Technical terminology

Introduction
This is a book made by a researcher and is only intended to public benefit and not for sale. And I hope that Allah accept this work from me.

This book has some terminologies that can help you to have information about basics in Information Technology field. These definitions are collected from famous websites.

The researcher

2

Softphone
Softphone is a software program for making telephone calls over the Internet using a general purpose computer, rather than using dedicated hardware. Often a softphone is designed to behave like a traditional telephone, sometimes appearing as an image of a phone, with a display panel and buttons with which the user can interact. A softphone is usually used with a headset (Headphones) connected to the sound card of the PC, or with a USB phone. USBphone looks like traditional phone device, but it has USB connector instead of RJ-11. It may be used with most softphones and services like Skype.

Softphone Applications
A typical application of a softphone is to make calls via an Internet telephony service provider to other softphones or to telephones. Service providers may offer PC-to-PC calls for free; PC-to-phone and phone-toPC calls are usually not free. Another type of softphone connects to a private branch exchange (PBX) ( which is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. PBXs are also referred to as: PABX - private automatic branch exchange EPABX - electronic private automatic branch exchange) through a local area network (LAN) and is used to control and dial through an existing hardware phone. This is often used in a call center environment to make calls from a central customer directory, and to "pop-up" information on the screen about which customer is calling, instantly providing the operator with details of the relationship between the caller and the company using the call center. Some countries do not allow this PBX. It's important to differentiate softphones from services based on softphones. Skype, Google Talk, and Vonage are Internet telephony service providers having their own softphones that you install on your computer. Unfortunately these three major providers are not interoperable, and you can't place a direct call between them. 3

mobile. similar to existing. or high speed services such as DSL or a local area network. adaptor. long distance. you'll be able to dial just as you always have. Is there a difference between making a Local Call and a Long Distance Call? Some VoIP providers offer their services for free. Special VoIP phones plug directly into your broadband connection and operate largely like a traditional telephone. wireless "hot spots" in locations such as airports. normally only for calls to other subscribers to the service. and international numbers. or specialized phone is required. or a traditional phone connected to a special adapter. How VoIP / Internet Voice Works VoIP services convert your voice into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. Some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone. This can be through a cable modem.VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. while other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter. who can I call? Depending upon your service. you might be limited only to other subscribers to the service. you will need some software and an inexpensive microphone. If you are calling a regular phone number. Other VoIP providers permit you to call anywhere at a flat rate for a fixed number of minutes. the signal is converted to a regular telephone signal before it reaches the destination. a special VoIP phone. If you use your computer. It also means that people who call you may incur long distance charges depending on their area code and service. or are available but only for an additional fee. In addition. parks. If I have VoIP service. If you use a telephone with a VoIP adapter. and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you to use VoIP service wirelessly. traditional wireline telephone service. Your VoIP provider may permit you to select an area code different from the area in which you live. What Kind of Equipment Do I Need? A broadband (high speed Internet) connection is required. You may also be able to avoid paying for both a broadband connection and a traditional telephone line. Some VoIP providers charge for a long distance call to a number outside your calling area. and the service provider may also provide a dial tone. Some VoIP services may allow you to speak with more than one person at a time. or you may be able to call anyone who has a telephone number including local. What Are Some Advantages of VoIP? Some VoIP services offer features and services that are not available with a traditional phone. If you are calling someone who has a regular analog phone. A computer. that person does not need any special equipment to talk to you. 4 . VoIP can allow you to make a call directly from a computer.

What Are Some disadvantages of VoIP? If you're considering replacing your traditional telephone service with VoIP. For more information about VoIP see our factsheet (pdf file). For additional information. Can I use my Computer While I talk on the Phone? In most cases. that 911 calls using VoIP are handled differently than 911 calls using your regular telephone service. Aspects of these considerations may change with new developments in internet technology. Can I Take My Phone Adapter with me When I Travel? Some VoIP service providers offer services that can be used wherever a high speed Internet connection available. the FCC requires interconnected VoIP providers to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA) and to contribute to the Universal Service Fund. see VoIP & 911 Advisory. VoIP providers may or may not offer directory assistance/white page listings. yes. You should know. If your VoIP service requires you to make calls using your computer. All VoIP services require your broadband Internet connection to be active. Does my Computer Have to be Turned on? Only if your service requires you to make calls using your computer. the software supplied by your service provider will alert you when you have an incoming call. For additional information. Does the FCC Regulate VoIP? In June 2005 the FCC imposed 911 obligations on providers of “interconnected” VoIP services – VoIP services that allow users generally to make calls to and receive calls from the regular telephone network. In addition. You should always check with the VoIP service provider you choose to confirm any advantages and limitations to their service. 5 . Using a VoIP service from a new location may impact your ability to connect directly to emergency services through 9-1-1. see VoIP & 911 Advisory. there are some possible differences:    Some VoIP services don't work during power outages and the service provider may not offer backup power. which supports communications services in high-cost areas and for income-eligible telephone subscribers. Not all VoIP services connect directly to emergency services through 9-11. however. How Do I Know If I have a VoIP phone Call? If you have a special VoIP phone or a regular telephone connected to a VoIP adapter. the phone will ring like a traditional telephone. Please see our consumer fact sheet on VoIP and 911 services for complete information on these differences.

An ITSP (Internet Telephony Service Provider) offers an Internet data service for making telephone calls using VoIP (Voice over IP) technology.[2] Before 2003.323 use is declining)[1] for transmitting telephone calls as IP data packets. net2Phone began offering consumer VoIP service in 1995. 6 . or IAX (althoughH. In the United States. Customers may use traditional telephones with an analog telephony adapter (ATA) providing RJ11 to Ethernetconnection. Most ITSPs use SIP.323. many VoIP services required customers to make and receive phone calls through a personal computer. H. ITSPs are also known as VSP (Voice Service Provider) or simply VoIP Providers.

a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. Other feasible application examples include video conferencing. The SIP protocol is a TCP/IP-based Application Layer protocol.[2] In November 2000. streaming multimedia distribution. Private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office. adding or deleting media streams. SIP was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne and Mark Handley starting in 1996. The protocol can be used for creating. SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer. modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions consisting of one or several media streams. It is a text-based protocol. SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architecture for IP-based streaming multimedia services in cellular systems. widely used for controlling multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)[3]. The modification can involve changing addresses or ports. which make telephone 7 . presence information and online games. PBXs are also referred to as: PABX .private automatic branch exchange EPABX . it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). etc. as opposed to one that acommon carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. instant messaging. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261[1] from the IETF Network Working Group. User Datagram Protocol (UDP). A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches. incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and theSimple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)[4]. inviting more participants. allowing for direct inspection by administrators.The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol.electronic private automatic branch exchange In the field of telecommunications.

willing and able" to provide those services for which it is granted authority. railroads. The term common carrier is of Anglo-American origin. such as NPA or area code. Public airlines. trucking companies) and other freight companiesgenerally operate as common carriers. IVR automated systems save businesses money and employee resources. The term exchange can also be used to refer to an area served by a particular switch (typically known as a wire center in the US telecommunications industry). It is sometimes confused with other concepts of telephone geography. A common carrier is a business that transports people. In Continental Europe the term is seldom used and has little or no legal implications. goods. motor carriers (i. Most of us use IVR systems daily to do things like check bank balances. More narrowly. while making routine services and inquiries available to the public 24 hours a day. A common carrier holds itself out to provide service to the general public without discrimination for the "public convenience and necessity".e.calls"work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. IVR (interactive voice response) is a telephony technology that allows users to interact with a database through phone keypad or voice commands. other obsolete Bell System terms includeoffice code and NXX. In the United States. cruise ships. time schedules and rate tables upon the approval of regulators. or services and offers its services to the general public under license or authority provided by a regulatory body. bus lines. Common carriers typically transport persons or goods according to defined and published routes. Any person who undertakes to transport goods is simply referred to as a carrier. or order 8 .. in some areas it can refer to the first three digits of the local number. A common carrier must further demonstrate to the regulator that it is "fit. check for store hours or locations. manage credit cards. In the three-digit sense of the word. the word exchange can also have the legal meaning of a local access and transport area under the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ).

video). IVR systems are also used to report non-emergency problems to cable or utility services. Human interaction is not required because the IVR system only allows limited access to the database. OSP solutions have advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages may include a feature-set or template that might not fit your business model as well as you'd like. multi-media (audio. IVR systems can deliver dynamic information as well. IVR systems are installed in-house. Integrating text-tospeech (TTS) functionality. pollsters and survey takers also make use of IVR systems." The IVR system might have limited to extensive built-in voice recognition. however. In these cases. for example. Answers might also be directed through the phone's keypad. there are also "outsourced solution providers." or "undecided. documents. for example. integrating it through the client's network. such as weather. Press 1 for yes and 2 for no. like "yes." or OSPs. Other popular networks 9 . the Department Of Motor Vehicles. The increasing popularity of the mp3 music format in the late 1990s led to the release and growth of Napster and other software designed to aid in the sharing of electronic files. It may be implemented in a variety of storage. Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) In computing." "no. World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents. and an IVR-savvy staff to maintain the system. though an option might exist to be switched to a live operator during business hours. IVR automation makes it possible to reach far more people than through actually manning phones. These IVR providers maintain the system on their own premises. and surrendered control over critical functions deferred to the IVR system.prescription medicine. and distribution models. depending on the requirements of the application. Common methods are manual sharing using removable media. such as computer programs. news. A recorded voice asks questions and requests simple answers. or electronic books. Obvious advantages include avoiding installation of a new IVR infrastructure. the system places outgoing calls. Campaigns. centralized computer file server installations on computer networks. transmission. traffic or stock reports. and to schedule appointments with government or state offices. and the use of distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) networking. Commonly. Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) is designed for the purpose of file sharing (It is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information.

this file is corrupted. MFTP is able to uniquely identify files based on their contents.a. so additional features and other improvements are still possible. regardless of how they are named on each individual computer. It has recently been announced that MFTP had been used successfully in Internet2 project. achieving excellent results in terms of speed and reliability when transferring or sharing files. Gnutella2. This is the communication protocol used by such clients as eMule and eDonkey and. in its extended implementation. During the early 2000s. It is also possible to sharemetadata about a given file with links on Web sites (such as: this file is good. There are several unique forks of the protocol: eDonkey2000 implemented what it called "hording" of sources. File sharing remains widespread. the nowdefunct Kazaa network. by theOvernet network. eDonkey2000. the files are identified with theirMD4 hash numbers (which are consistent) rather than their filenames (which will often vary from one computer to the next). Many file sharing programs and services have been shut down due to litigation by groups such as the RIAA and MPAA. the fight against copyright infringement expanded into lawsuits against individual users of file sharing software. The protocol is still under development. 10 . leech resistance) built into the protocol. and xMule has extended the credit system to facilitate in the transfer of rare files. some studies have suggested that file sharing is not the primary cause of declines in sales. in this case.include Gnutella. It is still under development. and therefore may acquire more features or other improvements in addition to those discussed in this article. and BitTorrent. this file isn't what the name may indicate). eMule uses a credit system.k. The economic impact on media industries is disputed. with mixed public opinion about the morality of the practice for commercial material). It also has bandwidth management (a. although publishers and copyright holders claim economic damage. Features/Strengths In addition to being able to search by filename. and every known mature client allows the user to tweak file and user upload priorities.

In systems complex enough to require moderately large glue logic. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. allowing the entire programming and test procedure to be accomplished under the control of a single protocol. Other devices usually use proprietary protocols or protocols defined by older standards. and other programmable electronic chips to be programmed while installed in a complete system. making it feasible to apply code or design changes in the middle of a production run. the GSM Association. The primary advantage of this feature is that it allows manufacturers of electronic devices to integrate programming and testing into a single production phase. designers may implement a JTAG-controlled programming subsystem for non-JTAG devices such as flash memory and microcontrollers. Its promoter. This may allow manufacturers to program the chips in their own system's production line instead of buying preprogrammed chips from a manufacturer or distributor. enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. microcontrollers. chips supporting ISP have internal circuitry to generate any necessary programming voltage from the system's normal supply voltage. Typically.In-System Programming In-System Programming (abbreviated ISP) is the ability of some programmable logic devices.[2][3] Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. rather than requiring a separate programming stage prior to assembling the system. and thus is considered a second 11 . rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system. and communicate with the programmer via a serial protocol. Most programmable logic devices use a variant of the JTAG protocol for ISP.[1] GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital. in order to facilitate easier integration with automated testing procedures.

generation (2G) mobile phone system. that is. also called "text messaging"). 2006 | url = http://focus. The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (Executive Meets with India Government Official to outline Benefits of Open Standards to drive mobile phone penetration | publisher = Texas Instruments | date = July 12. GPRS is a besteffort packet switched service. which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. where a certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users. for example. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s. by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities.ti. but instead those networks are being converted to 12 . (General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications(GSM). by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. Originally there was some thought to extend GPRS to cover other standards.jhtml?prelId=sc06127 | accessdate = 2007-01-08}}</ref>). This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. 2G cellular systems combined with GPRS are often described as 2.112.5G. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. For example.[4] This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state. the GSM system. the short message service (SMS. GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls. as opposed to circuit switching. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide emergency telephone number. as well as in the 3G systems. It provides moderate speed data transfer.com/docs/pr/pressrelease. In 2G systems.

A new operator-restricted version of GSM. GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook 13 . Scheduled to be released in 2010.use the GSM standard. GPRS was developed as a GSM response to the earlier CDPD and imode packet switched cellular technologies. the most common mobile phone system in the world. but now by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). It was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). it will allow network operators greater control over their GSM networks.). The GPRS core network is the centralized part of the GPRS system. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) system is used by GSM mobile phones. is currently under development [5]. It also provides support for WCDMA based 3G networks. The GPRS core network is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem. so that GSM is the only kind of network where GPRS is in use. OR-GSM. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packetbasedwireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. for transmitting IP packets.

These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell. the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator. However. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. In theory. where the cell radius could be double or even more. GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuitswitched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station. as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and complements existing services such circuitswitched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).computers. mobile users of virtual private networks (VPNs) have been able to access the private network continuously over wireless rather than through a rooted dial-up connection. As GPRS has become more widely available. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. this is not a prerequisite. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). the type of terrain and the timing advance.5G and 3G services. for example. It is also easier to make applications available to mobile users because the faster data rate means that middleware currently needed to adapt applications to the slower speed of wireless systems are no longer be needed. There are five different celwho can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag. in shopping centers or airports. Cellular radio network Main article: Cellular network GSM is a cellular network. 14 .. along with other 2. depending on the antenna system. In GMSK. a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying.

When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset. [12] It is a common occurrence for a nearby GSM handset to induce a "dit. However. wireless microphones. These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices. This also depends on the handset's design. computers. dit di-dit. such as car stereos and portable audio players.which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. GSM frequencies Main article: GSM frequency ranges GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. dit di-dit. the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify. which could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. and personal music devices. providing 125 RF channels (channel numbers 0 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. and its conformance to strict rules and regulations allocated by the US body. cordless phones. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for firstgeneration systems. GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain act as a detector. in part 15 of its rules and regulations pertaining to interference with electronic devices. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. home stereo systems. Interference with audio devices Some audio devices are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. televisions. 15 . dit di-dit" audio output on PAs. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used. the FCC.

Finally. Originally. In addition to being efficient with bitrates.833 kbit/s. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. with the development of UMTS. GSM was further enhanced in 1997[13] with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec. E-GSM. and the frame duration is 4. allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio. EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband. two codecs.In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.5 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). Network structure 16 .615 ms. This 'extended GSM'. and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. a 12. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Voice codecs GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270. called Half Rate (6.6 and 13 kbit/s. named after the types of data channel they were allocated.1 kHz audio into between 5. which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels. uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink). were used. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Main article: Subscriber Identity Module  One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module.  the Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart 17 . the Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers).  all of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as voice calls and SMS.The structure of a GSM network The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. This is sometimes also just called the core network. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles.  the GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections).

North America and Europe many operators lock the mobiles they sell. all phones are sold unlocked. 2006. GSM security GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). Alternatively. as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication. Costa Rica. when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal. Indonesia. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Hong Kong and Pakistan. However. not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM. or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. Belgium. Malaysia. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air 18 . The locking applies to the handset. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from subscriptions. in Belgium. utilize private services to remove the lock. and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles. In Australia. In some countries such as Bangladesh. it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee. identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. and no nonrepudiation. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM. that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security. this practice is known as SIM locking.card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. some do it for free. but limited authorization capabilities. or only a SIM issued by them. and is illegal in some countries. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. This was also the case in Finland until April 1.

WAP Wireless Application Protocol (commonly referred to as WAP) is an open international standard[1] for application layer network communications in a wireless communicationenvironment. WAP sites are websites written in. WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser. or dynamically converted to. Before the introduction of WAP. Pico Computing.[14] The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. and in February 2008. Interactive data applications are required to support now commonplace activities such as:      Email by mobile phone Tracking of stock market prices Sports results News headlines Music downloads    +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Application Environment (WAE) | +------------------------------------------+ \ 19 . A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack. service providers had extremely limited opportunities to offer interactive data services. Inc revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack.voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States. Its main use is to enable access to the Mobile Web from a mobile phone or PDA. such as its smaller view screen. A WAP browser provides all of the basic services of a computer based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone.

WTP provides transaction support (reliable request/response) that is adapted to the wireless world. or PPP on top of a circuitswitched data connection. The rationale for this was to build a single platform for competing network technologies such as GSM and IS95 (also known as CDMA) networks. WSP is best thought of on first approach as a compressed version of HTTP. which has several "technical realizations" on top of other "data bearers" such as SMS. WDP is in fact exactly UDP.          | Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) | +------------------------------------------+ | *** Any Wireless Data Network *** | +------------------------------------------+ | | | WAP | protocol | suite | | / Technical specifications  The WAP standard describes a protocol suite that allows the interoperability of WAP equipment and software with many different network technologies. The bottom-most protocol in the suite is the WAP Datagram Protocol (WDP). Finally. but is misinterpreted by TCP as network congestion. On native IP bearers such as GPRS. UMTS packet-radio service. WDP is considered by all the upper layers as one and the same protocol. USSD. WTLS provides a public-key cryptography-based security mechanism similar to TLS. etc.     20 . which is common in 2G wireless technologies in most radio conditions. Its use is optional. which is an adaptation layer that makes every data network look a bit like UDP to the upper layers by providing unreliable transport of data with two 16-bit port numbers (origin and destination). WTP supports more effectively than TCP the problem of packet loss.

Transfer of files. Bluetooth Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. overcoming problems of synchronization. calendar appointments. the most common being the mouse. bar code scanners. contact details. It can connect several devices. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment. It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include:      Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset. Wireless communication with PC input and output devices. GPS receivers. medical equipment. 21 .This protocol suite allows a terminal to emit requests that have an HTTP or HTTPS equivalent to a WAP gateway. keyboard and printer. List of applications A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset. and traffic control devices. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular. creating personal area networks (PANs). and reminders between devices with OBEX. the gateway translates requests into plain HTTP.

Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. Bluetooth devices[citation needed]. PROFINET) networks. Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e. Two seventh-generation game consoles. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i. Lego Mindstorms NXT and recently in some high definition watches[citation needed]. PlayStation 3. For low bandwidth applications where higher [USB] bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired. Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a datacapable mobile phone as a modem. PSP Go. This makes using services easier because more of the security. Bluetooth exists in many products.g.. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. discoverable. Nintendo's Wii[6] and Sony's PlayStation 3.e. network 22 . the Wii. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other. with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).      For controls where infrared was traditionally used. such as telephones. Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. modems and headsets. Bluetooth devices A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range..

Wi-Fi Main article: Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a traditional Ethernet network. An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm). Wi-Fi is sometimes called "wireless Ethernet." This description is accurate. Wi-Fi requires more setup but is better suited for operating full-scale networks. Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. and to set up audio links (for example. A personal computer must have a Bluetooth adapter in order to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile 23 . and better security than Bluetooth. resulting in a stronger connection. and requires configuration to set up shared resources. better range from the base station. Computer requirements A typical Bluetooth USB dongle. headsets and hands-free devices). as it also provides an indication of its relative strengths and weaknesses. it enables a faster connection.address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types. transmit files. but with higher power.

which were not directly supported by Microsoft. Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter. Unlike its predecessor. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support.0 release. Operating system support For more details on this topic. The BlueZ[9] stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm. which requires a separate adapter for each device. see Bluetooth stack.phones. IrDA. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers. Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5. others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth adapter. miceand keyboards). NetBSDfeatures Bluetooth support since its 4. 24 . Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth.[8] Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity".[7] For Microsoft platforms.2 which was released in 2002. BlueZ and Affix. see external links below to download this paper. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well.0 release. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia. the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has recently published a recommendations paper. Mobile phone requirements A mobile phone that is Bluetooth enabled is able to pair with many devices. Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks.

It was established by Ericsson. and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere. 1998.S.[10][citation needed] The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network. unacknowledged. fast. The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Toshiba. and Nokia. The SIG was formally announced on May 20.Data Transformation Management System Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voicefrequency band betweentelephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. 1984). The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term TouchTone (canceled March 13.) or loop disconnect (LD) signaling to dial numbers. who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund. and later joined by many other companies. which 25 . IBM.[citation needed] History In the time preceding the development of DTMF. Sweden. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s.000 companies worldwide. As a method of in-band signaling. Intel. Today it has a membership of over 11. and is standardized by ITUT Recommendation Q.Specifications and features The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson. DTMS . telephone systems employed a system commonly referred to as pulse (Dial Pulse or DP in the U.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies.

Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems. and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. The DTMF dialing system traces its roots to a technique developed by Bell Labs in the 1940s called MF (Multi-Frequency) which was deployed within the AT&T telephone network to direct calls between switching facilities using in-band signaling. A. similar to flicking a light switch on and off. The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent sixteen different numbers. the lettered keys were dropped from most phones. B." The consumer product was marketed by AT&T under the registered trade name Touch-Tone. In AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. This led to the addition of thenumber sign (#. or DTMF. and it was many years 26 . symbols and letters . 105.functions by rapidly disconnecting and connecting the calling party's telephone line. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency. as the dial spins. In the early 1960s. The repeated connection and disconnection. or to issue commands to switching systems or related telephony equipment." or used their own registered trade names such as the "Digitone" of Northern Electric (now known as Nortel Networks). In the end. C and D. The exchange equipment counts those clicks or dial pulses to determine the called number. a derivative technique was offered by AT&T through its Bell System telephone companies as a "modern" way for network customers to place calls. C. sometimes called 'octothorpe' or 'pound' in this context) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A. *. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called this same system "Tone" dialing or "DTMF. #. sounds like a series of clicks. AT&T described the product as "a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the voice transmission path.as detailed below. is a method for instructing a telephone switching system of the telephone number to be dialed. and D The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers. and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance (operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment. B.

The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. Pressing C. military also used the letters. DTMF Push-To-Talk ID Example of DTMF used as push-to-talk ID on a two-way radio system. and if all lines were in use. and then any priority calls. Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip. overriding other conversations on the network. Pressing one of these keys gave your call priority. Problems listening to this file? See media help. the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby 27 . Immediate. before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines. Consequently. C and D keys on telephone networks are few. in their now defunct Autovon phone system[1]. it was limited to the White House Communications Agency. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A).S. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination. For example.before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppresscaller ID. and exclusive to network control. relabeled. with Flash Override being the highest priority. Flash (B). it would disconnect any non-priority calls. but using number combinations (Example: Entering 93 before a number is a priority call) rather than the separate tones and the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service has superseded Autovon for any civilian priority telco access. Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority. Present-day uses of the A. cutting in over existing calls if need be. The U. B. Immediate (C). and Priority (D). Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks.

terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert. C and D tones are used in amateur radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow. The A. Keypad Main article: Telephone keypad 1209 Hz on 697 Hz to make the 1 tone The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix. among other uses.listening in on calls). DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send 28 . Previously. and each column representing a high frequency. DTMF tones are also sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information. control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line. however in the USA only Bell 202 modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data. A DTMF can be heard on most Whelen Outdoor Warning systems. B. with each row representing a low frequency.

DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips) 1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz 697 Hz 1 2 3 A 770 Hz 4 5 6 B 852 Hz 7 8 9 C 941 Hz * 0 # D Special tone frequencies National telephone systems define additional tones to indicate the status of lines. equipment.a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). presented in the following table. Event Low frequency High frequency Busy signal 480 Hz 620 Hz 29 . Such tones are standardized in each country and may consist of single or multiple frequencies. The original keypads had levers inside. or the result of calls with special tones. where the United States uses a dual frequency system. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. so each button activated two contacts. Most European countries use a single frequency.

or the switching center will ignore the signal.Ringback tone (US) 440 Hz 480 Hz Dial tone 350 Hz 440 Hz The tone frequencies. Symbian OS and its associated user interfaces S60. independent non-profit organization called the Symbian Foundation was established and the former Symbian Software Limited was acquired by Nokia. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The high frequencies may be the same volume or louder as the low frequencies when sent across the line. The loudness difference between the high and low frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist. although an unreleased x86port existed. UIQ and MOAP(S) were contributed by their owners to the foundation with the objective of creating the Symbian platform as royalty-free. developed by Symbian Ltd. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors.8% from their nominal frequency. with associated libraries. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. No frequency is a multiple of another. Synonyms include multifrequency pulsing and multifrequency signaling. The process of publishing the source 30 . The frequencies may not vary more than ±1. are selected such that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal. As with other multi-frequency receivers. which is slightly less than a whole tone. although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. Late in the 20th century most were replaced with digital signal processors. In 2008 a new. user interface. The frequencies were initially designed with a ratio of 21/19. open source software. as defined by the Precise Tone Plan." The minimum duration of the tone should be at least 70 ms. Symbian OS was designed for mobile devices. DTMF was originally decoded by tuned filter banks. DTMF can be decoded using the Goertzel algorithm. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools.

and the OS itself. and all resources are scarce. follow an object-oriented design: Model-view-controller (MVC). The OS is optimized for low-power battery-based devices and for ROM-based systems (e. and the CPU is switched into a low power mode when applications are not directly dealing with an event. There are similar techniques for conserving disk space (though the disks on Symbian devices are usually flash memory). as described in this entry.g. Furthermore. has a request-and-callback approach to services. Symbian uses a microkernel. user time must not be wasted. all Symbian programming is event-based. This is achieved through a programming idiom called active objects. Applications. Later OS iterations diluted this approach in response to market demands. To best follow these principles. This is a feature which is not available in Linux. Similarly the Symbian approach to threads and processes is driven by reducing overheads. did not. a phone in which a single processor core executes both the userapplications and the signalling stack. There is a strong emphasis on conserving resources which is exemplified by Symbian-specific programming idioms such as descriptors and a cleanup stack. EPOC's approach to multitasking was inspired by VMS and is based on asynchronous server-based events. and maintains separation between user interface and engine. like other operating systems (especially those created for use on desktop computers). This has allowed 31 . Symbian features pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection. Symbian OS was created with three systems design principles in mind:    the integrity and security of user data is paramount.code under the Eclipse Public License (EPL) was slated for completion in 2010. notably with the introduction of a real-time kernel and a platform security model in versions 8 and 9.[2] The term 'Symbian OS' went out of current use with the advent of the Symbian platform. features like XIP and re-entrancy in shared libraries). The Symbian kernel (EKA2) supports sufficiently-fast real-time response to build a single-core phone around it—that is. however the software itself.

from top to bottom:      UI Framework Layer Application Services Layer  Java ME OS Services Layer  generic OS services  communications services  multimedia and graphics services  connectivity services Base Services Layer Kernel Services & Hardware Interface Layer The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by user-side operations.5% (through Windows CE and Windows Mobile). telephony and filesystem support are placed in the OS Services Layer or the Base 32 . Structure yers. Competition Symbian is the leading OS in the "smart mobile device" market. Qualcomm's BREW.Symbian EKA2 phones to become smaller. Google Android. Central Repository. Symbian has a microkernel architecture. Other competitors include Palm OS. Store.memory management and device drivers. it includes the File Server and User Library.3% and Microsoft having 13.6% share of the smart mobile devices shipped in third quarter of 2008. which means that the minimum necessary is within the kernel to maximise robustness. cheaper and more power efficient than their predecessors[citation needed]. RIM having 15. with Apple having 17. SavaJe and MontaVista Software. but other services like networking. It also includes the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two basic services from which a completely functional port can be created without the need for any higher layer services.3% (through iPhone OS). Statistics published in November 2008 showed that Symbian OS had a 46. It contains a scheduler. DBMS and cryptographic services. availability and responsiveness. a PlugIn Framework which manages all plug-ins.

Services Layer. This has resulted in data-dependence and associated difficulties with changes and data migration. IrDA and USB.PRT" protocol modules to implement various networking protocol schemes. ESOCK (EPOC sockets) and C32 (responsible for serial communication).were contributed to Symbian in 2009. which has been termed a nanokernel. Many of these are frameworks. data model and data interface. Java ME providing another set of APIs on top of most of the OS and multimedia. which has three main servers called: ETEL (EPOC telephony). SyncML. are created independently and interact solely through their APIs with the other classes. especially removable media file systems. This is no longer the case. but an object-oriented persistence model was placed over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model. The EKA2 real-time kernel. All native Symbian C++ applications are built up from three framework classes defined by the application architecture: an application class. a document class and an application user interface class. The subsystem also contains code that supports short-range communication links. Symbian is designed to emphasize compatibility with other devices. and vendors are expected to supply plug-ins to these frameworks from third parties (for example. the application view. This has the 33 . Helix Player for multimedia codecs). The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. Only the base classes and substructure were contained in Symbian OS. such as Bluetooth. For example ESOCK allows different ". Early development of EPOC led to adopting FAT as the internal file system. UIQ and MOAP .S60. and this remains. There is also a large volume of user interface (UI) Code. Each of these has a plug-in scheme. The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. contains only the most basic primitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions. while most of the actual user interfaces were maintained by third parties. There is a large networking and communication subsystem. Symbian also contains graphics. The remaining required functions. Many other things do not yet fit into this model – for example. The three major UIs . These classes create the fundamental application behaviour. text layout and font rendering libraries.

Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in 2005. the S60. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture.advantage that the APIs to such areas of functionality are the same on many phone models. The Symbian platform is an open source operating system for mobile devices. It is very similar to the user interface from the Psion Series 5 personal organiser and is not used for any production phone user interface. and Sony Ericsson.0 variously supported PowerPC. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32bit version. DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000. although Windows 7 does not. Versions of NT from 3. which is referred to as IA-64. But it means that phone vendors needed to do a great deal of integration work to make a Symbian OS phone. UIQ and MOAP(S) user interfaces. 2005. although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors. 34 .1 to 4. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts. It provides a basis for starting customisation and is the environment in which much Symbian test and example code runs. NTT DoCoMo. Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. It was created by merging and integrating software assets contributed by Nokia. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. Symbian includes a reference user-interface called "TechView". including Symbian OS. On April 25. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. and that vendors get a lot of flexibility. 64-bit operating systems Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows Vista. some of which were 64-bit processors. and Windows Server 2008. in both Itanium and x64 editions. Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and x64 versions of Windows Server 2003 to support the x8664 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture.

Windows 3. In the next few years. 32-Bit Operating Systems One of the significant environmental changes will be the transition from DOS to 32-bit operating systems for PCs. simply because of differences between VDMs and DOS. we expect that more and more systems will run 32bit operating systems in order to better use the increasing power of newer PCs. Some file viruses are likely to not spread in VDMs.1 and Windows 95 programs. File viruses can often spread to other files when infected programs are run in Virtual DOS Machines (VDM) within OS/2. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. This decreases the rate at which file viruses spread in collections of OS/2 systems. which is often only as long as the infected program is running. they remain active in the system only as long as the infected VDM is active. or the number of bits used for single element in a data format. such as OS/2 and Windows 95. Operating system: refers primarily to the number of bits used to represent memory addresses. though they can spread from systems that have DOS as well as OS/2 installed in separate partitions. IBM's OS/2 is a 32-bit operating system that lets users run DOS. The effects of computer viruses on OS/2 systems is described elsewhere. In environments in which OS/2 predominates over DOS.32-Bit Operating Systems Refers to the number of bits that can be processed or transmitted in parallel. we would expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. Recent experiments with a prerelease version of Windows 95 suggest that DOS boot viruses will not in 35 . However. Microsoft's Windows 95 is a 32-bit operating systems that supports DOS. Boot viruses do not generally spread from within OS/2 itself. The term is often applied to the following: microprocessor: indicates the width of the registers. Windows and OS/2 programs simultaneously.

Not all of the news is good. some might not. committees. we would also expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. to include committees and private non-profit organizations. and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. ------------------------------------Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this [purpose]". and which cannot be adapted to other purposes. for example. and some might cause system problems. Usually these committees are used on a temporary basis. however. inadequate planning. The transition to these newer operating systems will change the virus problem. perhaps significantly. Common examples are organizations. adhoc and ad-hoc. Other derivatives of the Latin include AdHoc. but it will not eliminate it. or improvised events.general spread well from Windows 95 systems. are used when an objective needs consideration and no standing organ or committee within said organization can absorb that issue into its scope. Ad hoc committee commission or organization Ad hoc organizations. Ad hoc can also have connotations of a makeshift solution. to a tailor-made suit. It generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task. and the first few such crude viruses have already appeared . or review of the standing rules or theconstitution of that organization. 36 . These operating systems offer new facilities that viruses can use to both hide and spread. such as temporary oversight of an issue. a handcrafted network protocol or a purpose-specific equation. In other fields the term may refer. In environments in which Windows 95 predominates over DOS. Viruses can be written for 32-bit operating systems. nongeneralizable. Preliminary experiments carried out at the High Integrity Computing Laboratory with a pre-release version of Windows 95 suggest that some DOS file viruses will spread as usual. File viruses were not tested in these experiments.

Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic ofpseudoscientific subjects.An ad hoc organization may have. exhibitions. however. a long-term or indefinite duration of existence.S. an initial workgroup or forum may give place to a more permanent form of organization. and can be used as corporate body access points. Although he later referred to it as his "greatest blunder". it has been found to correspond quite well to the theories of dark energy. published works[citation needed]. Under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. fairs. expeditions. ad hoc events such as athletic contests.[1] Much of scientific understanding relies on the modification of existing hypotheses or theories but these modifications are distinguished from ad hoc hypotheses in that the anomalies being explained propose a new means of being real.[2] Ad hoc pronunciation Many reference works employ ad hoc pronunciation schemas as a way of indicating how words are pronounced. This is in contrast to systems such as the International Phonetic 37 . An example of an ad hoc pronunciation would be "DIK-shuh-nair-ee". Ad hoc hypothesis Main article: Ad hoc hypothesis In science and philosophy. Ad hoc hypotheses are not necessarily incorrect. in some cases. ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to a theory to save it from being falsified. and festivals are considered to be corporate bodies. unsupported adjustments to sustain them. Scientists are often skeptical of theories that rely on frequent. A typical example is the OSCE. An interesting example of an apparently supported ad hoc hypothesis was Albert Einstein's addition of the cosmological constant to general relativity in order to allow a static universe. such as the MerriamWebster dictionary. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. These are especially popular in U. where the capitalization shows which syllable is stressed. In these cases.

along with OLAP. it is usually provided over a data warehouse. Many application software systems have an underlying database which can be accessed by only a limited number of queries and reports. Typically these are available via some sort of menu. data mining and other tools. Proponents of ad hoc claim that it is much easier to use than IPA. and so examples will vary considerably according to the publication's whim. ------------------------------------------------ Wireshark 38 . customized queries. Ad hoc querying/reporting is a business intelligence subtopic. "ad hoc" reporting systems allow the users themselves to create specific. though very often neo-common simple words are used to illustrate how the IPA applies in a specific language. Ad hoc querying Ad hoc querying is a term in information science. which attempt to put pronunciation schemes on a standard footing. there is no "standard" ad hoc schema. and will have been carefully designed. Typically this would be via a userfriendly GUI-based system without the need for the in-depth knowledge of SQL. though will often concur that this is usually only because the pronunciation is already known. As its name suggests. or database schema that a programmer would have. Because such reporting has the potential to severely degrade the performance of a live system. By contrast.Alphabet. pre-programmed and optimized for performance by expert programmers. since they rely on the ability of the reader to already know how a large number of words are commonly pronounced. In contrast. the IPA seeks to base pronunciation solely on vocal tract configurations and on the phonemes produced. Data warehousing. Critics of ad hoc schemes point out that such schemes are inherently selfreferential.

org/ Wireshark is a free packet analyzer computer application. 12 days ago Written in C Operating system Cross-platform Type Packet analyzer License GNU General Public License Website http://www. software andcommunications protocol development. in May 2006 the project was renamed Wireshark due to trademark issues. It is used for network troubleshooting. 12 days ago Preview release 1.Wireshark Wireshark on Ubuntu Developer(s) The Wireshark team Stable release 1. Originally named Ethereal.wireshark.2 / 2009-09-15.0 / 2009-09-15.3. 39 . and education.2. analysis.

running on various computer operating systemsincluding Linux. It allows the user to see all traffic being passed over the network (usually an Ethernet network but support is being added for others) by putting the network interface into promiscuous mode. 2006.[1] He still held copyright on most of the source code (and the rest was redistributable under the GNU 40 . Wireshark uses the cross-platform GTK+ widget toolkit. Gerald Combs (a computer science graduate of the University of Missouri-Kansas City) started writing a program called Ethereal so that he could have a tool to capture and analyze packets. History Out of necessity. and many more information sorting and filtering options. Released under the terms of the GNU General Public License. and Microsoft Windows. he released the first version around 1998. The name was changed to Wireshark in May.Contents [hide] 1 The functionality 2 History 3 Features 4 Security 5 Ports 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links The functionality Wireshark is very similar to tcpdump. Network Integration Services) when he changed jobs. because creator and lead developer Gerald Combs could not keep using the Ethereal trademark (which was then owned by his old employer. the entire list of authors is available from Wireshark's web-site. As of now there are over 500 contributing authors while Gerald continues to maintain the overall code and issues releases of new versions. but it has a graphical front-end. and is crossplatform. Mac OS X. Wireshark isfree software.

so he took theSubversion repository for Ethereal and used it as the basis for the Subversion repository of Wireshark. 2007.       Data can be captured "from the wire" from a live network connection or read from a file that records the already-captured packets.GPL). such as snoop.[2] eWEEK Labs named Wireshark one of "The Most Important OpenSource Apps of All Time" as of May 2. so it can read capture files from applications such as tcpdump and CA NetMaster that use that format. and an Ethereal security advisory recommended switching to Wireshark. Ethereal development has ceased.[3] Features Wireshark is software that "understands" the structure of different networking protocols. PPP. Live data can be read from a number of types of network. Security Capturing raw network traffic from an interface requires special privileges on some platforms. Plugins can be created for dissecting new protocols. and Microsoft Network Monitor. which are called when traffic for their protocol is 41 . or via the terminal (command line) version of the utility. It can also read captures from other network analyzers. Wireshark uses pcap to capture packets. it is able to display the encapsulation and the fields along with their meanings of different packets specified by different networking protocols. IEEE 802. Captured network data can be browsed via a GUI. Thus. For this reason. Wireshark's native network trace file format is the libpcap format supported by libpcap and WinPcap. and loopback. tshark. Data display can be refined using a display filter. including Ethernet.11. older versions of Ethereal/Wireshark and tethereal/tshark often ran withsuperuser privileges. and its captures can be read by applications that use libpcap or WinPcap to read capture files. Taking into account the huge number of protocol dissectors.Network General's Sniffer. Captured files can be programmatically edited or converted via command-line switches to the "editcap" program. so it can only capture the packets on the networks supported by pcap.

and neither of them should be run with special privileges. and later analyze these packets by running Wireshark with restricted privileges on the packet capture dump file. On wireless networks.99. Ports Wireshark runs on Unix and Unix-like systems.7. timing and pitch. FreeBSD. this can pose a serious security risk given a bug in a dissector. including Linux. 42 . it is possible to use the Aircrack wireless security tools to capture IEEE 802.11 frames and read the resulting dump files with Wireshark. HPUX. OpenBSD and Mac OS X. NetBSD. Often a high-frequency sinusoidwaveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower frequency signal. modulation is used to convey a message. all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal. itsphase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"). only dumpcap needs to be set up to run with those special privileges . or the dumpcap utility that comes with Wireshark.[4] One possible alternative is to run tcpdump. Solaris. On platforms where special privileges are needed to capture traffic. Due to the rather large number of vulnerabilities in the past (of which many have allowed remote code execution) and developers' doubts for better future development. or a musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume. Modem (from modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates (Modulation is the process of varying one waveform in relation to another waveform.captured. In telecommunications. As of Wireshark 0. and on Microsoft Windows. Wireshark and tshark run dumpcap to do traffic capture.neither Wireshark nor tshark need to run with special privileges. with superuser privileges to capture packets into a file. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude ("volume").OpenBSD removed Ethereal from its ports tree prior to its 3.6 release.

Frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) are commonly used methods to modulate the carrier. Such information or machine data (for example. and other systems may also convey analog signals. Electrically.A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as ademodulator (sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem (short for "Modulator-Demodulator")) an analog carrier signal (n telecommunications. the property most commonly used is voltage followed closely by frequency. pneumatic. The carrier must be reintroduced at the receiver by a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). the dots on a screen. and charge. a carrier wave. an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. i. The frequency for a given radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's center frequency. a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context. For example. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. In the case of single-sideband modulation (SSB) the carrier is suppressed (and in some forms of SSB eliminated).mechanical.e analogous to another time varying signal. any quantity measurable through time or over space can be taken as a signal. 43 . or the words now flowing into the reader's mind) must all be part of systems existing in the physical world – either living or non-living.) to encode digital information. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals (An Analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. In the fields of communications.[1] This carrier wave is usually of much higher frequency than the input signal. or carrier is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. and in electrical engineering more generally. current. In the physical world. any set of human information or machine data can also be taken as a signal. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful. hydraulic. however. the ink making up text on a paper page. Within a complex society. signal processing. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information.

it is difficult to detect when such degradation occurs. and is achieved using a transducer. The voltage or the current is said to be an "analog" of the sound. The unidirectionality most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. effects such as non-linearity and noise ultimately degrade analog resolution to such an extent that the performance of digital systems may surpass it. both analog and digital systems are subject to limitations in resolution and bandwidth. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex nonlinear electrical characteristic. Similarly.Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal. sound) strike the diaphragm of a microphone which induces corresponding fluctuations in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone. from driven diodes (In electronics. As analog systems become more complex. and most are used for their unidirectional electric current property. light. errors can occur in the digital data stream. in sound recording. fluctuations in air pressure (that is to say. as digital systems become more complex. often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena. in digital systems. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block the current in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). temperature. such as sound. which depends on the particular type of diode technology. Therefore. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow. Thus. degradation can not only be detected but corrected as well. However. orpressure. A comparable performing digital system is more complex and requires more bandwidth than its analog counterpart. An analog signal has a theoretically infinite resolution. For example. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner. In practice an analog signal is subject to noise and a finite slew rate.[citation needed] In analog systems. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve.). or the voltage produced by a condensor microphone. a diode is a two-terminal P-N junction device (thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). position. 44 .

serial. Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time. For example. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves. frequency. usually 0 and 1.) to radio (Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. mobile phones and VoIP. the usualbase-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2.[1]Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. converts those 1s and 0s back into a form used by a USB. to carry 300 bit/s using 300 baud. orphase. They can also be classified by Baud. the binary system is used internally by all modern computers) of a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over thetelephone lines of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS) (Plain old telephone service (POTS) is the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in most parts of the world. The system was originally known as the Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System in many countries. and once received on the other side. The term was dropped as telephone services were removed from the control of national post offices). This can bedetected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying. in a form mostly unchanged to the normal user despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing. Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. but othersemiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second. such as amplitude. normally measured in bits per second. 45 . When radio waves pass an electrical conductor. or network connection. electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Today most diodes are made of silicon. the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. Ethernet.Early diodes included “cat’s whisker” crystals and vacuum tube devices (also called thermionic valves). or base-2 number system represents numeric values using two symbols. POTS has been available almost since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century.). More specifically. or "bps". the ITU V. aka tones. The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s (The binary numeral system. and is a reflection of the telephone service still available after the advent of more advanced forms of telephony such as ISDN. The name is a retronym.

due to number portability). = MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS mobile network. i. Most intercontinental data links now use optical modems transmitting over undersea optical fibers. IMSI is often used as a key in the HLR ("subscriber database") and MSISDN is the number normally dialed to connect a call to the mobile phone. Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) .[1] The MSISDN together with IMSI are two important numbers used to identify a mobile subscriber.g. a 56k modem can transfer data at up to 56.e.164 numbering plan. it is the telephone number to the SIM card in a mobile/cellular phone. Simply put. MSISDN is defined by the E. A SIM is uniquely associated to an IMSI.e. Some microwave modems transmit more than a hundred million bits per second. In telecommunications. Narrow band radio modem is used for low data rate up to 19. "wide band radio modems" transmit repeating frames of data at very high data rates over microwave radio links. notably cable modems and ADSL modems. most common one being "Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number". The MSISDN follows the numbering plan defined in the ITUT recommendation E. the card that is inserted into the mobile phone. Optical modems transmit data over optical fibers. i.a number used to identify a mobile phone number internationally. This number includes a country 46 . The abbreviation has several interpretations.000 bits (7kB) per second over the phone line.164. The former identifies the SIM. while the latter is used to route calls to the subscriber.whereas the original ITU V. Optical modems routinely have data rates in excess of a billion (1x109) bits per second. One kilobit per second (kbit/s or kb/s or kbps) as used in this article means 1000 bits per second and not 1024 bits per second. For example.22 standard allowed 1200 bit/s with 600 baud using phase-shift keying.2k mainly for private radio networks. while the MSISDN can change in time (e. Faster modems are used by Internet users every day. different MSISDNs can be associated to the SIM.

It may include specifications for routines. or even a set of multiple APIs provided by an organization. not only to the full interface. and protocols used to communicate between the requesting software and the library.[1][2][3] An API determines the vocabulary and calling conventions the programmer should employ to use the services.code and a National Destination Code which identifies the subscriber's operator. the Linux Standard Base is an ABI. but also to one function. that is. Language-independent. For example.[4] The API initialism may sometimes be used as a reference.  An API itself is largely abstract in that it specifies an interface and controls the behavior of the objects specified in that interface. the scope of meaning is usually determined by the person or document that communicates the information. This is a desired feature for a servicestyle API that is not bound to a given process or system and is available as a remote procedure call. data structures. An API may be:  Language-dependent. An API is typically defined in terms of the programming language used to build the application. The related term application binary interface(ABI) is a lower level definition concerning details at the assembly language level. that is. An application programming interface (API) is an interface in computer science that defines the ways by which an application program may request services from libraries and/oroperating systems. The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API. Thus. while POSIX is an API. 47 . available only in a given programming language. using the syntax and elements of that language to make the API convenient to use in this context. written in a way that means it can be called from several programming languages (typically an assembly or C interface). object classes.

Web APIs
When used in the context of web development, an API is typically a defined set of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request messages along with a definition of the structure of response messages, usually expressed in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) or JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. While "Web API" is virtually a synonym for web service, the recent trend (so-called Web 2.0) has been away from Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) based services towards more direct Representational State Transfer (REST) style communications[5]. Web APIs allow the combination of multiple services into new applications known as mashups [6].

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data is a capability of all GSM phones. It is generally associated with real-time or instant messaging type phone services. There is no store-and-forward capability, such as is typical of other short-message protocols (in other words, an SMSC is not present in the processing path). Response times for interactive USSD-based services are generally quicker than those used for SMS. USSD Phase 1, specified in GSM 02.90, only supports mobile initiated operation (pull operation). In the core network the message is delivered over MAP. USSD Phase 2, specified in GSM 03.90, supports networkinitiated operation (pulls and push operation). As an analogy, USSD is similar to telnet, while SMS is similar to mail. USSD is typically used as a 'trigger' to invoke independent calling services that don't require the overhead and additional usage costs of an SMSC, such as a callback service (e.g. cheaper phone charges while roaming), or interactive data service (e.g. stock quotes, sports results). USSD is a standard for transmitting information over GSM signaling channels. It is mostly used as a method to query the available balance and other similar information in pre-paid GSM services. The function that is triggered when sending USSD is network-dependent and depends on the specific services the operator is offering. Example USSD codes: 48

 

*101# *109*72348937857623#

After entering a USSD code on your GSM handset, the reply from the GSM operator is displayed within a few seconds. USSD is the base of some payment methods such as SharEpay, SWAP Mobile in South Africa, Mobipay in Spain, M-Pesa in Kenya, and mPay in Poland.

What is a USSD Gateway?
A USSD Gateway routes USSD messages from the signaling network to service applications and back. "USSD gateway" and "USSD center" are synonyms. USSD Gateway is based upon the ability of the delivery agent or the source to send and receive USSD messages. As USSD is a session-based protocol unlike its siblings (SMS and MMS), therefore, the session needs to be allocated to each and every interaction.

Difference between USSD and other Gateways
The difference between USSD Gateways and other kinds of gateways is that USSD Gateways require to know what session is going on. Also, put in the locator (it locates where the MS (Mobile Station) is currently), and you have a highly dynamic session – based protocol.

=
Crystal Reports is a business intelligence application used to design and generate reports from a wide range of data sources. Several other applications, such as Microsoft Visual Studio, bundle an OEM version of Crystal Reports as a general purpose reporting tool.[1] Crystal Reports became the de facto standard report writer when Microsoft released it with Visual Basic.[citation needed]
=

Java Naming and Directory Interface
49

Jump to: navigation, search

The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a Java API for a directory service that allows Java software clients to discover and look up data and objects via a name. Like all Java APIs that interface with host systems, JNDI is independent of the underlying implementation. Additionally, it specifies a service provider interface (SPI) that allows directory service implementations to be plugged into the framework. The implementations may make use of a server, a flat file, or a database; the choice is up to the vendor. The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is part of the Java platform, providing applications based on Java technology with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services. Powerful and portable directory-enabled applications can be built using this industry standard.

Application server
Jump to: navigation, search

An application server, is an n-tier software architecture, serves an API to expose business logic and business processes for use by third-party applications.[1] The term can refer to:
1. the services that a server makes available 2. the computer hardware on which the services run 3. the software framework used to host the services

50

the term application server sometimes refers to a J2EE or Java EE 5 application server. To support high-end needs. an application server has to have builtin redundancy. high-performance distributed application services and support for complex database access. 51 . (NEC) crop.Contents         1 Java application servers 2 Microsoft platform 3 Zend platform 4 Other platforms 5 Advantages of application servers 6 See also 7 External links 8 Footnotes Java application servers Following the success of the Java platform. Also called an appserver. monitors for high-availability. Some of the better-known Java Enterprise Edition application servers include:              Tcat Server (MuleSoft) WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Application Server Community Edition (IBM) Sybase Enterprise Application Server (Sybase Inc) WebLogic Server (Oracle) JBoss (Red Hat) JRun (Adobe Systems) Apache Geronimo (Apache Software Foundation) Oracle OC4J (Oracle) Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server (based on GlassFish Application Server)(Sun Microsystems) SAP Netweaver AS (ABAP/Java) (SAP) Glassfish Application Server (open source) WebObjects (Apple Inc. Application servers are typically used for complex transaction-based applications. A program that handles all application operations between users and an organization's backend business applications or databases.) NEC WebOTX.

or software program. The audience could be a person. It may be recorded with high or low granularity. quality and condition. columns. (name. etc. For example. In data processing. other data managed within an application or environment.[1]An item of metadata may describe an individual datum. 1. A browser requests a secure page (usually https://). or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data". Metadata is important because it aids in clarifying and finding the actual data.). This commonly defines the structure or schema of the primary data. fields. data type. how it is associated. or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels. metadata would document data about data elements or attributes. or image that describes what the audience wants or needs to see or experience. or documentation of. 52 . Associated with every file on the storage medium is metadata that records the date the file was created. 1. Metadata may include descriptive information about the context.Metadata (meta data. a Certificate Authority (CA). the date it was last modified and the date the file (or indeed the metadata itself) was last accessed. etc) and data about data (where it is located. What is SSL and what are Certificates? The Secure Socket Layer protocol was created by Netscape to ensure secure transactions between web servers and browsers. This is in short how it works. ownership. to identify one end or both end of the transactions. size. The protocol uses a third party. The web server sends its public key with its certificate. of any sort in any media. An example of metadata occurs within file systems.2. 2. such as a database schema. or content item. or characteristics of the data. Metadata is text. etc) and data about records or data structures (length. metadata provides information about. group. voice.

3. The browser decrypts the http data and html document using the symmetric key and displays the information. A certificate. you can certify that a message is only coming from you. The browser then uses the public key. 4. You are the only one to have the other key pair. Everybody has the public key. 7. resource location or Distinguished Name (DN) which includes the Common Name (CN) (web site address or e-mail address depending of the usage) and the certificate ID of the person who certifies (signs) this information. right? In the opposite .1. The trick in a key pair is to keep one key secret (the private key) and to distribute the other key (the public key) to everybody. that the certificate is still valid and that the certificate is related to the site contacted. Usually you will ask him to send you a non confidential signed message that will contains his publick key as well as a certificate. It contains also the public key and finally a hash to ensure that the certificate has not been tampered with. This is sometime hard to understand. you have to implicitly trust: you have his/her certificate loaded in your browser (a root Certificate). certificate usage. because you have encrypted it with you private key. Message-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Message-->[Private Key]-->Message 1. The key pair is based on prime numbers and their length in terms of bits ensures the difficulty of being able to decrypt the message without the key pairs. and only the associated public key will decrypt it correctly. The web server sends back the requested html document and http data encrypted with the symmetric key. the other key pair can decrypt. Private Key/Public Key: The encryption using a private key/public key pair ensures that the data can be encrypted by one key but can only be decrypted by the other key pair. Well. Several concepts have to be understood here. 6. owner's name. The Certificate: How do you know that you are dealing with the right person or rather the right web site. Beware. This someone. remember! One of the problem left is to know the public key of your correspondent. that only you will be able to decrypt. to encrypt a random symmetric encryption key and sends it to the server with the encrypted URL required as well as other encrypted http data. in this case the message is not secured you have only signed it. contains information about the owner of the certificate. 1. This is a certificate 53 .2. The keys are similar in nature and can be used alternatively: what one key emcrypts.2.2. someone has taken great length (if they are serious) to ensure that the web site owners are who they claim to be. but believe me it works. The web server decrypts the symmetric encryption key using its private key and uses the symmetric key to decrypt the URL and http data. therefore you also trust this certificate. As you made the choice to trust the person who signs this certificate. duration of validity. like e-mail address. Anybody can send you an encrypted message. 5. The browser checks that the certificate was issued by a trusted party (usually a trusted root CA).

sopac. it is called a self signed certificate. You can sign a certificate using itself. ST=Fiji. as only a signed certificate cannot be modified. OU=ICT. OU=ICT.org/Email=administrator@sopac. The CA maintains a list of all signed certificates as well as a list of revoked certificates.org serial:00 Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption 34:8d:fb:65:0b:85:5b:e2:44:09:f0:55:31:3b:29:2b:f4:fd: aa:5f:db:b8:11:1a:c6:ab:33:67:59:c1:04:de:34:df:08:57: 2e:c6:60:dc:f7:d4:e2:f1:73:97:57:23:50:02:63:fc:78:96: 34:b3:ca:c4:1b:c5:4c:c8:16:69:bb:9c:4a:7e:00:19:48:62: e2:51:ab:3a:fa:fd:88:cd:e0:9d:ef:67:50:da:fe:4b:13:c5: 0c:8c:fc:ad:6e:b5:ee:40:e3:fd:34:10:9f:ad:34:bd:db:06: ed:09:3d:f2:a6:81:22:63:16:dc:ae:33:0c:70:fd:0a:6c:af: bc:5a -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIIDoTCCAwqgAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkox DTALBgNVBAgTBEZpamkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQww 54 .trust tree or certificate path. L=Suva. A certificate is insecure until it is signed. Usually your browser or application has already loaded the root certificate of well known Certification Authorities (CA) or root CA Certificates. Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 1 (0x1) Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=FJ.org Validity Not Before: Nov 20 05:47:44 2001 GMT Not After : Nov 20 05:47:44 2002 GMT Subject: C=FJ. O=SOPAC. O=SOPAC. ST=Fiji. CN=SOPAC Root CA/Email=administrator@sopac.org Subject Public Key Info: Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Public Key: (1024 bit) Modulus (1024 bit): 00:ba:54:2c:ab:88:74:aa:6b:35:a5:a9:c1:d0:5a: 9b:fb:6b:b5:71:bc:ef:d3:ab:15:cc:5b:75:73:36: b8:01:d1:59:3f:c1:88:c0:33:91:04:f1:bf:1a:b4: 7a:c8:39:c2:89:1f:87:0f:91:19:81:09:46:0c:86: 08:d8:75:c4:6f:5a:98:4a:f9:f8:f7:38:24:fc:bd: 94:24:37:ab:f1:1c:d8:91:ee:fb:1b:9f:88:ba:25: da:f6:21:7f:04:32:35:17:3d:36:1c:fb:b7:32:9e: 42:af:77:b6:25:1c:59:69:af:be:00:a1:f8:b0:1a: 6c:14:e2:ae:62:e7:6b:30:e9 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001) X509v3 extensions: X509v3 Basic Constraints: CA:FALSE Netscape Comment: OpenSSL Generated Certificate X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: FE:04:46:ED:A0:15:BE:C1:4B:59:03:F8:2D:0D:ED:2A:E0:ED:F9:2F X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:E6:12:7C:3D:A1:02:E5:BA:1F:DA:9E:37:BE:E3:45:3E:9B:AE:E5:A6 DirName:/C=FJ/ST=Fiji/L=Suva/O=SOPAC/OU=ICT/CN=SOPAC Root CA/Email=administrator@sopac. L=Suva. CN=www. All root CA certificates are self signed.

the dates of validity of this certificate and the signature of the certificate to ensure this certificate hasen't been tampered with. nothing is secure on the Internet. the certificate contains the reference to the issuer. Symetric Key-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Symetric Key-->[Private Key]->Symetric Key 1.2. The certificate does not contain the private key as it should never be transmitted in any form whatsoever. Usually. but they are not usually practical. then the message encrypted with the public key is secure (relatively secure. You have never transmitted your private key to anybody. It is asymmetric because you need the other key pair to decrypt. Private Key/Public Key encryption algorithms are great. then he would have been able to sue 55 . using symmetric or asymmetric methods. 1. algorithms cannot be patented. nothing is certain except death and taxes).3.2.CgYDVQQLEwNJQ1QxFjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0B CQEWF2FkbWluaXN0cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnMB4XDTAxMTEyMDA1NDc0NFoXDTAy MTEyMDA1NDc0NFowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAkZKMQ0wCwYDVQQIEwRGaWppMQ0wCwYD VQQHEwRTdXZhMQ4wDAYDVQQKEwVTT1BBQzEMMAoGA1UECxMDSUNUMRYwFAYDVQQD Ew13d3cuc29wYWMub3JnMSYwJAYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhdhZG1pbmlzdHJhdG9yQHNv cGFjLm9yZzCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEAulQsq4h0qms1panB 0Fqb+2u1cbzv06sVzFt1cza4AdFZP8GIwDORBPG/GrR6yDnCiR+HD5EZgQlGDIYI 2HXEb1qYSvn49zgk/L2UJDer8RzYke77G5+IuiXa9iF/BDI1Fz02HPu3Mp5Cr3e2 JRxZaa++AKH4sBpsFOKuYudrMOkCAwEAAaOCARUwggERMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwLAYJ YIZIAYb4QgENBB8WHU9wZW5TU0wgR2VuZXJhdGVkIENlcnRpZmljYXRlMB0GA1Ud DgQWBBT+BEbtoBW+wUtZA/gtDe0q4O35LzCBtgYDVR0jBIGuMIGrgBTmEnw9oQLl uh/anje+40U+m67lpqGBj6SBjDCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkoxDTALBgNVBAgTBEZp amkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQwwCgYDVQQLEwNJQ1Qx FjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWF2FkbWluaXN0 cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnggEAMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA4GBADSN+2ULhVviRAnw VTE7KSv0/apf27gRGsarM2dZwQTeNN8IVy7GYNz31OLxc5dXI1ACY/x4ljSzysQb xUzIFmm7nEp+ABlIYuJRqzr6/YjN4J3vZ1Da/ksTxQyM/K1ute5A4/00EJ+tNL3b Bu0JPfKmgSJjFtyuMwxw/Qpsr7xa -----END CERTIFICATE----- As You may have noticed. A symmetric algorithm is much faster in doing its job than an asymmetric algorithm. The symmetric key is also chosen randomly. with keys of various lengths. This certificate has all the elements to send an encrypted message to the owner (using the public key) or to verify a message signed by the author of this certificate.4. You must therefore transmit the key to the other party without the enemy getting its hands on it. the public key of the owner of this certificate. if Henri Poincare had patented his algorithms. If the enemy gets hold of the key then you have no more secret information. The solution is to encapsulate the symmetric key inside a message encrypted with an asymmetric algorithm. But a symmetric key is potentially highly insecure. As you know. so that if the symmetric secret key is discovered then the next transaction will be totally different. An algorithm using the same key to decrypt and encrypt is deemed to have a symmetric key. Encryption algorithm: There are several encryption algorithms available. The Symmetric key: Well. You can't use the same key to encrypt and decrypt.

To sign a message. So algorithms cannot be patented except mainly in USA. This is a one way function. It seems that the Internet Enginering Task Force (IETF) prefers SHA1 over MD5 for a number of technical reasons (Cf RFC2459 7. 1. or encoding the message altogether with the signature.2.7.6. OpenSSL can be compiled with or without certain algorithms. 1. Longer is the password harder it is to guess. The advantage of the first form is that the message is human readable allowing any non complaint client to pass the message as is for the user to read. 1. 56 . However the hash will drastically change even for the slightest modification in the message. and in general in ensuring that any message has not been tampered with. During the negotiation between browser and web server. The common preferred algorithm is then chosen. Nowadays Unix systems use MD5 hashes which have no limitation in length of the password. It is therefore extremely difficult to modify a message while keeping its original hash.2. decrypts the encrypted hash using your well known public key stored in your signed certificate. In the early days passwords on Unix system were limited to 8 characters. encapsulating the text message inside the signature (with delimiters).Albert Einstein. check that both hash are equals and finally check the certificate. so the term passphrase for longer passwords. and then encrypt the hash with your private key.5. it means that it is impossible to get the original message knowing the hash. This later form is a very simple encryption form as any software can decrypt it if it can read the embedded public key. PassPhrase: “A passprase is like a password except it is longer”. The Hash: A hash is a number given by a hash function from a message. the applications will indicate to each other a list of algorithms that can be understood ranked by order of preference. The recipient will recreate the message hash.3). Signing: Signing a message. Hash functions are used in password mechanisms. The message can be a text message.. you create its hash.2 and 7. There are usually 2 ways to sign. or someone else's certificate. but not neccesarily). while the second form does not even allow to read part of the message if it has been tampered with. in certifying that applications are original (MD5 sum).1. The other advantage of signing your messages is that you transmit your public key and certificate automatically to all your recipients. means authentifying that you have yourself assured the authenticity of the message (most of the time it means you are the author. you then add the encrypted hash and your signed certificate with the message.1. OpenSSL is developed in a country where algorithms cannot be patented and where encryption technology is not reserved to state agencies like military and secret services.. so that it can be used in many countries where restrictions apply. It is also called a message digest.2.

Securing Internet Protocols. either you get a generic type certificate for your e-mail or you must pay about USD100 a year per certificate/e-mail address. Public Key Infrastructure The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the software management system and database system that allows to sign certifcate. so no password is required when reading the private key.default-vhost.pem and newcert. Take the newreq.. The problem is for securing email..pem for apache.. Copy wwwkeyunsecure. distribute public key. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again. your site is compromised (you have been warned).2. Using a certificate with mod_ssl in apache First never use your self-signed root CA Certificate with any application and especially with apache as it requires you to remove the passphrase on your private key. Remove any extra information to keep only the ---CERTIFCATE -. A test 57 .part.pem Because the key (PRIVATE Key) is insecure.. Now you can use the newcert and cakeyunsecure. If someone gets its hand on it. If # the certificate is encrypted. ------------- 3. keep a list of revoked certificates. ---# Server Certificate: # Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate.1..pem and wwwcert. The key needs to be made insecure.1. Edit /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ssl. You can usually access it via a website and/or ldap server. you can use any well known commercial PKI as their root CA certificate is most likely to be inside your browser/application.com.pem files that contains your private key and remove the passphrase from it.crt respectively. openssl rsa -in newreq. 3.mysite.8.pem -out wwwkeyunsecure.pem in the directory /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ as wwwkeyunsecure. you must know what you are doing: check file permissions. For securing individual applications.. etc. There is also no way to find someone's public key if you have never received a prior e-mail with his certificate (including his public key). First generate and sign a certificate request with the Common Name (CN) as www..conf. There will be also some people checking that you are who you are. then you will be prompted for a # pass phrase.1.1.

The CN should be the name that the mail client connects to (e.0 expects to find the file. Using a certificate with Postfix FIXME 3. Ensure that the distinguished name won't be identical to previous generated keys. Generate and Sign a key with Microsoft Key Manager In Microsoft Key Manager. for more information.1.6. The wizard will place the request in the file C:\NewKeyRq.g mail.xyz.org and on the Advanced tab check the “This server requires a secure connection (SSL)”.com. on the server tab.crt SSLCertificateFile wwwcert.unsecure SSLCertificateKeyFile wwwkeyunsecure.2. Using a certificate with IMAPS Read the paragraph on “Using a certificate with POPS”.d/init. Key Manager shows a Key with a strike to indicate the key is not signed.1. for instance IMAP (or WWW).pem and sign the request as usual.d/init. 58 . for Instance for the Common Name (CN) use imap.1. unsecuring the private key and combining the two into /etc/ssl/imap/ipop3sd. rename it to newreq. Import this file in the OpenSSL /var/ssl directory.3.xyz. A similar procedure can be used for imap and putting the file in /etc/ssl/imap/imapsd. this will change the connection port to 995 (imaps). This is the location where the imap rpm on Mandrake 9. 3. Use the wizard to generate a new key.txt.1. The trusted root CA must be installed in MS Internet Explorer to validate the certificate from mail.mycompany.crt # Server Private Key: # If the key is not combined with the certificate. #SSLCertificateFile conf/ssl/ca. 3. #SSLCertificateKeyFile conf/ssl/ca.pem.4. Using a certificate with POPS A pem file for ipop3sd can be created by generating a certificate.xyz.d/httpd stop) ensure that all processes are dead (killall httpd) and start httpd (/etc/rc.org).pem ---- Stop and start httpd (/etc/rc. Using a certificate with Stunnel FIXME 3.org.d/httpd start) 3. enter for the incoming mail server mail. In MSOutlook.1. select the service you want to create a key for.5.key.# certificate can be generated with `make certificate' under # built time. use this # directive to point at the key file.pem.

We have to remove the text.2. you can use this procedure to make signed advisories. Now sign your message test.pem -out newcertx509.msg to anybody.section.1.txt -text -out test.msg -signer newcert.section.2.pl -sign The file newcert.pl -pkcs12 "Franck Martin" (openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert. To generate the pkcs12 file from your newcert.pem -out newcert.2. Securing E-mails. the easy way is to do: openssl x509 -in newcert.pem -certfile 59 . The newcertx509. Export the file newcertx509.pem -inkey newreq. enter the passphrase.CA. or other signed documents to be published digitally.p12 \ -name "Franck Martin") or use this command to bundle the signing certificate with your pkcs12 file openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert. 3. select this file.pem is not yet suitable for key manager as it contains some text and the -CERTIFICATE. The key is now fully functional. 3. right click and click on Install the Key Certificate. Generate and use an s/mime certificate Simply generate and sign a certificate request but with the Common Name (CN) being your e-mail address. To use this certificate with MS Outlook You need to import it in Outlook as a pkcs12 file.pem to the Computer running key Manager and while selecting the key icon in the Key Manager application.pem: CA.pem and newreq. ----------------- 3.pem and your key newreq.pem file now contains only the -CERTIFICATE.2.pem: openssl smime -sign -in test.pem You can now transmit test.pem Using a text editor is also suitable to delete everything outside the -CERTIFICATEsection.pem -inkey newreq.msg) using your certificate newcert.pem -inkey newreq.txt (output test.

3.p12 -name "Franck Martin" Beware this certificate contains your public and private key and is only secured by the passphrase. However in some instances Evolution recognises that the document is clear text signed and displays it correctly. And finally click on Ok. Click on the import/export button select to import the newcert. It is planned that Evolution will handle S/MIME in a future release (from the evolution bug database).2.p12 file. As you have issued this certificate from a self-signed certificate (root CA Certificate). When you send a signed e-mail the user at the other end will receive your public key. the trust path won't be valid because the application does not know the root CA Certificate. Options and Security.cacert. but it ensures that the recipient won't read the message if he does not have an s/mime compliant reader.5.4. Note that early version of MS-Outlook XP will search the Internet to verify the validy of the certificate. To use this certificate with MS Outlook Express FIXME 3. And Click on Ok.2. MS Outlook should have selected the default setting so just click on New. To use this certificate with Evolution Evolution 1. You are ready to send signed e-mails.0 does not work with S/MIME. and will therefore be able to send you encrypted e-mails. It can take several seconds before the e-mail is displayed and several minutes for MS-Outlook XP to timeout when you don't have a full time or on-demand Internet connection.2. 3.pem \ -out newcert. The bug is that this process is exclusive. Refer to the chapter "Install the CA root certificate as a Trusted Root Certificate in Internet Explorer". You can send your message as encrypted signed messages or clear text message. The encryption is not really an encryption as the message contains everything needed to decrypt the message. enter the export password and the Digital ID "Franck Martin" (That's my name so use your name in the above examples). This is a file not to let into everybody's hand. but only with PGP. The root CA certificate has to be downloaded and installed. To use this certificate with Netscape Messenger FIXME 3. In MS Outlook go to Tools. the whole machine freezes till MS-Outlook XP has finished somehow. Now click on the Settings button. except if you want to change the default settings. even though it can't check the signature (early 60 .

and improving the usability or performance. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities[1] and other bugs. the patches consist of textual differences between two source code files. see patch (Unix). This article may contain original research or unverified claims.7.2. search "Software update" redirects here. See the talk page for details. For the Unix program. Patch management is the process of using a strategy and plan of what patches should be applied to which systems at a specified time. Types Programmers publish and apply patches in various forms. Please improve the article by adding references.2. 61 .versions of Evolution does not understand one of the 3 MIME signature types. or update a computer program or its supporting data. To use this certifcate with KMail FIXME Patch (computing) Jump to: navigation.6. their patches are distributed as binary executables instead of source. To use this certificate with Balsa FIXME 3. These types of patches commonly come out of open source projects. For the software tool by Apple Inc. unfortunately the one MS-Outlook uses quite often). (September 2008) A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems[1] with. This type of patch modifies the program executable— the program the user actually runs—either by modifying the binary file to include the fixes or by completely replacing it. poorly designed patches can sometimes introduce new problems (see software regressions). Patches can also circulate in the form of source code modifications. In these cases. 3.. see Apple Software Update. In these cases. Because proprietary software authors withhold their source code. developers expect users to compile the new or changed files themselves. Though meant to fix problems.

computer programs can often coordinate patches to update a target program. updates between releases are delivered as new software packages.Because the word "patch" carries the connotation of a small fix. Bulky patches or patches that significantly change a program may circulate as "service packs" or as "software updates". Completely automatic updates have not succeeded in gaining widespread popularity in corporate computing environments. To facilitate updates. patches can become quite large when the changes add or replace nonprogram data. In the case of operating systems and computer server software. patches have the particularly important role of fixing security holes. CD-ROM via mail. and later versions) use the "service pack" terminology. In several Unix-like systems. Some programs can update themselves via the Internet with very little or no intervention on the part of users. Then. Service packs for Microsoft Windows NT and its successors and for many commercial software products adopt such automated strategies. In situations where system administrators control a number of computers. end-users must download most patches from the developer's web site. Automation simplifies the end-users' task -. such as graphics and sounds files. The application of security patches commonly occurs in this manner. this sort of automation helps to maintain consistency. Later patch distributions used magnetic tape. later. whereupon that program makes sure that updating the target takes place completely and correctly. Microsoft Windows NT and its successors (including Windows 2000. though this also depends on whether the patch includes entire files or only the changed portion(s) of files. Such situations commonly occur in the patching of computer games. large fixes may use different nomenclature. operating systems often provide automatic or semi-automatic update facilities. Compared with the initial installation of software. Today. and patch in (hence the name) the replacement segment. These updates are in the same format as the original installation so they can be used either to update an existing package in-place (effectively patching) or be used directly for new installations. after the invention of removable disk drives. patches came from the software developer via a disk or. The maintenance of server software and of operating systems often takes place in this manner. expecting the recipient to cut out the indicated part of the original tape (or deck).they need only to execute an update program. Windows XP. 62 . Application The size of patches may vary from a few kilobytes to hundreds of megabytes — mostly more significant changes imply a larger size. particularly Linux. History Historically. software suppliers distributed patches on paper tape or on punched cards. with almost universal Internet access. Today. In particular. partly because of the aforementioned glitches. patches usually do not take long to apply.

IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: live television. and content (or video) on demand. It is possible for motherboard manufacturers to put safeguards in place to prevent serious damage. A motherboard BIOS update is an example of a common firmware patch. IPTV Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which digital television service is delivered using the architecture and networking methods of the Internet Protocol Suite over a packet-switched network infrastructure. due largely to the fact that Microsoft Windows added support for them. distributors often limit availability of patches to qualified developers as a beta test. ETSI) and preferential deployment scenarios in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into enduser premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. may render the motherboard unusable. Applying patches to firmware poses special challenges: re-embedding typically small code sets on hardware devices often involves the provision of totally new program code. instead of being delivered through traditional radio frequency broadcast. In the cases of large patches or of significant changes. See Internet television.g. such as a CRC). It is distinguished from general Internet-based or web-based multimedia services by its on-going standardization process (e. the Internet and broadband Internet access networks. 63 . time-shifted programming. satellite signal. Usage of completely automatic updates is far more widespread in the consumer market. and cable television (CATV) formats.. particularly system administrators. Microsoft (W)SUS support this. such as a power outage.[citation needed] Package management systems can offer various degrees of patch automation. e. rather than simply of differences from the previous version. and Service Pack 2 of Windows XP enabled them by default.g..but also because administrators fear that software companies may gain unlimited control over their computers. tend to put off applying patches until they can verify the stability of the fixes. Any unexpected error or interruption during the update. Often the patch consists of bare binary data and a special program that replaces the previous version with the new version is provided. Cautious users. An example safeguard is to keep a backup of the firmware to use in case the primary copy is determined to be corrupt (usually through the use of a checksum.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful