the symmetric key and displays the information. but believe me it works. like e-mail address. Well. Private Key/Public Key: The encryption using a private key/public key pair ensures that the data can be encrypted by one key but can only be decrypted by the other key pair. This someone. Beware. remember! One of the problem left is to know the public key of your correspondent. 1. the other key pair can decrypt. duration of validity. The key pair is based on prime numbers and their length in terms of bits ensures the difficulty of being able to decrypt the message without the key pairs. right? In the opposite . The trick in a key pair is to keep one key secret (the private key) and to distribute the other key (the public key) to everybody. The browser then uses the public key. 5. you have to implicitly trust: you have his/her certificate loaded in your browser (a root Certificate). Several concepts have to be understood here. therefore you also trust this certificate.2. The web server decrypts the symmetric encryption key using its private key and uses the symmetric key to decrypt the URL and http data. This is a certificate 53 . Message-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Message-->[Private Key]-->Message 1. because you have encrypted it with you private key. 6.2. Usually you will ask him to send you a non confidential signed message that will contains his publick key as well as a certificate. As you made the choice to trust the person who signs this certificate. you can certify that a message is only coming from you.3. The keys are similar in nature and can be used alternatively: what one key emcrypts. The browser checks that the certificate was issued by a trusted party (usually a trusted root CA). The Certificate: How do you know that you are dealing with the right person or rather the right web site. Everybody has the public key. This is sometime hard to understand.
All root CA certificates are self signed.trust tree or certificate path. as only a signed certificate cannot be modified. L=Suva. ST=Fiji.sopac. L=Suva. CN=www.org serial:00 Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption 34:8d:fb:65:0b:85:5b:e2:44:09:f0:55:31:3b:29:2b:f4:fd: aa:5f:db:b8:11:1a:c6:ab:33:67:59:c1:04:de:34:df:08:57: 2e:c6:60:dc:f7:d4:e2:f1:73:97:57:23:50:02:63:fc:78:96: 34:b3:ca:c4:1b:c5:4c:c8:16:69:bb:9c:4a:7e:00:19:48:62: e2:51:ab:3a:fa:fd:88:cd:e0:9d:ef:67:50:da:fe:4b:13:c5: 0c:8c:fc:ad:6e:b5:ee:40:e3:fd:34:10:9f:ad:34:bd:db:06: ed:09:3d:f2:a6:81:22:63:16:dc:ae:33:0c:70:fd:0a:6c:af: bc:5a -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIIDoTCCAwqgAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkox DTALBgNVBAgTBEZpamkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQww 54 . Usually your browser or application has already loaded the root certificate of well known Certification Authorities (CA) or root CA Certificates. Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 1 (0x1) Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=FJ. O=SOPAC.org Validity Not Before: Nov 20 05:47:44 2001 GMT Not After : Nov 20 05:47:44 2002 GMT Subject: C=FJ. OU=ICT. O=SOPAC.org Subject Public Key Info: Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Public Key: (1024 bit) Modulus (1024 bit): 00:ba:54:2c:ab:88:74:aa:6b:35:a5:a9:c1:d0:5a: 9b:fb:6b:b5:71:bc:ef:d3:ab:15:cc:5b:75:73:36: b8:01:d1:59:3f:c1:88:c0:33:91:04:f1:bf:1a:b4: 7a:c8:39:c2:89:1f:87:0f:91:19:81:09:46:0c:86: 08:d8:75:c4:6f:5a:98:4a:f9:f8:f7:38:24:fc:bd: 94:24:37:ab:f1:1c:d8:91:ee:fb:1b:9f:88:ba:25: da:f6:21:7f:04:32:35:17:3d:36:1c:fb:b7:32:9e: 42:af:77:b6:25:1c:59:69:af:be:00:a1:f8:b0:1a: 6c:14:e2:ae:62:e7:6b:30:e9 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001) X509v3 extensions: X509v3 Basic Constraints: CA:FALSE Netscape Comment: OpenSSL Generated Certificate X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: FE:04:46:ED:A0:15:BE:C1:4B:59:03:F8:2D:0D:ED:2A:E0:ED:F9:2F X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:E6:12:7C:3D:A1:02:E5:BA:1F:DA:9E:37:BE:E3:45:3E:9B:AE:E5:A6 DirName:/C=FJ/ST=Fiji/L=Suva/O=SOPAC/OU=ICT/CN=SOPAC Root CA/Email=administrator@sopac. A certificate is insecure until it is signed. it is called a self signed certificate. You can sign a certificate using itself. CN=SOPAC Root CA/Email=administrator@sopac. The CA maintains a list of all signed certificates as well as a list of revoked certificates. OU=ICT.org/Email=administrator@sopac. ST=Fiji.
1. Symetric Key-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Symetric Key-->[Private Key]->Symetric Key 1. The certificate does not contain the private key as it should never be transmitted in any form whatsoever.CgYDVQQLEwNJQ1QxFjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0B CQEWF2FkbWluaXN0cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnMB4XDTAxMTEyMDA1NDc0NFoXDTAy MTEyMDA1NDc0NFowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAkZKMQ0wCwYDVQQIEwRGaWppMQ0wCwYD VQQHEwRTdXZhMQ4wDAYDVQQKEwVTT1BBQzEMMAoGA1UECxMDSUNUMRYwFAYDVQQD Ew13d3cuc29wYWMub3JnMSYwJAYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhdhZG1pbmlzdHJhdG9yQHNv cGFjLm9yZzCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEAulQsq4h0qms1panB 0Fqb+2u1cbzv06sVzFt1cza4AdFZP8GIwDORBPG/GrR6yDnCiR+HD5EZgQlGDIYI 2HXEb1qYSvn49zgk/L2UJDer8RzYke77G5+IuiXa9iF/BDI1Fz02HPu3Mp5Cr3e2 JRxZaa++AKH4sBpsFOKuYudrMOkCAwEAAaOCARUwggERMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwLAYJ YIZIAYb4QgENBB8WHU9wZW5TU0wgR2VuZXJhdGVkIENlcnRpZmljYXRlMB0GA1Ud DgQWBBT+BEbtoBW+wUtZA/gtDe0q4O35LzCBtgYDVR0jBIGuMIGrgBTmEnw9oQLl uh/anje+40U+m67lpqGBj6SBjDCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkoxDTALBgNVBAgTBEZp amkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQwwCgYDVQQLEwNJQ1Qx FjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWF2FkbWluaXN0 cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnggEAMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA4GBADSN+2ULhVviRAnw VTE7KSv0/apf27gRGsarM2dZwQTeNN8IVy7GYNz31OLxc5dXI1ACY/x4ljSzysQb xUzIFmm7nEp+ABlIYuJRqzr6/YjN4J3vZ1Da/ksTxQyM/K1ute5A4/00EJ+tNL3b Bu0JPfKmgSJjFtyuMwxw/Qpsr7xa -----END CERTIFICATE----- As You may have noticed. The symmetric key is also chosen randomly. then the message encrypted with the public key is secure (relatively secure. If the enemy gets hold of the key then you have no more secret information. The Symmetric key: Well. As you know. so that if the symmetric secret key is discovered then the next transaction will be totally different. This certificate has all the elements to send an encrypted message to the owner (using the public key) or to verify a message signed by the author of this certificate. if Henri Poincare had patented his algorithms. nothing is certain except death and taxes). the certificate contains the reference to the issuer. the dates of validity of this certificate and the signature of the certificate to ensure this certificate hasen't been tampered with.3. You have never transmitted your private key to anybody. The solution is to encapsulate the symmetric key inside a message encrypted with an asymmetric algorithm. Private Key/Public Key encryption algorithms are great. But a symmetric key is potentially highly insecure. using symmetric or asymmetric methods. Encryption algorithm: There are several encryption algorithms available. then he would have been able to sue 55 . It is asymmetric because you need the other key pair to decrypt. You must therefore transmit the key to the other party without the enemy getting its hands on it.2.4. algorithms cannot be patented. A symmetric algorithm is much faster in doing its job than an asymmetric algorithm. the public key of the owner of this certificate. but they are not usually practical.2. Usually. An algorithm using the same key to decrypt and encrypt is deemed to have a symmetric key. You can't use the same key to encrypt and decrypt. nothing is secure on the Internet. with keys of various lengths.
you then add the encrypted hash and your signed certificate with the message. while the second form does not even allow to read part of the message if it has been tampered with. 1. you create its hash.2.3). This later form is a very simple encryption form as any software can decrypt it if it can read the embedded public key. check that both hash are equals and finally check the certificate. It is therefore extremely difficult to modify a message while keeping its original hash. 56 . Signing: Signing a message. The other advantage of signing your messages is that you transmit your public key and certificate automatically to all your recipients. the applications will indicate to each other a list of algorithms that can be understood ranked by order of preference. This is a one way function. The recipient will recreate the message hash. OpenSSL can be compiled with or without certain algorithms. so that it can be used in many countries where restrictions apply. It is also called a message digest. Longer is the password harder it is to guess. OpenSSL is developed in a country where algorithms cannot be patented and where encryption technology is not reserved to state agencies like military and secret services. encapsulating the text message inside the signature (with delimiters). In the early days passwords on Unix system were limited to 8 characters. However the hash will drastically change even for the slightest modification in the message. and then encrypt the hash with your private key. 1. So algorithms cannot be patented except mainly in USA.2.7.1. There are usually 2 ways to sign. Nowadays Unix systems use MD5 hashes which have no limitation in length of the password. The Hash: A hash is a number given by a hash function from a message.2 and 7. in certifying that applications are original (MD5 sum). To sign a message. The message can be a text message.6... or someone else's certificate. PassPhrase: “A passprase is like a password except it is longer”. The advantage of the first form is that the message is human readable allowing any non complaint client to pass the message as is for the user to read. decrypts the encrypted hash using your well known public key stored in your signed certificate. During the negotiation between browser and web server. so the term passphrase for longer passwords. Hash functions are used in password mechanisms.1.5. means authentifying that you have yourself assured the authenticity of the message (most of the time it means you are the author. 1.2. but not neccesarily). and in general in ensuring that any message has not been tampered with. or encoding the message altogether with the signature.Albert Einstein. The common preferred algorithm is then chosen. It seems that the Internet Enginering Task Force (IETF) prefers SHA1 over MD5 for a number of technical reasons (Cf RFC2459 7. it means that it is impossible to get the original message knowing the hash.
distribute public key. so no password is required when reading the private key. There will be also some people checking that you are who you are..pem files that contains your private key and remove the passphrase from it..pem and wwwcert.. Now you can use the newcert and cakeyunsecure.pem for apache. you must know what you are doing: check file permissions. Public Key Infrastructure The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the software management system and database system that allows to sign certifcate. Remove any extra information to keep only the ---CERTIFCATE -.pem -out wwwkeyunsecure.1. keep a list of revoked certificates. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again. either you get a generic type certificate for your e-mail or you must pay about USD100 a year per certificate/e-mail address. Copy wwwkeyunsecure. Securing Internet Protocols. There is also no way to find someone's public key if you have never received a prior e-mail with his certificate (including his public key). you can use any well known commercial PKI as their root CA certificate is most likely to be inside your browser/application. ---# Server Certificate: # Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate.pem Because the key (PRIVATE Key) is insecure.default-vhost. If someone gets its hand on it. your site is compromised (you have been warned).pem in the directory /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ as wwwkeyunsecure. 3.crt respectively.mysite.pem and newcert.part. then you will be prompted for a # pass phrase. etc... Edit /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ssl. The key needs to be made insecure.conf.1.8. The problem is for securing email.com. ------------- 3.2. First generate and sign a certificate request with the Common Name (CN) as www.. For securing individual applications. Take the newreq. A test 57 . openssl rsa -in newreq.1.. Using a certificate with mod_ssl in apache First never use your self-signed root CA Certificate with any application and especially with apache as it requires you to remove the passphrase on your private key. You can usually access it via a website and/or ldap server. If # the certificate is encrypted.1.
org and on the Advanced tab check the “This server requires a secure connection (SSL)”. Using a certificate with POPS A pem file for ipop3sd can be created by generating a certificate. Key Manager shows a Key with a strike to indicate the key is not signed. Ensure that the distinguished name won't be identical to previous generated keys.org).4. #SSLCertificateKeyFile conf/ssl/ca. Using a certificate with IMAPS Read the paragraph on “Using a certificate with POPS”.key. rename it to newreq.d/httpd start) 3.5. Use the wizard to generate a new key.1. select the service you want to create a key for. Import this file in the OpenSSL /var/ssl directory.1.d/init.0 expects to find the file. 3. for more information. A similar procedure can be used for imap and putting the file in /etc/ssl/imap/imapsd. The wizard will place the request in the file C:\NewKeyRq. unsecuring the private key and combining the two into /etc/ssl/imap/ipop3sd.pem. for instance IMAP (or WWW). #SSLCertificateFile conf/ssl/ca.1. The trusted root CA must be installed in MS Internet Explorer to validate the certificate from mail.6.1.com.crt # Server Private Key: # If the key is not combined with the certificate. use this # directive to point at the key file.d/init.pem. 58 .3. In MSOutlook.mycompany. Generate and Sign a key with Microsoft Key Manager In Microsoft Key Manager. Using a certificate with Stunnel FIXME 3.unsecure SSLCertificateKeyFile wwwkeyunsecure. for Instance for the Common Name (CN) use imap. 3.g mail.org. This is the location where the imap rpm on Mandrake 9.1.pem ---- Stop and start httpd (/etc/rc.# certificate can be generated with `make certificate' under # built time.xyz.2. The CN should be the name that the mail client connects to (e. Using a certificate with Postfix FIXME 3. enter for the incoming mail server mail. on the server tab. this will change the connection port to 995 (imaps).xyz.xyz.crt SSLCertificateFile wwwcert.txt.d/httpd stop) ensure that all processes are dead (killall httpd) and start httpd (/etc/rc.pem and sign the request as usual.
1. Now sign your message test. We have to remove the text.section. enter the passphrase.pem: CA. Export the file newcertx509.pem -out newcert. Generate and use an s/mime certificate Simply generate and sign a certificate request but with the Common Name (CN) being your e-mail address.pem -inkey newreq.section.pem is not yet suitable for key manager as it contains some text and the -CERTIFICATE.pem to the Computer running key Manager and while selecting the key icon in the Key Manager application.pem Using a text editor is also suitable to delete everything outside the -CERTIFICATEsection. select this file. the easy way is to do: openssl x509 -in newcert. you can use this procedure to make signed advisories.pem: openssl smime -sign -in test.pem -inkey newreq.pem You can now transmit test. right click and click on Install the Key Certificate.pem file now contains only the -CERTIFICATE.msg to anybody. ----------------- 3.pl -sign The file newcert.pem and your key newreq.pl -pkcs12 "Franck Martin" (openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert. To generate the pkcs12 file from your newcert. 3. 3.p12 \ -name "Franck Martin") or use this command to bundle the signing certificate with your pkcs12 file openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert.2.2. or other signed documents to be published digitally.pem -certfile 59 .2.msg) using your certificate newcert.txt -text -out test.pem -inkey newreq.pem -out newcertx509. The key is now fully functional.msg -signer newcert.txt (output test. To use this certificate with MS Outlook You need to import it in Outlook as a pkcs12 file.CA. Securing E-mails. The newcertx509.pem and newreq.2.
When you send a signed e-mail the user at the other end will receive your public key. You can send your message as encrypted signed messages or clear text message. To use this certificate with Evolution Evolution 1. Refer to the chapter "Install the CA root certificate as a Trusted Root Certificate in Internet Explorer". And finally click on Ok. The encryption is not really an encryption as the message contains everything needed to decrypt the message. The root CA certificate has to be downloaded and installed. Note that early version of MS-Outlook XP will search the Internet to verify the validy of the certificate. except if you want to change the default settings.3. It is planned that Evolution will handle S/MIME in a future release (from the evolution bug database). And Click on Ok. and will therefore be able to send you encrypted e-mails. MS Outlook should have selected the default setting so just click on New. the whole machine freezes till MS-Outlook XP has finished somehow. Options and Security.0 does not work with S/MIME.4.p12 -name "Franck Martin" Beware this certificate contains your public and private key and is only secured by the passphrase. even though it can't check the signature (early 60 .2.5. Click on the import/export button select to import the newcert.2. To use this certificate with MS Outlook Express FIXME 3. but it ensures that the recipient won't read the message if he does not have an s/mime compliant reader. 3. In MS Outlook go to Tools.p12 file. the trust path won't be valid because the application does not know the root CA Certificate. Now click on the Settings button. You are ready to send signed e-mails.pem \ -out newcert.cacert. The bug is that this process is exclusive. However in some instances Evolution recognises that the document is clear text signed and displays it correctly. To use this certificate with Netscape Messenger FIXME 3. enter the export password and the Digital ID "Franck Martin" (That's my name so use your name in the above examples).2. As you have issued this certificate from a self-signed certificate (root CA Certificate). This is a file not to let into everybody's hand. but only with PGP. It can take several seconds before the e-mail is displayed and several minutes for MS-Outlook XP to timeout when you don't have a full time or on-demand Internet connection.
2. and improving the usability or performance. their patches are distributed as binary executables instead of source. This type of patch modifies the program executable— the program the user actually runs—either by modifying the binary file to include the fixes or by completely replacing it. Types Programmers publish and apply patches in various forms. Though meant to fix problems. For the Unix program. See the talk page for details. the patches consist of textual differences between two source code files. developers expect users to compile the new or changed files themselves. poorly designed patches can sometimes introduce new problems (see software regressions). 61 . To use this certifcate with KMail FIXME Patch (computing) Jump to: navigation. To use this certificate with Balsa FIXME 3.. unfortunately the one MS-Outlook uses quite often). 3. (September 2008) A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with. Patch management is the process of using a strategy and plan of what patches should be applied to which systems at a specified time. see patch (Unix). Please improve the article by adding references. or update a computer program or its supporting data. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and other bugs.2. For the software tool by Apple Inc. These types of patches commonly come out of open source projects. Because proprietary software authors withhold their source code. see Apple Software Update. In these cases. In these cases.versions of Evolution does not understand one of the 3 MIME signature types. search "Software update" redirects here.7. Patches can also circulate in the form of source code modifications.6. This article may contain original research or unverified claims.
Later patch distributions used magnetic tape. whereupon that program makes sure that updating the target takes place completely and correctly. Such situations commonly occur in the patching of computer games. To facilitate updates. Then. patches usually do not take long to apply. patches have the particularly important role of fixing security holes. partly because of the aforementioned glitches. Application The size of patches may vary from a few kilobytes to hundreds of megabytes — mostly more significant changes imply a larger size. large fixes may use different nomenclature. end-users must download most patches from the developer's web site. The application of security patches commonly occurs in this manner. In several Unix-like systems. The maintenance of server software and of operating systems often takes place in this manner. such as graphics and sounds files. Bulky patches or patches that significantly change a program may circulate as "service packs" or as "software updates". though this also depends on whether the patch includes entire files or only the changed portion(s) of files. software suppliers distributed patches on paper tape or on punched cards. operating systems often provide automatic or semi-automatic update facilities. 62 . expecting the recipient to cut out the indicated part of the original tape (or deck). patches came from the software developer via a disk or. Today. CD-ROM via mail. Today. In particular. In situations where system administrators control a number of computers. later. Compared with the initial installation of software. patches can become quite large when the changes add or replace nonprogram data. and patch in (hence the name) the replacement segment.Because the word "patch" carries the connotation of a small fix. this sort of automation helps to maintain consistency. particularly Linux. Completely automatic updates have not succeeded in gaining widespread popularity in corporate computing environments. computer programs can often coordinate patches to update a target program. updates between releases are delivered as new software packages. In the case of operating systems and computer server software. with almost universal Internet access. History Historically.they need only to execute an update program. Microsoft Windows NT and its successors (including Windows 2000. Windows XP. after the invention of removable disk drives. and later versions) use the "service pack" terminology. Automation simplifies the end-users' task -. These updates are in the same format as the original installation so they can be used either to update an existing package in-place (effectively patching) or be used directly for new installations. Some programs can update themselves via the Internet with very little or no intervention on the part of users. Service packs for Microsoft Windows NT and its successors and for many commercial software products adopt such automated strategies.
Microsoft (W)SUS support this. distributors often limit availability of patches to qualified developers as a beta test. Applying patches to firmware poses special challenges: re-embedding typically small code sets on hardware devices often involves the provision of totally new program code. It is possible for motherboard manufacturers to put safeguards in place to prevent serious damage. See Internet television. Cautious users. An example safeguard is to keep a backup of the firmware to use in case the primary copy is determined to be corrupt (usually through the use of a checksum. Often the patch consists of bare binary data and a special program that replaces the previous version with the new version is provided. and cable television (CATV) formats. may render the motherboard unusable.. the Internet and broadband Internet access networks.. A motherboard BIOS update is an example of a common firmware patch. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: live television. Any unexpected error or interruption during the update. rather than simply of differences from the previous version. and content (or video) on demand. such as a CRC). time-shifted programming.g. tend to put off applying patches until they can verify the stability of the fixes. 63 . particularly system administrators. ETSI) and preferential deployment scenarios in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into enduser premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment.g. It is distinguished from general Internet-based or web-based multimedia services by its on-going standardization process (e. e. Package management systems can offer various degrees of patch automation. instead of being delivered through traditional radio frequency broadcast. and Service Pack 2 of Windows XP enabled them by default. IPTV Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which digital television service is delivered using the architecture and networking methods of the Internet Protocol Suite over a packet-switched network infrastructure.but also because administrators fear that software companies may gain unlimited control over their computers. Usage of completely automatic updates is far more widespread in the consumer market. In the cases of large patches or of significant changes. satellite signal. due largely to the fact that Microsoft Windows added support for them. such as a power outage.
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