This is a book made by a researcher and is only intended to public benefit and not for sale. And I hope that Allah accept this work from me.
This book has some terminologies that can help you to have information about basics in Information Technology field. These definitions are collected from famous websites.
Softphone is a software program for making telephone calls over the Internet using a general purpose computer, rather than using dedicated hardware. Often a softphone is designed to behave like a traditional telephone, sometimes appearing as an image of a phone, with a display panel and buttons with which the user can interact. A softphone is usually used with a headset (Headphones) connected to the sound card of the PC, or with a USB phone. USBphone looks like traditional phone device, but it has USB connector instead of RJ-11. It may be used with most softphones and services like Skype.
A typical application of a softphone is to make calls via an Internet telephony service provider to other softphones or to telephones. Service providers may offer PC-to-PC calls for free; PC-to-phone and phone-toPC calls are usually not free. Another type of softphone connects to a private branch exchange (PBX) ( which is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. PBXs are also referred to as: PABX - private automatic branch exchange EPABX - electronic private automatic branch exchange) through a local area network (LAN) and is used to control and dial through an existing hardware phone. This is often used in a call center environment to make calls from a central customer directory, and to "pop-up" information on the screen about which customer is calling, instantly providing the operator with details of the relationship between the caller and the company using the call center. Some countries do not allow this PBX. It's important to differentiate softphones from services based on softphones. Skype, Google Talk, and Vonage are Internet telephony service providers having their own softphones that you install on your computer. Unfortunately these three major providers are not interoperable, and you can't place a direct call between them. 3
Some VoIP providers charge for a long distance call to a number outside your calling area. normally only for calls to other subscribers to the service. Your VoIP provider may permit you to select an area code different from the area in which you live. If you are calling a regular phone number. you will need some software and an inexpensive microphone.
What Kind of Equipment Do I Need?
A broadband (high speed Internet) connection is required. long distance. and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you to use VoIP service wirelessly. If you are calling someone who has a regular analog phone. You may also be able to avoid paying for both a broadband connection and a traditional telephone line. In addition. that person does not need any special equipment to talk to you. while other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter. It also means that people who call you may incur long distance charges depending on their area code and service. Some VoIP services may allow you to speak with more than one person at a time.
How VoIP / Internet Voice Works
VoIP services convert your voice into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. or a traditional phone connected to a special adapter.
If I have VoIP service. or are available but only for an additional fee. similar to existing. If you use your computer. parks. adaptor.
. wireless "hot spots" in locations such as airports. This can be through a cable modem. Some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone. or you may be able to call anyone who has a telephone number including local. and the service provider may also provide a dial tone.
What Are Some Advantages of VoIP?
Some VoIP services offer features and services that are not available with a traditional phone.
Is there a difference between making a Local Call and a Long Distance Call?
Some VoIP providers offer their services for free. the signal is converted to a regular telephone signal before it reaches the destination. you might be limited only to other subscribers to the service. A computer. who can I call?
Depending upon your service. a special VoIP phone. traditional wireline telephone service. If you use a telephone with a VoIP adapter. or specialized phone is required. Special VoIP phones plug directly into your broadband connection and operate largely like a traditional telephone. or high speed services such as DSL or a local area network. VoIP can allow you to make a call directly from a computer. you'll be able to dial just as you always have. mobile. and international numbers.VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. Other VoIP providers permit you to call anywhere at a flat rate for a fixed number of minutes.
. For additional information. For more information about VoIP see our factsheet (pdf file). yes. Aspects of these considerations may change with new developments in internet technology.
Does my Computer Have to be Turned on?
Only if your service requires you to make calls using your computer.What Are Some disadvantages of VoIP?
If you're considering replacing your traditional telephone service with VoIP. Please see our consumer fact sheet on VoIP and 911 services for complete information on these differences. the phone will ring like a traditional telephone. Not all VoIP services connect directly to emergency services through 9-11. there are some possible differences: Some VoIP services don't work during power outages and the service provider may not offer backup power. the software supplied by your service provider will alert you when you have an incoming call.
How Do I Know If I have a VoIP phone Call?
If you have a special VoIP phone or a regular telephone connected to a VoIP adapter. however.
Can I use my Computer While I talk on the Phone?
In most cases. You should know.
Does the FCC Regulate VoIP?
In June 2005 the FCC imposed 911 obligations on providers of “interconnected” VoIP services – VoIP services that allow users generally to make calls to and receive calls from the regular telephone network. You should always check with the VoIP service provider you choose to confirm any advantages and limitations to their service. If your VoIP service requires you to make calls using your computer. see VoIP & 911 Advisory.
Can I Take My Phone Adapter with me When I Travel?
Some VoIP service providers offer services that can be used wherever a high speed Internet connection available. Using a VoIP service from a new location may impact your ability to connect directly to emergency services through 9-1-1. VoIP providers may or may not offer directory assistance/white page listings. For additional information. All VoIP services require your broadband Internet connection to be active. the FCC requires interconnected VoIP providers to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA) and to contribute to the Universal Service Fund. that 911 calls using VoIP are handled differently than 911 calls using your regular telephone service. see VoIP & 911 Advisory. In addition. which supports communications services in high-cost areas and for income-eligible telephone subscribers.
Most ITSPs use SIP. H.
. net2Phone began offering consumer VoIP service in 1995. Before 2003.An ITSP (Internet Telephony Service Provider) offers an Internet data service for making telephone calls using VoIP (Voice over IP) technology. or IAX (althoughH.323 use is declining) for transmitting telephone calls as IP data packets.323. ITSPs are also known as VSP (Voice Service Provider) or simply VoIP Providers. Customers may use traditional telephones with an analog telephony adapter (ATA) providing RJ11 to Ethernetconnection. many VoIP services required customers to make and receive phone calls through a personal computer. In the United States.
The modification can involve changing addresses or ports. a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls.
Private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office. User Datagram Protocol (UDP). widely used for controlling multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). etc. incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and theSimple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). In November 2000. SIP was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne and Mark Handley starting in 1996. inviting more participants. The protocol can be used for creating. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261 from the IETF Network Working Group. modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions consisting of one or several media streams. SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architecture for IP-based streaming multimedia services in cellular systems. which make telephone 7
. adding or deleting media streams. The SIP protocol is a TCP/IP-based Application Layer protocol. it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). PBXs are also referred to as: PABX . It is a text-based protocol. instant messaging. as opposed to one that acommon carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer.The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol. or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).private automatic branch exchange EPABX . presence information and online games. allowing for direct inspection by administrators. Other feasible application examples include video conferencing. streaming multimedia distribution.electronic private automatic branch exchange
In the field of telecommunications. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches.
The term exchange can also be used to refer to an area served by a particular switch (typically known as a wire center in the US telecommunications industry). while making routine services and inquiries available to the public 24 hours a day. bus lines. Any person who undertakes to transport goods is simply referred to as a carrier. other obsolete Bell System terms includeoffice code and NXX.calls"work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. motor carriers (i. A common carrier must further demonstrate to the regulator that it is "fit. check for store hours or locations. The term common carrier is of Anglo-American origin. the word exchange can also have the legal meaning of a local access and transport area under the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ).
A common carrier is a business that transports people. such as NPA or area code. or services and offers its services to the general public under license or authority provided by a regulatory body. manage credit cards. goods. or order 8
. cruise ships.. In the United States. IVR automated systems save businesses money and employee resources. It is sometimes confused with other concepts of telephone geography. trucking companies) and other freight companiesgenerally operate as common carriers. Common carriers typically transport persons or goods according to defined and published routes. In Continental Europe the term is seldom used and has little or no legal implications.e. railroads.
IVR (interactive voice response) is a telephony technology that allows users to interact with a database through phone keypad or voice commands. A common carrier holds itself out to provide service to the general public without discrimination for the "public convenience and necessity". in some areas it can refer to the first three digits of the local number. willing and able" to provide those services for which it is granted authority. time schedules and rate tables upon the approval of regulators. More narrowly. In the three-digit sense of the word. Public airlines. Most of us use IVR systems daily to do things like check bank balances.
" or "undecided. for example. like "yes.
Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP)
In computing. integrating it through the client's network. Press 1 for yes and 2 for no. the system places outgoing calls. such as weather. documents. Disadvantages may include a feature-set or template that might not fit your business model as well as you'd like. Integrating text-tospeech (TTS) functionality. These IVR providers maintain the system on their own premises. video). Other popular networks 9
. Commonly. IVR systems can deliver dynamic information as well. centralized computer file server installations on computer networks. A recorded voice asks questions and requests simple answers. however. Common methods are manual sharing using removable media. In these cases." "no." or OSPs. for example. and an IVR-savvy staff to maintain the system. OSP solutions have advantages and disadvantages." The IVR system might have limited to extensive built-in voice recognition.prescription medicine. and distribution models. the Department Of Motor Vehicles. pollsters and survey takers also make use of IVR systems. IVR systems are installed in-house. It may be implemented in a variety of storage. Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) is designed for the purpose of file sharing (It is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information. and surrendered control over critical functions deferred to the IVR system. IVR systems are also used to report non-emergency problems to cable or utility services. Answers might also be directed through the phone's keypad. IVR automation makes it possible to reach far more people than through actually manning phones. Obvious advantages include avoiding installation of a new IVR infrastructure. and the use of distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) networking. and to schedule appointments with government or state offices. there are also "outsourced solution providers. though an option might exist to be switched to a live operator during business hours. multi-media (audio. or electronic books. Campaigns. Human interaction is not required because the IVR system only allows limited access to the database. such as computer programs. The increasing popularity of the mp3 music format in the late 1990s led to the release and growth of Napster and other software designed to aid in the sharing of electronic files. news. World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents. transmission. traffic or stock reports. depending on the requirements of the application.
eMule uses a credit system. It is also possible to sharemetadata about a given file with links on Web sites (such as: this file is good. with mixed public opinion about the morality of the practice for commercial material).
. This is the communication protocol used by such clients as eMule and eDonkey and. regardless of how they are named on each individual computer. Gnutella2. so additional features and other improvements are still possible. the fight against copyright infringement expanded into lawsuits against individual users of file sharing software. achieving excellent results in terms of speed and reliability when transferring or sharing files.k. in this case. There are several unique forks of the protocol: eDonkey2000 implemented what it called "hording" of sources. It also has bandwidth management (a. MFTP is able to uniquely identify files based on their contents. the files are identified with theirMD4 hash numbers (which are consistent) rather than their filenames (which will often vary from one computer to the next). The protocol is still under development. by theOvernet network. File sharing remains widespread. and BitTorrent. this file isn't what the name may indicate). some studies have suggested that file sharing is not the primary cause of declines in sales. and xMule has extended the credit system to facilitate in the transfer of rare files. Features/Strengths In addition to being able to search by filename. although publishers and copyright holders claim economic damage. and therefore may acquire more features or other improvements in addition to those discussed in this article. this file is corrupted. the nowdefunct Kazaa network. eDonkey2000. It is still under development. Many file sharing programs and services have been shut down due to litigation by groups such as the RIAA and MPAA. in its extended implementation. leech resistance) built into the protocol. During the early 2000s. It has recently been announced that MFTP had been used successfully in Internet2 project.include Gnutella. and every known mature client allows the user to tweak file and user upload priorities.a. The economic impact on media industries is disputed.
the GSM Association.In-System Programming
In-System Programming (abbreviated ISP) is the ability of some programmable logic devices. estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. rather than requiring a separate programming stage prior to assembling the system. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system. Typically.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital. The primary advantage of this feature is that it allows manufacturers of electronic devices to integrate programming and testing into a single production phase. In systems complex enough to require moderately large glue logic. microcontrollers. Other devices usually use proprietary protocols or protocols defined by older standards. in order to facilitate easier integration with automated testing procedures. GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. chips supporting ISP have internal circuitry to generate any necessary programming voltage from the system's normal supply voltage. designers may implement a JTAG-controlled programming subsystem for non-JTAG devices such as flash memory and microcontrollers. enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. allowing the entire programming and test procedure to be accomplished under the control of a single protocol. and other programmable electronic chips to be programmed while installed in a complete system. making it feasible to apply code or design changes in the middle of a production run. This may allow manufacturers to program the chips in their own system's production line instead of buying preprogrammed chips from a manufacturer or distributor. Its promoter. and communicate with the programmer via a serial protocol. and thus is considered a second 11
. Most programmable logic devices use a variant of the JTAG protocol for ISP.
(General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications(GSM). It provides moderate speed data transfer. the GSM system. also called "text messaging"). The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (Executive Meets with India Government Official to outline Benefits of Open Standards to drive mobile phone penetration | publisher = Texas Instruments | date = July 12. Originally there was some thought to extend GPRS to cover other standards. independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state.ti. GPRS is a besteffort packet switched service. as well as in the 3G systems. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. but instead those networks are being converted to 12
. by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). where a certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in. For example.generation (2G) mobile phone system. 2006 | url = http://focus. that is. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide emergency telephone number.5G. for example. In 2G systems. 2G cellular systems combined with GPRS are often described as 2. This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones.jhtml?prelId=sc06127 | accessdate = 2007-01-08}}</ref>). GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls.112. a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. the short message service (SMS.com/docs/pr/pressrelease. as opposed to circuit switching. GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s.
GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases. It was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).use the GSM standard. OR-GSM. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
GPRS was developed as a GSM response to the earlier CDPD and imode packet switched cellular technologies. The GPRS core network is the centralized part of the GPRS system. for transmitting IP packets. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packetbasedwireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. it will allow network operators greater control over their GSM networks. is currently under development . A new operator-restricted version of GSM. Scheduled to be released in 2010. so that GSM is the only kind of network where GPRS is in use. the most common mobile phone system in the world. but now by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The GPRS core network is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem.). It also provides support for WCDMA based 3G networks. The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook 13
. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) system is used by GSM mobile phones.
depending on the antenna system. as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time.computers. mobile users of virtual private networks (VPNs) have been able to access the private network continuously over wireless rather than through a rooted dial-up connection. since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell. In theory. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station.5G and 3G services. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuitswitched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use. a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. in shopping centers or airports. the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator. 14
. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system.
Cellular radio network Main article: Cellular network GSM is a cellular network. However. It is also easier to make applications available to mobile users because the faster data rate means that middleware currently needed to adapt applications to the slower speed of wireless systems are no longer be needed. where the cell radius could be double or even more. for example. this is not a prerequisite.. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters. along with other 2. In GMSK. As GPRS has become more widely available. There are five different celwho can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). the type of terrain and the timing advance. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and complements existing services such circuitswitched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).
and personal music devices. which could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. GSM frequencies Main article: GSM frequency ranges GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for firstgeneration systems. This also depends on the handset's design. dit di-dit. GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). dit di-dit" audio output on PAs. dit di-dit. 15
. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used. and its conformance to strict rules and regulations allocated by the US body. Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Interference with audio devices Some audio devices are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI).  It is a common occurrence for a nearby GSM handset to induce a "dit. When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. in part 15 of its rules and regulations pertaining to interference with electronic devices. cordless phones. home stereo systems. televisions. such as car stereos and portable audio players. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. computers. the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify.which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). the FCC. wireless microphones. However. providing 125 RF channels (channel numbers 0 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain act as a detector. Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices.
uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink). these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270. allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal.5 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). named after the types of data channel they were allocated. and the frame duration is 4. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel.1 kHz audio into between 5.833 kbit/s. called Half Rate (6. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900. Originally. Network structure
. Voice codecs GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3. were used. with the development of UMTS.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. E-GSM. In addition to being efficient with bitrates.615 ms. a 12. This 'extended GSM'. and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels.6 and 13 kbit/s. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC).In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. two codecs. which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels. Finally. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec.
This is sometimes also just called the core network. the Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers). The SIM is a detachable smart 17
. the Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). the GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections).The structure of a GSM network The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. commonly known as a SIM card. all of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as voice calls and SMS. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Main article: Subscriber Identity Module
One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module.
the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Hong Kong and Pakistan. not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). North America and Europe many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This was also the case in Finland until April 1. but limited authorization capabilities. In some countries such as Bangladesh. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. all phones are sold unlocked. or only a SIM issued by them. this practice is known as SIM locking. Belgium. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM. it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee. and no nonrepudiation. However. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from subscriptions. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air 18
. some do it for free.card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. and is illegal in some countries. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. Costa Rica. when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal. 2006. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee. Alternatively. In Australia. Indonesia. as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). GSM security GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. Malaysia. that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security. in Belgium. or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM. utilize private services to remove the lock. The locking applies to the handset.
 The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one.
Wireless Application Protocol (commonly referred to as WAP) is an open international standard for application layer network communications in a wireless communicationenvironment. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States. Pico Computing. WAP sites are websites written in. service providers had extremely limited opportunities to offer interactive data services. A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. such as its smaller view screen. and in February 2008. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack. WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser. A WAP browser provides all of the basic services of a computer based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone. Interactive data applications are required to support now commonplace activities such as:
Email by mobile phone Tracking of stock market prices Sports results News headlines Music downloads
+------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Application Environment (WAE) | +------------------------------------------+
. Before the introduction of WAP. Its main use is to enable access to the Mobile Web from a mobile phone or PDA. Inc revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack.voice privacy. or dynamically converted to.
The rationale for this was to build a single platform for competing network technologies such as GSM and IS95 (also known as CDMA) networks. etc. WTP provides transaction support (reliable request/response) that is adapted to the wireless world. WTP supports more effectively than TCP the problem of packet loss. The bottom-most protocol in the suite is the WAP Datagram Protocol (WDP). which has several "technical realizations" on top of other "data bearers" such as SMS. WDP is considered by all the upper layers as one and the same protocol. but is misinterpreted by TCP as network congestion. UMTS packet-radio service. Finally. or PPP on top of a circuitswitched data connection. WTLS provides a public-key cryptography-based security mechanism similar to TLS. WSP is best thought of on first approach as a compressed version of HTTP. which is an adaptation layer that makes every data network look a bit like UDP to the upper layers by providing unreliable transport of data with two 16-bit port numbers (origin and destination). Its use is optional. On native IP bearers such as GPRS.
| Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) | +------------------------------------------+ | Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) | +------------------------------------------+ | *** Any Wireless Data Network *** | +------------------------------------------+
| | | WAP | protocol | suite | | /
The WAP standard describes a protocol suite that allows the interoperability of WAP equipment and software with many different network technologies. which is common in 2G wireless technologies in most radio conditions. WDP is in fact exactly UDP.
Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. and traffic control devices. keyboard and printer. It can connect several devices. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular. 21
. overcoming problems of synchronization. creating personal area networks (PANs). List of applications
A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset. bar code scanners. More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include:
Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset. Transfer of files. medical equipment. It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. Wireless communication with PC input and output devices. calendar appointments. GPS receivers. the gateway translates requests into plain HTTP.This protocol suite allows a terminal to emit requests that have an HTTP or HTTPS equivalent to a WAP gateway. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment. and reminders between devices with OBEX. the most common being the mouse. contact details.
A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range.e. modems and headsets. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. PROFINET) networks. the Wii. Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. discoverable. PSP Go. This makes using services easier because more of the security. such as telephones. Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a datacapable mobile phone as a modem. Lego Mindstorms NXT and recently in some high definition watches. For low bandwidth applications where higher [USB] bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other. PlayStation 3.g.
For controls where infrared was traditionally used. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i. Bluetooth exists in many products. Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e. Nintendo's Wii and Sony's PlayStation 3. network 22
.. Bluetooth devices.. Two seventh-generation game consoles. with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).
as it also provides an indication of its relative strengths and weaknesses. better range from the base station. headsets and hands-free devices). and to set up audio links (for example. it enables a faster connection. Computer requirements
A typical Bluetooth USB dongle. transmit files. and better security than Bluetooth." This description is accurate. Wi-Fi Main article: Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a traditional Ethernet network. and requires configuration to set up shared resources. Wi-Fi is sometimes called "wireless Ethernet.address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types. but with higher power. Wi-Fi requires more setup but is better suited for operating full-scale networks. Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. A personal computer must have a Bluetooth adapter in order to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile 23
An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm). resulting in a stronger connection.
Unlike its predecessor. which were not directly supported by Microsoft. For Microsoft platforms. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers. entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity". Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10. others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. BlueZ and Affix. the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has recently published a recommendations paper. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia.
.phones. see Bluetooth stack. Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks. miceand keyboards). Mobile phone requirements A mobile phone that is Bluetooth enabled is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5. see external links below to download this paper. Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter.2 which was released in 2002. IrDA. The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm.0 release. Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth. NetBSDfeatures Bluetooth support since its 4. Operating system support For more details on this topic.0 release. which requires a separate adapter for each device. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth adapter.
Specifications and features The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson. As a method of in-band signaling. Intel. Sweden. fast. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network. 1984). and later joined by many other companies.000 companies worldwide. Today it has a membership of over 11. DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund. and Nokia.) or loop disconnect (LD) signaling to dial numbers.
In the time preceding the development of DTMF.23. 1998.
DTMS . The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. It is also known in the UK as MF4.S. Toshiba. which 25
. and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere. It was established by Ericsson. telephone systems employed a system commonly referred to as pulse (Dial Pulse or DP in the U. IBM.Data Transformation Management System
Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used
for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voicefrequency band betweentelephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20. and is standardized by ITUT Recommendation Q. unacknowledged. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term TouchTone (canceled March 13. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s.
and it was many years 26
." The consumer product was marketed by AT&T under the registered trade name Touch-Tone. In AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. C. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called this same system "Tone" dialing or "DTMF. or to issue commands to switching systems or related telephony equipment. as the dial spins. or DTMF. similar to flicking a light switch on and off. and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance (operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency. sounds like a series of clicks." or used their own registered trade names such as the "Digitone" of Northern Electric (now known as Nortel Networks). The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent sixteen different numbers.as detailed below. AT&T described the product as "a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the voice transmission path. 105. Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems. In the early 1960s. *. sometimes called 'octothorpe' or 'pound' in this context) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A. is a method for instructing a telephone switching system of the telephone number to be dialed. and D
The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers. the lettered keys were dropped from most phones. The repeated connection and disconnection. B.
#. The DTMF dialing system traces its roots to a technique developed by Bell Labs in the 1940s called MF (Multi-Frequency) which was deployed within the AT&T telephone network to direct calls between switching facilities using in-band signaling. In the end. This led to the addition of thenumber sign (#. and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. a derivative technique was offered by AT&T through its Bell System telephone companies as a "modern" way for network customers to place calls. C and D. The exchange equipment counts those clicks or dial pulses to determine the called number. A.functions by rapidly disconnecting and connecting the calling party's telephone line. symbols and letters . B.
Pressing C. with Flash Override being the highest priority. and if all lines were in use. B. Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority. DTMF Push-To-Talk ID
Example of DTMF used as push-to-talk ID on a two-way radio system. Consequently. before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines.
Problems listening to this file? See media help. it would disconnect any non-priority calls. Pressing one of these keys gave your call priority. overriding other conversations on the network. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A). the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby 27
. in their now defunct Autovon phone system. cutting in over existing calls if need be. and then any priority calls. Immediate. and Priority (D). Present-day uses of the A. Flash (B). Immediate (C). but using number combinations (Example: Entering 93 before a number is a priority call) rather than the separate tones and the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service has superseded Autovon for any civilian priority telco access.before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppresscaller ID. C and D keys on telephone networks are few.S. and exclusive to network control. it was limited to the White House Communications Agency. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. military also used the letters. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination. Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks. For example. relabeled. The U. Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip.
with each row representing a low frequency. control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert.
Main article: Telephone keypad
1209 Hz on 697 Hz to make the 1 tone The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send 28
. A DTMF can be heard on most Whelen Outdoor Warning systems. however in the USA only Bell 202 modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data. DTMF tones are also sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information. DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. and each column representing a high frequency. Previously. C and D tones are used in amateur radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow. The A. among other uses. B. Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers. terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters.listening in on calls).
Event Low frequency High frequency
. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed. equipment. The original keypads had levers inside. where the United States uses a dual frequency system. or the result of calls with special tones. Such tones are standardized in each country and may consist of single or multiple frequencies. Most European countries use a single frequency. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency.a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). so each button activated two contacts. presented in the following table. DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips)
1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz
Special tone frequencies
National telephone systems define additional tones to indicate the status of lines.
are selected such that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal. independent non-profit organization called the Symbian Foundation was established and the former Symbian Software Limited was acquired by Nokia. The loudness difference between the high and low frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist. The process of publishing the source 30
. As with other multi-frequency receivers. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. No frequency is a multiple of another. although an unreleased x86port existed. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. developed by Symbian Ltd. Synonyms include multifrequency pulsing and multifrequency signaling. open source software. DTMF was originally decoded by tuned filter banks.Ringback tone (US)
The tone frequencies. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. DTMF can be decoded using the Goertzel algorithm. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. The frequencies were initially designed with a ratio of 21/19. although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. In 2008 a new.
Symbian OS was designed for mobile devices. with associated libraries. Symbian OS and its associated user interfaces S60. user interface. which is slightly less than a whole tone. The frequencies may not vary more than ±1. or the switching center will ignore the signal." The minimum duration of the tone should be at least 70 ms. UIQ and MOAP(S) were contributed by their owners to the foundation with the objective of creating the Symbian platform as royalty-free. Late in the 20th century most were replaced with digital signal processors. The high frequencies may be the same volume or louder as the low frequencies when sent across the line. as defined by the Precise Tone Plan.8% from their nominal frequency.
The Symbian kernel (EKA2) supports sufficiently-fast real-time response to build a single-core phone around it—that is. The OS is optimized for low-power battery-based devices and for ROM-based systems (e. did not. and maintains separation between user interface and engine. a phone in which a single processor core executes both the userapplications and the signalling stack. There are similar techniques for conserving disk space (though the disks on Symbian devices are usually flash memory). Applications. and the CPU is switched into a low power mode when applications are not directly dealing with an event. There is a strong emphasis on conserving resources which is exemplified by Symbian-specific programming idioms such as descriptors and a cleanup stack. has a request-and-callback approach to services. Symbian OS was created with three systems design principles in mind:
the integrity and security of user data is paramount. Symbian uses a microkernel. Later OS iterations diluted this approach in response to market demands. This is achieved through a programming idiom called active objects. The term 'Symbian OS' went out of current use with the advent of the Symbian platform. follow an object-oriented design: Model-view-controller (MVC).g. and all resources are scarce. EPOC's approach to multitasking was inspired by VMS and is based on asynchronous server-based events. however the software itself. Furthermore. This has allowed 31
. Similarly the Symbian approach to threads and processes is driven by reducing overheads. Symbian features pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection. notably with the introduction of a real-time kernel and a platform security model in versions 8 and 9.code under the Eclipse Public License (EPL) was slated for completion in 2010. as described in this entry. and the OS itself.
To best follow these principles. user time must not be wasted. This is a feature which is not available in Linux. features like XIP and re-entrancy in shared libraries). like other operating systems (especially those created for use on desktop computers). all Symbian programming is event-based.
cheaper and more power efficient than their predecessors.Symbian EKA2 phones to become smaller. availability and responsiveness. which means that the minimum necessary is within the kernel to maximise robustness. Symbian has a microkernel architecture. Competition Symbian is the leading OS in the "smart mobile device" market. Store. Qualcomm's BREW.3% and Microsoft having 13. RIM having 15. it includes the File Server and User Library. Google Android.memory management and device drivers. It also includes the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two basic services from which a completely functional port can be created without the need for any higher layer services. from top to bottom:
UI Framework Layer Application Services Layer Java ME OS Services Layer generic OS services communications services multimedia and graphics services connectivity services Base Services Layer Kernel Services & Hardware Interface Layer
The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by user-side operations. a PlugIn Framework which manages all plug-ins.6% share of the smart mobile devices shipped in third quarter of 2008. Structure
yers. Other competitors include Palm OS. Statistics published in November 2008 showed that Symbian OS had a 46.3% (through iPhone OS). but other services like networking. It contains a scheduler. with Apple having 17. telephony and filesystem support are placed in the OS Services Layer or the Base 32
. DBMS and cryptographic services.5% (through Windows CE and Windows Mobile). Central Repository. SavaJe and MontaVista Software.
There is a large networking and communication subsystem. such as Bluetooth. and vendors are expected to supply plug-ins to these frameworks from third parties (for example.PRT" protocol modules to implement various networking protocol schemes. Symbian is designed to emphasize compatibility with other devices.Services Layer. data model and data interface. Many other things do not yet fit into this model – for example. ESOCK (EPOC sockets) and C32 (responsible for serial communication). while most of the actual user interfaces were maintained by third parties. especially removable media file systems. contains only the most basic primitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions. Only the base classes and substructure were contained in Symbian OS. Helix Player for multimedia codecs). the application view. and this remains. For example ESOCK allows different ". Many of these are frameworks. The subsystem also contains code that supports short-range communication links. The EKA2 real-time kernel. This has the 33
. This is no longer the case. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. are created independently and interact solely through their APIs with the other classes. This has resulted in data-dependence and associated difficulties with changes and data migration. There is also a large volume of user interface (UI) Code. UIQ and MOAP . text layout and font rendering libraries. All native Symbian C++ applications are built up from three framework classes defined by the application architecture: an application class. The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. a document class and an application user interface class. which has been termed a nanokernel. Symbian also contains graphics. The remaining required functions. SyncML. The three major UIs . Each of these has a plug-in scheme. IrDA and USB. These classes create the fundamental application behaviour. Java ME providing another set of APIs on top of most of the OS and multimedia. which has three main servers called: ETEL (EPOC telephony). Early development of EPOC led to adopting FAT as the internal file system. but an object-oriented persistence model was placed over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model.S60.were contributed to Symbian in 2009.
The Symbian platform is an open source operating system for mobile devices. and Sony Ericsson. It was created by merging and integrating software assets contributed by Nokia. 2005. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows Vista. and that vendors get a lot of flexibility.
64-bit operating systems
Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in 2005. and Windows Server 2008. It provides a basis for starting customisation and is the environment in which much Symbian test and example code runs. some of which were 64-bit processors. Versions of NT from 3. UIQ and MOAP(S) user interfaces. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. the S60. On April 25. including Symbian OS.1 to 4.advantage that the APIs to such areas of functionality are the same on many phone models. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture. in both Itanium and x64 editions. Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and x64 versions of Windows Server 2003 to support the x8664 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts. which is referred to as IA-64. DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000. Symbian includes a reference user-interface called "TechView". NTT DoCoMo. It is very similar to the user interface from the Psion Series 5 personal organiser and is not used for any production phone user interface. although Windows 7 does not. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32bit version. 34
. although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors.0 variously supported PowerPC. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. But it means that phone vendors needed to do a great deal of integration work to make a Symbian OS phone.
This decreases the rate at which file viruses spread in collections of OS/2 systems. such as OS/2 and Windows 95.32-Bit Operating Systems
Refers to the number of bits that can be processed or transmitted in parallel. we expect that more and more systems will run 32bit operating systems in order to better use the increasing power of newer PCs. However. The effects of computer viruses on OS/2 systems is described elsewhere. they remain active in the system only as long as the infected VDM is active. Recent experiments with a prerelease version of Windows 95 suggest that DOS boot viruses will not in 35
. though they can spread from systems that have DOS as well as OS/2 installed in separate partitions. Some file viruses are likely to not spread in VDMs.1 and Windows 95 programs. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. In environments in which OS/2 predominates over DOS. simply because of differences between VDMs and DOS. which is often only as long as the infected program is running. or the number of bits used for single element in a data format. Windows and OS/2 programs simultaneously. Boot viruses do not generally spread from within OS/2 itself. Operating system: refers primarily to the number of bits used to represent memory addresses. IBM's OS/2 is a 32-bit operating system that lets users run DOS. The term is often applied to the following: microprocessor: indicates the width of the registers. File viruses can often spread to other files when infected programs are run in Virtual DOS Machines (VDM) within OS/2. we would expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. In the next few years. Microsoft's Windows 95 is a 32-bit operating systems that supports DOS. Windows 3. 32-Bit Operating Systems One of the significant environmental changes will be the transition from DOS to 32-bit operating systems for PCs.
or improvised events. Not all of the news is good. and some might cause system problems. Ad hoc can also have connotations of a makeshift solution. a handcrafted network protocol or a purpose-specific equation. for example. are used when an objective needs consideration and no standing organ or committee within said organization can absorb that issue into its scope. and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. such as temporary oversight of an issue. It generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task. and the first few such crude viruses have already appeared . nongeneralizable. inadequate planning. 36
. ------------------------------------Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this [purpose]". however. In environments in which Windows 95 predominates over DOS. we would also expect this to lead to a decline in prevalence of all current DOS viruses. File viruses were not tested in these experiments. but it will not eliminate it. to include committees and private non-profit organizations.general spread well from Windows 95 systems. to a tailor-made suit. These operating systems offer new facilities that viruses can use to both hide and spread. committees. Viruses can be written for 32-bit operating systems. perhaps significantly. or review of the standing rules or theconstitution of that organization. Preliminary experiments carried out at the High Integrity Computing Laboratory with a pre-release version of Windows 95 suggest that some DOS file viruses will spread as usual. In other fields the term may refer. some might not. The transition to these newer operating systems will change the virus problem. Other derivatives of the Latin include AdHoc. and which cannot be adapted to other purposes. adhoc and ad-hoc.
Ad hoc committee commission or organization
Ad hoc organizations. Usually these committees are used on a temporary basis. Common examples are organizations.
a long-term or indefinite duration of existence. Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic ofpseudoscientific subjects. an initial workgroup or forum may give place to a more permanent form of organization. and can be used as corporate body access points. unsupported adjustments to sustain them. ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to a theory to save it from being falsified.S. An interesting example of an apparently supported ad hoc hypothesis was Albert Einstein's addition of the cosmological constant to general relativity in order to allow a static universe. expeditions. fairs. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. An example of an ad hoc pronunciation would be "DIK-shuh-nair-ee". such as the MerriamWebster dictionary. In these cases. exhibitions. where the capitalization shows which syllable is stressed. These are especially popular in U. in some cases. Under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. Much of scientific understanding relies on the modification of existing hypotheses or theories but these modifications are distinguished from ad hoc hypotheses in that the anomalies being explained propose a new means of being real. Ad hoc hypotheses are not necessarily incorrect. This is in contrast to systems such as the International Phonetic 37
Ad hoc pronunciation
Many reference works employ ad hoc pronunciation schemas as a way of indicating how words are pronounced. ad hoc events such as athletic contests.An ad hoc organization may have. published works. Scientists are often skeptical of theories that rely on frequent. A typical example is the OSCE. and festivals are considered to be corporate bodies. however. it has been found to correspond quite well to the theories of dark energy.
Ad hoc hypothesis
Main article: Ad hoc hypothesis In science and philosophy. Although he later referred to it as his "greatest blunder".
By contrast. Data warehousing. and will have been carefully designed. it is usually provided over a data warehouse. since they rely on the ability of the reader to already know how a large number of words are commonly pronounced. data mining and other tools.
Ad hoc querying
Ad hoc querying is a term in information science. In contrast. Critics of ad hoc schemes point out that such schemes are inherently selfreferential. Because such reporting has the potential to severely degrade the performance of a live system. As its name suggests. though will often concur that this is usually only because the pronunciation is already known. customized queries. Typically these are available via some sort of menu. Proponents of ad hoc claim that it is much easier to use than IPA. Typically this would be via a userfriendly GUI-based system without the need for the in-depth knowledge of SQL.Alphabet. the IPA seeks to base pronunciation solely on vocal tract configurations and on the phonemes produced. which attempt to put pronunciation schemes on a standard footing. ------------------------------------------------
. or database schema that a programmer would have. and so examples will vary considerably according to the publication's whim. "ad hoc" reporting systems allow the users themselves to create specific. along with OLAP. Ad hoc querying/reporting is a business intelligence subtopic. there is no "standard" ad hoc schema. pre-programmed and optimized for performance by expert programmers. Many application software systems have an underlying database which can be accessed by only a limited number of queries and reports. though very often neo-common simple words are used to illustrate how the IPA applies in a specific language.
Originally named Ethereal. analysis. It is used for network troubleshooting. 12 days ago
GNU General Public License
Wireshark on Ubuntu
The Wireshark team
1. and education.0 / 2009-09-15.2. 12 days ago
1.3. in May 2006 the project was renamed Wireshark due to trademark issues. software andcommunications protocol development.
Wireshark is a free packet analyzer computer application.wireshark.2 / 2009-09-15.
but it has a graphical front-end. the entire list of authors is available from Wireshark's web-site. 2006. and Microsoft Windows. Wireshark isfree software.Contents [hide] 1 The functionality 2 History 3 Features 4 Security 5 Ports 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links The functionality Wireshark is very similar to tcpdump. He still held copyright on most of the source code (and the rest was redistributable under the GNU 40
. and is crossplatform. Mac OS X. Gerald Combs (a computer science graduate of the University of Missouri-Kansas City) started writing a program called Ethereal so that he could have a tool to capture and analyze packets. It allows the user to see all traffic being passed over the network (usually an Ethernet network but support is being added for others) by putting the network interface into promiscuous mode. running on various computer operating systemsincluding Linux. As of now there are over 500 contributing authors while Gerald continues to maintain the overall code and issues releases of new versions. because creator and lead developer Gerald Combs could not keep using the Ethereal trademark (which was then owned by his old employer. The name was changed to Wireshark in May. he released the first version around 1998. History Out of necessity. and many more information sorting and filtering options. Wireshark uses the cross-platform GTK+ widget toolkit. Network Integration Services) when he changed jobs. Released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
PPP. and loopback. so it can read capture files from applications such as tcpdump and CA NetMaster that use that format.
Wireshark's native network trace file format is the libpcap format supported by libpcap and WinPcap. Captured files can be programmatically edited or converted via command-line switches to the "editcap" program. and Microsoft Network Monitor. so he took theSubversion repository for Ethereal and used it as the basis for the Subversion repository of Wireshark. It can also read captures from other network analyzers. or via the terminal (command line) version of the utility. Data display can be refined using a display filter. IEEE 802. so it can only capture the packets on the networks supported by pcap. it is able to display the encapsulation and the fields along with their meanings of different packets specified by different networking protocols.Network General's Sniffer. Plugins can be created for dissecting new protocols. Ethereal development has ceased. 2007. Wireshark uses pcap to capture packets. older versions of Ethereal/Wireshark and tethereal/tshark often ran withsuperuser privileges. including Ethernet. For this reason.GPL). which are called when traffic for their protocol is 41
. Thus. Live data can be read from a number of types of network. such as snoop. tshark. Captured network data can be browsed via a GUI. eWEEK Labs named Wireshark one of "The Most Important OpenSource Apps of All Time" as of May 2. and its captures can be read by applications that use libpcap or WinPcap to read capture files.11. Taking into account the huge number of protocol dissectors. Security Capturing raw network traffic from an interface requires special privileges on some platforms.
Data can be captured "from the wire" from a live network connection or read from a file that records the already-captured packets. Features Wireshark is software that "understands" the structure of different networking protocols. and an Ethereal security advisory recommended switching to Wireshark.
OpenBSD removed Ethereal from its ports tree prior to its 3. including Linux. timing and pitch. and neither of them should be run with special privileges. only dumpcap needs to be set up to run with those special privileges . On platforms where special privileges are needed to capture traffic. FreeBSD. or the dumpcap utility that comes with Wireshark. it is possible to use the Aircrack wireless security tools to capture IEEE 802. Wireshark and tshark run dumpcap to do traffic capture. with superuser privileges to capture packets into a file. On wireless networks.7.captured. or a musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume. this can pose a serious security risk given a bug in a dissector. OpenBSD and Mac OS X. Often a high-frequency sinusoidwaveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower frequency signal. modulation is used to convey a message.
. Ports Wireshark runs on Unix and Unix-like systems. Solaris. In telecommunications. all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal.neither Wireshark nor tshark need to run with special privileges. As of Wireshark 0. NetBSD.11 frames and read the resulting dump files with Wireshark. HPUX. and later analyze these packets by running Wireshark with restricted privileges on the packet capture dump file. Due to the rather large number of vulnerabilities in the past (of which many have allowed remote code execution) and developers' doubts for better future development.
Modem (from modulator-demodulator) is
a device that modulates (Modulation is the process of varying
one waveform in relation to another waveform.6 release. itsphase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"). The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude ("volume").99. and on Microsoft Windows. One possible alternative is to run tcpdump.
any set of human information or machine data can also be taken as a signal.)
to encode digital information. Within a complex society. Frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) are commonly used methods to modulate the carrier. the ink making up text on a paper page. For example. In the fields of communications. current. a carrier wave. however.A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as ademodulator (sometimes detector or demod). i. The frequency for a given radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's center frequency. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals (An Analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying
feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity. and in electrical engineering more generally. The carrier must be reintroduced at the receiver by a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). pneumatic. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. any quantity measurable through time or over space can be taken as a signal. Electrically. signal processing.e analogous to another time varying signal. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context. an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. the dots on a screen. or carrier is
a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. and charge. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. A device that can do both operations is a modem (short for "Modulator-Demodulator")) an
analog carrier signal (n telecommunications. or the words now flowing into the reader's mind) must all be part of systems existing in the physical world – either living or non-living. Such information or machine data (for example. hydraulic. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. In the physical world.mechanical. the property most commonly used is voltage followed closely by frequency. and other systems may also convey analog signals. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful. This carrier wave is usually of much higher frequency than the input signal. In the case of single-sideband modulation (SSB) the carrier is suppressed (and in some forms of SSB eliminated).
position. such as sound.Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal. it is difficult to detect when such degradation occurs. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block the current in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena. The voltage or the current is said to be an "analog" of the sound. For example. Thus. However. a diode is a two-terminal P-N junction device
(thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). and is achieved using a transducer. in sound recording.
driven diodes (In electronics. An analog signal has a theoretically infinite resolution. sound) strike the diaphragm of a microphone which induces corresponding fluctuations in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone. temperature. degradation can not only be detected but corrected as well. in digital systems. as digital systems become more complex. Therefore. errors can occur in the digital data stream. In practice an analog signal is subject to noise and a finite slew rate.
. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. both analog and digital systems are subject to limitations in resolution and bandwidth. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner. which depends on the particular type of diode technology. fluctuations in air pressure (that is to say. As analog systems become more complex. and most are used for their unidirectional electric current property. effects such as non-linearity and noise ultimately degrade analog resolution to such an extent that the performance of digital systems may surpass it. In analog systems. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow.). Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex nonlinear electrical characteristic. A comparable performing digital system is more complex and requires more bandwidth than its analog counterpart. orpressure. Similarly. or the voltage produced by a condensor microphone. The unidirectionality most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. light.
This can bedetected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information. usually 0 and 1. For example. serial. Ethernet. More specifically. converts those 1s and 0s back into a form used by a USB. aka tones. or network connection. in a form mostly unchanged to the normal user despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing.
and once received on the other side. POTS has been available almost since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century. The system was originally known as the Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System in many countries.
. the ITU V. the usualbase-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time. Today most diodes are made of silicon.Early diodes included “cat’s whisker” crystals and vacuum tube devices (also called thermionic valves). to carry 300 bit/s using 300 baud. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves. They can also be classified by Baud.
The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s (The binary numeral system. or "bps". the binary system is used internally by all modern computers) of
a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over thetelephone lines of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS) (Plain old telephone service (POTS) is the voice-grade telephone service that
remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in most parts of the world. such as amplitude. electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN). the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second. and is a reflection of the telephone service still available after the advent of more advanced forms of telephony such as ISDN.Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. or base-2 number system represents
numeric values using two symbols. but othersemiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. mobile phones and VoIP. Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. normally measured in bits per second. The name is a retronym.).21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying. orphase.) to
radio (Radio is the transmission of signals
by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. The term was dropped as telephone services were removed from the control of national post offices). frequency.
IMSI is often used as a key in the HLR ("subscriber database") and MSISDN is the number normally dialed to connect a call to the mobile phone. MSISDN is defined by the E. different MSISDNs can be associated to the SIM. Narrow band radio modem is used for low data rate up to 19.e. i.164.whereas the original ITU V. it is the telephone number to the SIM card in a mobile/cellular phone. a 56k modem can transfer data at up to 56. In telecommunications. while the latter is used to route calls to the subscriber. For example. The abbreviation has several interpretations. most common one being "Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number". the card that is inserted into the mobile phone. The MSISDN follows the numbering plan defined in the ITUT recommendation E. Simply put. notably cable modems and ADSL modems.000 bits (7kB) per second over the phone line. Most intercontinental data links now use optical modems transmitting over undersea optical fibers. The MSISDN together with IMSI are two important numbers used to identify a mobile subscriber. A SIM is uniquely associated to an IMSI. = MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS mobile network.2k mainly for private radio networks. Optical modems transmit data over optical fibers.22 standard allowed 1200 bit/s with 600 baud using phase-shift keying. One kilobit per second (kbit/s or kb/s or kbps) as used in this article means 1000 bits per second and not 1024 bits per second. while the MSISDN can change in time (e. Faster modems are used by Internet users every day.e. The former identifies the SIM. This number includes a country 46
. Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) .a number used to identify a mobile phone number internationally. i. "wide band radio modems" transmit repeating frames of data at very high data rates over microwave radio links. Optical modems routinely have data rates in excess of a billion (1x109) bits per second.164 numbering plan. Some microwave modems transmit more than a hundred million bits per second. due to number portability).g.
. An API may be:
Language-dependent. that is. This is a desired feature for a servicestyle API that is not bound to a given process or system and is available as a remote procedure call. An API determines the vocabulary and calling conventions the programmer should employ to use the services. available only in a given programming language.code and a National Destination Code which identifies the subscriber's operator. written in a way that means it can be called from several programming languages (typically an assembly or C interface). not only to the full interface. or even a set of multiple APIs provided by an organization. using the syntax and elements of that language to make the API convenient to use in this context. the scope of meaning is usually determined by the person or document that communicates the information. For example. data structures. and protocols used to communicate between the requesting software and the library. Language-independent. while POSIX is an API. The related term application binary interface(ABI) is a lower level definition concerning details at the assembly language level. the Linux Standard Base is an ABI. object classes. It may include specifications for routines. Thus. The API initialism may sometimes be used as a reference.
An application programming interface (API) is an interface in computer science that defines the ways by which an application program may request services from libraries and/oroperating systems. An API is typically defined in terms of the programming language used to build the application. but also to one function.
An API itself is largely abstract in that it specifies an interface and controls the behavior of the objects specified in that interface. The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API.
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data is a capability of all GSM phones. It is generally associated with real-time or instant messaging type phone services. There is no store-and-forward capability, such as is typical of other short-message protocols (in other words, an SMSC is not present in the processing path). Response times for interactive USSD-based services are generally quicker than those used for SMS. USSD Phase 1, specified in GSM 02.90, only supports mobile initiated operation (pull operation). In the core network the message is delivered over MAP. USSD Phase 2, specified in GSM 03.90, supports networkinitiated operation (pulls and push operation). As an analogy, USSD is similar to telnet, while SMS is similar to mail. USSD is typically used as a 'trigger' to invoke independent calling services that don't require the overhead and additional usage costs of an SMSC, such as a callback service (e.g. cheaper phone charges while roaming), or interactive data service (e.g. stock quotes, sports results). USSD is a standard for transmitting information over GSM signaling channels. It is mostly used as a method to query the available balance and other similar information in pre-paid GSM services. The function that is triggered when sending USSD is network-dependent and depends on the specific services the operator is offering. Example USSD codes: 48
After entering a USSD code on your GSM handset, the reply from the GSM operator is displayed within a few seconds. USSD is the base of some payment methods such as SharEpay, SWAP Mobile in South Africa, Mobipay in Spain, M-Pesa in Kenya, and mPay in Poland.
What is a USSD Gateway?
A USSD Gateway routes USSD messages from the signaling network to service applications and back. "USSD gateway" and "USSD center" are synonyms. USSD Gateway is based upon the ability of the delivery agent or the source to send and receive USSD messages. As USSD is a session-based protocol unlike its siblings (SMS and MMS), therefore, the session needs to be allocated to each and every interaction.
Difference between USSD and other Gateways
The difference between USSD Gateways and other kinds of gateways is that USSD Gateways require to know what session is going on. Also, put in the locator (it locates where the MS (Mobile Station) is currently), and you have a highly dynamic session – based protocol.
Crystal Reports is a business intelligence application used to design and generate reports from a wide range of data sources. Several other applications, such as Microsoft Visual Studio, bundle an OEM version of Crystal Reports as a general purpose reporting tool. Crystal Reports became the de facto standard report writer when Microsoft released it with Visual Basic.
Java Naming and Directory Interface
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The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a Java API for a directory service that allows Java software clients to discover and look up data and objects via a name. Like all Java APIs that interface with host systems, JNDI is independent of the underlying implementation. Additionally, it specifies a service provider interface (SPI) that allows directory service implementations to be plugged into the framework. The implementations may make use of a server, a flat file, or a database; the choice is up to the vendor. The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is part of the Java platform, providing applications based on Java technology with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services. Powerful and portable directory-enabled applications can be built using this industry standard.
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An application server, is an n-tier software architecture, serves an API to expose business logic and business processes for use by third-party applications. The term can refer to:
1. the services that a server makes available 2. the computer hardware on which the services run 3. the software framework used to host the services
the term application server sometimes refers to a J2EE or Java EE 5 application server.) NEC WebOTX. Some of the better-known Java Enterprise Edition application servers include:
Tcat Server (MuleSoft) WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Application Server Community Edition (IBM) Sybase Enterprise Application Server (Sybase Inc) WebLogic Server (Oracle) JBoss (Red Hat) JRun (Adobe Systems) Apache Geronimo (Apache Software Foundation) Oracle OC4J (Oracle) Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server (based on GlassFish Application Server)(Sun Microsystems) SAP Netweaver AS (ABAP/Java) (SAP) Glassfish Application Server (open source) WebObjects (Apple Inc.
. an application server has to have builtin redundancy. To support high-end needs.Contents
1 Java application servers 2 Microsoft platform 3 Zend platform 4 Other platforms 5 Advantages of application servers 6 See also 7 External links 8 Footnotes
Java application servers
Following the success of the Java platform. (NEC) crop. Application servers are typically used for complex transaction-based applications. A program that handles all application operations between users and an organization's backend business applications or databases. monitors for high-availability.
Also called an appserver. high-performance distributed application services and support for complex database access.
It may be recorded with high or low granularity. 2. (name. the date it was last modified and the date the file (or indeed the metadata itself) was last accessed. of any sort in any media. etc. Associated with every file on the storage medium is metadata that records the date the file was created. or documentation of. quality and condition. Metadata is text. fields. or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels. metadata provides information about. This commonly defines the structure or schema of the primary data. to identify one end or both end of the transactions.
1. The web server sends its public key with its certificate. how it is associated.). data type. What is SSL and what are Certificates?
The Secure Socket Layer protocol was created by Netscape to ensure secure transactions between web servers and browsers.Metadata (meta data. 1. size. A browser requests a secure page (usually https://). The audience could be a person. Metadata is important because it aids in clarifying and finding the actual data. For example. An example of metadata occurs within file systems. or image that describes what the audience wants or needs to see or experience. or content item. such as a database schema. or characteristics of the data.
. This is in short how it works.2. a Certificate Authority (CA). In data processing.An item of metadata may describe an individual datum. Metadata may include descriptive information about the context. etc) and data about data (where it is located. or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data". columns. The protocol uses a third party. etc) and data about records or data structures (length. metadata would document data about data elements or attributes. or software program. group. voice. ownership. other data managed within an application or environment.
Anybody can send you an encrypted message. 4. 6. and only the associated public key will decrypt it correctly. This is a certificate
. contains information about the owner of the certificate. As you made the choice to trust the person who signs this certificate. The browser checks that the certificate was issued by a trusted party (usually a trusted root CA). like e-mail address. to encrypt a random symmetric encryption key and sends it to the server with the encrypted URL required as well as other encrypted http data. you have to implicitly trust: you have his/her certificate loaded in your browser (a root Certificate). Usually you will ask him to send you a non confidential signed message that will contains his publick key as well as a certificate. the other key pair can decrypt.2. The browser then uses the public key. 7. A certificate. The web server sends back the requested html document and http data encrypted with the symmetric key. because you have encrypted it with you private key. owner's name. you can certify that a message is only coming from you. remember! One of the problem left is to know the public key of your correspondent. Well. The browser decrypts the http data and html document using the symmetric key and displays the information. that only you will be able to decrypt. resource location or Distinguished Name (DN) which includes the Common Name (CN) (web site address or e-mail address depending of the usage) and the certificate ID of the person who certifies (signs) this information. someone has taken great length (if they are serious) to ensure that the web site owners are who they claim to be. It contains also the public key and finally a hash to ensure that the certificate has not been tampered with. This someone. 5.3. The Certificate:
How do you know that you are dealing with the right person or rather the right web site. certificate usage. Several concepts have to be understood here. Beware.
Message-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Message-->[Private Key]-->Message
1.1. right? In the opposite . This is sometime hard to understand. The trick in a key pair is to keep one key secret (the private key) and to distribute the other key (the public key) to everybody. The web server decrypts the symmetric encryption key using its private key and uses the symmetric key to decrypt the URL and http data.
1. Everybody has the public key. in this case the message is not secured you have only signed it. The key pair is based on prime numbers and their length in terms of bits ensures the difficulty of being able to decrypt the message without the key pairs. therefore you also trust this certificate. that the certificate is still valid and that the certificate is related to the site contacted. Private Key/Public Key:
The encryption using a private key/public key pair ensures that the data can be encrypted by one key but can only be decrypted by the other key pair. duration of validity. The keys are similar in nature and can be used alternatively: what one key emcrypts. but believe me it works. You are the only one to have the other key pair.2.2.
ST=Fiji. ST=Fiji. CN=www.org Validity Not Before: Nov 20 05:47:44 2001 GMT Not After : Nov 20 05:47:44 2002 GMT Subject: C=FJ.org Subject Public Key Info: Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Public Key: (1024 bit) Modulus (1024 bit): 00:ba:54:2c:ab:88:74:aa:6b:35:a5:a9:c1:d0:5a: 9b:fb:6b:b5:71:bc:ef:d3:ab:15:cc:5b:75:73:36: b8:01:d1:59:3f:c1:88:c0:33:91:04:f1:bf:1a:b4: 7a:c8:39:c2:89:1f:87:0f:91:19:81:09:46:0c:86: 08:d8:75:c4:6f:5a:98:4a:f9:f8:f7:38:24:fc:bd: 94:24:37:ab:f1:1c:d8:91:ee:fb:1b:9f:88:ba:25: da:f6:21:7f:04:32:35:17:3d:36:1c:fb:b7:32:9e: 42:af:77:b6:25:1c:59:69:af:be:00:a1:f8:b0:1a: 6c:14:e2:ae:62:e7:6b:30:e9 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001) X509v3 extensions: X509v3 Basic Constraints: CA:FALSE Netscape Comment: OpenSSL Generated Certificate X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: FE:04:46:ED:A0:15:BE:C1:4B:59:03:F8:2D:0D:ED:2A:E0:ED:F9:2F X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:E6:12:7C:3D:A1:02:E5:BA:1F:DA:9E:37:BE:E3:45:3E:9B:AE:E5:A6 DirName:/C=FJ/ST=Fiji/L=Suva/O=SOPAC/OU=ICT/CN=SOPAC Root CA/Email=administrator@sopac. You can sign a certificate using itself. OU=ICT. A certificate is insecure until it is signed.
Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 1 (0x1) Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=FJ. All root CA certificates are self signed. L=Suva. CN=SOPAC Root CA/Emailemail@example.com/Email=administrator@sopac. L=Suva. O=SOPAC.trust tree or certificate path. as only a signed certificate cannot be modified.org serial:00 Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption 34:8d:fb:65:0b:85:5b:e2:44:09:f0:55:31:3b:29:2b:f4:fd: aa:5f:db:b8:11:1a:c6:ab:33:67:59:c1:04:de:34:df:08:57: 2e:c6:60:dc:f7:d4:e2:f1:73:97:57:23:50:02:63:fc:78:96: 34:b3:ca:c4:1b:c5:4c:c8:16:69:bb:9c:4a:7e:00:19:48:62: e2:51:ab:3a:fa:fd:88:cd:e0:9d:ef:67:50:da:fe:4b:13:c5: 0c:8c:fc:ad:6e:b5:ee:40:e3:fd:34:10:9f:ad:34:bd:db:06: ed:09:3d:f2:a6:81:22:63:16:dc:ae:33:0c:70:fd:0a:6c:af: bc:5a -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIIDoTCCAwqgAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkox DTALBgNVBAgTBEZpamkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQww
. it is called a self signed certificate. The CA maintains a list of all signed certificates as well as a list of revoked certificates. OU=ICT. Usually your browser or application has already loaded the root certificate of well known Certification Authorities (CA) or root CA Certificates. O=SOPAC.sopac.
nothing is secure on the Internet. If the enemy gets hold of the key then you have no more secret information. The symmetric key is also chosen randomly. but they are not usually practical. As you know. the public key of the owner of this certificate. But a symmetric key is potentially highly insecure. You have never transmitted your private key to anybody. This certificate has all the elements to send an encrypted message to the owner (using the public key) or to verify a message signed by the author of this certificate.
Symetric Key-->[Public Key]-->Encrypted Symetric Key-->[Private Key]->Symetric Key
1.3. the dates of validity of this certificate and the signature of the certificate to ensure this certificate hasen't been tampered with. You must therefore transmit the key to the other party without the enemy getting its hands on it. A symmetric algorithm is much faster in doing its job than an asymmetric algorithm. so that if the symmetric secret key is discovered then the next transaction will be totally different. You can't use the same key to encrypt and decrypt. using symmetric or asymmetric methods. then the message encrypted with the public key is secure (relatively secure. It is asymmetric because you need the other key pair to decrypt. then he would have been able to sue
. An algorithm using the same key to decrypt and encrypt is deemed to have a symmetric key.4.CgYDVQQLEwNJQ1QxFjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0B CQEWF2FkbWluaXN0cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnMB4XDTAxMTEyMDA1NDc0NFoXDTAy MTEyMDA1NDc0NFowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAkZKMQ0wCwYDVQQIEwRGaWppMQ0wCwYD VQQHEwRTdXZhMQ4wDAYDVQQKEwVTT1BBQzEMMAoGA1UECxMDSUNUMRYwFAYDVQQD Ew13d3cuc29wYWMub3JnMSYwJAYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhdhZG1pbmlzdHJhdG9yQHNv cGFjLm9yZzCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEAulQsq4h0qms1panB 0Fqb+2u1cbzv06sVzFt1cza4AdFZP8GIwDORBPG/GrR6yDnCiR+HD5EZgQlGDIYI 2HXEb1qYSvn49zgk/L2UJDer8RzYke77G5+IuiXa9iF/BDI1Fz02HPu3Mp5Cr3e2 JRxZaa++AKH4sBpsFOKuYudrMOkCAwEAAaOCARUwggERMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwLAYJ YIZIAYb4QgENBB8WHU9wZW5TU0wgR2VuZXJhdGVkIENlcnRpZmljYXRlMB0GA1Ud DgQWBBT+BEbtoBW+wUtZA/gtDe0q4O35LzCBtgYDVR0jBIGuMIGrgBTmEnw9oQLl uh/anje+40U+m67lpqGBj6SBjDCBiTELMAkGA1UEBhMCRkoxDTALBgNVBAgTBEZp amkxDTALBgNVBAcTBFN1dmExDjAMBgNVBAoTBVNPUEFDMQwwCgYDVQQLEwNJQ1Qx FjAUBgNVBAMTDVNPUEFDIFJvb3QgQ0ExJjAkBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWF2FkbWluaXN0 cmF0b3JAc29wYWMub3JnggEAMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA4GBADSN+2ULhVviRAnw VTE7KSv0/apf27gRGsarM2dZwQTeNN8IVy7GYNz31OLxc5dXI1ACY/x4ljSzysQb xUzIFmm7nEp+ABlIYuJRqzr6/YjN4J3vZ1Da/ksTxQyM/K1ute5A4/00EJ+tNL3b Bu0JPfKmgSJjFtyuMwxw/Qpsr7xa -----END CERTIFICATE-----
As You may have noticed. if Henri Poincare had patented his algorithms. The certificate does not contain the private key as it should never be transmitted in any form whatsoever. with keys of various lengths. Encryption algorithm:
There are several encryption algorithms available.2. algorithms cannot be patented.2. Usually. nothing is certain except death and taxes). the certificate contains the reference to the issuer.
1. The Symmetric key:
Well. The solution is to encapsulate the symmetric key inside a message encrypted with an asymmetric algorithm. Private Key/Public Key encryption algorithms are great.
1. However the hash will drastically change even for the slightest modification in the message.2. Signing:
Signing a message. and in general in ensuring that any message has not been tampered with. it means that it is impossible to get the original message knowing the hash..
1. or someone else's certificate. decrypts the encrypted hash using your well known public key stored in your signed certificate. so the term passphrase for longer passwords. The Hash:
A hash is a number given by a hash function from a message. you then add the encrypted hash and your signed certificate with the message.5. The recipient will recreate the message hash. Longer is the password harder it is to guess. The message can be a text message. Hash functions are used in password mechanisms. PassPhrase:
“A passprase is like a password except it is longer”. the applications will indicate to each other a list of algorithms that can be understood ranked by order of preference. The common preferred algorithm is then chosen. means authentifying that you have yourself assured the authenticity of the message (most of the time it means you are the author. In the early days passwords on Unix system were limited to 8 characters.2.2 and 7. check that both hash are equals and finally check the certificate.6.1.
1. or encoding the message altogether with the signature.
. OpenSSL can be compiled with or without certain algorithms.7.Albert Einstein. and then encrypt the hash with your private key. This later form is a very simple encryption form as any software can decrypt it if it can read the embedded public key. During the negotiation between browser and web server. so that it can be used in many countries where restrictions apply. It is also called a message digest.1.2. encapsulating the text message inside the signature (with delimiters). So algorithms cannot be patented except mainly in USA. while the second form does not even allow to read part of the message if it has been tampered with.. but not neccesarily). Nowadays Unix systems use MD5 hashes which have no limitation in length of the password.3). The advantage of the first form is that the message is human readable allowing any non complaint client to pass the message as is for the user to read. The other advantage of signing your messages is that you transmit your public key and certificate automatically to all your recipients. This is a one way function. It is therefore extremely difficult to modify a message while keeping its original hash. There are usually 2 ways to sign. OpenSSL is developed in a country where algorithms cannot be patented and where encryption technology is not reserved to state agencies like military and secret services. To sign a message. in certifying that applications are original (MD5 sum). you create its hash. It seems that the Internet Enginering Task Force (IETF) prefers SHA1 over MD5 for a number of technical reasons (Cf RFC2459 7.
default-vhost. Copy wwwkeyunsecure.mysite. Public Key Infrastructure
The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the software management system and database system that allows to sign certifcate.pem in the directory /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ as wwwkeyunsecure. First generate and sign a certificate request with the Common Name (CN) as www. Using a certificate with mod_ssl in apache
First never use your self-signed root CA Certificate with any application and especially with apache as it requires you to remove the passphrase on your private key. There will be also some people checking that you are who you are.8.crt respectively. your site is compromised (you have been warned). For securing individual applications. Take the newreq. A test
..pem and wwwcert.pem for apache.
openssl rsa -in newreq.
3. You can usually access it via a website and/or ldap server.1. so no password is required when reading the private key. etc.pem and newcert. distribute public key. Edit /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ssl.1. There is also no way to find someone's public key if you have never received a prior e-mail with his certificate (including his public key). If someone gets its hand on it. The problem is for securing email..1. keep a list of revoked certificates.pem files that contains your private key and remove the passphrase from it. either you get a generic type certificate for your e-mail or you must pay about USD100 a year per certificate/e-mail address. Remove any extra information to keep only the ---CERTIFCATE -. you must know what you are doing: check file permissions.
---# Server Certificate: # Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate. then you will be prompted for a # pass phrase.2. you can use any well known commercial PKI as their root CA certificate is most likely to be inside your browser/application.com. Securing Internet Protocols.
3.conf. Now you can use the newcert and cakeyunsecure.pem
Because the key (PRIVATE Key) is insecure.. The key needs to be made insecure..pem -out wwwkeyunsecure.. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again.1.. If # the certificate is encrypted..part.
g mail.pem and sign the request as usual.pem. Use the wizard to generate a new key. Generate and Sign a key with Microsoft Key Manager
In Microsoft Key Manager.1.1.mycompany.xyz. Using a certificate with POPS
A pem file for ipop3sd can be created by generating a certificate.4.crt # Server Private Key: # If the key is not combined with the certificate.d/httpd stop) ensure that all processes are dead (killall httpd) and start httpd (/etc/rc.org and on the Advanced tab check the “This server requires a secure connection (SSL)”. Key Manager shows a Key with a strike to indicate the key is not signed. for more information. unsecuring the private key and combining the two into /etc/ssl/imap/ipop3sd.pem ----
Stop and start httpd (/etc/rc.org). In MSOutlook. The wizard will place the request in the file C:\NewKeyRq. select the service you want to create a key for.1.crt SSLCertificateFile wwwcert.3. for Instance for the Common Name (CN) use imap.d/init.d/init. The trusted root CA must be installed in MS Internet Explorer to validate the certificate from mail. on the server tab. #SSLCertificateKeyFile conf/ssl/ca.xyz.
3. Using a certificate with Postfix
3.# certificate can be generated with `make certificate' under # built time. Import this file in the OpenSSL /var/ssl directory.xyz.
3.0 expects to find the file. #SSLCertificateFile conf/ssl/ca.unsecure SSLCertificateKeyFile wwwkeyunsecure.5. this will change the connection port to 995 (imaps).d/httpd start)
3.org. for instance IMAP (or WWW). A similar procedure can be used for imap and putting the file in /etc/ssl/imap/imapsd.6. rename it to newreq. Using a certificate with IMAPS
Read the paragraph on “Using a certificate with POPS”. Ensure that the distinguished name won't be identical to previous generated keys.key.2.txt.com. use this # directive to point at the key file. This is the location where the imap rpm on Mandrake 9. The CN should be the name that the mail client connects to (e. Using a certificate with Stunnel
3. enter for the incoming mail server mail.1.pem.1.
The key is now fully functional.2.pem -inkey newreq.1. To generate the pkcs12 file from your newcert. or other signed documents to be published digitally.2.pem -certfile
.2.pl -pkcs12 "Franck Martin" (openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert.CA. right click and click on Install the Key Certificate. select this file.pl -sign
The file newcert. you can use this procedure to make signed advisories.
3.msg) using your certificate newcert.txt (output test.p12 \ -name "Franck Martin")
or use this command to bundle the signing certificate with your pkcs12 file
openssl pkcs12 -export -in newcert.pem and newreq. We have to remove the text. Securing E-mails.pem file now contains only the -CERTIFICATE. To use this certificate with MS Outlook
You need to import it in Outlook as a pkcs12 file.2.pem
Using a text editor is also suitable to delete everything outside the -CERTIFICATEsection.txt -text -out test.pem -out newcertx509. Now sign your message test.msg to anybody.pem to the Computer running key Manager and while selecting the key icon in the Key Manager application.pem
You can now transmit test.pem:
openssl smime -sign -in test.pem -out newcert. The newcertx509. the easy way is to do:
openssl x509 -in newcert.pem:
CA. Generate and use an s/mime certificate
Simply generate and sign a certificate request but with the Common Name (CN) being your e-mail address.msg -signer newcert.pem is not yet suitable for key manager as it contains some text and the -CERTIFICATE.pem and your key newreq. Export the file newcertx509.
3. enter the passphrase.pem -inkey newreq.pem -inkey newreq.section.section.
The root CA certificate has to be downloaded and installed.0 does not work with S/MIME. but only with PGP.pem \ -out newcert.2.4. MS Outlook should have selected the default setting so just click on New.p12 file. It can take several seconds before the e-mail is displayed and several minutes for MS-Outlook XP to timeout when you don't have a full time or on-demand Internet connection. The bug is that this process is exclusive. Note that early version of MS-Outlook XP will search the Internet to verify the validy of the certificate. To use this certificate with MS Outlook Express
3. And finally click on Ok. To use this certificate with Netscape Messenger
3. In MS Outlook go to Tools. You can send your message as encrypted signed messages or clear text message. You are ready to send signed e-mails. and will therefore be able to send you encrypted e-mails. This is a file not to let into everybody's hand. Now click on the Settings button. When you send a signed e-mail the user at the other end will receive your public key. the trust path won't be valid because the application does not know the root CA Certificate. Refer to the chapter "Install the CA root certificate as a Trusted Root Certificate in Internet Explorer". except if you want to change the default settings. enter the export password and the Digital ID "Franck Martin" (That's my name so use your name in the above examples). the whole machine freezes till MS-Outlook XP has finished somehow.p12 -name "Franck Martin"
Beware this certificate contains your public and private key and is only secured by the passphrase. Options and Security.2. but it ensures that the recipient won't read the message if he does not have an s/mime compliant reader.5.
3.cacert.3. It is planned that Evolution will handle S/MIME in a future release (from the evolution bug database). To use this certificate with Evolution
Evolution 1. even though it can't check the signature (early
. However in some instances Evolution recognises that the document is clear text signed and displays it correctly. The encryption is not really an encryption as the message contains everything needed to decrypt the message. Click on the import/export button select to import the newcert. As you have issued this certificate from a self-signed certificate (root CA Certificate).2. And Click on Ok.
Programmers publish and apply patches in various forms.
. see patch (Unix). see Apple Software Update. Though meant to fix problems.6. These types of patches commonly come out of open source projects. Because proprietary software authors withhold their source code. Please improve the article by adding references.2. See the talk page for details.
3. In these cases. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and other bugs. This article may contain original research or unverified claims. developers expect users to compile the new or changed files themselves.versions of Evolution does not understand one of the 3 MIME signature types. Patches can also circulate in the form of source code modifications. Patch management is the process of using a strategy and plan of what patches should be applied to which systems at a specified time. For the software tool by Apple Inc.. In these cases. or update a computer program or its supporting data. For the Unix program. (September 2008)
A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with. poorly designed patches can sometimes introduce new problems (see software regressions). and improving the usability or performance. To use this certificate with Balsa
3. To use this certifcate with KMail
Jump to: navigation.7. the patches consist of textual differences between two source code files. their patches are distributed as binary executables instead of source.2. This type of patch modifies the program executable— the program the user actually runs—either by modifying the binary file to include the fixes or by completely replacing it. search "Software update" redirects here. unfortunately the one MS-Outlook uses quite often).
they need only to execute an update program. In several Unix-like systems. Later patch distributions used magnetic tape. and later versions) use the "service pack" terminology.Because the word "patch" carries the connotation of a small fix. Service packs for Microsoft Windows NT and its successors and for many commercial software products adopt such automated strategies. The maintenance of server software and of operating systems often takes place in this manner. such as graphics and sounds files. Windows XP. operating systems often provide automatic or semi-automatic update facilities. Today.
. In situations where system administrators control a number of computers. computer programs can often coordinate patches to update a target program. Automation simplifies the end-users' task -. whereupon that program makes sure that updating the target takes place completely and correctly. CD-ROM via mail. patches usually do not take long to apply. To facilitate updates. though this also depends on whether the patch includes entire files or only the changed portion(s) of files. particularly Linux. after the invention of removable disk drives. Then. patches can become quite large when the changes add or replace nonprogram data. Compared with the initial installation of software.
Historically. expecting the recipient to cut out the indicated part of the original tape (or deck). Bulky patches or patches that significantly change a program may circulate as "service packs" or as "software updates". Some programs can update themselves via the Internet with very little or no intervention on the part of users. updates between releases are delivered as new software packages. software suppliers distributed patches on paper tape or on punched cards. and patch in (hence the name) the replacement segment. Today. end-users must download most patches from the developer's web site. Completely automatic updates have not succeeded in gaining widespread popularity in corporate computing environments. In the case of operating systems and computer server software. large fixes may use different nomenclature. These updates are in the same format as the original installation so they can be used either to update an existing package in-place (effectively patching) or be used directly for new installations. patches came from the software developer via a disk or. with almost universal Internet access. The application of security patches commonly occurs in this manner. patches have the particularly important role of fixing security holes. later.
The size of patches may vary from a few kilobytes to hundreds of megabytes — mostly more significant changes imply a larger size. Such situations commonly occur in the patching of computer games. partly because of the aforementioned glitches. Microsoft Windows NT and its successors (including Windows 2000. In particular. this sort of automation helps to maintain consistency.
instead of being delivered through traditional radio frequency broadcast. due largely to the fact that Microsoft Windows added support for them. In the cases of large patches or of significant changes.
. tend to put off applying patches until they can verify the stability of the fixes.
Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which digital television service is delivered using the architecture and networking methods of the Internet Protocol Suite over a packet-switched network infrastructure. and content (or video) on demand.g. It is distinguished from general Internet-based or web-based multimedia services by its on-going standardization process (e. and cable television (CATV) formats.. Any unexpected error or interruption during the update. Cautious users. See Internet television. satellite signal. It is possible for motherboard manufacturers to put safeguards in place to prevent serious damage. e.. A motherboard BIOS update is an example of a common firmware patch. rather than simply of differences from the previous version. ETSI) and preferential deployment scenarios in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into enduser premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment.but also because administrators fear that software companies may gain unlimited control over their computers. An example safeguard is to keep a backup of the firmware to use in case the primary copy is determined to be corrupt (usually through the use of a checksum. Applying patches to firmware poses special challenges: re-embedding typically small code sets on hardware devices often involves the provision of totally new program code. may render the motherboard unusable. time-shifted programming. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: live television. Microsoft (W)SUS support this. distributors often limit availability of patches to qualified developers as a beta test. Often the patch consists of bare binary data and a special program that replaces the previous version with the new version is provided. Package management systems can offer various degrees of patch automation. and Service Pack 2 of Windows XP enabled them by default. particularly system administrators. Usage of completely automatic updates is far more widespread in the consumer market. such as a power outage.g. such as a CRC). the Internet and broadband Internet access networks.