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ROLL NO. BM-A-20 POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
YMCA BUSINESS SCHOOL
PRICING AND DOCUMENTATION
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
THANKED” I am very thankful to our teacher Dr. Shamsher for his great assistance of the to make the successful his able accomplishment learnt a lot. I am also thankful to my friends and colleagues for their support and endurance while preparing this project. I would like to thank all the people who have directly or indirectly helped me in completing this project, as and when I required. project. Through
guidance and knowledge-based interactions, we have
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
The project Indian Leather Industry has been carried out with a view point of understanding the role of Leather Industry in the Indian Trade and Indian economy. As per the objective of the project, I have tried to explain, analyze and interpret the role of Leather sector in Indian as well as in international trade.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTE R TOPIC Acknowledgement Preface Executive Summary Objectives Of The Study PAGE NO. INTRODUCTION TO LEATHER INDUSTRY: An Overview History Of Leather World Scenario Environmental Products Aspects for Leather 11 12 14 17 2. THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Indian Scenario Composition Of Indian Leather Exports Strengths Of Indian Leather Sector 18 20 21 22 4 Export Potential: India’s Export Of Leather And Leather Products For Five Years . 02 03 08 10 1.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Import Scenario Major Importing Countries Of Indian Leather And Leather Products Analysis Of India’s Export Potential Strategies For Indian Leather Sector Major Issues Affecting The Sector 25 26 29 32 35 37 39 41 42 44 Export Performance: Major Highlights Country-Wise Analysis Trend In Major Importing Countries Of Leather Products Port-Wise Export Performance SWOT Analysis of the Indian Leather Industry 3. 2009 Relief Measures Announced By Government Of India To Exporters Government Support – Policies Leather Industry Tariffs 45 47 51 54 57 58 4. LEATHER INDUSTRY-TRADE ORGANIZATIONS: 5 . GOVERNMENT ROLE IN INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Prospects For Indian Leather Exports INDAIN Leather Development Program (Implementation During 11th Fine Years Plan) Supplement To Foreign Trade Policy 2004-2009 Announced On 26th February.
EXPORT PROCEDURES AND DOCUMENTATION RELATING TO INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Export Documents Documents Related To Goods Certificates Related To Shipment Documentation Dutiable Shipping Bills Documents Related To Payment 80 83 85 86 88 89 6 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Major Production Centres Leather Institutes Council For Leather Exports Main Markets International Leather Organizations 60 62 64 66 67 5. PROMOTION AND MARKETING OF INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Entry Into The Market: Basic Consideration Recent Marketing Efforts To Promote The Indian Leather Industry International Leather Fairs In India 2008-09 Connecting Indian Leather To The World .Cle At International Fairs/BSMs List Of Road Shows Organized / To Be Organized In Overseas Countries Role Of Exim Bank In Promoting Indian Leather Sector 71 74 75 77 78 79 6.
FINANCING: Pre.Shipment Finance Post –Shipment Finance Procedure 106 109 110 8.O. FUTURE PROSPECTS OF INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Leather Industry Targets $7 Billion Exports By 2011 Integrated Leather Development 111 112 113 115 116 121 123 Leather Sector Impact-Interim Budget 2009-10 Conclusion Weaknesses of Indian leather indusrty Remedial measures Impacts of current recession on Indian leather industry 7 . Organization And Agents 96 98 103 7.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 100% E.U Export Procedure List Of Documents Required To Be Submitted By The Exporter To The Various Authorities.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Leather industry glossary Leather products Leather Exporters in India Indian Leather Manufacturers 126 144 155 158 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The basic objective of undertaking this project was to study the role of Leather Industry in Indian economy. 8 . (The sources of data collection have been mentioned at required chapters in my report). to analyze the various Documents for findings out the adequacy and precision of export facilities by financial institutions and the role of Indian Government in Indian leather sector. I collected the data using various primary and secondary sources. to examine the export potential of leather products.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
The Leather Industry is a significant segment of the foreign trade in India. India ranks eighth among the leather producing countries in the world. The industry is labor intensive. The Indian leather industry is provided with institutional infrastructure support through premier institutions like Council for Leather Exports, Central Leather Research Institute (Chennai), Footwear Design & Development Institute (Noida), National Institute of Fashion Technology (New Delhi), etc in the areas of technological development, design and product development and human resource development. The various phases of export are offer and receipt of confirmed orders, production and clearance of the products for exports, shipment, negotiation of document and realization of export proceeds and obtaining various export incentives.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study the role of Leather Industry in Indian economy.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
3. To analyze the various Documents for findings out the adequacy and precision of export facilities by financial institutions. 4. To explain the role of Indian Government in Indian Leather Sector.
To suggest any improvements necessary in the existing Leather Industry.
INTRODUCTION TO LEATHER INDUSTRY
THE LEATHER INDUSTRY – AN OVERVIEW:
(the village leather industry in particular) When the long slammed doors of global markets were opened to the leather industry. When the fashion speaks for itself. “Leather Fashion”.. and France. As already project by various economic wizards. Talking about the contemporary fashion. The very fact that a major market like U. There has been an increasing emphasis on its planned development. Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international markets besides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of the country.S.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The leather industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment. U. clear lines has been acclaimed at the basis for fashion in the leather products. thorough bred city –dwellers-inspirations that will characterize this look. City fashion has new focal points in this new trend towards elegance. has been chosen to build up positive image for the Indian leather products and to promote joint ventures adds one more feather in the cap of leather industry in presenting a strategy so remarkable. it can play a stimulating role as spearhead of an entire industrial sector . U. There came the long awaited dusk to the complacence of the Indian manufacturers. purity. one 12 .S.K. In order to survive in market already filled with competitors. particularly from exports.A search for light. aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the returns.A Hot Tip: When one talk of leather products coupled with their bulk exports. growth and exports. it is indispensable for an exporter to be at par with the latest fashion development in the country in which he is exporting the goods. the leather manufacturers met challenge with a renewed vigor and started capturing markets like Germany. Elegance is the back with the timeless. naturally the buzzword “fashion” comes in question. Italy.
Morocco and cordovan leathers were in great demand. Following the industrial revolution in Europe. Of course. The ancient puppet theatre in the southern India used primarily leather dolls. The Egyptians and Hebrews developed around 400 BC. the process of vegetable tanning that involved simple drying and curing techniques Under the Arabs during the middle Ages. Policy initiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such a transformation. In the wake of globalization of Indian economy supported with liberalized economic and trade policies since 1991. the art of leather making became quite sophisticated.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY cannot ignore the timeless crocodile and python prints in elegant cameo tones have a slightly old fashioned look that is now very fashionable. He dried fresh skins in the sun. one cannot clearly defined that this is the era of renaissance in the Indian. The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter of raw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. softened them by pounding in animal fats and brains. caviar. clusters and fabrics prints are Omni present. power driven machines were introduced to perform operations such as splitting. even more than 7000 years ago. and preserved them by salting and smoking. fleshing. the products were crude. sharkskin. The traditional grained leather. Thus with the coming back of such age old and traditional taste in leather products. with two-tone effect and high shine. made and used leather goods. The chemical tannage were introduced towards the end of 19th century 13 . the industry is poised for further growth to achieve greater share in the global trade. HISTORY OF LEATHER The primitive man. and dehairing. made for protection than as fashion. The tradition continues even today. lizard.
mule. and zebra buffalo pig and hog 14 . including calf and ox sheep and lamb goat and kid equine animals.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY COMMON LEATHERS: cattle. including horse.
With a total population of 170 million heads.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY WORLD SCENARIO: WORLD LIVESTOCK POPULATION: Hides and skins are the basic raw materials for the leather industry. of which production of bovine hides and skins alone accounted for 90% in 2008. There was an upsurge in the number of bovine animals and goats and kids during 2007-2008. World sheep and lambs population stood at 1. China has the highest population of goats and kids. India (6%) lagged behind at third position. India had the largest number of bovine animals (283 million heads) with a share of 19% followed by Brazil (13%).079 million heads in 2008. WORLD RAW HIDES AND SKINS PRODUCTION: World production of raw hides and skins was nearly 7 million metric tonnes. with a population of 62 million heads. WORLD LEATHER EXPORTS: 15 . Developing countries are the major producers of raw hides and skins. China (9%) and USA (6%). which originate from the source of livestock.529 million heads in 2008. China played a significant role in turning developing countries as the major source of global imports of raw hides and skins. while population of heap and lambs was on a decline. India had the highest population of goats and kids (21% of the total). World bovine animal’s population stood at 1. Although in 1990. World goats and kids population stood at 807 million heads in 2008. Developing countries accounted for around 78% of the total population of bovine animals and 93% of world population of goats and kids. China had a share of 16% in the world sheep and lambs population. which stood at 195 million heads in 2008. it was overtaken by China in 1995 and the gap between the two countries has been widening.
3%. World leather exports can be categorized in to raw hides and skins (40%). USA and France are major exporters of leather in the world. Italy (11%) and France (9%) are other major exporters. by a CAGR of 7. from US$ 46 billion in 2000 to US$ 61 billion in 2004. leather articles (49%) and fur skins (11%). from US$ 22 billion in 2000to US$ 30 billion in 2004. India’s exports of leather articles have stabilized around US$ 1. Hong Kong. China constitutes 34% of the total leather articles exports. Hong Kong (17%).INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY World leather exports grew moderately. World leather articles exports increased by a CAGR of 8. China.06%. Italy.033 million in 2008. 16 .
Spain. leather articles and fur skins. 55% and 7% of the total world leather imports. USA.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY WORLD LEATHER IMPORTS: World leather imports can be classified in to raw hides and skins. Hong Kong. respectively. Turkey and Romania are mainly into imports of raw hides and skins. UK and Belgium. World imports of leather articles are estimated to have grown marginally from US$ 27 billion in 2000 to nearly US$ 34 billion in 2008. Mexico. 17 . the largest importer of this product. is predominantly captured by China. Leather articles are predominantly imported by USA. from 54% in 2000 to 70% in 2008. whereas China. USA and Italy are chief importers of fur skins. with a share of 38%. China’s share in USA’s import of leather articles has increased gradually.
The regulations concerning the ban on the use of Azo Dyes and PCP need to be specially taken care of. the manufacturers have to view their products and production processes not just by looking at traditional aspects like price. quality. The hallmark for these environment-friendly products is normally referred to as ‘ECO-LABEL’. Indian suppliers have to stick to the basic principle that packaging material be reusable and recyclable. etc. This indicates that the product is manufactured in consonance with the environmental regulations. Environmentally sound production. customer demands. Therefore. 18 . opens new market opportunities. Consumers may have a tendency to choose products. for compliance with the German packing regulations.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS FOR LEATHER PRODUCTS: Manufacturers who produce environmentally sound products will enjoy a competitive advantage in all business relations. Use of both these inputs has been banned due to their carcinogenic nature. The pitch has to be to successfully emphasis the environmental soundness of the product in the information to the buyers since major attention is being paid to the increasing role of the environmental regulations. but also at the environment. which are easily recognizable as such and are labeled according to legal stipulations. Likewise. consequently.
which account for 75% of the total production.000 small-scale industry (SSI) units.The Indian leather industry consists of 42. The concentration of tanning industries is mainly in Tamil Nadu. Small scale 19 . Other states where tanning industry is concentrated include West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. with a share of 52%.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CHAPTER TWO THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY INDIAN SCENARIO: With about 15% of the world livestock population.600 tanneries were present in India in 2000. 2.5 million people earn their livelihood from this sector. Nearly. India accounted for only 8% of the leather production in 2008. A survey by Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) estimated that about 1.
The export of leather and leather products increased manifold over the past decades.41%. INDUSTRY AT A GLANCE: The Indian leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its substantial export earnings. employment generation and growth. India is the largest livestock holding country -21% large animals and 11% small animals. Today the industry ranks 8th in the export trade in terms of foreign exchange earnings of the country. 30760 mn in 1991-92 to Rs. With the exclusion of non-leather footwear.47 billion 20 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY sector accounts for large processing capacity ranging from 7087% for different leather products. The composition of export of leather and leather products from India has undergone a structural change during the last three decades. The export increased from Rs. 290 mn in 1956-57 and from Rs.33 mn in 2007-08. 140007. A source for 10% global leather requirement Annual production value US$ 5 billion Annual export value US$ 3.62% in the global leather trade during 2006. from merely an exporter of raw material in the sixties to that of value added products in the nineties. this is slightly higher at 3. There has been increasing emphasis on its planned development. which was mere 7% in 1956-57. aimed at optimum utilization of available raw material for maximizing the returns particularly from exports. The value added finished products presently constitute around 80% of the total export from the Industry. India accounts for a share of 2.
COMPOSITION EXPORTS: OF INDIAN LEATHER Composition of Indian leather exports has undergone a radical change. to a status of an exporter of value added leather products. Total leather and leather manufactures exports stood at Rs.91% (5 years) About 2. with a share of 26%. 286 crores in 200405. from being a mere exporter of raw hides and skins. India has been exporting only finished leather because of export restriction on semi finished leather.10. ESTIMATED PRODUCTION CAPACITIES: ITEM Hides Skins CAPACITY 65 million pieces 170 million pieces 21 . Leather footwear is the largest component of leather exports. From 199192.50 million workforce (30% women) Promising technology inflow and Foreign Direct Investment Top priority to occupational safety and work environment Meticulous concern for consumer safety Compliance to environmental standards Enormous potential for future growth (domestic as well as export) .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Export growth CAGR 11.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Leather Footwear Leather shoe uppers Non-leather footwear Leather Garments Leather Goods Industrial Gloves Saddlers & Harness Source: CLRI 909 million pairs 100 million pairs 1056 million pairs 16 million pieces 63 million pieces 52 million pairs 12.50 million pieces STRENGTHS SECTOR: OF INDIAN LEATHER Own raw material source – 2 billion sq ft of leather produced annually Some varieties of goat / calf / sheep skins command premium position Strong and eco-sustainable tanning base Modernized manufacturing units Trained / skilled manpower at competitive wage levels 22 .
Guess etc. Shorter prototype development time. Growing domestic market for footwear and leather articles. Continuous modernization and technology up gradation. Delivery compliance. Strategic location in the Asian landmass EMERGING STRENGTHS Design development initiatives by institutions and individuals. Economic size of manufacturing units. Florsheim.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY World-class institutional support for Human Resources Development and R & D activities Presence of support industries like leather chemicals and finishing auxiliaries Presence in major markets – Long Europe experience Preferred sourcing by several international brands – Pierre Cardin. NEXT. Constant human resource development programme to enhance productivity. Hugo Boss. Liz Claiborne. Clarks. Versace. DKNY. Increasing use of quality components. K shoes. EXPORT POTENTIAL: INDIA’S EXPORT OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS FOR FIVE YEARS: 23 . Tommy Hilfiger.
44 585.21 52.28 82.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY India’s Export was growing at a CAGR of 11.58% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 CATEGORY Finished Leather Footwear Leather Garments Leather Goods Saddlery & Harness Total % Growth IN MILLION US$) 636.99 784.30 660.50 10.77% during last 5 years.81 3477.73 301.77 329.00 1236.91% in the last 5 years.30% 724.20% 607.71 767.45 18.27 1045.67% Source: DGCI&S 24 .15% 766.91 309.83 343.33 3059. YEARS 2003-04 2004-05 (VALUE 555.71 2495.72 61.95 105.17 77.73 910.91 706.93 1475. Global leather import trade was growing at a CAGR of 8.37 12.43 11.08 539.24 333.71 2216.52 2752.52 13.
one of the major foreign exchange earners of the country recorded significant growth since the beginning of the decade.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The leather industry. Today the share of the value added finished products in the total exports from leather sector are 80% as against 20% in 1970s. Export Scenario for the last 5 Years 25 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY % Share of Leather Products in Export Performance (2007-08): IMPORT SCENARIO: 26 .
58 288.80 171.21 233.11 291.85 358.44 2007-08 84.56 420.01 220.32 2006-07 69.81 2004-05 50.70 262.68 (VALUE IN MILLION US$) MAJOR IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF INDIAN LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS 27 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY INDIA’S IMPORT OF RAW HIDES & SKINS AND LEATHER FOR FIVE YEARS: YEARS CATEGORY Raw Hides & Skins Leather TOTAL 2003-04 49.21 212.12 336.91 2005-06 58.
04 100.23 313.09%. 11.18 143.01 42.42 247.07 196.03 38.63%.08 413.20 40.12 21.61 25.17 36.46 25.69 290.39 34.04 414.38 42.01 32.60%.80 34. 18.08 38.84 317.60%.66 19.07%.82 57.70 30.22 40.43 23.90 28.22 CAGR 2007.46%.11 200405 350. 28 .32 306.15 200.02 250.27%.41 30.37 74.23%.73%.90 49.94 200607 410.38 21.36 252. 13.97 161.59 279.80 27.23 109. 15. 23.10 34.33%.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY THE COUNTRY-WISE PERFORMANCE FOR FIVE YEARS: (Value in Million US$) COUNTRY GERMANY ITALY UK USA HONG KONG SPAIN FRANCE NETHERLAND S UAE PORTUGAL BELGIUM CHINA AUSTRALIA DENMARK SWEDEN CANADA KOREA REP.49 25. 22.78 174.72 479.20 38.68 176.64 16.92 21.54 318.77%.64 19.82%.83%.59 25.GROWT 08 H% 488.35 21.45 24.24 317.75 37.38 21.55 49.79 24. 18. 7. SOUTH AFRICA SWITZERLAN D AUSTRIA GREECE 200304 329.34 42.24 22.47 25.51 36.25%. 5.68 48.92 43.71 18.38%.23 19. 7.53 56.11%.70 140.07 24.72 82. 7.84 23. 3.30 29.72 185.04 345.47 20.58 226. 2.38 35.17 133.42%.52 39.38 10.54 23.49 29.74 49.98 21.81 35.23 21.58%. 13.65 251. 11.00 65.82 34.69 267.82 62.53 200506 363. 18.71 43.82 285.35 359.87 32.79 258.22%. 13. 4. 22.95 52.03 24.06 54.28 35.86%.53 51.39%. 8.93 212.
91 207. 18.26 17. 15.90 14.42 4.37 11.52 Source: DGCI & S 29 .61 10.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY SAUDI ARABIA JAPAN RUSSIA INDONESIA FINLAND IRELAND NEW ZEALAND OTHERS TOTAL 10.27%.56 15. 4.72 4. 35.57 8.77 14.63 12.45 2495.33 8.40%.22 3.08 10.33 216.18 12.99%.81 259. 11.07 9.95 14.22 6.28 5. 20.66 7.33%.87 5.91%. 7.30 2216.33 8.62 5.53 15.66%.50 3059.60 166.23 4.37 11.59%.17%.43 3477.17 9.05 5.77 12.46 15.41 14.15 349.49 12.05 10. 10.08 12.64 6.37 2752.32%. 7.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Country-wise Export Performance (2007-08): 30 .
India was placed among the top three exporting countries of leather garments in these markets. USA and France. 31 . However. Top importers of leather footwear uppers in the world are China.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY ANALYSIS OF INDIA’S EXPORT POTENTIAL: India’s major export markets for leather handbags are USA. India’s other major export markets are Germany. India has lot of potential in these markets. UK and Spain. United Kingdom and Canada. World leather garments exports have increased over the years. Hong Kong and Russia. Currently. In UK and Spain. India must be cautious of China. the trend in export of Indian footwear has been encouraging. USA. But. China has overtaken Italy and emerged as major exporter in markets like USA. Footwear is a critical segment for the Indian leather industry as this is expected to be the engine of growth for the Indian leather sector. Germany and Japan were the largest importers of leather garments in the world in 2004. Canada. which are the major markets for Indian leather garments. Germany. however the trend for footwear components exports has been declining. Italy is the top exporting country of leather handbags. as it has unique advantage of economies of scale and capability of producing niche products. India’s exports of footwear components have dropped from US$ 238 million in 2000-01 to US$ 164 million in 2004-05. India is the largest sourcing partner of leather garments to Spain and Italy. Further. as its unit price of leather garments is cheaper than that of India.
Delhi. moccasins. casuals. in addition to bags. handbags. The products meet the requirement of bulk buyers and consumers in Europe. footwear accounts for 18 percent share of total exports of leather exports. ruck sacks. wallets. goats and buffaloes. Various types of shoes produced and exported from India include dress shoes. Calcutta and Jalandhar. sports shoes. wallets. purses. Kanpur. INDIAN LEATHER GOODS INDUSTRY Items produced by this sector include.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY INDIAN LEATHER FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY India is the world's second largest producer of footwear. sandals. At about US $ 300 million per year. Most of the modern footwear manufacturers in India are already supplying to well establish brands in Europe and USA. A surfeit of modern units in Chennai. belts. and booties. Mumbai (Bombay). industrial gloves etc. travel ware. at this juncture. 32 . ballerinas. sheep. Major production centres are Chennai (Madras). USA and Australia. hand gloves and industrial gloves. its production estimated over 700 million pairs per annum. made of quality leathers of cows. brief cases. Agra. it is posed for real growth and diversification. Equally relevant is it for the footwear components industry. sports goods. folios. The large domestic market and the opportunity to cater to world markets make India an attractive destination for technology and investments. horacchis. Kanpur and Calcutta employing skilled human resources and equipped with modern and sophisticated machinery account for a diversified range of superlative small leather goods including bags. upholstery and saddlery goods.
53 per cent in the leather industry. The product classification of leather garments comprise of jackets. 33 . out of which approximately 105 are 100% export oriented units. shirts.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The major market for Indian leather goods is Germany. because of its specialization in tanning and finishing of buffalo hides is the only centre in the country where harness leather. UK. The saddlery industry was established in the 19th century primarily to cater to the needs of military and police. With products ranging from designer collections to personal leather accessories. long coats. Kanpur. is a major production centre for saddlery goods in India accounting for more than 95% of the total exports of saddlery items from India. Kanpur. The export of saddlery and harness items has showed an annual growth rate of about 40% reaching DM 64 million during 1998-99. France and Italy. INDIAN LEATHER GARMENTS INDUSTRY The Leather Garment Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian leather sector. UK. Scandinavia. The major importers of Indian saddlery are Germany. USA. with an off take of about 25 per cent of the leather goods produced in India followed by USA. France. is manufactured. waist coats. in the state of Uttar Pradesh. INDIAN SADDLERY INDUSTRY India is one of the largest producers of saddlery and harness goods in the world. From then on initiatives were taken to develop. while maintaining an average growth rate of 11 per cent recorded in the last five years. the industry and today there are over 150 units in the organised sector. Japan. Netherlands. this sector has a share of 20. Australia and New Zealand. which is major input for saddlery industry.
India. Recently. STRATEGIES FOR INDIAN LEATHER SECTOR The Indian leather industry is targeting over US$ 5 billion exports by 2010 and is expected to add about additional 1 million direct and indirect jobs during this period. the industry employs 2. Factors such as availability of leather. At present. motorbike jackets.. Indian leather garments. children garments. German imports of leather garments aggregated DM 1786 million of which DM 304 million worth of imports went from India.A.5 million people directly and indirectly. The major export destination of leather garments from India is Germany. which entered the world market only in the mid-eighties with exports of Rs. India maintains a similar level of market share of about 20%. Among the three major exporting nations of leather garments. in both German and EU markets. Other markets for India include Italy. account for about Rs. Switzerland and Canada. aprons and industrial leather garments.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY pant/short. Spain and Netherlands. In 1997.S. China and Turkey were the major suppliers of leather garments for the German market.K. U. successful attempt had been made for exports to Denmark. 34 . as they accounted for about 78% of the market share. SHIFTING OF MANUFACTURING BASE: Major world tanning firms are in the process of shifting their manufacturing base to developing countries due to high wage levels and strict environmental norms in developed countries. 1530 crore in 1997-98. U. 15 crores in 1997-98. France. production know-how.
INVESTMENT BY LARGE CORPORATES: Indian leather industry is dominated by household and small scale sectors. STRONG PRODUCTION BASE: The industry should lay emphasis on design and technology.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY processing of shoes work in India’s favour. 290 crores for modernization and technology up gradation programme. Consolidation in new markets such as Croatia. NEW MARKETS: Diversification of export markets is another important strategy for Indian leather industry. The large capacity would also bring down the unit cost and increase the competitiveness in international markets. quality and innovation and economies of scale. Recently. Skill development for the manpower engaged in the sector is vital for enhancing the export potential of this sector. Slovakia and Serbia would sustain the export growth momentum for the Indian leather industry. Imports of leather articles by these countries have increased in the range of 2030% in a period of five years. the Government has approved Rs. India could effectively use these advantages to augment its share in global production and exports. 35 . GOVERNMENT SUPPORT: Technology up gradation and Modernization of the entire leather Value chain should be given priority. Corporate presence would enhance the capability of producing quality leather products.
The industry could undertake business delegation to secure overseas investments and technology partnerships. It is imperative that adequate care is taken about the packing material. Such exclusive leather complexes could be developed in other major production centres. internal transport.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY NEW TRENDS: The industry needs to keep itself abreast with latest fashion trends in the sector. It is observed that Italian buyers pay attention not only to the quality of the leather products but also to the accessories used in the garments. DIVERSE MARKETING TECHNIQUES: India needs to adopt aggressive marketing techniques in order to endure global competition. Developing countries like India should have two pronged marketing strategy of simultaneously targeting both low price and high quality markets. customs procedures and supply chain management are necessary for augmenting the productivity and exports in this sector. Lack of information 36 . FAIRS AND EXHIBITIONS: It is imperative that Indian exporters participate in fairs and exhibitions organized in the international market. ENABLING INFRASTRUCTURE: The development of the Calcutta Leather Complex is a positive sign as all amenities are available at one place. rather than the traditional strategy of being a low price-low quality supplier. It could serve as a good platform to showcase our products. besides building brand image. Improvements in efficiency of ports.
Further. It is imperative that the staff is skilled and well qualified to train the students.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY about Indian leather manufacturers also acts as a hurdle for international buyers. MAJOR ISSUES AFFECTING THE SECTOR The issues that are hindering the export growth of the Indian leather industry are as follows: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 37 . TRAINING FACILITIES: Training programmes should enable the industry to foresee and adapt to changing trends and technology. programmes need to be conducted to make Indian exporters aware of different standards and requirements in the global market to ensure that Indian exports do not get rejected due to environmental norms.
such as People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). IMPACT OF PETA: Campaigns by NGOs. the average and bound tariffs for leather products remain relatively high. Testing and certification requirements add to the However. CHINESE COMPETITION: 38 . Many developed countries are implementing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) as Non-Tariff Barriers to restrict leather exports from developing countries like India. COST ESCALATION: Leather exporters have to meet domestic as well international environmental norms. it is observed that small supplier firms may not be able to comply with stringent environmental standards.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The leather industry is traditionally considered as a polluting industry in the tanning and finishing stages of the production chain. WTO RELATED MATTERS: With the advent of WTO. leading to greater stringency. Usage of many chemicals has been banned by various countries. High costs of compliance impose real economic costs on firms. the average and bound tariffs for manufactured products have fallen in the developed countries. related to cruelty against animals have led to boycott of Indian leather products by many foreign companies. However. Global standards set by importing countries affect the entry and increase the cost of market access to products of developing countries. The product specifications for leather are constantly under review.
gloves. Chinese leather exports have increased by three-fold after its entry into WTO. accessories) Saddlery and harness articles EXPORT PERFORMANCE 39 . wallets. belts. THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY IS ORGANIZED AS FOLLOWS Tanning & finishing Footwear & Footwear Components Leather Garments Leather Goods (bags. product yield and import and export trade in the world.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Chinese leather industry ranks top on the raw material resources. China is one of the major competitors to India’s leather sector as it has the capability to produce large volume at low price.
05%.30 21.77 6.0 INTRODUCTION: As per DGCI& S monthly export data.01 % VARIATION 20384.07 million against the previous year’s performance of Rs.54 2488.66 6565. In rupee terms the export touched Rs.62 million in the corresponding period of last year. registering a positive growth of 11. the export of leather & leather products for the period April-October 2008 touched US$ 2250. A Statement showing the Product-wise Export performance during April-October 2008 vis-à-vis AprilOctober 2007 is given below: CATEGORY Finished Leather Leather Footwear Footwear Components Leather Garments Leather Goods Saddlery & Harness Non-Leather Footwear TOTAL Source : DGCI &S (Value in Million Rs) APR-OCT APR-OCT 2007 19298.63% 31939.October 2007 1.07 19.82370.01 million showing a positive growth of 19.16% 23276.17% in Dollar Terms.11% 7207.77% 11381.69 5.36 26372.11 18039.03% 2654.79 million against the performance of US$ 2024.70% 1213.98 29.15 1121.58 82370.05% 2008 40 .17% 98058.98058.17 9.25 8.61 8484.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Analysis of Export Performance of leather and leather products during April-October 2008 vis-à-vis April.91 34.
50%.36% 733.36% respectively.28% and Leather Goods by 20.66% In Dollar terms.57 2024.90 -1.36% and 1.54 443.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CATEGORY Finished Leather Leather Footwear Footwear Components Leather Garments Leather Goods Saddlery & Harness Non-Leather Footwear TOTAL (Value in Million US$) APR-OCT APR-OCT 2007 474.43 2.10% 165.51% and Nonleather footwear by 1.1 MAJOR HIGHLIGHTS: Export of Footwear (leather. In Dollar terms.29 20. export of Leather Garments has increased by 25.17% 1. registering a growth of 10. 41 .02%.26 25.79 11.40 million in AprilOctober 2008.94 -0.38 208.35 648. footwear components & non- leather footwear) has increased from US$ 837.51% 261.40 61.10% and footwear components by 2.85 1.50% 60.28% 534.18 million during April-October 2007 to US$ 926.62 2008 % VARIATION 467.36% 27. Export of Saddlery & Harness and Finished Leather marginally declined by 0.12 13. leather footwear has alone grown by 13.23 161.02% 2250.16 27.
(2.55%) Australia (1.72%) Spain (5.08%) France (5.72%) Netherlands (4.58%) Denmark (1.63%) Italy (13.A.21%) U.69%) Belgium (1.61%) USA (9.41%) 42 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 2.0 COUNTRY-WISE ANALYSIS • The major markets for Indian leather products are Germany (13.30%) UK (11..48%) Hong Kong (7.E.
37% Netherlands 27.68% Italy 10.98% UK 8.55% Denmark 39.51% USA 11.20% France 21.98% of India’s total leather products export.26% Spain 11. • Overall positive growth is seen in markets likeo o o o o o o o o Germany 9.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY These 12 countries together accounts for nearly 77.89% 43 .73% Australia 12.
86%.55%. Greece 14. 44 . Russia 15. South Africa 23.29%.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY • Overall decline is seen in markets likeo o o o Hong Kong 9.25%.
37 261.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 3.23 8.20% 240.51% 271.42 10.68% 190.E.0 TREND IN MAJOR IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF LEATHER PRODUCTS Country Germany Italy UK USA France Spain Netherlands U.71 299.18 128.98% 106.29 58.44 11.69 12.71 9.15 31.32% 28.A.73% 42.18 94.55% 175.06 306.29% 45 .64 128.08 37.76 21.61 213.37% 74.66 159.75 27.35 -9. Australia Hong Kong (In Million US$) April-Oct April-Oct % Variation 2007 2008 280.79 11.26% 115.
47 11.01 332.78% 11.30% 72.0 PORT-WISE EXPORT PERFORMANCE As per the Port-wise compilation for the period April-October 2008.66 Share in Total Export 40.81% 6.07% 20.93 2.68% 55.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Source: DGCI & S 4.72% 100.92% 13.79 Note: This is purely based on port-wise compilation and does not reflect the accurate regional performance: Source: DGCI& S 46 .55 433.20 Western 382.24% 14.96 Total 2024.22% 10.27% 11.55 Norther n 226.18 100. (Value in Million US$) Region APROCT 2007 Souther n 865.62 Share in Total Export 42.21% 241.73% 18.66% APROCT 2008 909.00% % Variation 5.51 Others 226.98 Eastern 276.13% 13. export of leather and leather products from all the Regions are showing positive growth.29% 15.17% 11.41% 19.64% 3.18% 261.00% 2250.43 Central 46.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 47 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY STRENGTHS • • High Growth Ready availability of highly skilled and cheap manpower Large raw material base Policy initiatives taken by the Government Major part of the industry is unorganized Limited scope through public (many businesses Difficulty in bank cost of are family-owned) obtaining loans private for private issues mobilizing funds and placements and Capability to assimilate new technologies and handle large projects OPPORTUNITI ES • • • THREATS Rising potential market in the domestic • Continuous emphasis on product development design up gradation. • Growing fashion consciousnes s globally • Use information technology of and decision support software help eliminate the length of the production cycle different products • • • • resulting in high borrowing to WEAKNESSES Lack of warehousing support from the government International price fluctuation Huge labour force resulting in high labour charges Lack of strong presence in the global fashion market • • Stricter High international standards competition East other countries countries from and Asian European for Use of e- Lack of communication facilities skills 48 commerce in Unawareness of international and .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY direct marketing standards by many players CHAPTER THREE GOVERNMENT ROLE IN INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 49 .
There are huge concessions in taxes with five year holiday on the profit tax (income tax) and another five year with lesser percentage of tax as compared to units outside the SEZ.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY PROSPECTS FOR INDIAN LEATHER EXPORTS: Exports has brightened in the recent year as India has emerged natural and alternate supplier of leather and leather goods to the global market. India with its advantage in the availability of raw material and large number of people available in the employment sector with its low manufacturing cost provides ample opportunities for entrepreneurs to invest and grow. Footwear as is known is the main driver of growth with more than 41% of the share in the export market. finished leather exports still constitute a significant 24%. Within the export basket. As the consumption in the domestic market is increasing day by day. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are created in India for producing leather products. India has one of the highest concentrations of cattle population and produces close to 10% of global leather every year. Government of India policy of allowing 100% FDI has opened the gate for global leather entrepreneurs to explore this leather rich country. A foreign investor can own his factory in these zones and could repatriate 100% profit. India is poised to import large quantities of leather from abroad. These zones are deemed foreign territories where exports and imports are duty free. It would be beneficial for the overseas brand owners to forge business partnerships with the existing manufacturers in India with or without equity participation and manufacture goods for domestic market. 50 . Plots are available in SEZ for investments Joint ventures and business collaborations are the known business models in Indian leather sector. Large numbers of living examples of JVs are there for anyone to see.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Government of India is facilitating the development of infrastructure by promoting leather product parks. 51 . These parks are expected to have a complete link in the supply chain and they are expected to increase the production of leather goods and products in the next five years.
52 . The scheme would provide assistance in the form of Investment grant @ 30% to SSI and 20% to Non-SSI upto grant of Rs. 2 crores. 50 lakh within the ceiling of Rs.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY INDIAN LEATHER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ILDP) IMPLEMENTATION DURING 11TH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-12) Leather Sector is the 10th largest manufacturing sector in India and it plays an important role in Indian economy in view of its substantial overall output. 25 lakh would be made in four equal installments. INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF LEATHER SECTOR (IDLS) (Outlay Rs. The scope of the scheme is enhance to include new units. attract investment and global marketing of Indian Leather. address environmental concerns. In order to augment raw material base. the Central Government has approved implementation of the Indian Leather Development Programme (ILDP) for the 11th Five Year Plan comprising of the following components :I.43 crores): This is a 10th plan scheme and is being continued in the 11th plan. The Leather Sector employs 2. The Sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises. Assistance will be provided @ 20% if the grant amount is above Rs. human resource development. 253.5 million people with majority from weaker sections of the society and about 30% women. The disbursement above Rs. enhance capacity. 50 lakh. export earnings and employment potential.
an institution expected to implement the project. would be provided. during the plan period.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY II.17 crores has also been released in December 2007 i. 13.17 CRORES): The institute would be a branch of the footwear design and development institute. IV. The balance of Rs. 7. Infrastructure development towards design and testing centre.36 crores has been released during the 10th plan period. However. 3 CRORES): this is an going scheme of the 10th plan and aims to build a footwear complex near Chennai in 153. A provision of Rs. common power plant etc. Government of Andhra Pradesh has transferred the required land to LIDCAP. III. The project is proposed to be implemented during the 11th Plan.e. 29 crores): This project was proposed to be implemented during the 10th Five Year Plan.53 crores out of which Rs. display centre. This project aims to increase the capacity of the tanning sector. 6. LEATHER TANNING COMPLEX AT NELLORE (Outlay Rs. 53 . the project could not take off for want of decision from the Government of Andhra Pradesh. FOOTWEAR COMPLEX (OUTLAY RS. ESTABLISHMENT OF BRANCH OF FDI (NIFDT) AT FURSATGANJ (OUTLAY RS. The assistance from the Department to the project is Rs. warehousing. 29 crores is approved during 11th plan as assistance to develop the infrastructure of the tanning park.65 acres and provide infrastructure facilities for housing large footwear manufacturing units. State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu Ltd. Noida and would be equipped with facilities of the latest technologies to provide training of international standard with latest technology. 7..
development of iow cost indigenous machinery. International Institute of Saddlery Technology and Export Management (Kanpur). SUPPORT TO ARTISAN (OUTLAY RS. corpus for revolving funds and obtaining bulk raw material.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY (SIPCOT). The artisan clusters (both rural and urban) would be supported for enhancing their designs as per the changing trends and fashion. grant base livelihood support. The industry had identified up gradation and development of skilled manpower. In order order to achieve the above stated objectives an allocation of Rs. a State Government undertaking is the implementing agency. VI. 10 CRORES): Harness and saddler comprise a wide range of products. SADDLER DEVELOPMENT (OUTLAY RS. 10 crores has been approved for the XI plan period. V. 3 crores would be released during the 11th Five Year Plan period. The Central Government has released Rs. 40 CRORES): there are various clusters in Indian making traditional footwear and other leather goods. a special purpose vehicle constituted under the overall guidance and superintendence of IIT (Kanpur) would continue to provide skilled human resources to meet the of the sector and function as an R & D base for the industry. marketing support 54 . The aim of component is to promote the clusters at various forums as they are the integral part of rural Indian economy and have potential for generating local employment and export. standardization and development of components accessories and tools. and improvement in production techniques and processes as major areas of concern. 11 crores during the 10th plan and the balance of Rs.
800 people are trained every year. about 3. Assistance would be provided in the form of one-time grant for the creation of capital assets and permanent infrastructure and no recurring cost would be provided. 60 CRORES): HRD mission would target the non-traditional potential workforce in the rural areas.07 CRORES): In leather sector. The training proposed under the scheme would be output linked where at least 75% of those trained would be placed in the industry. The project would train and prepare the individuals in the rural areas to be fit to work in medium to large industrial units that are likely to be set up.00. West Bengal and Haryana would be established 55 . In order to meet the growing demand of more skilled person the up gradation of existing facilities has become essential. It is proposed that at least three new FDDI campuses each in Tamil Nadu. The broad objective of this component would be to ensure better and higher returns to the artisans.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY linkages. 300.000 skilled person every year for the next five years. would be provided for the up gradation of existing FDDI campus at Noida. The scheme would lay stress on skill development and technical development especially in cutting and stitching. Up gradation of skills of persons already employed in the sector besides training for trainers/ supervisors would also be undertaken. VIII. VII. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (OUTLAY RS. UP-GRADATION OF FACILITIES OF FDDI AND ESTABLISHMENT OF OTHER SUCH INSTITUTES AND CENTRES (OUTLAY RS. Rs 10 crores. Against this supply. the demand of the industry is around 1.
Besides. 200 CRORES): Leather industry and tanning activity in particular. 96. The entire Operation and maintenance costs would be borne by the industry. programme support.69 crores each during the 11th Plan period to meet the growing demand of leather industry. 15% from State government and remaining 35% from the industry. 200 crores has been made in 11th five year plan to address these concerns. An allocation of Rs.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY at a cost of Rs. provisions has also been made for cost on account of advisory and consultancy services in respect of various projects under ILDP being implemented in the 11th Five Year Plan. IX. all over the world is linked to environmental concerns. UPGRADATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN LEATHER SECTOR (OUTLAY RS. 56 . MISSION MODE (10 CRORES): This programme envisages attracting investments into the sector and includes provision for research. surveys and concurrent evaluation etc in leather field. X. Projects for meeting environment concerns would be funded with 50% grants from central Government.
325 Crores would be provided under Promotional Schemes for Leather. Textile etc.2009.4. TEXTILES ETC. ADVANCE AUTHORISATION Export obligation period against advance authorizations has been extended up to 36 months in view of the present global economic slowdown. The details of the promotional schemes are expected to be notified in due course. The issuance of these benefits without BRC would be subject to a Bank Guarantee/LUT in terms of Circular to be issued.09. The exporters shall be required to submit proof of export proceeds realization within the time limits prescribed by Reserve Bank of India. DEPB Duty credit scrips under Chapter 3 and under DEPB scheme shall now be issued without waiting for realization of export proceeds. for exports made with effect from 1. This provision shall be applicable for applications made on or after 1.4.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY SUPPLEMENT TO FOREIGN TRADE POLICY 2004-2009 ANNOUNCED ON 26TH FEBRUARY. 2009. 57 . The major benefits announced in this supplement are given below: PROMOTIONAL SCHEMES FOR LEATHER. An amount of Rs. 2009 Union Minister for Commerce and Industry Shri Kamal Nath announced the Supplement to Foreign Trade Policy 2004-09 on February 26.
For Advance Licenses issued prior to 1.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Supply of an Intermediate product by the domestic supplier directly from their factory to the Port against Advance Intermediate Authorization. OTHER FACILITATION MEASURES Re-imbursement of additional duty of excise levied on fuel under the Finance Acts would also be admissible in respect of EOUs. In view of the prevailing global slowdown. 000 crores in the previous three years and the current year taken together.4. the requirement of MODVAT/CENVAT certificate dispensed with in cases where the Customs Notification itself prescribed for payment of CVD. Govt. the threshold limit for recognition as Premier Trading House has now been reduced to Rs. for export by ultimate exporter. 58 . recognizes Premier Trading Houses based on an export turnover of Rs. This will help in closure of a number of pending advance licenses.2002. In case of Advance Authorization for Annual Requirement where Standard Input-Output Norms are not fixed. PREMIER TRADING HOUSES At present. the provisions in Customs Notification have been amended in line with Foreign Trade Policy.7500 crores. has been allowed.10.
FPS and FMS.2009. Further. for the purpose of Deemed Export Benefits. DGFT and Department of Revenue provisions have been aligned in following matters: 59 . in case of payment of duty by incentive scheme scrips such as VKGUY.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Re-credit of 4% SAD. As per the existing procedure. applicants have to submit individual invoices certified by the jurisdictional excise authorities for claiming duty drawback claims. Requirement of hard copy of Shipping Bills dispensed with for Export Obligation discharge. for getting refund of Terminal Excise Duty deemed export ER-1 / ER-3 are required as documentary proof evidencing payment of excise duty. Electronic Message Transfer facility for Advance Authorization and EPCG Scheme established for shipments from EDI ports w. 1.4. A simplified provision has now been introduced and exporters can now submit a Central Excise certified statement in lieu of individual invoices and a Monthly Statement confirming duty payment in lieu of ER-1/ ER-3.e.f. In addition to the above. has now been allowed.
of FTP for payment of duty under EPCG Scheme. 31st. 2007 for Leather Products and 10% reduction in ECGC Premium on Coverage Charges. 1. RELIEF MEASURES ANNOUNCED GOVERNMENT OF INDIA TO EXPORTERS: BY The Government of India had earlier announced a package of relief measures to the exporters on account of the losses suffered by the exporters due to steep appreciation of Indian Rupee against overseas currencies in the past 8-9 months.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Utilization of Duty Credit scrip allowed under Reward Schemes of/ DEPB.Dec. Department of Revenue shall issue necessary clarification implementing provisions of FTP related to EOUs. 60 . The relief measures included upward revision of the DEPB Rates uniformly for leather and leather products by 3%. reduction of the interest rates on pre-shipment and post-shipment Rupee Export Credit by 2% for the period Apr. Notification of DFIA scheme aligned with FTP provisions. thereby allowing them to supply goods and services at Zero Duty to authorized organizations notified for Zero Duty import.
in any manner. No. Section Services provided by an inspection and 65(105)(zzi) certification agency in relation to inspection and certification of export goods where such technical inspection and certification is required to be undertaken as per written agreement between the exporter and the buyer of the export goods 61 . 1994 (1) (2) (3) 1. Ministry of Finance. dated Oct. 2007. 3. Section Services to any person. Taxable Services Classification Description under Finance Act. by a port or any 65(105)(zn) person authorized by the port. The Service Tax exemption has been granted on the following services: S. Government of India has issued a Service Tax Notification. in relation to port services. Section Services provided by a technical testing and 65(105)(zzh) analysis agency in relation to technical testing and analysis of said goods where such technical testing and analysis is required to be undertaken as per the written agreement between the exporter and the buyer of the said goods 4. Section Services provided to an exporter by an 65(105)(d) insurer.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY SERVICE TAX EXEMPTION SPECIFIED SERVICES: ON CERTAIN The Department of Revenue. including a re-insurer carrying on general insurance business in relation to insurance of said goods 2.
by other port or any 65(105)(zzl) person authorized by that port in relation to port services. 2007 (copy enclosed) extending this benefit to exporters of various products including leather products up to March 31st. 7.2007 announced 2% reduction in interest rates on preshipment and post-shipment credit for the period Apr. 6. 2008: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) vide Notification dated July 13. 1 – Dec. Section Services to any person. 2007 to exporters of certain products including Leather Products. 31. 6. PERMISSION OF INTEREST EARNING ON EEFC ACCOUNT: As members are aware. 62 . Section Services provided for transport of said goods 65(105)(zzp) from the inland container depot to the port of export Section Services provided for transport of said goods 65(105)(zzzp) from the inland container depot to the port of export EXTENSION OF 2% INTEREST REDUCTION ON RUPEE EXPORT CREDIT UP TO MARCH 31ST. 2008. in any manner.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 5. Exchange Earner’s Foreign Currency (EEFC) accounts are currently permitted to be maintained in the form of non-interest bearing current accounts. The RBI has now issued a notification dated Oct.
Members may note that this is a temporary measure valid up to Oct. paving way for expansion on modern lines with state-of-the-art machinery and equipments.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The RBI has issued a Notification dated Oct. Accordingly. The rate of interest will be determined by the banks themselves. 2008. it will now be possible for account holders to maintain outstanding balances to the extent of US $ 1 million in the form of term deposits up to one year maturing on or before 31st October 2008. 31st. 63 . GOVERNMENT SUPPORT – POLICIES The entire leather sector is now de-licensed and dereserved. 6th. 2007 through which exporters maintaining EEFC accounts are permitted to earn interest on EEFC account to the extent of outstanding balances of US $ 1 million per exporter.
Duty neutralization/remission scheme in place like DEPB and Duty Drawback Liberal import-export of consumer products and components Gradual lowering of import tariff . Promotion of Industrial Parks (one leather park in A. one footwear park in T. and one footwear components park in Chennai) Funding support for modernizing manufacturing facilities during Tenth Plan period 2002-07 Funding support for establishing Design Studios Duty free import of all types of raw materials Duty-free import of embellishments and components under specific scheme Concessional duty on import of specified machinery for use in Leather Sector.Peak Rate 10% Simplified import-export procedures.B. Only a declaration to this effect to the Reserve Bank is required.N. facilitating quicker customs clearances LEATHER INDUSTRY TARIFFS 64 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 100% Foreign Direct Investment and Joint Ventures permitted through the automatic route 100% repatriation of profit and dividends. one leather goods park in W. if investments made in convertible foreign currency.P.
tanned dressed fur skins etc. The import of saddle tree required for Harness & Saddlery goods Industry and which fall under Sub Heading 3926. These are listed under List 3A & 3B of CN17/2001 vide SI No. belts. is allowed at concessional duty of 5% in terms of SI. Raw. CAPITAL GOODS AND INPUT USED BY THE LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY ARE BRIEFLY STATED BELOW: The raw hides and skins falling under Customs Tariff Heading No. And these are also exempted from levy of Countervailing Duty (CVD) Certain leather chemicals. 41.01 & 43.. components.90 of the Customs Tariff. 136. 159.02 is exempted from import duty in accordance with Chapter 41 of the Customs Tariff Act. label. stickers.02 & 41. finished leather of all kinds including splits and sides thereof exempted from customs duty in terms of CN 17/2001 vide SI No. including lamb fur skins falling under Chapter 43. 137 of CN 17/2001.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY THE DUTY PRESENTLY APPLICABLE ON RAW MATERIALS.02 have been exempted from Basic Customs duty in terms of SI No.No. buttons or hangers. 65 . The import of fasteners and poly wadding materials and certain other inputs are allowed duty free import by the manufactureexporters of leather garments to the extent of 3% of their previous year’s export performance. consumables etc used in leather & leather products Industry are eligible for concessional import duty 25% CVD equivalent to Central Excise duty is leviable on such inputs. These are exempted from Countervailing Duty also. printed bags. The import of wet blue chrome tanned leather. 265 specified machinery & equipments for use in leather & leather products Industry are eligible for concessional import duty of 5% as per List 6 of CN 17/2001. finishing axillaries. 128 of CN 17/2001.01. Tags. 41. crust leather.
quebracho extract etc are allowed to be imported with 10% Basic Customs Duty. However. accessories and consumables indigenously produced will be subject to 16% Central Excise duty. are exempted from duty in terms of SI No.20. EPCG Scheme etc are exempted from levy of Special Additional Duty of Customs. 4% Special Additional Duty of Customs (SADC) will continued to levied on imports of all items. DEPB Scheme. 66 . the imports under Advance Licenses. Tanning extracts like wattle extract. 10% surcharge on the Basic Customs duty has been removed for all the imports. import of other vegetable tanning extracts under Chapter 32 would continue to attract countervailing duty of 16%. component. 130 of CN 17/2001. No countervailing duty is leviable on Wattle Extract falling under Chapter 3201. Leather chemicals and finishing axillaries.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY imported by bona fide exporters.. However.
Dindigul Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Hyderabad Banglore NORTHERN REGION 67 . Ranipet.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CHAPTER FOUR LEATHER INDUSTRY-TRADE ORGANIZATIONS The Indian leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its substantial export earnings. Vaniyambadi. aimed at optimum utilization of available raw material for maximizing the returns particularly from exports MAJOR PRODUCTION CENTRES: The major production centers in India for leather and leather products are located in: SOUTH REGION Tamil Nadu Chennai. Trichy. employment generation and growth. Ambur. There has been increasing emphasis on its planned development.
Gurgaon.P. Agra WESTERN REGION Maharashtra Mumbai (Bombay) LEATHER INSTITUTES 68 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Punjab Haryana Jalandhar Ambala. Kanpur. Panchkula and Karnal Delhi Delhi EASTERN REGION West Bangel Kolkatta CENTRAL REGION U.
Chennai 600032. New Delhi 110005 Central GST Road. Chennai Institute of Science and Technology. S. Agra. Sector 35-C. of Leather Technology. National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT). Guindy. New Delhi 110016. College Calcuttta 700091. Design Centre.. Selaiyur PO. School of Fashion and Shoe Technology. Karol Footwear Training Institute (CFTI).. REC Jalandhar 144011. 600025. Guindy. 493-94.Salt lake City.O.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI). P. Ambedkar Regional Engineering College.Noida 201301. 69 . 2nd Floor. Chandigarh. Kikarwala Chowk. Bharath Agharam Road. Central AVI Footwear Training Institute (CFTI). Shoe Bagh. B. Footwear (FDDI). Anna University. Design and Development Institute Chennai 600020. 173. Sardar Patel Road. Dr. Chennai 600073.5477/72. 65/1.Adyar.O.C.R.
Muzaffarpur 842003. 70 . Harcourt Butter Technological Institute. Mangalapuram.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Indian Institute of Leather Products (IILP). 102. Chennai. Chennai 600097. Institutes of Leather and Leather Products. Kailashgiri Road. PO. Vellore Distt. VTA Industrial Ekkaduthangal. Ambattur. 635751. Kanpur 208002. SIDCO Industrial Estate. Prototype Development Guindy and Training Centre Estate. National Small Industries Development Organization.Muzaffarpur Engineering College.21. Vaniyambadi 635734. Priyadarshini Konamedu. Anna Salai. (PDTC). Udaendram. Institute of Technology. Vaniyambadi.
Sponsoring sales-cum-study teams and trade delegations. Updating the information on global trends in fashion and design. The CLE serves as a bridge between Indian leather exporters and buyers all over the world. Collating and disseminating world market intelligence. product development. the Council functions under the Ministry of Commerce. Organizing participation of Indian exporters in international fairs and buyer-seller meets. COUNCIL’S SERVICES TO THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY: Collecting.A nonprofit company registered under the Indian Companies Act.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY COUNCIL FOR LEATHER EXPORTS The council for Leather Exports was set up in July 1984. 1956. Government of India. Dissemination of information of commercial and technological nature through seminars and magazines. The Council’s activities also include promoting Foreign Direct Investment and Joint Ventures in the Indian Leather industry. 71 . The council is entrusted with export promotion activities and overall development of the Indian leather industry.
Organizing international leather fairs in India.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Inviting foreign experts for providing technological inputs to Indian leather exporters. Providing trade and commercial information on Indian leather industry 72 . Liaising with various international organizations dealing with trade information. COUNCIL’S SERVICES TO OVERSEAS BUYERS INCLUDE: Serving as a focal point for disseminating information on Indian manufacturers and exporters. Organizing visits of buyers’ delegations dealing with trade information.
GERMANY For shoes and upper shoe. OTHER MARKETS: DENMARK.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY MAIN MARKETS NORTH AMERICA For leather jackets of high value these people are ready to pay any price. SOUTH AFRICA 73 . hand bags and ladies item CIS For all products together more than 25% goes to these parts. EUROPE For valets. purses. SAUDI ARABIA.
Avenue of the Americas. Suite 203 NEW YORK. 74 .edu FFANY Fashion Footwear Association of New York 1414. and 800 of the most prestigious footwear brandnamesworldwide. fondly known as FFANY. OHIO 45221-0014 E-mail: donmezk@email.A.O. 10019 The Fashion Footwear Association of New York. FFANY represents 300 corporations.Box 210014 CINCINNATI. is a non-profit organization. Our goal is to promote and improve the general awareness and demand for fashion footwear and related products and to serve as an advocate of the multibillion dollar footwear industry globally.Tanners Bldg. P.uc. ALCA The American Leather Chimists Association c/o University of Cincinnati .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LATIN AMERICA becoming strong markets for India. INTERNATIONAL LEATHER ORGANISATIONS U.Y.S. N.
Galvin . MD SSIA is the Trade Association for the shoe repair industry in North America. All arkets are held at the Hilton New York located at 1335. La Castellana. NSRA National Shoe Retailers Association Trade organisation representing independent shoe retailers. Founded in 1904. Avenue of the Americas at 54 th Street FIA Footwear Industries of America 1420 K street. Av. VENEZUELA CAFACA Venezuelan Association of Manufacturers of Components and Products for the Footwear Industry.Webmaster 12114 Old Line Center Waldorf. San Felipe. 7150. Columbia Gateway Drive. DC 20005 LLGMA Luggage and Leather goods manufacturers of America Inc. COLUMBIA.com CAFACA promotes the interests of its members both at a national 75 . NW suite 600 WASHINGTON. MD 21046 SSIA Shoe Service Institute of America Robert J.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY FFANY's primary purpose is to organize and implement 6 international trade shows a year in New York City. its members are wholesalers. manufacturers and importers of shoe repair and shoe care products and machinery. Quinta Adina 65. 20602 BALTIMORE. CARACAS 1060 E-mail:cafaca@hotmail.
etc… in the leather and footwear business. designate and coordinate in action among the members relating to manufacture. Ly Thuong Kiet Str. equality and mutual benefits among the members. material supply. aimed at taking fullest account of the existing potential. improving product quality and social . Working regulation of the Association has been approved by the Minister of Industry.vnn. The Association has its own logo. traders. Targets of the Association are to conduct economic affiliated activities. exportation. importation. VIETNAM LEFASO VN Vietnam Leather and Footwear Association 25. technical and science researchers and services suppliers engaged in the industry from all sectors of the economy those are operating in Vietnam.economic effects to the member enterprises. The Association is established and run on the principles of voluntary.vn Year of establishment: 1990 Vietnam Leather and Footwear Association (LEFASO VN) is a social economic affiliated and voluntary organization representing manufacturers. in the meantime. stamp and account.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY and international level and is developing an export programme for the Venezuelan components sector. product consumption. increasing competitive edge in export markets and representing a voice for the member's interests. HANOI E-mail: hhdg@hn. 76 . It is also sponsoring the components fair EXPOCOMP 200.
VIETNAM LEATHER AND FOOTWEAR PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION Head Office: 26. Organization of the Association: The Executive Committee includes 16 members representing all economic sectors involved in the industry throughout the country. 05 Vice Chairman and General Secretary. help the Executive and Permanent Committee. Le Dai Hanh Str. imitation leather and other fields of activity concerned. canvas. leather. 77 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Vietnam Leather and Footwear Association has become an official member of the Asian International Footwear Association since 1996. The association has pleasure to get new members from the country and abroad based on the principle of volunteer and abiding by the regulations of the Association. The Permanent Committee consists of 7 members: Chairman. rubber. providing technical . The Association is now having 90 members and new members are continuing to join the Association Vietnam Leather and Footwear Association looks forward to having cooperation with all organization and companies at home and abroad on the different areas of the industry. HANOI The Vietnam Leather and Footwear Producers Association is a volunteer organization with more than 60 members of different economic components in manufacturing and trading areas . The Association plays a key role in promoting international cooperation. Secretarial group managed by the General Secretary. shoes. The association has relations with Leather and Footwear Associations of many countries in the region and in the world.technological and training support and giving related information. plastic.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CHAPTER FIVE PROMOTION AND MARKETING OF INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY ENTRY INTO CONSIDERATION THE MARKET: BASIC 78 .
A delicate care of following points can go along a long way is enabling the exporter to reach the right market. the supplier cannot compromise even on simple aspect which may “deglamourize” the hide. to say that in the export market One should never think of reducing the price as for the buyer. Since the product is very expensive. Large export organization particularly manufactures exporters maintain a separate research development with qualify staff for his purpose. the exporter must be assured about his product and to which segment he wants to serve. The supplier should make many pieces since they are exclusive – unique. Segmentation of the market. The conclusion drawn from such research activities 79 not supply more than 8-10 pieces . even if it is an exceptionally high price because the buyer.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY A potential supplier seeking to enter the market must ensure first of all that he can compete with other suppliers on quality and price. he has to offer something new. Since the manufactures is a social trends setters. Before embarking on an export venture. Change is always i. Even surveys are conducted. One should never supply a very big quantity at any given movement he should each month. here are abnormal buyers not normal buyers. he has to always keep ahead as Constant. In department collects information about foreign market from all available sources and agencies. Supplying to the upper most group-elite cream of the society.e.
research activities. such information is important in all types of research activities. An exporter should thus. In fact. Various official and all other agencies collect and publish market information for the benefits of exporters. It is imperative that before we sell or market the leather product in the international market. Absolute care. take care of the following points while marketing the products: Climate Tradition Demand Government policy Competition Fashion CLIMATE: A careful study of the geographical condition and demand of the country in which the goods to be exported enables the marketing manager to trigger the right shot in matters international business. a lot of secondary information is available in export marketing though official and non. The temperate belt in both the hemisphere is considered as an ideal location for leather products. 80 . that the study has to be in the light of such factors pertaining to the importing country. we make a very close look and the intensive about the various factors influencing the selling of the product. right channels and perfect contacts alone can lead the exporter to know the market well. which play a decisive role in the success of the whole marketing efforts which is very well accepted at the government level and also at the level of business at present. Needless to say. through sincerity.official agencies in India. The government has made elaborate institutional arrangement to help exporters in the field of market intelligence.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY are supplied to policies maker for forming short term and long term marketing strategies. correctness and relevance of data.
However. which are out of fashion as they have for embracing the things. which affects the selling of the leather products. rather inconvenient factor. The fashion trends seem to change every year and so-called fashion trends have an equal urge to discard the things. it is an inconvenient factor for an ordinary exporter because of its flexibility. In most of the other countries where quantity restraint is applicable it is the government which fixes the quota for a particular product and the local suppliers do not suffers. If the demand is less then we might fail to market our product successfully. Again.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY TRADITION: Tradition plays an important role in marketing the leather product. leather product enjoys a good market in these countries. GOVERNMENT POLICY: The most instances of different government policies in different countries are that of quantity restraint or a quota restriction. which are in fashion. It is the most important because fashion trends and fashion sensitivity are more apt in the U. and western European countries. Coincidentally. DEMAND: The need for the particular leather product in the country where it is exported should be ascertained. the 81 . this applies only to a few of the leather products. It is therefore. such as shoes or the whole foot ware range in general as regard other leather products such as jacket the impact of tradition dampens.S. The demand and supply should be on even terms. COMPETITION: One of the intelligent ways of entering the export market in a particular country with the level of quality and the price of the competitors. FASHION: Fashion is one of the most important and to some extends.
Brazil. The latter one being difficult is not just impossible to be done with a careful study of the previous marketing trends. Several are in European Union. Finland & Estonia.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY duty of the marketing manager to either stay or tune with the latest fashion or created a new test for the consumer. New Zealand. 82 . Qualitative advertising and sales promotion policies new test can be developed. RECENT MARKETING EFFORTS TO PROMOTE THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY International Fairs & Buyer. Chile. Argentina. Buyer – Seller meets between Indian product exporter and overseas importer in several countries like Spain.Seller Meets. Venezuela. International Leather fairs continued to be an effective medium of establish business relation with potential overseas buyers. USA and China. Australia. Portugal. The council current year organize participation of Indian leather exporters in 15 major international fairs.
.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY INTERNATIONAL LEATHER FAIRS IN INDIA 2008-09 S. Finished Leather. Saddlery & Harness items 1 Delhi International Leather Fair Pragati Maidan New Delhi Oct 16-18. Pragati MaidanNew Delhi 110001.N o. India Trade Promotion OrganisationPragati Bhavan.com PRODUCTS Leather Goods (like wallets. 2008 83 . travelware etc. Footwear Components. Leather Garments. DETAILS OF THE FAIR PARTICULARS OF THE ORGANIZER India Trade Promotion Organisation Pragati Bhawan. 1493 www. purses. Footwear (including nonleather footwear). Pragati Maidan. Accessories.). hand bags. 23371965 Fax: 91-11-23371869.110 001(India) Phone: 91-11-23378802.dilfleatherfair. 1492.New Delhi .
New Delhi .com 84 . 2009 garments 23371822 Fax: 91-11-23371874. 31.com 3 India Trade Promotion OrganisationPragati Bhawan. International Leather Goods like India Trade Promotion Leather Goods wallets.110 001(India) Phone: 91-11-23371390. OrganisationPragati Fair Kolkata . India ( including nonleather footwear). 001(India) Feb. India Trade Promotion OrganisationPragati Bhavan.110 leather goods . Machinery and Chemicals India Trade Promotion OrganisationPragati Bhawan. bags. travelware.2009 Finished Leather. 1492.iilfleatherfair. hand bags. Components. Pragati MaidanNew Delhi . Pragati Maidan. India travelware etc. Bhavan. purses. 1493 Email: ppy@itpo-online..INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 2 Leather Goods ( like wallets. 1493 www.110 001. Pragati MaidanNew Delhi 110001. 1492. 22-24.ilgfleatherfair.Feb. Accessories. Footwear Jan.) International Leather Garments. purses.New Delhi . Pragati India luggageware small Maidan.com www. Leather Fair Footwear Chennai. footwear and leather Phone: 91-11-23371390. 23371822 Fax: 91-11-23371874. 3.
the Council organizes exclusive interactive Buyer Seller Meets (BSM). Feb. USA. Feb. subject to certain eligibility conditions. In countries where there are no appropriate leather product fairs but which have good potential for Indian leather products. 12-14. USA. 2009 Magic Show. Las Vegas. 16-19. Las Vegas. 2009 Buyer Seller Meets in Saudi Arabia & Jordan during Feb/March 2009 85 . taking the assistance of local agencies to market and coordinate the event.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CONNECTING INDIAN LEATHER TO THE WORLD CLE AT INTERNATIONAL FAIRS/BSMS The Council for Leather Exports regularly organizes Group Participation of Indian Member Companies in many leading international leather product fairs and tradeshows. The Government provides funding assistance to the Council and to Exporters for participation in Fairs & BSM's under the Market Development Assistance (MDA) Scheme and the Market Access Initiative Scheme (MAIS). WSA Show.
Alicante SPAIN May 27-29.Fashion Access & Materials Manufacturing & Technology Fair • 86 . March 9-11.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY BTS Fair of Shoes.2009 LIST OF ROAD SHOWS ORGANIZED / TO BE ORGANIZED IN OVERSEAS COUNTRIES BY THE CLE DURING 2008-09 • • • • Madrid. 2009 ILM Winter Styles – International Leather Goods Fair. alongside the MICAM and MIPEL Fair • HONG KONG March 31. Elche SPAIN Nov 24-26. Offenbach. Germany. Poznan. March 1315. 2009 Global Shoes Fair Dusseldorf. 2009.April 2. March 20-22. 2009 alongside the Moda Footwear and Moda Accessories Milan. Germany. Novo Hamburgo BRAZIL July 2-4. ITALY March 5. 2008 Madrid. 2008 Sao Paulo. alongside the APLF . Poland. Leather & Leather Goods. 2008 Birmingham UK Feb 15-17. 2009.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY ROLE OF EXIM BANK IN PROMOTING INDIAN LEATHER SECTOR Export Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) has helped the leather exporting units to modernize and upgrade their production facilities. Washington and the medium enterprises in the 87 . Line of Credit and Export hands respectively with (IFC). install pollution control and environmental safety systems of internationally accepted standards and develop export market for value added products through strategic export market development plans. joining International Finance Corporation World Bank to support small and leather sector. Exim Bank implemented Agency Development Project.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CHAPTER SIX EXPORT PROCEDURE AND DOCUMENTATION RELATING TO THE INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY DOCUMENTATION AND PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS EXPORT DOCUMENTS: 88 .
Bills of exchange and shipment advice AUXILIARY DOCUMENTS: 1. Certificate of origin 8. Performa invoice 2. Certificate of inspection/quality control 6.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Commercial documents Regulatory Pre-shipment documents COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS: Commercial documents are those which. 14 out of 16 commercial documents have been standardized and aligned to one another. Packing list 3. by customs of trade. Combined transport documents 5. Shipping order and bill of exchange could not be brought within the fold of the aligned documentation system because of their very different data elements and having a very little in common with other commercial documents. Intimation for inspection 3. The commercial documents may be classified into: Principal documents Auxiliary documents PRINCIPAL DOCUMENTS: 1. Insurance certificate/policy 7. Bill of lading 4. Commercial invoice 2. Shipping instructions 89 . are required for affecting physical transfer of goods and their title from the exporter to the importer and the realization of export sale proceeds.
Exchange control declaration prescribed by RBI GR/PP forms 8. Application for certificate of origin 8.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 4. Export application (prescribed by port trust) 5. customs etc. Receipt for payment of port charges 6. Insurance declaration 5. Gate pass-I/Gate authorities) pass-II (prescribed by central excise 2. export trade control. Vehicle ticket 7. Shipping order 6. Letter to the bank for collection/negotiation of documents REGULATORY PRE-SHIPMENT DOCUMENTS: Regulatory pre-shipment export documents are those which have been prescribed by different government departments/bodies in compliance of the requirements of various rules and regulations under relevant laws governing export trade such as export inspection. Shipping bill/bill of export (prescribed by central excise authorities ) • For export of goods • For export of duty free goods • For export of dutiable goods • For export of goods under claim for duty drawback 4. Mate receipt 7. There are 9 regulatory documents associated with the pre-shipment stage of an export transaction and are as follows: 1. Freight payment certificate 90 . AR4/AR4A form (prescribed by central excise authorities ) 3. foreign exchange regulations.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 9. Documents related to inspection. Insurance premium payment certificate The different commercial regulatory documents may be classified into: Documents related to shipments. Documents related to payment. but the importer 91 . DOCUMENTS RELATED TO GOODS (I) INVOICE: • CUSTOMS INVOICE The customs invoice is used in lieu of the commercial invoice in a few importing countries for customs purposes. Documents related to excisable goods Documents related to foreign exchange regulations.
It is used for customs clearance and other purposes. The shipper gets the packing list ready at the time the goods are being is prepared for shipping. The customs invoice can be in a form called the certificate of value. In many cases. Certain importing countries may require their importers. Canada and Israel. have already phased out this invoice. Many importing countries. The exporter's declaration normally is included in a consular invoice. • CONSULAR INVOICE The consular invoice is a specific invoice issued by the Consul of the importing country. The consular invoice is a form of non-tariff barrier. items. including quantities. mainly less developed countries. (II) CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN: The Certificate of Origin is only required by some countries. Special certificates are needed for countries with which the United States has special trade agreements. such as Mexico. model numbers. a statement of origin printed on company letterhead will suffice. not the exporters in the exporting country. The invoice is selfcertified by the exporter.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY often needs a commercial invoice too. A packing list should specify per carton or crate the number and type of units of material inside. 92 . The consular legalization and payment of a consular fee is required. The consular fee can be a percentage of the FOB invoice value. (II) PACKING LIST: The packing list is the detailed list of contents of the shipment. as such any errors or omissions on the invoice may cause problems and fines at the customs in the importing country. to provide the completed customs invoice for customs clearance. dimensions and net and gross weights.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CERTIFICATES RELATED TO SHIPMENT 93 .
(IV) BILL OF LADING: It is a contract between the owner of the goods and the carrier (as with domestic shipments). description of packages. DOCUMENTATION 94 . and contains information about the name of the vessel.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY (I) MATE RECEIPT: Mate receipt is a receipt issued by the commanding office of the ship when the cargo is loaded on the ship. berth. condition of the cargo at the time of receipt on board the ship etc. which can never be made in negotiable form. date of shipment. marks and numbers. This document is of four types Free shipping bills Drawback shipping bills Ex-bond shipping bills (III) AIRWAY BILLS: Airfreight shipments are handled by air waybills. there are two types: a straight bill of lading which is nonnegotiable and a negotiable or shipper's order bill of lading. For vessels. (ii) SHIPPING BILL: Shipping bill is the main document for obtaining custom permission for shipping goods.
This certificate is needed for getting some more export incentives given by the Government of India. One may categorize export documents into three dimensions on the basis of their role in smooth flow of trade. A) GR FORM / PP FORM: GR FORM / PP FORM in duplicate are required for every consignment for obtaining customs clearance. GR FORM is needed for all consignments other than ones being shipped by post. difficult and critical activity of export marketing particularly in India. REGULATORY CONTROL IN INDIA After becoming an exporter company it is required to obtain a (RCMC) from the relevant export promotion council. B) DOCUMENTATION: Various documents originated during export marketing activities of Moserbaer are defined below: 95 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Generally documentation is perceived to be the most complex. Successful consummation of an export order needs innovative skills and meticulous planning including proper compliance and subsequent documentary provision. This form is needed as a legal requirement under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act of India. Next step in becoming an exporting unit is to obtain importer-exporter code number from director general of foreign trade. while PP FORM is needed for goods going by post. commodity board or any other designated body.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY • SALE ORDER / CONTRACT: It is a premiere document that has to be generated in any transaction. It is an agreement between buyer and seller. in which seller has agreed to buy them.S. at an agreed price with specified delivery terms. and C&F etc.A. F. • F.S (FREE ALONG SIDE): In this seller has the obligation to deliver the goods alongside the vessel on the quay. The buyer has to bear all the cost and risk of loss or damage to the goods. Delivery terms may be F. 96 .B.A.O.
Standard terms and condition f. Various contents of sale order are listed below: a. Period of delivery d. The transportation.B (FREE ON BOARD) When the delivery condition is F. Types of financial arrangements 97 .O. he sends his sale order to the buyer. Sometimes the buyer intimates the seller by sending the purchase order. insurance and other agreements are to be made by the buyer. the seller has the liability to load the goods / materials on the vessel specified by the buyer. Quantity and quality of the product c. In case of “International Trade” the buyer and seller separated by distant boundaries.O. The buyer or seller initiates the formation of contract by sending purchase order or sale order respectively. or if seller finds the initiative lucrative. Thus in this way the parties enter into a contract with each other. C & F (COST AND FREIGHT) The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring goods to the named port of designation but the risk of loss and damage to the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer.B.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY DUTIABLE SHIPPING BILLS F. Port of delivery e. Price of the product b. Such type of contract is known as “Constructed Contract”.
I) Issuing or opening Bank II) Reimbursing Bank 3. L/C can be classified into 3 types: 1. the buyer’s liable to pay. REVOCABLE OR IRREVOCABLE: 98 . In this type of credit. under which payment will be made provided that certain conditions are fulfilled within given time. It is commonly referred as commercial L/C as it a means to opening a credit in favour of someone.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY g. I) Advising / confirming Bank II) Paying Bank III) Negotiating Bank Based on security. PARTIES INVOLVED IN L/C: 1. It is thus also known as banker’s commercial or documentary credit. Payment terms DOCUMENTS RELATED TO PAYMENT (i) LETTER OF CREDIT: Under L/C the buyer promise to pay the seller on due date. Buyer or importer 2. Seller or exporter or beneficiary 4.
• 2. Otherwise the L/C is unconfirmed. signed by the maker. it becomes confirmed. It is the means of collecting money through banking channels and also a method of payment by credit. (iii) BANK CERTIFICATE OF PAYMENT It is a certificate issued by the negotiating bank of the exporter. It is a legal document.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY • A revocable L/C can be cancelled or modified. then this bank can recover the whole money with interest from the seller. In India. A bill of exchange is also referred as “Draft”. the liability of the exporter ends after he has deposited the required documents and received payments. An irrevocable L/C cannot be cancelled without prior notice to the seller of exporter. by the buyer at any time without any notice to the seller. But in case of without recourse. 1881. CONFIRMED OR UNCONFIRMED: When the bank authorized by opening bank confirms an irrevocable L/C. 3. certifying that the bill covering particular consignments has been 99 . defines bill of exchange as“An instrument in writing containing an unconditional order. directing the person to pay certain amount”. (ii) BILLS OF EXCHANGE: It is a document for the goods exported. RECOURSE OR WITHOUT RECOURSE: If the advising bank pays the seller but does not get reimbursing from the opening bank. Section 5 of Negotiable Act.
1730. by the company to the central excise department of custom. Port of dispatch c. it applies to central excise department to get exemption. 185. Shipment schedule d. It is an instruction or order given by the company’s marketing department to the plant to dispatch specified goods to the port of any other designations. for excise relief. Name of the buyer (v) A. to gain foreign exchange.4 FORM: It is an application. This application is known as the A.R. Place and port of schedule e. by giving application in a prescribed format under rules – 158. Hence if the company exports goods to foreign countries. (iv) DISPATCH INSTRUCTION: Dispatch instruction is almost like sale order. The contents of A.R. Specification and quantity of materials to be transported b.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY negotiated and that the proceeds received in accordance with exchange control regulation in the approved manner. Contents of dispatch instruction are given below: a.4 FORM are listed below: a) Name and address of range officer 100 . from excise duty.R.4 FORM. In India exportable goods are exempted from duty.
Mode of dispatch d. It is meant for excise purpose.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY b) Name of the company c) Port of loading d) Country of loading e) Central excise regd.4 reference (vi) 101 . It contains the following: a. No. Price of goods c.R. Buyer’s details f. A. f) Number and description of goods g) Gross weight / net weight h) Value of goods i) Weight and quantity of goods j) Duty rate and amount k) Amount of rebate claimed l) Remarks m) Declaration of the company (v) DELIVERY INVOICE: The plant prepares it at the time of removal of goods from the plant. Port of dispatch e. Quantity of goods dispatched b.
(ix) G. Notify’s name d. Designation (vii) TEST CERTIFICATE: It is a verification certificate that shows that the goods shipped have the required cast no. It is a sort of invitation to the buyer from the seller to place a firm order to him. A Proforma invoice contains: a. This certificate is generally desired by the importer so that he can be sure that right types of goods ordered are being send by the exporter. Countries of origin f. For this purpose an agency called (EIC) was created. It helps in getting custom clearance. It is deposited with the custom clearance for estimation of excise duty.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY PROFORMA INVOICE: It is basically a form of quotation by the seller to the buyer. (viii) INSPECTION CERTIFICATE: It is a document which certifies that the goods have been inspected (prior to shipment). and percentage composition. In India certain goods are subjected to quality control. Buyer’s name e.R FORM: 102 . Consignee’s name c. Exporter’s name b.
Exporter’s name and address b. Invoice no. G.I. This form is one kind of guarantee given by exporter to R. Details of packages and goods 103 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY It is one of the most important documents in international business.I. Port of designation e. description (x) SHIPPING BILL: It is the main document on which custom permission for export is given. Port of loading d. Exporter’s name and address b. Invoice no. This form is obtained from R.B. And date c.B. And date c.R FORM contains: a. It contains the following: a. which is necessary for loading the cargo on ship. Consignee’s name and address d) Port of loading and discharge e) Country of designation f) Exchange rate g) Currency of invoice h) Net & gross weight. It is a document. particulars. The exporter gives guarantee that within “six” months of transaction the foreign currency involved will be realized. This form is filled by the exporter and is endorsed by the customs. It is custom document.
Date of shipment d. marine insurance is taken up. It is a receipt for goods. 104 . It serves the following 3 purposes: It is a document of title of goods shipped.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY f. Description of packages etc (xii) BILL OF LADING: It is a document which is issued by the shipping company acknowledging the receipt of goods mentioned there / in and undertaking that the goods are in condition and will be delivered to the consignee. Insurance Policy is normally done through agents. In India there are various insurance companies. provided that the freight specified therein is duly paid. Berth c. Hence to avoid such transit losses. It contains the following information:a. amount (xi) MATE RECEIPT: When the cargo is loaded on the ship. currency. Name of the vessel b. Analysis of export value. received by the steamship company. It contains the terms of the contract between the shipper and shipping company (xiii) MARINE INSURANCE: When the goods are transported from one place to another there is always risk involved. the commanding officer / captain of the ship will issue the receipt called the “mate receipt” for goods loaded. such as General Insurance Company.
Particulars and description of goods 105 . Destination h. Insured value i. Vessel no. Name of the insured d. Name and address of the subsidiary of insurance company b. Terms of insurance j. Place of dispatch f.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Marine insurance contains the following: a. Claim payable c. e. Port of loading and dispatch g.
O. to fulfill its export obligations. • If a unit approved under this scheme is unable for any reason.U: Export Oriented Units means an industrial unit offering for its entire production. like Hardware. These units have to operate under customs bond and are expected to achieve the levels of net foreign exchange earnings fixed by the Board of Approval as a percentage of their exports. flexibility of operations and incentives. 106 . In order to enable them to operate successfully in the international markets. • The unit will undertake to manufacture in bonded area and to export its entire period ordinarily of five years. it would have to pay the following duties. excluding rejects and items otherwise specifically permitted to be supplied to the domestic Tariff Area (DTA). local zoning laws and environmental regulations. Such units may be set up under the Export Oriented Unit (EOU) scheme or Export Processing Zone (EPZ). full exemption of excise duty is available. Such units may be engaged in manufacture/production or trading of any goods. Units engaged in service activities may also be considered on merits.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 100% E. • Once a 100% EOU is de-bonded. EOUs are governed by the following basic terms and conditions: • It may be established anywhere in India subject to location criteria. Electronic Hardware Technology Park (EHTP). raw materials and components and consumables free of customs duties. The scheme of 100% Export Oriented Units (EOUs) was introduced in the year 1980 with the objective of generating of production capacity for exports by providing an appropriate policy frame work. such units are allowed to import machinery. and if procured indigenously. the Board of Approval will review the case and recommend the future course of action to be taken in regard to that unit.
• Customs duty on unused raw materials.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY • Customs duty on capital goods on the depreciated value but at the rate prevailing at time of import. 107 . excised duty without any depreciation and at rates applicable at the time of clearance. EOUs established anywhere in India and export 100% its products except certain fixed percentage of sales in the domestic Tariff Area as may be permissible under the policy. • In respect of excisable goods. consumables and spares of value at the time of import at rates in force at the time of clearance. components.
) Full description of the required product. An enquiry for leather should. if available Sample.Sea. Size details . inter alia. Leather Type Part Number (Preferably the OE Makers' Part No. if possible Quantity required Delivery schedule Is the price required on FOB or C& F or CIF basis Mode of Dispatch .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY EXPORT PROCEDURES STEP 1: ENQUIRY The starting point for any Export Transaction is an enquiry. air or Sea/air Mode of Packing Terms of Payment that would be acceptable to the Buyer – If the buyer proposes to open any Letter of Credit. specify the following details or provide the following data.If so. any specific requirement to be complied with by the Exporter Is there any requirement of Pre-shipment inspection and if so.Standard or oversize or undersize Drawing. from what agency STEP 2 108 . by which agency Any Certificate of Origin required .
a packing list is a must. delivery and payment terms. giving as much data as possible in terms of specifications. the Buyer will then place an order on the Exporter.will provide a proforma invoice to the Buyer. STEP 5 GOODS READINESS & DOCUMENTATION Once the goods are ready duly packed in Export worthy cases/cartons (depending upon the mode of dispatch). 109 .be it Manufacturer Exporter or Merchant Exporter . the Invoice is prepared by the Exporter. (No standard format is required for such a purchase order) STEP 4 ORDER ACCEPTANCE It is advisable that the Exporter immediately acknowledges receipt of the order.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY PROFORMA GENERATION After studying the enquiry in detail. giving a schedule for the delivery committed. STEP 3 ORDER PLACEMENT: If the offer is acceptable to the Buyer in terms of price. Part No. Quantity etc. If the number of packages is more than one. the exporter .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Even If the goods to be exported are excisable. either by air or by sea. following the AR4 procedure. following the AR4 procedure. Invoice 2. but it would be advisable to get the consignment sealed by the Central Excise authorities at the factory premises itself.first and the second copy 5. as required by Customs 110 . Declaration in Form SDF (to meet the requirements as per FERA) in duplicate. claiming exemption of excise duty. 4. there is an obligation cast on the exporter to provide proof of export to the Central Excise authorities. 1. no excise duty need be charged at the time of Export. AR4 . STEP 7 DOCUMENTS FOR C & F AGENT The Exporter is expected to provide the following documents to the Clearing & Forwarding Agents. STEP 6 GOODS REMOVAL FROM WORKS There are different procedures for removing Export consignments to the Port. If export consignments are removed from the factory of manufacture. Packing List 3. no Sales Tax also is payable for export of goods. Any other declarations. Similarly. so that open inspection by Customs authorities at the Port can be avoided. who are entrusted with the task of shipping the consignments. as export goods are exempt from Central Excise. but the AR4 procedure is to be followed for claiming such an exemption.
STEP 10 111 . Bill of Lading or Airway bill. Customs signed Export Invoice & Packing List 2. Duplicate of Form SDF 3. the export consignments are permitted by Customs for ultimate Export. through a particular format.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY On account of the introduction of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system for processing shipping bills electronically at most of the locations .the C&F Agents are required to file with Customs the shipping documents. AR4 (original & duplicate) duly endorsed by Customs for having effected the Export 5. processed electronically 4. Exchange control copy of the Shipping Bill. STEP 9 DOCUMENT FORWARDING After completing the shipment formalities. Broad categories of export shipments are: • • • • Under claim of Drawback of duty Without claim of Drawback Export by a 100% EOU Under DEPB Scheme STEP 8 CUSTOMS CLEARANCE After assessment of the shipping bill and examination of the cargo by Customs (where required). which will vary depending on the nature of the shipment.both for air or sea consignments . This is what the concerned Customs officials call the ‘LET EXPORT’ endorsement on the shipping bill. the C & F Agents are expected to forward to the Exporter the following documents: 1. as the case may be.
for which the exporters in the developing countries are expected to furnish the GSP Certificate of Origin to the Bankers. days Step11 BANK TO BANK DOCUMENTS FORWARDING The negotiating Bank will scrutinize the shipping documents and forward those to the Banker of the importer. STEP 12 CUSTOMS OBLIGATION DISCHARGE As indicated above. imports from developing countries enjoy certain duty concessions. payable at sight or payable at. which factor has to be intimated to the Reserve Bank by means of periodical Returns. 112 . payment terms can be: • • • DP Terms DA Terms Letter of Credit. Exporters are also expected to provide proof of export to the Central Excise authorities.. Banks.. discharged. on the basis of the Customs endorsements made on the reverse of AR4s and get their obligation. the Exporter will have to negotiate the relevant export bill through authorized dealers of Reserve Bank. viz.. It is expected of such authorized dealers of Reserve Bank to ensure receipt of export proceeds. on this score. Under the Generalized System of Preference.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY BILLS NEGOTIATION With these authenticated shipping documents. to enable him clear the consignment. Broadly. along with other shipping documents.
once the payment is received and only with the issuance of the Bank Certificate. as only through such a system Reserve Bank can ensure receipt of export proceeds for goods shipped out of this country.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY STEP 13 RECEIPT OF BANK CERTIFICATE Authorized dealers will issue Bank Certificates to the exporter. It is mandatory on the part of the Exporters to negotiate the shipping documents only through authorized dealers of Reserve Bank. 113 . the export transaction becomes complete.
form (original & duplicate) Shippers Declaration form Copy of export contract / L. 9. 12. 13. 14. 22. Export Application / Dock Challan Cart Ticket / Chit Shipping Order Port Trust of the Shipping Bill L/C (where required) Commercial Invoice Bill of Lading Insurance Policy (certificate) Bill of Exchange GR. 5. Form (duplicate copy) Bank certificate (three copies) Export inspection certificate (wherever required) Certificate of origin Shipment Advice TO THE BANK: TO THE LICENSING AUTHORITIES: 114 . ORGANIZATION AND AGENTS: TO THE CUSTOMS AUTHORITIES: 1. 11. 8. 15.C / exporters order Inspection certificate AR4 / AR4a / AR5 form Export license ( wherever necessary ) Weighment certificate (wherever necessary ) TO THE PORT AUTHORITIES: 10. 20. 16. 6. 17. 19. Shipping Bill Commercial Invoice GR. 21. 3. 18.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LIST OF DOCUMENTS REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED BY THE EXPORTER TO THE VARIOUS AUTHORITIES. 23. 4. 2. 7.
Application in Prescribed 26. Non negotiable copy the B/L or the shipment certificate TO THE EXPORT INSPECTION COUNCIL 36. ext. Application for Exporter-Importer Code number in duplicate 25. Application in the prescribed form Copy of Letter of Credit Copy of export contract Commercial Invoice Bank passbook showing credit in favour of EIA to the of Inspection fee or bank draft/crossed cheque for fee TO RBI: For Remittance of foreign exchange for the payment of claims 41. Duplicate copy of AR-4 form 35. Bill of lading 45. 27.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 24. Sales contract 44. Application in form ‘C’ 34. Statement of Export 28. Bank Receipt / Draft for Application Fee 29. 37. Chartered Engineers Certificate TO THE EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL: 31. Application form 42. 40. 38. Copy of Export Order / L. Inspection / analysis report 115 . Bank Certificate regarding financial Soundness TO THE MARITIME COLLECTOR OF CENTRAL EXCISE: 33. Bond / Legal Undertaking toward Export Obligation 30. 39. Application for Registration form cum member certificate 32.C. Copy of Invoice 43.
55. Statement regarding the projection of the credit requirement TO THE BANK (FOR PACKING CREDIT) 51. Proforma invoice Original RR endorsed to the Bank Copy of Dispatch advice Copy of Order or L/C. 54. Combined certificate of origin and value (mainly required by Common wealth countries) 65. For Export Risk Insurance 59.G. 62. Balance sheet of Exporter 49. Letter of credit or letter of Guarantee from Importer 48. Document required by importing countries.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY TO EXPORT – IMPORT BANK: For direct financial assistance to Exporters. Export contract 47. Statement giving reasons why exports are made on deferred payment arrangement. 50.C. Application form for fixing the credit limit. L/C or Guarantee form Importer 58. 53. Bank Certificate about financial position 61. Application form FOR MEDIUM CREDIT 56. Certificate of value 64. Middle Eastern countries) 63. Proposal form 60. 52.S.) 116 . in the transaction covered by the contract. Consular Invoice (mainly required by Latin America. Statement of Profit and Loss A/C. 46.C. Export contract 57. TO THE E. Customs invoice (for U.
Health certificate for exports of foods product.SHIPMENT FINANCE: . Generalize system of preference certificate of origin. processing. manufacturing of packing of goods as defined by RBI as its name suggest it covers credit extended by banks prior to the shipment of goods. vegetable. Certificate of origin 68. Basically. etc.SHIPMENT FINANCE Pre shipment finance or packing credit are also known as shortterm credit refers to any loan to an exporter for financing the purchases. the finance available to Indian exporters can be classified into two broad categories as follows: I) PRE. 67. seeds. CHAPTER SEVEN FINANCING The government of India has introduced several schemes to finance the various needs of Indian exporters. fish. It is a shot term credit because it is granted for the short period of time say about 6 months as against medium and long term credit extended for 117 PRE. a packing credits is a loan against exportable stocks.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 66. in effect.SHIPMENT FINANCE II) POST.
PACKING CREDIT TO INDIAN EXPORTERS 1. The merchant exporter/export/trading/star trading house neither has availed not wish to seek packing credit in respect of the appropriate order. THREE CATEGORIES. export/trading/star trading houses and manufacturer-exporters. ELIGIBILITY Packing credit is available to all exporters whether merchant-exporters. NAMELY: Packing Credit – Clean or secured. depending upon the nature of production and procurement system concerning the export commodity. Extended packing credit loan. Packing credit loan (hypothecation) Packing credit loan (pledge) Secured shipping loan. 118 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY period beyond 6 months. except where the period is extended otherwise. PRE-SHIPMENT FINANCE IN INDIA. Advance against Duty Drawback. CLASSIFIED INTO Advance against incentives receivable from the Government. from any other bank/source. Even manufacturers of goods supplying to export/trading/star trading houses and the merchant exporters are eligible for this credit provided They produce a letter from the concerned merchant exporter/export/trading/star trading house that a portion of the order has been allotted to them detailing the goods to be supplied. Packing credit can also be put into following four categories.
119 . DOCUMENT REQUIRED: Following documents are to be submitted along with the application from for packing credit. PURPOSE/PRODUCT COVERED Packing credit advance is generally available to eligible exporters/manufacturers for the purpose of manufacturing or purchasing or transporting or processing of warehousing of packing and shipping of goods meant for export of goods. a requirement is to be made to the bank.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The letter from the merchant exporter of export/trading of star trading house is countersigned by the bank advising the letter of credit. a formal application giving details of credit. While some banks have evolved forms for the purpose. No advance at concessive rate of interests is allowed against products. It is available to all exporter/product groups subject to stipulated conditions hence the RBIs interest rate structure is uniformly applicable to export of all the commodities made by all exporters. 4. 2. Undertaking that advance will be utilized for specific purpose of procuring/manufacturing/shipping etc of the goods meant for export only stated in the related confirmed export order or the I/c. which will not be eventually exported. APPLICATION FOR PACKING CREDIT: For obtaining packing credit. others either accept the application on general loan forms or on plain paper. Confirmed export order/contract of I/c etc in original. 3.
Audited/final financial statements for the pat 3/5 years. II) POST –SHIPMENT FINANCE: Post shipment credit/finance means any loan or any other credit provided by any institution to an exporter of goods from India. on consideration of or on the security of any drawback or any cash receivable by way of incentives from the government.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Joint and several demands promote signed on the behalf of firm as well as the partner individually. 2. 120 . Copy of income tax/wealth tax assessment order for the past 2/3 years in the case of sole proprietary and partnership firm. and includes any loan or advance granted to an exporter. Letter of authority to operate the account. Letter of hypothecation of bills. Purchase /discount of export documents under confirmed orders/exports contracts. Copy of a valid RCMC (Registration cum Membership Certificate) held by the exporter. Letter of pledge to secured demand cash against goods (in case of pledge) or agreement of hypothecation to secure demand cash credit (in case of hypothecation). Appropriate policy/guarantee of ECGC. Negotiations/payments/acceptance of export documents under letter of credit. from the date of extending the credit after shipment of goods to the date of realization exports proceeds. Any other document required by the bank. Article on association. Letter of continuity (signed on the behalf of firm and partner individually). CATEGORIES: 1. Partnership deed in case of partnership firm or memorandum of association. Agreement to utilize the money drawn in term of contract. Certificate of Incorporation and commitment of business for public/private limited companies with certify copy of board resolutions. Copy of RBIs code no (CNX).
Advances against exports on consignment basis. and construction contract. the proceeds to be credited to current/packing credit account any forward rate to be used for transactions. Enclose the documents with covering letter (signed by the authorized signatory) indicating the type of facility required i. 7. turnkey projects. 8. negotiation. etc. purchase or discount etc.e. 6. 1. etc. Advances against bills sent on collection basis. PROCEDURE For availing post-shipment finance facilities. following procedure is to be followed.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 3. 121 . Advances against retention money. instructions regarding collection charges from drawees. documents to be released against payment/acceptance. Advances against duty drawback entitlement. 5. Finance exports under deferred payment agreements. 4. Advances against un draw balances.
Obtain a seller’s contingency policy in case of C&F/F.O. Document should be correctly drawn and authenticated.B. contracts. 3. CHAPTER EIGHT FUTURE PROSPECTS OF INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 122 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 2.
The Indian leather industry has set $7 billion export target by 2011. Canada and Latin America. is currently looking for partners in India.7 billion. the Council for Leather Exports and the Indian Leather Products Association. Retail major Wal-Mart is also eyeing the Indian leather sector. West Europe. This is up from $2. Tapan Nandy. An Italian delegation. The International Leather Goods Fair. an international school for shoes & leather accessories designing. which is being organized by the India Trade Promotion Organization. will have business visitors from the US. according to Union Commerce & Industry Minister Kamal Nath. 123 . president of the Indian Leather Product Association. showed interest in India's leather industry. Italy's Arpel Group. which had visited Kolkata recently. More than 68 companies from India and one each from Italy and China would take part. the current export earnings from the leather sector with an annualized growth of around 8 percent. It is eager to forge tie-ups’ with various Italian leather goods designers to achieve the target.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER INDUSTRY EXPORTS BY 2011: TARGETS $7 BILLION Exports from India's leather sector are likely to reach $7 billion by 2010-11.
eastern India's share in the export basket is 15%. which can go up to 25% if projects like the Calcutta Leather Complex at Bantala and the recently proposed Dhantala Leather Complex start operation within 2008.400 crore.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY At present. focusing on modernization of manufacturing facilities in all segments of the leather sector. 124 .33 billion in 2006-07. INTEGRATED LEATHER DEVELOPMENT: An Integrated Leather Development Program is being implemented with the central allocation of Rs. Nandi said. The region is likely to export leather goods worth $ 0. The program could be extended during the 11th Plan period (2007-2012).
Kolkata and Chennai have been running at near-idle levels indicating that the supply chain is drying-up and no orders are being placed by product manufacturers for raw material. had highlighted the leather sector as being one of the industries that registered the largest production declines at -11. The recently released Index of Industrial Production indicating Indian industry had grown year–on-year by minus 2% in December 2008.of their normal levels. In this background the Council for Leather Exports had represented to the Government for immediate measures in the form of revision of Drawback rates to pre-revised level of 2007125 . who in the background of supportive intervention measures are able to give price reductions in the range of 15-20%. There is a serious apprehension that exports will fall significantly in the coming months.4% Indeed.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER BUDGET SECTOR IMPACT-INTERIM 2009-10 The Leather Export Sector is extremely disappointed that the Interim Budget 2009-10 offers very little for the leather or exporting sectors. We anticipate that there could be a loss of several thousand jobs in the next 3 months. The latter are operating at well below . 2009 to September 30 2009. The single supportive measure announced is that of extension of 2% interest subvention for pre and post shipment rupee export credit. as informed by our buyers. As per current feedback.up to 50% . thereby causing severe problems in production and employment. for there has been a spree of cancellations and reduction of orders by overseas buyers. Our slowdown is to be contrasted with the aggressive booking of additional orders by Chinese manufacturers. for some time now. new orders are being booked only to the extent of 30% of last year’s level. from the prevailing validity of March 31. tanneries in Kanpur.
extension of the Focus Market Scheme to EU & USA as these 2 markets account for 75% of Indian leather sector exports.5% under the Focus Product Scheme. Enhancement in the Duty free Import limit for manufacturerexporters from the existing 3 to 5% of FOB Export Turnover . The leather sector is a volume employment provider.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 08. so that the industry and its workers are helped out of this precarious situation 126 . and Service Tax Exemption for 19 notified services & permitting of Service Tax exemption on overseas agent’s commission at actual instead of at a percentage of FOB Value. Increased weightage for leather products from 1.25% to 2. particularly in rural /semi urban areas and a significant foreign exchange generator for the economy – it is our plea that the above requests towards reviving export prospects and business be expeditiously addressed.
AprilOctober 2008 touched US$ 2250.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY CONCLUSION • India’s export of leather & leather products during the first seven months of the current financial year 2008-09 i.27%.17% and in rupee terms the growth percentage is 19.05%.16% in India’s total leather products export trade. (April-October 2008) is 56. • • 127 . The Export target fixed for the year 2008-09 is US$ 4000 million and the export achievement for the first seven months ie.e. Footwear alone holds a major share of 41.79 million recording a growth of 11.
Indonesia.000 crore showed a positive growth of 10. According to an Assocham paper on the status of the Indian leather industry. 128 . Thailand and Vietnam. exports on footwear and leather goods have grown at a faster rate than leather garments.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY WEAKNESS OF INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER INDUSTRY NEEDS TO EXPLORE NEW POTENTIAL MARKETS UNITED NEWS OF INDIA New Delhi. The Rs 20.8 per cent in dollar terms during 1998-99 but constitutes only seven per cent in the country's export basket. Oct 8: Indian Leather industry needs to broad base its exports to new frontiers.000 crore-leather industry which exports products worth Rs 7. besides reorienting and restructuring its plan for growth to face the increasing competition from other Asian countries like China.
the paper said. garments from $ 350 million to about $ 425 million and leather goods from $ 230 million to around $ 350 million. while footwear have increased their value from $ 200 million in 1993-94 to around $ 281 million. leather goods and saddlery and harness. with the complex problems on the export front like ban on the use of pentachlorophenol as preservative and the use of arylamine group of dyes along with increasing local demand at more lucrative prices. the leather industry has to reorient and restructure its plan for growth. leather garments. 129 . The Indian leather industry has attained merited recognition in the international market with the export of finished leather. At this juncture. it said. so the government and the industry will have to take cognizance of this aspect.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The exports of finished leather remained more or less stagnant at around $ 300 million. leather footwear. The price in India is higher than the export price. footwear components. The present trends indicate that the domestic demand for the leather footwear has picked up significantly and is of the order of 200 million pairs per annum.
The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50 per cent of the total work force. the capability of India to sustain a much larger industry with her raw material resource is evident. India has a large raw material base with a population of 194 million cattle. With 48 million of sheep. The Assocham paper indicated that direct and indirect employment of the industry is around two million. it claims the sixth position. With the tanning and the finishing capacity for processing 192 million pieces of hides and skins per annum spread over different parts of the country mostly on modern lines. With the proposed support to the unorganized/artisan sector by government of India and National Leather Development 130 . leather industry has a vast potential for employment generation among weaker sections of the society and women is immense. Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner. 70 million buffaloes and 95 million goats and it ranks first among the major livestock holding countries in the world.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY The annual availability of 166 million pieces of the hides and skins is the main strength of the industry which is expected to be 218 million pieces in 2000.
UK. was launched in 1992 for the integrated development of the leather industry in areas of education and technical training. along with the leather technology mission (LTM). the quality of product. The programme also upgraded the training system for design and manufacture of footwear. research and development in effluent control. USA. Italy and France as its major markets. export expansion and coordination through select institutions in the country. Nearly 70 per cent of India's export of leather and leather products are to the European countries. NLDP. garments and leather products. with the assistance from UNDP and the Government of India. productivity levels of artisans and small scale sector could change dramatically as. the UK 14 per cent and Italy 12 per cent. need of the hour. besides this the industry continue to hold Germany.6 per cent.2 per cent followed by the US 15. 131 . Exports to Germany alone account for 22.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Programme (NLDP).
Though exports 132 . A case study on the footwear industry indicated that though the market size has been increase. The leather industry is much concerned over the duty drawback rates and recommended that separate rates for products manufactures using duty free finished leather be fixed. Tanners have also recommended `free-export' policy for all types of leather to increase their global reach. the value of domestic consumption has been nearly stagnant. The status paper suggested that the tanneries need to adopt and change to industry-friendly chemicals in leather processing units so that they have a ready acceptance abroad. The paper suggested that the ban on import of second-hand capital goods should be revoked as it would limit the modernization of tanneries. especially in small scale sector which cannot bear the high cost of new machinery and also recommended the introduction of foreign investment into this sector. soft loans have been proposed for brand promotion of leather products.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY As part of brand promotion under the market development assistance programme.
with the increase in middle class population. According to industry experts. the value of exports has increased from Rs 102 crore in April 1999 to Rs 126 crore in April 2000. the US tops the list with imports worth Rs 35 crore in 1999 followed by the UK with Rs 28 crore and Germany with Rs 11 crore of imports.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY have increased. In terms of export by the country. effort should be made to expand the domestic market too. there is huge potential to expand the domestic market. As of today India has less than one per cent share of world trade. For leather products. So. the decline remained marginal from Rs 84 crore in April 1999 to Rs 82 crore in April 2000. According to provisional figures available from DGCIS. In 133 . including the foreign ones. value of exports of the leather footwear has shown an increase but for footwear components it has declined. the consumption patterns are likely to change radically with brand names. But for the leather components. crowding in the market.
Higher quality standards and adherence to eco-regulations are required to be maintained to ward off the threat of increasing competition from neighboring countries. positioning is wrong not match to Italian target is just to match Pakistan. Indonesia and Kenya. Argentina. Germany tops the list with Rs 18 crore worth of imports. Chile. OTHER WEAKNESSES: No quality specifications. Unorganized sectors. poor quality accessories Competition from low price markets like Pakistan. So many scams. 134 . No brand name. Ethiopia. The footwear industry needs to explore new potential markets like Brazil.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY footwear components. Peru and Colombia as these countries could also be used as source for quality hides and wet blues. No research & development. corruption in government. Did not project position of products.
Provision of export finance as well as term loans at lower rate of interest or even without interest. thereby attaining a higher recovery from the same quantum of raw material. Proper and fuller utilization of splits will have to be restored to. 135 . In this context the treatments of splits become very important. the bands and the financial institutions should come forward by providing liberal financial assistance.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY REMEDIAL MEASURES There is a need to modernize the processing technology through which is possible to improve the quality of the leather this technological up gradation can minimize the problem of pollution. As far as financial problems are concerned. The unutilized manufacturing capacity of the unit needs to be harnessed in the best possible manner so that the total cost of production can be brought down. Specific areas of tariff Reduction in the import duty on chemical and machinery which go directly in the production of exports. The shortage of raw material should be overcome somehow in order to sustain the growth in experts. It is necessary to change the export profile to fall with the global import profile in order to derive the maximum benefit from the available raw material. skill and traditional industry.
It is necessary to make available quality furnished leather to the manufacturers or expo0rters of value-added products. and export of semi-tanned leather export may be brought under quota system. The proposal to use the world bands export-marketing fund for this sector. and set up proper efficient treatment plants must be pressed.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY In order to encourage domestic value addition to retain a larger share of the product price within the country. 136 .
5 % . whereas in December it dropped by 20%. Europe and Japan plummeting together. It is projected to dip even further to around 5. the production of exports of leather industry has started to decline. and another 500 thousand people are facing unemployment.5 million people in leather export industry in India will be laid off 500 thousand people. the 2.6% for Year 2009 . IMPACT OF GLOBAL SLOWDOWN ON LEATHER EXPORTS AND REMEDIES AN ARTICLE PUBLISHED ON FEB 2ND. The leather exports sector which witnessed a growth 20% in the first half of 2009 got dented by the global slowdown in the 137 . Since September.10. in November the leather and leather products exports fell by 15%. With the economies of US. Since the beginning of September. 2009 PROBLEM BEHIND LEATHER EXPORT INDUSTRIES: Indian Leather industry is moving towards an unprecedented crisis with the slowdown of global economy. India has also witnessed fall in GDP growth from around 9% last financial year to 7% in the current financial year. there have been 350 thousand to 500 thousand people being unemployed. The 500 thousand people have to face with the unemployment.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY IMPACT OF CURRENT RECESSION ON LEATHER INDUSTRY As the Europe and the United States market is worsening.
5 billion INR. leading to job-loss and closure of units over the next few months. it would adversely affect the small scale and tiny industries and also have an impact on big businesses.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY subsequent months. especially the US and UK. is generously helping Chinese exporters to follow an aggressive exports policy which help them to bag the orders in the competition. Secondly Chinese Govt.5 billion INR and its domestic market is hovering around 2. Indian exports of leather is estimated at 3. It is a matter of big concern for our Leather Industry which is mainly dependent upon its exports rather than domestic sales. It seems that if the problem is not addressed on time. Leather exporters are being inextricably caught in a situation where buyers are delaying fresh orders besides delaying their payments on existing orders and on top of that they are also asking for huge discounts. It is estimated that around 2-3 lakh workers can lose their jobs in leather industry which has employed around 25 lakh total workers. The European Union and the US are the two biggest markets for Indian leather export firms which stand at 65% and 25% respectively in terms of India's export share of Leather products. 138 . The main reason behind this could be that our leather industry cannot rely on its domestic market as the retail sector is still immature to sell the export products. The main reason is attributed to the decline in orders from Western markets.
139 . and increase weight age of leather goods under focus product scheme.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY REMEDIES TO BOOST LEATHER EXPORT INDUSTRIES Need of the hour is to take proactive and logical steps to tackle the situation effectively which can only happen with the matched efforts on the part of both Government and Industry. “He emphasized on creating the required infrastructure and have long-term plans. Mr. Habib Hussain (Chairman of leather exports council) while addressing the issue has suggested a three-pronged approach to tackle the situation. " Providing subsidized term loans to exporters who have suffered losses due to slow down"Treating US and Europe in focus markets scheme. In addition to the above. some immediate measures are needed to alleviate the plight of the leather exporters. reduce delays in export incentive reimbursement. Increase duty free import limit for manufacturing exporter on the % of export value. “Innovative product designs at competitive rates. should increase the drawback rates. Govt. All these steps are necessary to retain the big global brands which source from India which can otherwise go to China who has cost advantage to play with.
140 . and the idea being that as the leather shrinks as it dries out and the feathers expand. Alum Tanning A process of tanning with alum. feel the heat. egg yolk and other substances.A collection of frequently used terms. "In 1845 we more than doubled that. abbreviations and jargons used in the Leather Industry with their definition and meanings. Of course you cut six strips of bull hide and you soaked it in alum and of course you took three of 'em and stitched them inside out there. A: Ageing The process by which certain types of leather are at some stage of manufacture allowed to lie in piles to "age". used in combination with salt.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER INDUSTRY GLOSSARY Leather Industry Glossary . Used for the original feathery golf balls. Then that gives you the compression. We used to use a chest clamp to literally compress and push those goose down feathers into the ball. I can still smell the leather. Sept 1998. Hard work it was." Quoted by Wally Uihlein. and the feathers went back in. at St. and you compressed and compressed.Andrews Golf Congress.
Before modern machinery the processes of fleshing. Beamhouse The area of the tannery where the unhairing and liming processes are carried out. The word is a form of "abate" in the sense of reduce. and as a consequence looks more natural. Bag Leather A form of vegetable tannage in which the skins are sewn together in pairs to form bags and floated in tan liquor. Aniline Leather Leather which retains its colour only from dyestuffs rather than from pigment. B: Bag and case leather A general term for the leathers used in travelling bags and suitcases. scudding and others were carried out over specially designed wooden beams using curved two handled knives with sharp or blunted edge according to the operation. thus assuring pliability in the product. and for shoe uppers in ancient Greece. This method avoids drawn grain and gives good spread of leather. 141 . It does not include the light leathers employed for women's fancy handbags. The staple material for bag and case leather is cowhide. Hence the name. Basil Bark tanned pickled sheepskins.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Aluta Roman name for tawed (alum tanned) leather. Bating The process prior to tanning proper where the fibres of a hide or skin which have been plumped or swollen by liming are reduced and softened. Aluta was used for sails in Venice.
The great bulk of this leather is made from the butts of highgrade cattle hides. Bougie Leather Leather from the town of Bougie in North east Algeria. Gives a distinct look. Boarding A process of finishing a side or skin by folding it with the grain side in and rubbing the surface together under pressure. Belting leather Leather employed for the transmission of power for machinery. Buffing Sandpapering the leather with sandpaper or emery paper for various reasons such as the creation of a suede like nap on suede. When the Portuguese first went to Brazil they mistook the indigenous hairsheep for goats and called them cabrettas (kids). In Europe a certain amount of buffalo hide is also used. and creates "box" look when done two ways and "willow" when done only in one direction. The skins were exported to the USA by the Blue Funnel Line (later the Booth Group) and the name cabretta stayed with them. Famous in the fifteenth century.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Belt leather Leather used for the leather going into men's clothing belts. or for the preparation of corrected grain leather. a nubuck finish on grain. Much used in footwear leather and sport glove leather. Sometimes done on the flesh side to tidy up its appearance C: Cabretta Leather A wrongly named hair sheep. Box Calf or box sides Calf or side leather which has been boarded in two directions. Now all hairsheep skins have taken the generic name cabretta. 142 .
if they are small. He explains how hides are dried and loaded onto the ships before returning to the East Coast.000 hides. or they will not be received. with the hair side usually in. Certain grades used to be used in gloves and fancy articles but the staple employment is for cleaning and polishing. and wade out with them and through them into the boat. On Dana's ship they brought back 40. but unlike cordwainers they work with old leather.Cobblers are essentially repairers. primarily automobile. and sent down upon mules or in carts. and are staked out. Carding Leather A special type of side leather used on the cards of cotton machinery.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY California Banknotes In "Two Years Before the Mast" Richard Henry Dana describes how he sailed from Boston to California in 1834 to collect hides. They are then doubled once. or two. and piled above high-water mark: and then we take them upon our heads. 143 . the teeth being forced through. Chamois is characterised by an ability to absorb at least three times its own weight of water. Chamois leather A soft leather originally made from the skins of the Alpine antelope known as the chamois but at the present time from the fleshers of sheepskins. and thus dried in the sun without shrinking. Ships would spend nearly a year collecting and accumulating hides up and down the California cost to make the journey worthwhile. When taken from the animal they have holes cut in the ends." On page 140 of the book detailed at the end is a fine description of the full cure process used to prepare the hides for a wait of over a year before they would get back to Boston around the Cape for tanning. one at a time. "The hides are brought down dry. Shoemakers. Hides were valued in Boston at 12 and a half cents a pound dry salted and the captain got 1% commission. The leather lies flat against the beds of the cards. Since California had nothing else of wealth at that time the dried hides were known as "California Banknotes". lengthwise.
Adjusting the moisture content before staking in this way is called conditioning. Cordwainers work only with new leathers.It was considered the highest quality shoe leather in Europe.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Combing leather The name applied to the leather used on the combing rolls of cotton machinery and manufactured of calfskin or side leather.After Cordoba fell in the 12 th century English Crusaders brought back this alum tanned goat skin. when the Moors arrived in Spain. Cordovan The shell of a horse hide. often tanned with a sulphur tannage. and followed by goat. dyeing and fatliquoring the fibres tend to stick together and the leather is hard. Best brilliant scarlet type was tawed with alum and dyed with kermes. sheep and pigskin leathers with a similar formula. In Middle Ages specialised in Shoes. Conditioning When leather is dried after retanning. Cordwainers From Cordovan leather. It was tanned with alum and later with alum (Koninklijke Bibliotheek says sumac was not introduced until the 15 th century). This is most commonly done by a water spray and then piling the leather long enough for the moisture to even out.The horse product still tends to be called “shell cordoban leather”.Cordovan leather has good wearing characteristics. Cordwainer is from the French word “cordonnier” and came to England in 1066 with the Norman Invasion. This hair sheep now only survives in Corsica and Sardinia. Cordovan Leather Developed in Spain in the 8th century. Made from the skin of the mouflon (Ovis Musimom). At first made many types of leather articles.As such it was a soft vegetable tanned leather first made in Cordoba in Spain. The fibres are separated and the leather softened by staking. Staking is best done at about 18% humidity and so a little humidity has to be put into the dry leather. 144 . and I non porous.
and there is a breed of hair sheep named after it. Used for shoe upper leather. to prepare or dress). although tanners normally prefer to buy wet blue or pickle which gives them more flexibility of processing. in the 1860's to compete with the expensive kid tannage for gloves. Dongola is especially applied to glazed and dull kid. but confined chiefly to heavy leather (Latin corredare. For full dongola the process is commenced in very weak gambier liquor. D: Deliming A process preparatory to tanning proper to reduce the swollen and rigid fibres of a hide or skin after liming. strictly speaking. "Dongola. Since chrome leather dried immediately after tannage will go hard. New York. Crust Leather dried after tanning. salt. Dongola is a town in the Sudan. Currying A term practically equivalent to dressing and finishing. used together in one solution. A vegetable and alum tannage developed in Gloversville. Dull dongola is ironed like kid in the finish. this drying normally takes place after a basic retanning and fatliquoring. with the full proportion of alum and salt. 145 . and the gambier is gradually strengthened. Used hair sheep. is alum. Crupp leather A semicircular portion of leather taken from the butt of stuffed vegetable tanned horse hide. Dongola Tannage a. It is said to be sometimes glazed with a blood seasoning. change charge and become difficult to rewet. Leather is frequently traded worldwide in this state. and gambier only.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Corrected Grain Chrome tanned side leather which is buffed with emery paper on the grain side to remove defects and then has a plastic resin and pigment finish built up on the leather.
b. and either egg-yoke or soluble oil. kept in crust for some time. and 8 to 10 gallons of water. The tanned skins are drummed with this mixture one hour. The color of the leather can be modified by adding a solution of 146 . The combination tannage of gambier. and finished. The alum and salt are dissolved in part of the water. wet-back. The flour is made into paste with cold water. drying and then coloring them with a basic dye and titanium-potassium oxalate. next fatliquored with acid fat-liquor. of egg-yokes. colored and finished. into a drum and run them for a few hours or until thoroughly tanned. dried again. salt. 10lb. Fine leather is made by tanning the skins first in gambier or quebracho liquor. and the whole mixture is thoroughly stirred. dried. then wet-back and tanned with chrome liquor. and the flour paste is slowly stirred into the solution. of gambier are used for one dozen skins. from 8 to 16 oz. and the paddling is continued until the tannage is complete. of salt are added to the liquor. of alum and 8 oz. and then giving them an alum and salt retannage. the result being soft durable leather. of alum. Some soluble oil may also be added to the liquor and applied to the leather toward the end of the tanning process. and salt make what is known as dongola leather. colored. a mixture is prepared of 5lb. Excellent leather is also made by taking the skins out of the gambier liquor when they are well struck through. striking them out and then drumming them with a paste of water. together with the tanning liquor. alum. They should be drummed with it. Dongola tannage. 9lb. There are many modifications of this process. followed by slating with a smooth round -edged slicker. alum. then dried.. The oil or the egg-yoke mixed with warm water is next added. for each dozen skins. After the alum and salt have been added it is customary to put the skins.gambier. From 3 to 5lb. which takes 18 to 36 hours. but it is generally sized". alum. For 200 average skins. After they have started to absorb the gambier. flour. dried. The leather is then washed in warm water to remove the adhering tan.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY and then dulled by a mixture of soap and oil. and salt can also be applied in the following manner: The bated and washed skins are placed in gambier liquor in a paddle. durable leather. or a corresponding quantity of sulphonated oil. thus making soft. This mixture may also be used on untanned skins as come from the bate or drench. 24lb of flour. of salt.
that is. it can be colored with acid or basic dies: and. staked and finished. drummed with acid fatliquor or with an emulsion of oil and soap. normally vegetable. restrict the term bating to the process using ferments of manures and the term drenching to that using damp sawdust. E: Ecrase Usually highly polished goatskin leathers showing differences in colour tone coinciding with the natural goatskin grain. however. After the leather is dry. or a solution of lactic acid or some other chemical having a similar action. given the leather the required softness for its eventual end use.. It accomplishes approximately the same purpose as bating and basically in the same way . bran. Extractv A solution of a tanning material. Drenching A process for reducing the plumped fibres of a hide or skin. Heavy skins may be tanned with gambier. and the entire process may be reversed. Some authorities. F: Fatliquoring Using fats and oils in appropriate mixes to lubricate and soften the fibre structure of leather. 147 . middlings. and salt. Drums The collective term for the rotary vessel in which many processes of tanning are now carried out.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY fustic or other dyewood to the gambier liquor. if not fatliquored immediately after tanning. The skins may be first drummed with alum and salt and then tanned with gambier. through soaking in a fermenting solution. alum.
of which the most important are horsehides. Such skins.. and sports wear. This is the method used in the manufacture of mocha glove leather and of certain classes of buckskin. but there is a considerable item made of deerskin and a small one of pigskin. then of cattlehide splits. 148 . riding. after tanning are finished on the fine fibres under the grain. the latter is tanned predominately from sheep and lambskins. cattlehide splits. sometimes as much as eight weeks. calfskins and pigskins. and more recently of PU laminated splits. Lately leather has been somewhat replaced by full synthetics. (11) Full grain leather Leather whose grain has not been sandpapered or buffed to hide defects G: Glove Leather A self-explanatory term which. driving. The grain is made into a skiver. and the leather going into dress-gloves. however. Used to make chamois. Originally made of pigskin. The flesh created in this latter way will not make true chamois. Frizing The process of removing the grain of a skin by exposure to a strong lime liquor over an exceptionally long period.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Football Leather Leather for covering the outside of soccer balls. including those for street. The grain is then called a pliver. covers two rather distinct classes: the leather going into utilitarian or work-gloves and made of a variety of hides and skins. while an important item for the highest grades of women's fine gloves is tanned in a few countries of Europe from kidskins. Flesher The flesh piece from a thick woolly sheep which has been split into two layers. Sometimes for cost and easy maintenance the material is part tanned and then split.
as piston packing. but not finished. Hydraulic leathers A collective term sometimes used for the cattle hide leathers. employed in pump valves. belting leather. in the crust and in the white to vegetable. Data from the Brewers’ Company in London show that their were at least 14 different guilds concerned with leather listed in London in 1422).INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Guilds (Gilds) Western European trade associations. oils seals and so forth. in the wool. In the rough. in the raw A group of more or less equivalent terms used to describe stock that has not yet undergone any of the processes of leather manufacture. in the blue A group of approximately equivalent terms used to describe stock which has been tanned. grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups. In the rough or rough tanned is most commonly applied to vegetable tanned cattle hide leathers. chiefly rawhide and combination tannages. but with weaker liquors than the layers. H: Handlers One of the series of pits or vats in which heavy leathers are tanned with bark or vegetable extracts. in the crust. and harness leather proper from other classes which are referred to collectively as light leathers. Heavy Leathers A term distinguishing sole leather. I: In the hair. in the white. alum or 149 .. They are usually worked with stronger liquors than the suspenders. Helvetia Leather Oil tanned hide from which not all the excess grease is removed.
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formaldehyde tanned sheepskins and lambskins; and in the blue to chrome tanned skins particularly goatskins. The use of the term in the white needs to be distinguished from that mentioned in the following definition. See also Wet White and Wet Blue. In the white; in the pickle Two roughly equivalent terms used to describe stock which has undergone the processes preliminary to tanning, but has not been actually tanned. Historically in the pickle is restricted to sheepskins and lambskins; in the white, in this sense, is used for practically all other classes of hides and skins.
Japanning A process of preparing the oil for, and the process of, manufacturing patent leather
Larrigan Leather An American speciality made of light cattle hide and used in the manufacture of the heavy moccasins worn by lumbermen to guard against slipping when walking on wet logs. Latigo Leather The Spanish word latigo means a whiplash and this leather was originally tanned for that purpose; but as a technical term in the present day American trade, latigo means the straps used for cinching saddles of the McClellan, cowboy and Mexican types. This leather is usually prepared from cattlehides by a combination tannage. Layers The last set of vats or pits in which heavy leather is tanned, containing the strongest liquor. The hides in these pits are laid flat - originally with layers of tan bark between them.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
Leather For the avoidance of all ambiguities and doubts, which may and do grow upon the definition and interpretation of this word leather, it is enacted, and declared by these presents, that the hides and skins of ox, steer, bull, cow, calf, deer, red and fallow, goats and sheep being tanned or tawed, and every salt hide is, shall be, and ever hath been reputed and taken for leather. Act of Parliament. UK year 1604. (2) Light Leather Leather for clothing, gloving and shoe uppers mostly chrome tanned. Liming A process preliminary to tanning, which serves one or both of two purposes: (1) to loosen the hair or wool on a hide or skin, preparatory to dehairing; and (2) to plump or swell the fibres as of the processes necessary to prepare the substance for the action of the tan liquors. Liming is always required for the latter of these purposes.
Paddles A name applied to certain types of machinery with rotating arms, which are used in various tanning operations for agitating hides or skins in process. Use more water than drums, allowing larger floats and consequently gentler action. Mostly used in the soaking and liming areas. Painting A process for loosening hair or wool (usually the latter) which is employed with skins whose protective covering is so valuable as to make it desirable to avoid injuring it by soaking in a lime liquor. The process is carried out by painting the flesh side of a skin with a depilatory substance, containing sodium sulphide or arsenic. Nowadays this is the usual method with sheepskins bearing the higher grades of wool. Before it was invented, such skins were usually dehaired by sweating.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
Parchment See Pergamum. Pasting A method of drying where wet leather is pasted onto a glass or steel plate and then allowed to dry in controlled conditions - often a tunnel with various chambers adjusted to fit the planned removal of moisture. Most used with side leather. Holds the area well, but if not well retanned the leather can feel hard and empty. There is a danger of the paste damaging the grain or interfering with the finish. US tanners are most skilled in this drying method. Pelt This word means, strictly speaking, any kind of skin (Latin pellis, related to the German felle, a skin, and the English word fell, now preserved only in fellmonger). The word is somewhat loosely used in the leather industry, but its only common applications nowadays are to sheepskins in two or three slightly differing senses: to the skin proper, to distinguish it from the wool that grows on it; to dewooled sheepskins, as a pickled pelt or a fellmongered; or in some countries to a woolskin bearing the shortest recognised staple. Pergamum Town near Izmir (Smyrna) in Asia Minor. Parchment (from Latin "carta Pergamena") supposedly first made there in 3rd cent BC. When the King of Pergamus was building a great library in rivalry with the library of the King of Egypt in Alexandria, the latter placed an embargo on the exportation of papyrus from Egypt to hamper competition. The King of Pergamus thereupon perfected the manufacture of parchment for the making of books. A more comprehensive discussion of this is given by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.Since it is very interesting I quote from their website: Parchment was used chiefly for writing, first on a scroll - as is still the case in Israel - and from the second century BC onwards in book form. To make a book, the rectangular cut sheets might be folded one or more times. The skins of sheep and goats from the areas round the Mediterranean were rarely more than 50 cm long by 40 cm wide. In northern regions we find larger
Until the fourth century skins were mostly treated with salt. Jewish parchment was lightly tanned on the surface with vegetable tannins. Pergamon did have a reputation for good quality parchment in classical antiquity. after which it spread throughout the rest of Europe. Eumenes II (197-159 BC). Another technique. The lime water method may have been introduced by Jews and Arabs to Spain in the early Middle Ages. was forced to look for alternative writing materials when the import of papyrus from Egypt was suspended. It is generally accepted that the use of a new term indicates a new or modified product. the splitting of skins. Although parchment had been known at least eight hundred years before this date. when people started manufacturing parchment using lime water. especially from the late Middle Ages.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY skins and also calfskins being used to make books. This is supposed to have led to the invention of parchment. For the most part. Picker Leather The picker is the mechanism on either side of a power loom that throws the sharp pointed shuttle and receives it again as it is 153 . There is considerable correspondencebetween these mediaeval formulas and those used by modern parchment makers. but so little is known about the parchment of those days that it is impossible to say with any certainty whether this was the case here. The term pergamena is first used in the Edict of Diocletian (301 AD). parchment manufacture is still a matter of handwork. until that time the term membrana had been used. In the West the traditional procedure to obtain the required thickness was to shave the full skin. and even the processing and tools have not changed fundamentally. flour and other vegetable products that were used to remove the hairs and to prepare the skin. The great change occurred around the fourth century AD. even before the middle Ages. He writes that the king of Pergamon (in present-day Turkey). Formulas and depictions of parchment manufacturing have come down to us. One of our few informants about pre-Christian times is the (unreliable) Roman historian Pliny. was also known to the Jews and Arabs.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
thrown back. For arming this mechanism, long experience has found nothing equal to a special, very tough leather, usually rawhide - either cattle or buffalo. Such picker leather is made extensively in the North of England and in parts of the USA, partly from native cattle hides and partly from imported buffalo hides. Pickling A preliminary process for preparing hides and skins for tanning, largely by adjusting the pH with acid and controlling the swelling with salt. It is also use as stable way of holding material, after unhairing, for transport between plants and countries and for trading.
Retanning A process subsequent to the main tannage when the character of the leather is adjusted by the addition of further alternate types of tanning material. Thus synthetic or vegetable tans may be added to a chrome leather to adjust certain characteristics. Roans Sumac tanned sheepskins. Rockers A device for the continuous agitation of hides when suspended in pits or vats in order to hasten the operation of the liquors. Rolling One of the final operations in the manufacture of sole leather, by which it is given a smooth surface and even thickness. Russia Leather Leather characterised by its odour. "Anglo Russias" are skins treated with birch tar oil to imitate the smell of Russia leather. “The Russians have manufactured for a long time a variety of red leather called Juncten. This leather has an agreeable and characteristic odor, does not mould even in damp places, and is not attacked by insects.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
Russia Leather Originally and properly calfskin shoes leather, dressed with birch oil and distinguished by its odour rather than its appearance.
Santa Croce.. ..... Igualada, Vic, Alcanena, Solofra, Lyon, Arzignano, Guadalajara, Kano, Northampton, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambada, Millau, Kano, Graulhet, Mazamet, Gloversville Some of the places in the world which are centres for the leather industry Samm, sammying The mechanical extraction of moisture from leather after a processing stage. Most normally done on wet blue after chrome tanning, using a machine which carries the leather through felts. Scud A film or deposit of waste matter appearing on the surface of leather in process after certain operations, esp. bating. Scudding One of the preliminary processes preparatory to tanning. After bating or drenching the excess fermenting materials, together with dirt, fatty matter, hair follicles, short hairs, and glandular tissue, are worked out of the hide or skin.Mostly done by hand using a blunt two-handed knife over a curved beam. Can be done by machine. Setting out This mechanical process is used at various stages in the finishing of leather to counteract the shrinking and stiffening resulting form the processes that have gone before.Most common after retanning, fatliquoring and dyeing. Normally done by machine using a knifed cylinder with blunted blades. Some modern machines combine sammying and setting and some incorporate a heated roller to help set the grain in a smooth tight configuration. Striking out is a similar process for heavy, vegetable tanned leather.
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Shagreen From Turkish "saghri" and means the croup of a beast. Originally made in Persia from hides of asses, horses and camel, probably untanned. Seeds of a species of Chenopodium were trampled into the skin when it was moist and shaken out when it dried, thus leaving granular indentations. The material was then stained. In the 17th cent and later, shagreen was made either of finely granulated shark skin or of the skin of a ray fish, whose pearl like papillae were ground flat, leaving a lovely pattern. Side Leather Large hides are cut in half down the backbone to make them easier to handle in the tannery. Each piece is called a side. Most shoe leather made from cattle hides is produced as side leather, while most upholstery leather produced from hides is processed as whole hides. Increasingly the cutting of hides into sides is done after tanning, at the wet blue stage. Skirting leather A specialised cattlehide leather used for the skirts or hanging portions of saddles that come between the legs of the rider and a horse's flanks. Skivers The grain of the wool sheepskin when it has been split in order to prepare a suede leather for manufacture into chamois leather. Normally tanned with vegetable materials for use as in shoe lining, bookbinding or leathergoods. Slat Vegetable tanned sheepskin produced from a skin whose wool has been removed by the sweating process. Mazamet in France is a famous source of slats. Splits The lower flesh side section of a hide (normally) or a skin after it has been split. Normally made into a suede split.
The former is more precise. Two wooden hammers pound the oil into the leather prior to hanging in a hot room for the oil to oxidise. The grain of leather may be suede finished (called nubuck) but the process is more appropriate to flesh or split surfaces. but is also more labour intensive and skilled. but mostly by machines of which tow types are common. Strop Leather The leather from which razor strops are made. and the hides are treated in them before passing to the handlers and layers. This process is now done in drums where temperature and humidity can be carefully controlled. The old "grab" staker with crocodile jaws which come together at a point where the operator offers the hide or skin and pulls the leather away from him while he restrains it carefully and the vibrating through feed machine invented in Czechoslovakia in the sixties. The hammers are driven by an eccentric wheel.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Staking Mechanical softening of leather. The suspender pits usually contain the weakest liquor. The name was applied (originally in France) to a glove leather of Swedish origin and only later to the finish that characterised the material. 157 . while if not used carefully will lead to tearing and loss of area. Suede The finish produced by running the surface of leather on an emery wheel. Done by hand by pulling skins over a moon shaped knife. Stocks A wooden device previously used in oil tannages especially for chamois. the hides being hung so as to be exposed as freely as possible to the action of the liquor. The best grades are tanned from the shells of horse hides. Suspenders One series of vats or pits used in tanning heavy leathers. with the result of ruffling up the fibres and giving it a "nappy" appearance.
using toggles to hold the leather instead of nails. Remained for 275 years. and to a few special trades like that centering about Mazamet in France T: Tawing The old English term applied to the process of making leather with alum to distinguish it from tanning in a strict sense. thus encouraging bacterial action.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Swamp An area near the Manhattan side of Brooklyn bridge just south of the current City Hall set aside for tanning in 1664. but is very effective for counteracting the shrinkage which follows certain operations. being confined to out of the way places or primitive industries. More modern machines find and clip the leather mechanically. Originally the toggles were fixed into holes in a perforated metal plate which was put in an oven. Tacking A process of stretching leather at certain stages in the manufacture by tacking it on a frame or board. Sweating A process for loosening the hair or wool on a hide or skin by hanging the pieces near together in a close atmosphere. without applying excessive strains on particular portions of a piece. It has now become comparatively rare. the latter term having been originally confined to leather making with vegetable tanning agents. but in French the distinction between tannage and megissage is still strictly drawn. the method seems crude and slow. The English word has now become nearly obsolete. V: 158 . Toggling A modernised method of tacking to dry leather.
a form of hand setting out) and the vacuum head brought down. Vellum Vellum is practically the same thing as parchment but is made of calfskin. The wet leather is laid out on a wet steel plate (often slicked. stretching the leather out from its centre. Drum leather is a specialised form variety of vellum. whence our word veal. More stable than pickle. While the leather is under vacuum this rubber base expands outwards. made nowadays in diminished quantities for the purpose indicated by its name. a calf. A significant stage in which leather is traded semi-processed worldwide. The word is derived from the Latin vitulus. Increasingly used as an intermediate stage for transporting and selling hides and skins 159 . Wet White Hides and skins with the hair or wool removed and preserved after a light aluminium tannage. A newer use of vacuum drying involves using a rubber base instead of stainless steel. It is not so good for taking out large amounts of moisture but good for the drying after conditioning and staking of soft leathers. I have seen a page of newspaper pulled into jigsaw-sized pieces by this machine. W: Wet Blue Chrome tanned leather. Avoid using it just for area gain. Drying only takes two to five minutes.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Vacuum Drying A method of drying leather taking advantage of the fact that moisture evaporates more quickly under vacuum. After retanning and fatliquoring the leather can be dried to either 30% and then hang dried or in some circumstances fully dried direct. Chrome tanning creates a blue colour in the leather and there is a natural safe resting stage just after tanning when the leather is both wet and blue.
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER PRODUCTS LEATHER CRAFTS SUPPLIES Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Fringes Ribbons Straps Belt Blanks Threads Buttons Toggels Strings Tassels 160 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Leather Beads Leather Clasps Leather Buckles Leather Clips Leather Clamps Leather Eyelets Leather Zippers Leather Cords Leather Pipings Leather Laces Suede Leather Laces Nappa Leather Laces Buff Leather Laces Cow Leather Laces Goat Leather Laces Leather Belting Laces Calf Leather Lacings Leather Braids Braided Leather Cords Braided Leather Lacings LEATHER MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT: Airing-Off Machines Band Filtration Plant Boarding Machines Buffing Machines Carding Machines CO2 De-Liming Equipment Cooling Plants Degreasing Plants Desalting Equipment Dosing Equipment Drying Machines Dyeing Machines Felt Products Finish Dryers Fleshing Handling Equipment 161 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Hand Tools Hide Curing Machines Hide Siding & Stamping Machines Leather Testing Equipment Measuring Machines (Wool-on) Milling Machines Packing Equipment Palletising & Depalletising Equipment Pigment Pumps Plating & Ironing Machines Polishing Machines Printing Machines Rebalding Machines Roll Coating Machines Rotary Filtration Plant Salt Applicators Sammying Setting Machines Seasoning Machines Shaving Compactors Shaving Machines Skiving Machines Spiral Knives Waste Treatment Equipment Stretching Machines Testing Machines Trimming Machines Weaving Equipment Tying Machines Vacum Dryers Machines Weighting Machines Wet Wheel Machines Wool Compactors Wool Pulling Machines Wringers Machines Air Blast De-dusting Machines Area Extension Machines Band Knife Splitters Brushing Machines Bundling Machines 162 .
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Chrome Recovery Equipment Color Matching & Dosing Equipment Conditioning Machines Curtain Coating Machines Dehairing / Unharing Machines Dust Control Machines Extractors Machines Filter Presses Finishing Machines Fleshing Machines Glazing Machines Heat Recovery Machines Hide Processing Machines Hide Washing Machines Linked Processing Lines Milling Drums Padding Machines Perforating Machines Plate Washing Machines Platting / Embossing Machines Pressing Machines Putting Out Machines Recirculation Systems Roller Machines Rotary Shearing Machines Sammying Machines Scudding Machines Setting Out Machines Shaving Conveyors Siding Machines Sorting Machines Splitting Machines (Lime / Wet Blue) Spraying Machines Stacking Machines Swabbing Machines Tipping Machines Trimming Tools Turn-Key Tannery Washing Equipment
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
Wet Buffing Machines Wheeling Machines Wool Dryers Wool Removal (Sweating) Machines
Acetic Acid Acrylic Retans Adhesives Alkalies Ammonium Chloride and Sulfate Antioxidants Antirock Sprays Bactericides Bates and Enzymes Binders Bleaching Chemicals Borax, Boric Acid Calcium Formate Casein Cationic Oils Caustic Potash Caustic Soda Chestnut China Clay Colloidal Clay Defoamers Degras Degreasing Agents Dehairing / Unhairing Agents Deodorizers Detergents and Soaps Disinfectants Disodium Phosphate Dispersing Agents Dry Colors and Pigments Dyeing Auxiliaries
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY
Egg Yolk Emulsified Oils and Waxes Emulsifiers Esters Fat Liquors Fillers Finish Strippers Urethane Finishes Water Resistant Finishes Finishing Agents Flame Retardants Formic Acid Fragrances Fungicides Furrier Supplies Hematine Hydrogen Peroxide Impregnants Leather Care Products Leveling Agents Ligno Sulfates Magnesium Hydroxide Marine Oils Neats Foot Oils Neutralizing Agents Oborants Penetrating Agents Pigments Plasticizers Plate Release Wax Quebracho Acrylic Resins Synthetic Resins Resin Binders Resin Emulsions Sequestering Agents Slip Agents Soaking Assistants Sodium Bicarbonate and Carbonate
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Sodium Bichromate Sodium Bisulfate Sodium Bisulfite Sodium Formate Sodium Hexa-Mata Phosphate Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Sulfide Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphydrate Stain Resistants Stuffing Compounds Sulfated Oils Sulphonated Tallow Sulphuric Acid Surfactants Swabbing Oils Syntans Tallows Tanning Extracts Waste Control Chemicals Waterproofing Agents Waxes Whitening Materials Zirconium LEATHER RAW MATERIALS: Bovine Hides Brine Cured Hides Buffalo Leather Cabretta Leather Calf Skins Chamois Crust Hides Dry Hides Fish Leather Deer Hides Horse Leather Kangaroo Leather 166 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY NuBuck Leather Pickled Hides Pigskins Rabbit Hides Leather Raw Hides Snake Leather Sheep Leather Skivers Slink Skins Wet Blue Hides Wet Salted Hides LEATHER FURNITURE Sofas Chairs Sectionals Recliners Leather Leather Leather Leather LEATHER ACCESSORIES Bags Tote Bags Saddle Bags Golf Bags Handbags Shoulder Bags Travel Bags Duffle Bags Book Bags Bean Bags Briefcase Bags Leather Bags Laptop Bags Camera Bags 167 Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Leather Wallets Ladies Leather Wallets Men's Leather Wallets Leather Passport Wallets Leather Chain Wallets Leather Travel Wallets Leather Credit Card Wallets Leather Purses Leather Backpack Purses Leather Coin Purses Leather Cases Leather Phone Cases Leather Key Cases Leather Pen Cases Leather Cigar Cases Leather Passport Cases Leather CD Case Leather Card Holders Business Card Holders Credit Card Holders Leather Business Organizers Leather Key Chains Leather Picture Frames Leather Jewelry Boxes Leather Briefcase Leather Backpacks Leather Portfolios Leather Portfolios LEATHER FASHION JEWELRY Chokers Necklaces Bracelets Hair Clips Arm Bands Earrings Rings Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather 168 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER GARMENTS & CLOTHING Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Shirts Jackets Trousers Vests Coats Jeans Gloves Chaps Shorts Caps Blazers Thongs Overcoats Belts Kids & Children’s Leather Clothing Girls Leather Skirts Girls Leather Tops Kids Leather Jackets Kids Leather Shorts Kids Leather Trousers Kids Leather Gloves Mens Leather Garments Mens Leather Shirts Mens Leather Jackets Mens Leather Trousers Mens Leather Vests Mens Leather Coats Mens Leather Jeans Mens Leather Caps Mens Leather Overcoats Mens Leather Gloves Mens Leather Shorts Mens Leather Blazers 169 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Mens Mens Mens Mens Mens Mens Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Leather Hats Belts Outerwear Innerwears Thongs Chaps Womens Leather Garments Womens Leather Lingerie Womens Leather Shirts Womens Leather Tank Tops Womens Leather Tops Womens Leather Coats Womens Leather Jeans Womens Leather Jackets Womens Leather Skirts Womens Leather Trousers Womens Leather Vests Womens Leather Shorts Womens Leather Panties Womens Leather Capris Womens Leather Thongs Womens Leather Bra Womens Leather Overcoats Womens Leather Gloves Womens Leather Pants Womens Leather Belts Womens Leather Blazers Womens Leather Chaps Industrial Clothing Industrial Leather Gloves Industrial Leather Shoes Industrial Leather Trousers 170 .
INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER EXPORTERS IN INDIA Following are the names of few leather exporters in India. Anira Exports .Ltd 171 . AVS International Pvt.Bombay.Calcutta. Antler Leather .Chennai Aress International Asiatic Leather Handicraft .
Kamal Exports Leatherman Mahanati Exports Private Limited. . Fuzz Leathers Genius Leathercraft Ltd GPK Exports . Punihani International Tuhina Leather Industries .Calcutta. of India Recognised Export House.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Carlo . Classic Export .Calcutta Hatigor Exports Limited. Crescent Export Syndicate .Calcutta. Export Collection Farinni Exports Pvt.Calcutta. Chandrani Compliments & Export Private Limited. Skin Craft 172 . .Bangalore. MB Export International Mercury Exports Packtec Enterprises Puma Exports Private Ltd .Manufacturer and exporter of quality leather goods.Calcutta.Govt. . IGT Exports Ltd. Jalan Exports Kabir Leathers KAG Exports . Ltd.Maduri. DCP Synthetics Pvt Ltd Edcons Exports Private Limited.Calcutta.
leather business portfolio and leather presentation portfolio. leather executive briefcases. 1st Floor. Etc. Address: 29 Miajaan Ostager Lane. Kolkata . India 173 . INDIAN LEATHER MANUFACTURERS ISLAM INTERNATIONAL Wholesale exporter and supplier of briefcases including leather briefcases.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Tara Exports.700 017. designer leather briefcases. leather portfolio.
Shanmuga Nagar. leather ladies purse. Chawri Bazar.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(33)-22833627 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22893528 Website: http://www. printed dry mill leather. India Phone: +(91)-(44)-22521688 Fax: +(91)-(44)-22521688 Website: http://www. Wholesale suppliers of ladies leather bags. small leatherite punchless clip files. men's leather wallet. leather shoulder bags. leatherite punchless clip files. leather files. Address: 1/388. 3rd Floor. Also deals in pvc files.islam-international. 33A. Chowringhee Road. leather wallet purses. crafted leather carry bags. leather credit card holder.anejaplastic. Address: 3645-47/10-11. goat finished leather. upholstery leather. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-23947481/30518241 Fax: +(91)-(11)-23918281 Website: http://www. leather portfolio bags. Kolkata . Pozhichalur. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-25345447 Fax: +(91)-(33)-25345447 Website: http://www. leather folders. portfolio planners. Gali Lohe Wali. leather hand bags. leather business card holder. F/S punchless clip files and file folder.horecottage. furniture. LTD. cow leather. ladies leather wallets and leather pouches. Address: 160. Kolkata 174 . leather bags. New Delhi 110 006. buff leather. leather designer bags. Flat-A9. Lake Town. leather evening bags. home furnishings. A Block.com/ HORE COTTAGE INDUSTRIES PVT. Address: 9th Floor. leather executive bags etc.700 089. soft shoe upper leather used for making seat cover.600 089.com/mahaleather/ RUDRA ENTERPRISES Deals in selling and manufacturing of leather card holder.indiamart. Chennai .com/ MAHA LEATHER Manufacturer and exporter of finished leather. raw leather like sheep leather.com/ MEGAA INDIAN ARTS Supplier and manufacturer of various leather goods and leather accessories like leather key rings. CIC Building.
gift box. leather file folder and other leather accessories. 4 / 4. leather saddles. photo frames. leather jackets and horse rugs. India Phone: +(91)-(512)-3200522/2423611 Fax: +(91)-(512)-2423611 Website: http://www. D. Kanpur . Address: 283 C.110 095. A. leather brest plates. Jajmau. designer leather folders. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-22168326/22158326 Fax: +(91)-(11)-43061308 Website: http://www. decorative leather pen holders. printed and dry flower greeting card. Address: M.com/farisexport/bridle. leather riding chaps and leather brest collar. hoof boots and western bridle.neweraoverseas. Delhi .megaaindianarts. leather rugs. Phase-I. dog blanket. Vivek Vihar. leather headstalls.208 010.208 013. NEW DELHI Producing and exporting handmade paper gifts such as slip pad. fancy leather photo frames. G. 175 . fashion leather glass cases. hanging lamp shade. Shyam Nagar. saddle bag.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 700 071.com/ FARIS EXPORT Engaged in manufacturing and exporting of leather equestrian products. leather bridles.indiamart. Address: C-49.indiamart. greeting card. pen stands. Also supplies breeches. wine carry bags. K.com/kudosexports/ IMAGES INTERNATIONAL Producers and suppliers of leather goods and accessories like designer leather belts. synthetic saddles. Colony. animal leather clothing. India Phone: +(91)-(99350)-29920 Website: http://www. Kanpur .com/ KUDOS EXPORTS Deals in manufacturing and exporting of pet use products that includes dog collar.html NEW ERA OVERSEAS. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-40219200/22172461 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22172713 Website: http://www. letter writing set.
L.110 022. Amrit Nagar. F. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-25252690/25266744/25254281 Website: http://www. gents leather wallets. Jayhind Subhash Nagar.com/ DAFFODILS OVERSEAS Manufacturers and exporter of leather bags. split suede leather lacing. leather sleeves. stitched leather journals. supplier and exporter of a wide range of leather laces including round leather lacing. designer leather goods.com/ AA TO ZZ BUYING SERVICES Suppliers of leather goods such as leather garments. leather writing journals. leather purses..110 087. leather coin pouches. Delhi . Vivek Vihar. New Delhi . Sayed Nangloi. braided bolo leather lacing. Phase . blank leather journals. leather wallets.S. Okhla Industrial Area Phase -1. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-24656111/24644040 Fax: +(91)-(11)-24644040/24602039 Website: http://www. leather wallet and leather executive bags. New Delhi . Mumbai . New Delhi . DAIMA AND SONS Indian manufacturer. Address: B-291.com/laces.I. G.110 003. calf craft leather lacing etc. quality leather goods. leather designer bags. ladies leather wallets.110 095.indiamart. Address: 40/1404. DELHI Engaged in supplying of leather products like embossed leather journals. Part-1.leatherjournals-accessories. Address: RZ-156. leather handicrafts and leather apparels. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-22168326/22158326 Fax: +(91)-(11)-43061308 Website: http://www. India 176 . Address: C-49. leather photo frames. South Extension. Chembur.400 074.imagintl. refillable leather journals and suede leather journals. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-26811347 Fax: +(91)-(11)-26811345 Website: http://www. leather handbags. ladies leather purses.psdaimaandsons. buff leather lacing.html NEW ERA OVERSEAS. fashion leather goods.com/indiabuyingservices/ P.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Address: 43-A.
Address: 87/111. Kanpur .com/ THINK FASHION. laptop bags. leather camera cases and office cum laptop bags.html BALAJI INDUSTRIES. New Delhi .110 092.com/ POPPYS INTERNATIONAL Manufacturer and exporter of leather goods. tanned leather bag along with leather belts and leather purses. soft sheep leather bag. leather belts. Piparia. office bags. hand bags. -103. leather hand purses. fashion leather bags.thinkfashionin. designer leather bag. leather key rings and fashion key chains. Address: Gala No. leather shoulder bags. leather ladies purses. leather business organizers.2548. shoulder bags. leather wallets. Dsidc. Manufacturer and supplier of various leather bags like designer leather bags. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-27783246 Fax: +(91)-(11)-27783246 Website: http://www.400017. LTD.sudesh-artncrafts.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(22)-65217315 Website: http://www.110 040. Vikas Marg.com/daffodilsoverseas/ SUDESH ART & CRAFTS PVT. Bhannana Purwa. Address: E-36 / 202. IInd Floor. Jawahar Park. Daman . MAHARASHTRA Manufacturers and exporters of leather bags. jewelery pouches. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-24012390 Fax: +(91)-(22)-24012390 Website: http://www. leather fashion accessories. leather purses.com/leather-bags.indiamart.balajimaniks. embroidered pouches etc. colorful leather bags.208 003. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-43043577 Fax: +(91)-(11)-43043577/22824244 Website: http://www. Everest Tiles Compound. Kalpi Road. portfolio bags. Narela. leather portfolios. Delhi . camera bags. India 177 . Address: B. travel bags. Laxmi Nagar. DELHI Engaged in manufacturing and exporting variety of leather bags including embroidered leather bag. decorative leather bags.18 Indl Area. travelling bags. designer ladies bags. Silvassa. ladies bags.
VVD Road. 18/19.com/poppysinternational/ DHARANI EXPORT-IMPORT SERVICES (P) LTD. corporate leather gift sets. nappa leather bags. Raheja Centre. 214. Address: 613. cow leather bags. Address: 20/1. Deonar.com/leather-bags.indiamart.giftspromos.emmarinternational. aksol binders. Nariman Point. business gift sets. promotional t-shirts. Mumbai . leather hand bags. promotional caps.3016093 Fax: +(91)-(512)-2691160 Website: http://www.400 021.400 088. calf leather bags.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(512)-3016092. Mumbai .628 003. T. S.com/dharani-exim/ EMMAR INTERNATIONAL Manufacturer and supplier of leather gift sets such as wallets gift sets. leather bags. handcrafted gift sets. Address: No. leather key chains. leather shoulder bags and ladies leather bags. desktop utility items. corporate leather gifts. Address: B-77 Old Jasola Village. New 178 . Road. promotional gift sets. acpol grounds. Mathura Road. Tuticorin . India Phone: +(91)-(22)-22831577/22834562/22831672 Fax: +(91)-(22)-22872242 Website: http://www. occasional gift sets. black PN food colours and food flavours. carry bags. Eden Gardens. allura red food colours. designer leather bags. Exports and supplies an extensive range of leather chemicals such as nitro cellulose. Behind Apollo Hospital. buffalo leather bags. promotional pens. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-25565422 Fax: +(91)-(22)-25586161 Website: http://www. designer gift sets and decorative gift sets. promotional mugs.com/ NALSONS (INDIA) Manufacturers and suppliers of leather bags including suede leather bags. Also offering food colours. India Phone: +(91)-(461)-2330856/4000900 Fax: +(91)-(461)-2325551 Website: http://www. promotional umbrella and awards. ambilac cems and ambilac clears.indiamart.html GIFTS AND PROMOS WORLD WIDE Manufacturer and exporter of corporate gift items.
Kanpur . leather book covers. Also deals in winter rugs. Wajidpur Jajmau. pencil case. P. leather wallets.632 001. leather key holders. womens bags. Mumbai .com/ ASIAN ADORES Manufacturing leather diaries covers. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-28348890/28350577/28218292 Fax: +(91)-(22)-28350577 Website: http://www. leather harness.adoragifts. leather horse bridles and leather horse halters. India Phone: +(91)-(416)-4203828 Fax: +(91)-(416)-4205828 Website: http://www. Address: 17.K Rangaswamy Street.com/agenda-covers.html JUST HIDES Engaged in manufacturing of leather organizers. leather journal covers. pencil pouches. clutch purses. leather portfoilos. belt pouches. fancy leather handbags. Thiruvalluvar Nagar. leather bags. leather horse rugs. leather organizers and folders. cushion covers. folders. India Phone: +(91)-(512)-3268264 Fax: +(91)-(512)-2464261 Website: http://www.indiamart. leather passport cases.bridlenhalter. Andheri (East). dairy cover. key pouches and toilet pouches. leather agenda covers. leather notebook covers. wallets and card holders.com/justhides/ GUTS AND GLORY LEATHERS Manufacturing and exporting all types of leather equestrian goods such as leather saddlery. Madhu Industrial Estate. Vellore .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Delhi .com/ JAGDHAN INTERNATIONAL Manufacturers and exporters of promotional leather gift items like leather belts.nalsons. leather planners. leather key chains. cosmetic case. nylon fabric rugs and woolen blanket rugs. Address: 102/88.208 010. hip pouches. leather schedulers. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-65434794 Fax: +(91)-(11)-29943726 Website: http://www. document holders.400 069.110 025. Mogra Village Road. Address: 105. 179 .
html RADIANT CHEMICALS. Suppliers and exporters of ladies footwear.html BAG MAKER Exporters and manufacturers of mens leather wallets and purses available sheet nappa and suede leather in different colours like black. Address: Plot No. Off. water insoluble colorant. chloroacetic acid. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-66311933/23471934 Fax: +(91)-(22)-23471934 Website: http://www.T. gents leather slippers. MUMBAI Specializes in manufacturing and exporting leather chemicals. Gurgaon . oilfield chemical.com/ SAHYOG EXPORTS PVT. Mumbai . Road (N). leather industry chemical. 304 & 305.com/mens-leather-wallets.122 004. Samuel Street.jagdhan. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-26557672/26554052 Fax: +(91)-(33)-26551821 Website: http://www. 522 . paper & plastic industry chemical.com/monochloroacetic-acid.II. G. Howrah . India Phone: +(91)-(22)-28933984 Fax: +(91)-(22)-28912615 Website: http://www. No. Hingkee Bldg.bagmakerindia.400 009. brown and tan. Sector . chloroethanoic acid.com/ ABHISHEK IMPEX. ladies leather slippers. Liluah. Also supplying womens nylon bags. gents leather footwear. oilfield corrosion inhibitor. womens beach bags. India Phone: +(91)-(124)-4228000 Fax: +(91)-(124)-4228005 Website: http://www.37. electrical chemical. LTD.abhishek-impex.711 204. 523.radiantchemicals. 3rd Floor. MUMBAI Manufacturer and exporter of adhesives & chemical like water soluble colorant. Dahisar(W).INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Address: 248/3/B. Mumbai . chloracetic acid and other chemicals for industrial use. LM Road. leather footwear. Address: 155 / 57. Address: 202/A2-1. industrial leather chemicals and organic leather chemicals like as monochloroacetic acid. fancy leather 180 .400 068. womens tote bags. Pace City . Veer Hanuman Nagar. gents footwear.
leather drawcords. ladies chappals and ladies beaded slippers. Koliwara. Plot No. plain leather diary. leather tapes. New Delhi .400 093. Mumbai . embossed leather folders. Address: 9 & 29. Address: R. Mehrauli.html SHIVAM NARROW FABRICS Manufacturers. Also offers embroidered hand bags and beaded bags for ladies.313 001. karol leather folders. leather belts. ladies leather wedges. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-26873628/26873835/66921785 Fax: +(91)-(22)-26874596 Website: http://www. embroidered leather slippers and leather hand painted ladies slippers. Link Road. Laxmi Industrial Estate. Address: 34. Makharia Indl. leather folders. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-65145300/29532456 Fax: +(91)-(11)-29536456 Website: http://www. etc.M Engaged in manufacturing and supplying of leather goods such as leather album.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY slippers. Address: 59. Bombay . leather laces.com/leather-accessories. Chandan Colony. suppliers and exporters of leather cords. leather wrist bands. leather strings and various types of woven customised tapes. Complex. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-26335010/66922244/40670670/40107411-12-13-14-15 Fax: +(91)-(22)-66922244 Website: http://www. Andheri (East).handmadepaperproduct. India Phone: +(91)-(294)-2417089/2528382 Fax: +(91)-(294)-5101520/2417089 Website: http://www.madhavfashions. leather wallets. Ignou/ Neb Sarai Road. P. leather threads.Q.110 030. O.snfexports. Andheri (W). Mahakali Caves Road. Z.com/sahyogexports/leather-designer-footwear. handmade leather photo album.-54. Village Saidulajab. leather files.com/ MADHAV INTERNATIONAL Manufacturing and exporting designer footwear like ladies hand embroidered party slippers.com/ RAMA KRISHNA GOYAL SHOP .27.400 053. Udaipur .indiamart.html 181 .
Manufacturers and wholesale suppliers of handcrafted ladies footwear.indiamart. designer leather jacket and men leather jacket. embossed leather belts. Civil Lines Kanpur. Muthu Street 1st Floor. vintage stud belts.indian-handicrafts-manufacturers. sheep nappa leather. woven leather belts. Address: 1105/D. CHENNAI Leading supplier of leather handbags. fashion handbags. India Phone: +(91)-(512)-2530512 Fax: +(91)-(512)-2530512 Website: http://www. mens leather footwear. nubuck sheep leather and sheep cabretta leather. brass buckle belts. India Phone: +(91)-(44)-25612959 Fax: +(91)-(44)-25615565 Website: http://www.html AQSA INTERNATIONAL Manufacturer and exporter of finished leather like sheep skin leather. v shape light weight footwear and eva sole synthetic upper footwear.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY LEATHER CHOICE. leather travel bags. ethnic footwear. LTD. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-65480516 Fax: +(91)-(11)-25703954 Website: http://www. processed sheep leather. PJ Nehru Road. finished sheep leather.indiamart. beaded leather belts. Address: 1. metallic buckle belts.com/unitedexim/ SHARMA LEATHER PRODUCTS P.com/aqsainternational/ UNITED EXIM KANPUR Manufacturer and exporter of leather belts.indiamart. Kanpur .com/ladies-mensfootwear. Ranjit Nagar. Periamet. brown nappa leather. Chennai .110 008. Address: 14/106. ladies fancy handbags. designer leather belts.208001. designer leather travel bags along with fashion leather jacket. Street No. 17. fancy handbags. New Delhi . black nappa leather.600 003. ladies handbags. Vaniyambadi . Address: 2994/2A. India Phone: +(91)-(4174)-228501 Fax: +(91)-(4174)-226311 Website: http://www.com/leatherchoice/ TRANSWORLD TRADING INC. fashion leather belts. double punch belts. 182 .635 751.
sharmaleather. jute leather bags. horse harness. Address: 10 F. embroidered canvas bags. Kolkata . Co Operative Industrial Area. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-65731089 Fax: +(91)-(11)-47019723 Website: http://www. Armenian Street. leather halters.A. Kolkata . canvas bags.com/parasindiaexports/ SG EXPORTS Engaged in manufacture and supply of finished leathers such as finished cow leathers. ladies leather bags. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-22853211/32901680 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22853992 Website: http://www. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-9830026178/25837230/22725935 Fax: +(91)-(33)-25832622 Website: http://www. leather travel bags. jute bags. leather bags.indiamart.indiamart. embroidered bags. leather office bags.com/ GREEN EARTH INTERNATIONAL Manufacturers and exporters of wide range of fashion and designer bags including ladies hand bags. beach bags. Address: D-16/175.com/high-fashion-bags. shoulder bags.baghunt. India Phone: +(91)-(512)-2295113 Fax: +(91)-(512)-2218267 Website: http://www. Rohini. jute carry bags. embossed finished leathers. leather chaps and stirrup leather. denim back pack.110 085. silk printed leathers. suede leather bags. jute pouches. stretched leathers and 183 . denim bags. Kanpur .7.208 022. Address: 20.700 046. East Topsia Road. Ist Floor. Also offer leather cushion covers and kitchen gloves. leather handbags. New Delhi . leather wallets and leather purses.com/paradisenoble/ PARAS INDIA EXPORTS Exporters and sellers of beaded canvas bags. leather horse bridles.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Manufacturer and exporter of men's leather bags. festive occasional bags. leather laptop cases. leather portfolio bags. Sector .html PARADISE NOBLE CREATIONS Engaged in supplying of leather products like leather horse saddles. printed bags.700 001. ladies leather shoulder bags. jute fashion bags and union fabric bags. Address: 32.
leather halter. exercise sheets and combo fly sheets. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-22158059 Fax: +(91)-(11)-22158078 Website: http://www. horse saddle. Address: A-9. Uttam Nagar.110 092. horse rugs. animal leather clothong. leather overcoats. Milap Nagar.indiamart. ladies jackets. leather jackets. leather ballerina. Farukhabad . 3d hologram labels. metal labels and tamper 184 . men's manfred. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-28566104/28565080 Fax: +(91)-(11)-28565207 Website: http://www.209 625.html KHALIQUE SONS INTERNATIONAL Engaged in exporting and manufacturing of horse leather clothing. Okhla Phase-11. LTD. 1st Floor. leather saddle. ladies long coats.com/leather-products. Address: 31.com/riyaimpex/ HI-GLO HOLO IMAGES PVT. Address: B-12/3. dome labels. leather boot. horse leather saddle. leather trousers. prints and patterns. leather long coats. leather trousers and leather jeans. hologram labels. Address: 4/25.110 020. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-41707250/41707251 Fax: +(91)-(11)-41707252 Website: http://www. leather lead.sbmdubai. New Delhi . labels and hologram sticker like printed hologram labels. New Delhi .com/skincraft-leather-garments/ RIYA IMPEX Manufacturing and suppling of leather footweats. hologram shrink labels. leather trench coats.com/khaliquesons/ SKIN CRAFT Engaged in manufacturing of leather garments of men and women such as leather coats. dogs coats. leather shirts. leather shoes.indiamart. Bhikampura Street.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY finished buff leathers available in different colors.indiamart. 3d holographic films. Manufacturing and exporting different types of stickers. Also supply woven ready made garments. India Phone: +(91)-(5692)-246042 Fax: +(91)-(5692)-246489 Website: http://www.110 059. ladies leather dresses. leather saddle. Functional Industrial Estate Patparganj. men's leather coats. New Delhi .
Panorama. Address: Near Bhakra Bridge.indiamart. leather card holder. leather treatment chemicals such as wetting agent & emulsifier.blackjacktools. for degreasing and for dispersing.400 017.indiamart. Mumbai . Jai Bajrangbali Co-op Society. India Phone: +(91)-(124)-3250048/4269922/23 Fax: +(91)-(124)-4269766 Website: http://www. Address: 118.147 004. Sion-bandra Link Road. leather wallets.com/higlo/ POOJA EXPORTS Engaged in manufacture of leather bags. leather carpenter apron. C. India Phone: +(91)-(175)-2366852/2366998/2365691 Fax: +(91)-(175)2366998/2366852 Website: http://www. leather business organizers.com/poojaexports/ DHIREN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES Manufacturer and supplier of leather industry chemicals. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-24072860 Fax: +(91)-(22)-24072860 Website: http://www.html AKIN SONS 185 . leather briefcase. leather two pockets nail bag.indiamart. revolving hammer holder. leather executive bags. supplier and exporter of leather tool bags. apeo free biodegradable for wetting detergent. fixed hammer holder. leather mobile cover. leather business planners.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY proof holograms. emulsifiers for fat liquors. leather dry wall bag. Address: D . leather file folders and key chains. R.63. Vill Rauni. Baroda . Patiala .390 007. Gurgaon . South City .com/dhirenchemical/ BLACK JACK INDIA LIMITED Manufacturer.com/tool-bags. ladies hand bags. Patiala-Nabha Road. India Phone: +(91)-(265)-6621219 Fax: +(91)-(265)-2331119 Website: http://www.122 001. Khambdev Nagar. Address: A/67. Dutt Road.1.
leather corporate planners.com/vifashions/ INTERLABS HAS Engaged in production of corporate gifts and promotional gifts like handmade 186 . crafted fashion bags. FASHIONS Manufacturers and exporters of fashion bags such as leather fashion bags. Address: 1/371-B.110 006. Address: 15. Faridabad . fashion handbags.121 001. Address: 557. Pati Ram Street. Delhi . India Phone: +(91)-(33)-24610493 Fax: +(91)-(33)-24610493 Website: http://www. Shastri Colony. ladies fashion bags. Address: 24/6 Kustia Masjid Bari Lane. safeguard safety shoes. leather wallet. ladies leather wallets. leather office briefcase. Janak Road. leather purse.700 029. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-23236730 Fax: +(91)-(11)-23231420 Website: http://www. etc. Kolkata . Kolkata . leather safety footwears. leather evening bag.indiamart. leather evening handbags. I. Main Link Road.com/akinsons/ PAM INTERNATIONAL Manufacturers and exporters of ladies leather hand bags.indiamart.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Dealers and manufacturer of safety shoes like industrial safety shoes. India Phone: +(91)-(129)-4044866/6517331 Website: http://www.indiamart. leather safety shoes and mens safety footwears. antistatic safety shoes. leather office laptop bags.com/pamxports/ STAR ADVERTISERS engaged in supplying and exporting of leather goods & accessories such as leather desk accessories. leather purses and leather coin purses.com/staradvertisers/ V. mens leather wallets.700 039. etc. men's safety shoes. leather desk sets. leather travel bags. leather corporate bags.indiamart. leather executive bags. work safety shoes. fancy handbags. Also sells leather shopping bags. designer fashion bags. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-26671806 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22874502 Website: http://www. colored fashion bags.
indiamart. executive leather bags and wooden paintings. leather travel bags.641 035. leather purses. paper gift bags. IDGAH Road.html PADMAVAHINI SAFE TECH PRIVATE LIMITED Engaged in manufacturing and exporting of leather gloves like leather industrial gloves.133 001. Chennai . Address: 6262/26 & 6262/26/2. Ruby Matriculation School Road. Sarai Jullena. leather wallets. driving gloves. leather hand bags. ladies leather wallets. leather leg guard. Cross Road No. India Phone: +(91)-(44)-25590570 Website: http://www.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY paper gifts.html ANGEL FASHIONS Exporters and suppliers of leather accessories like mens wallets. mens leather wallets. 8. leather safety gloves.5. leather wallets. gents leather wallets. New Delhi 110 025. India Phone: +(91)-(422)-6531222 Website: http://www. 2nd Floor Near Escorts Heart Institute. Ambala .com/interlabs-has/ ARESS INTERNATIONAL Manufacturing and exporting leather bags. paper note books. 7/140. fancy leather wallets. designer mens leather wallets.aressintl. ladies leather bags. Also deals in pvc hand gloves. hosiery hand gloves. Saravanampatti.indiamart. Address: 98. Interlabs Complex.com/padmavahinisafetech/ 187 . Address: Door No. black leather wallets. multiple pockets leather wallets and designer leather wallets. Also offer mens wear formal shirts and pants.indiamart. Address: No. Kodungaiyur.com/leather-hand-bags.com/angelfashions/readymade-garments. Coimbatore . India Phone: +(91)-(171)-2633304 Fax: +(91)-(171)-2643484 Website: http://www. ladies leather wallets.600 118. leather welding gloves. comfortable leather gloves. 3/188 Muthamizh Nagar. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-65352942/23230330 Fax: +(91)-(11)-26906751 Website: http://www. Keeranatham.
Greater Noida . Address: D. Site. mens slippers. ladies slippers. India 188 . PU soles. men footwear soles. leather organizers.147.net/wine-gift-leather-bags. ladies leather bags. Also export acid mordant dyes. leather footwear soles. New Delhi . jute bags.indiamart.com/technocolour/ SECOND MAY INTERNATIONAL Manufacturers of ladies leather handbags. wine bags.secondmay. kids footwear soles.html SFM BUYING SERVICES Buying house and exporters of leather bags. beach bags. Address: Pitru Chhaya.Gurgaon Road. Also supplying wall hanging.5. Mumbai . packing bags. Industrial Area. canvas bags. India Phone: +(91)-(120)-6456844/6549094 Fax: +(91)-(120)-2341194 Website: http://www. textile and fabric dyes. multipurpose bags and mobile covers. fashion bags. non-benzidine direct dyes. Samalka. Sahibabad . Address: Khasra # 10/1. EPIP. acid dyes. designer leather bags and ladies designer leather bags. Delhi . India Phone: +(91)-(22)-25576668/24071961/55973368 Fax: +(91)-(22)-25576578 Website: http://www. Govandi(E). bathroom slippers. designer wall hangings and decorative wall hangings. Address: A-40/1. leather coin purses. stuffed wall hangings. acid milling dyes.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY TECHNO COLOR CORPORATION Manufacturer and wholesale supplier of leather dyes and leather dyes colors. solvent dyes and food colors. acid metal complex dyes. female feet soles.IV.indiamart. footwear soles.201 306.com/sfmbuyingservices/ ESS AAR UNIVERSAL PRIVATE LIMITED Manufacturer and exporter of footwear soles and slippers including shoes soles. Kasna. (4-6) Old Highway.201 010. mid soles. leather touch bags. Site.400088.110 037. Sanghvi Estate Govandi Station Rd. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-25061203/25061119/25061120 Fax: +(91)-(11)-25061201 Website: http://www.
S. Bannerghatta Road. stallion leather. nylon harness. Address: 312. fire suits. India 189 . leather mats and woven leather mats in various designs and textures. hand woven leather rugs. polished leather.400 017. life jacket. safety shoes. food grains. garments and other fashion accessories.indiamart. District Center. BANGALORE Engaged in manufacturing and exporting of aniline leather.com/bengalexports/ RAJU SAFETY PRODUCTS Engaged in manufacturing and supplying of industrial safety products like safety hand gloves. N. Suneja Tower-II.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(120)-2896012/2896074 Fax: +(91)-(120)-2895951 Website: http://www.110 058. leather hand bags. designer bags. Also available with finished aniline leather. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-22469796/22263993 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22469803 Website: http://www. Address: 131. Btm II Stage. 6th cross. Mumbai . Also deals in minerals.com/raju-safety/ PIONEER OVERSEAS Manufacturing woven leather rugs. helmet with tourch.indiamart. Abubakar Chawl.700 013.essaarpu.560 076. soft leather. Address: 217.com/saddlesinc/ BENGAL EXPORTS Exporting and manufacturing ladies leather bags. hand purses annd ladies leather purses. Kolkata . nappa studio and napkin holder. India Phone: +(91)-(22)-24028377 Fax: +(91)-(22)-24018271 Website: http://www. mustang leather. India Phone: +(91)-(80)-26783120/26781965 Fax: +(91)-(80)-26783121 Website: http://www. Bangalore . New Delhi . Address: 60. 4th A main. Janakpuri. glazed leather. ladies hand bags.com/polyurethane-soles. Lenin Sarani. Bagicha. 2nd Floor. ladies leather hand bags.html SADDLES INC. nappa leather. Dharavi. window climbing belt and leather safety belts.indiamart. Palya.
leather purses. leather belts and leather automobile seat covers. leather formal shoes. ladies sandals.5 Jogani Industrial Estate. Address: 212/213. column clamps. leather passport holders. Block.B. leather wallets. 3rd Floor. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-26518511/26511511 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22304471 Website: http://www. Tiljala Shibtola Lane. bifold leather wallets. leather clutches. ladies leather bags. 11. ladies leather wallets. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-24588213 Fax: +(91)-(33)-24788420 Website: http://www. leather planners. leather portfolios and leather cases. N.700 053.S.anpengg. props clamps.700 001. Kolkata . party wear sandals and fancy sandals.com/poojainternational/ COLORSOFPASSION Manufacturer and wholesale exporter of leather mojris. beaded sandals. Kolkata .com/ J. embroidered footwear. Address: 23-A. Also manufacture leather cushion covers.400 022. Mumbai .700 039.indiamart. CREATIONS Manufacturers and exporters of leather products like leather bags. leather chain wallets along with scaffolding couplers. Address: 14/E. designer leather mojris. Address: 29-NC.indiamart. designer footwear. Building No. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-23443445 Fax: +(91)-(33)-23444575 Website: http://www. leather credit card holders.html POOJA INTERNATIONAL Leading manufacturer and exporter of fashion footwear. mens leather wallets.pioneer-overseas. mens leather shoes. Room No.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(11)-25511126 Fax: +(91)-(11)-25551026 Website: http://www. Kolkata . ladies leather mojris and trendy leather mojris. PAL CHOWDHURY ENGG ENTEPRISES Engaged in manufacturing and supplying of leather wallets. tirfold leather wallets.com/whatweoffer. designer shoes. New Alipur. 190 . fancy leather mojris.com/jscreations-leather-goods/ A. Netaji Subhas Road.
bags. Address: 81/1 Tiljala Road. organic polymer resins. leather deer figurine. laptop bags.crescenttannery. travel bags. Noida .indiamart.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY India Phone: +(91)-9892211017 Fax: +(91)-(22)-24057887 Website: http://www.indiamart. leather wallets and leather kit bags. Doriwalan. textile enzymes. Manufacturing organic solvents and pigments. leather bag.com/calbot/ BAWA LEATHERS Manufacturer and supplier of Indian markets for leather bags. leather travel bags. key rings. dyes. coin purses and other leather accessories. India 191 . Manufacturer.201 303. 2. dyestuffs. designer wallets.110. Street No. pouches. Address: B-610/611. India Phone: +(91)-(120)-4340211/3250756 Website: http://www. NR Navrangpura Post Office. Address: 11071. India Phone: +(91)-(33)-23448923/23434210 Fax: +(91)-(33)-23438869/22843651 Website: http://www.40.110 005.com/colorsofpassion/ CALBOT & CO. medical representative bags. telephone diary. leather elephant figurine and leather giraffe figurine.700 043. Karol Bagh. Sector. India Phone: +(91)-(11)-32600727 Website: http://www. dpdf colors for denims. leather jackets. Address: D. chemicals and colors like speciality chemicals. Ahmedabad 380 009. leather soft chemicals. Kolkata . New Delhi . leather camel figurine. leather briefcases. Ganesh Plaza. pen holders. leather executive bags. supplier and exporter of leather products such as leather animal figurine.com/ AMERICOS INDUSTRIES INC. textile softeners. leather horses figurine.indiamart. decorative leather animal figurine.com/bawaleathers/ CRESCENT TANNERY Exporters and manufacturers of leather organizers mobile phone covers.
laptop bags. handmade gift boxes.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Phone: +(91)-(79)-26447781/26447782/26447736 Fax: +(91)-(79)-26447736 Website: http://www. Sector . Address: D. promotional laptop bag. India Phone: +(91)-(124)-4144490 Fax: +(91)-(124)-2572762 Website: http://www. triangular boxes. handmade gift bags. Ardee City.indiamart. designer laptop bags.html SRF FABRICS Engaged in manufacturing and supplying of variety of leather bags.40. Noida . Sector 52.kenencoregroup. leather file folders and travel utility kits. designer leather laptop bags and strap handled laptop bags. business card holder.411 042. file folders. visiting card holder.153. gents wallet. Address: 1254/3 . leather laptop bags. Pune .com/organic-polymer-resin. handmade photo albums.com/aeonoverseas/handmadepaperitems. The Presidency. India Phone: +(91)-(120)-4340905/43409056 Website: http://www. handmade journals and handmade notebooks. card holder. leather laptop computer bags. Burudipool.com/geetanjaliimpex/ 192 . handmade paper.201 301.com/srf-fabrics/ AEON OVERSEAS manufacturers and exporters of handicraft products. laptop computer bags. laptop bag. Address: D14 / 07 First Floor.indiamart.html GEETANJALI IMPEX DELHI Manufacture and supply leather wallet. designer leather wallet. mens leather wallet. Gurgaon 122 012. India Phone: +(91)-(20)-26356287/26332881 Website: http://www.indiamart. New Bhawani Peth.
com • www.councilofleatherexport.wikipedia.com • www.htm • www.gov.com • www.ministyofcommerce.com 193 .com • www.indianleathercouncil.com • www.google.INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY BIBLIOGRAPHY INTERNET SITES: • www.in/Dgcis.com • http://dgciskol.eximbankindia.tradeportalofindia.
Indian Perspective and Export Potential Leather Industry: 194 .INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY BOOKS • Marketing management – By Philio Kotler • Britannica encyclopedia ARTICLES: • IICCI – Short Market Overviews-the indo-Italian chamber of commerce and industry • Strategies for Enhancing the Competitiveness of Leather Industry in India. Anamika Singh • EXIM BANK: RESEARCH BRIEF. by Mrs.
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